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A-1987,3

A-1987,3

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KHHfA 3 1987

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Penaxuasra aa »ApxeoJIonl5l" npaeua sa 06C'b>K.uaHe MaTepHaJIHTe, npencrasena na 6'bJIrapCKH e3HK B 2 eK3. (metccm U «ayue« anapam) na MalllHHa (crpanuua OT 30 pena no 66 yaapa) C KaqeCTBeHH aa ornevaraaae otipasu, CnUC'bK tea otip asume (2 ers.) H pe310Me (3 eK3.). Ilpesonn na MaTepHaJlH OT qy>K.u na 6bJIrapCKU e3HK H npenacsaae na MalllHHa pe.uaKUH5ITa He H3B'bplllBa.

La redaction d' ApXeOJlOrHH accepte les materiaux it exarruner presentes en langue bulgare en 2 ex. tte xte et appareil scientifiquei, dactylographies (page de 30 !ignes - 66 frappes), accompagnes de figures prop res it etre imprirnees, liste des figures (2 ex.) et resume (3 ex.). La traduction en bulgare et les textes dactylographies doivent etre assures par l' auteur.

Ha KopHuaTa .'h

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Sur

I a I

ouverture Phiale du tresor de Rogozen aiec mbtif

d' Heracles et d' Auge .

Photo R. S (a n e v a

©

Apxeoaorasecxa HHCTHTYT=H MY3eii npa BAH 1987

c/o Jusautor, Sofia

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APXEOAorV1~

ISSN 0324-1 203 roo. XXVIII 3

1987

o r r s n HA APXEOJIOrHCfECKH51 HHCTHTJlT H MJl3Eff

nPH E~nrAPCKATA AKA~EMH51 HA HAJlKHTE

OnHT sa JlOKaJIH3aUl15I na ce.nnuara OT POr03eHCKHTe Ha~nHCH

AJIEKCAI-lII.'bP

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TpaKI1HCKOTO CbKpOBI1Il\e OT C. Poroseu, BpaqaHCKI1 cxpsr-, e aene ny6JIHKYBaHol. KaKTO MOLKeme ~a ce onaxsa, HaH-CHJIHH BbJIHeHH5I noponnxa 15-Te aannnca aa craporp suxa e311K BbPXY ¢l1aJIH H KaHH. 06Il\OTO HM TbJIKYBaHe, none aa MeHe, e BbH OT CbMHeHl1e2, HO np06JIeMI1Te, KOI1TO Bb3HI1KWixti H rue Bb3HI1KBaT OT npo-nrra na rexcronere, rerrspsa ure 6b~aT npoyqBaHH.

E~I1H OT T5IX e JIOKaJII13aUI15ITa Ha ceJII1- mara, OT KOI1TO npO'113XOLK~aT Ha~nl1CaHI1Te csnoae, 11 M5ICTOTO MH B'bpXY nOJII1Tl1qeCKaTa xapra na O~pI1CKa TpaKH5I MeLKAy 80-Te 11 40-Te rO~I1HI1 na IV B. rrp. H. e. T0311 np06JIeM ce BH~5I OT nbpBI15I norJIeA KbM enHrpa¢CKI1Te ~aHHH3, HO CbIl\HHCKOTO MI1 LKeJIaHHe ~a ce 3aHI1Ma5I no-nonporino C Hero ~Oll~e CJIe~ pasroaop H KOHCYJI'TaUI15I no e~HH TonOHHM C B. BeJIKOB. MOJI5I ro ~a npaene 6JIarO~apHOCTTa MI1.

Ha~nI1CbT, KOHTO penm rJIaB'06JIbCKaHI1- uara aa eJII1TITHqHI1Te 113pa3H BbB ¢opMy;n:aTa "I1Me B pen. na~eLK - npenaor C I1Me B pon, na~eLK"\ ce nere KOTY01: Er BEO AI1:AOIA1:

EIIOIH!E, I1MI1 .Ha KOTI1C OT Beoc 'uHCJIOHac nanpaan". I10HeLKe f:X/E~ (=E"{/E) aapaan aCI1MHJIaUH5I HJII1 6JIar03BytiHe npen csr JIaCHa KaTO npenaor sa M5ICTO C pon. nanexc 113pa35IBa cavo H~e5ITa sa ~BHLKeHHe OTBbTpe HaBbH ('="H3- .'I113aM, np0I13XOLK~aM, H~:aaM OT") , TO TOH ce OTHaC5I aa csna, sa zia no KaLKe OT xoe cennnie e nOCTbnl1JI (611JI nsnparea OT) B Tpl16aJICKaTa xasna. T0311 CMHCbJI na npeztnora ce rrOTBbp'LKnasa H OT nanrmca, B KOHTO M5ICTOTO na npOH3- xoaa npenurecrnyaa JII1QHOTO HMe5. B TaKbB CJIYQaH KopeKTHO pa3rbpHaTI15IT na 6bJIrapCKI1 e3HK nannac me r.naca: ",UI1CJIOHaC nanpasa [T0311 csn, KOHTO e npnrezcaane] na KOTI1C [11 KOHTO rrpOH3XOLK~a] OT Beoc."

