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Chemistry for the Utterly Confused - J. Moore, R. Langley Hill, 2007) WW

Chemistry for the Utterly Confused - J. Moore, R. Langley Hill, 2007) WW

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Metals follow the general trends of atomic radii, ionization energy, and electron
affinity. Radii increase to the left in any row and down any column on the peri-
odic table. Ionization energies and electron affinities increase up any column
and towards the right in any row on the periodic table. Electron affinities are
not very important for the metals because they normally form cations.
Variations appear whenever the metal has a half-filled or filled subshell of elec-
trons. The electronegativity values for the representative metals increase
towards the top of any column and towards the right on the periodic table. For
the transition metals, the electronegativity peaks at gold.

The metallic properties increase down any column and towards the left in any
row on the periodic table. One important metallic property is that metal oxides
are base anhydrides. A base anhydride will produce a base in water. These are
not oxidation-reduction reactions. Many metal oxides are too insoluble for
them to produce any significant amount of base. However, most metal oxides,
even those that are not soluble in water, will behave as bases to acids. A few
metal oxides, and their hydroxides, are amphoteric. Amphoteric means they
may behave either as a base or as an acid. Amphoterism is important for alu-
minum, beryllium, and zinc. Complications occur whenever the oxidation num-
ber of the metal exceeds 4 as in the oxides that tend to be acidic.

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