B Por03eHCKI1Te Ha~rrHCH ca C'b06meHH 6 HMeHa aa cenauia.

1. Anpoc. TOEa e paunara TpaKI1HCKa ¢opMa B LK. pO~6, K05ITO H3PHQHO nortrspacnaaa nocrosepnocrra na TeOrrOMnO'BH5I ¢parMeHT OT 26-aTa KHHra ua "I1cTOPI15I na <l>I1JIl1n". OTKbCbT rrpHHa~JIeLKI1 XpOHOJIOrl1QeCKH KbM 347/ 346 r. np. H. e.", HO KOTI1COBI1Te Ha~rrI1CH8 OTHaC5IT TOrrOHI1M~ npenn npoaerra na 359 r. rrp. H. e.

I1pe3 rrspnara nOJIOBHHa ira IV B. rrp. H. e.

CeJII1Il\eTO BJIH3a B O~pI1CKaTa ~bPLKaBa. Ha~aJII1 MOLKeM' na ce CbMH5IBaMe, Qe TO e noKbCHaTa v Anpot y KJIaB~l1ll I1TOJIeMeH (III,' 11, 7) H Y CJIe~Baml1Te ro asropn pl1MCKa KOJIOHI15I na ErHaTl1eBI15I' rrsr, ~H. KeCTpl1~LKe npn I1He~LKI1K.

2. Bsoc. TOrrOHI1MbT ce rr05IB5IBa 2 nbTI1 B Porosencxare Ha~rrHCI19, HO 6eme nese rr03HaT OT rpare ¢HaJIa OT MOrHJIaHCKaTa MOrl1JIa BbB Bpaua'", ¢l1a JIaTa OT rp06BI1uaTa npn c. A~LKl1rbOJI KpaH TyJIQall H TpHTe pl1TOHa OT Cb- 1<pOBI1Il\e OT c. Bopono, PyceHcKI1 oxpsr-", I1HcMeHI1 CBe~eHI15I 0'1' IV B; rrp. H. e. aa Hero H5IMa.

OCHOBaTa Bc-/Ba- HJIH . Mc-/Ma- e TeoHI1MHa B TpaKI1HCKH~. HhnbJIHO Bep05ITHO e, Qe B paHH3Ta' errOXaT5I e 611Jta nocrar-sxna aa CeJII1Il\Hb I1M'e °B LK. pOA. npoe~nOJIOLKeHHeTo e oCHOBaTeJIHO, 3amOTO TaKI1Ba CeJIHIl\a, KOHTO ca 11 UapCKI1 O~PI1CKH pe311~eHUHH, BK.TiIOQBaT HCBeTHJIHni.a. Te311 CBeTI1JII1Il\a ca no ~e¢l1- HI1UH5I na BeJII1'KaTa 60rI1H5I'-MaHKa13. OCHOnata e csxpaaena B KbcHOaHTHQHI1Te TorrOHI1l'4H Be-dizcs=Be-o-dizos ~B. BYHap'JIb, H B~napa B Mapl1Qm-I3Ta 06JIaCT14. KHnepTOBaTa xapra "06aQe rrOCTaB5I cano Be~1130c npn ~H. BYHapJIb, B pafioaa na Anpu, a Beo~1130c - ceaepoaananno OT I1epI1HT. 11 ~BeTeJIOKaJII13aUl111 ca B 06JIaCTTa na X uepon opoc (CBeuienara nnaanaa, ~·H. Texap-nar), K05ITO . e ~06pe 3acBH~eTeJICTBYBaHa TpaKl1llCKa TBb~~I1Ha, cenanmue na onpncxara xa3Ha15• '

'. 1

Beoc e carypno B rasn 06JlaCT, SallJ,OTO pa60TlI~HHuaTa My e BlICOKOnpO~YKTHBHa. B HeH pa60THJl II ,UlICJlOHac. TaM lIMeHHO xacr OT <popoca, C'b6lIpaH OT onpacxnre nape B 6JlaropO.ll.eH MeTaJl, ce nnaran B lIS~eJlHHlIHClIrHlIlI na BJlaCTTa. yI3rJle)K~a, qe craporo MeCTHO liMe ce aanasano B'bB rpopaare Beo~lISOC. TH e II no-noaxonsuiara OT )l.BeTe JlOKaJIlISaUlIlI aa Knnepr, samoro KOTHC HalICTlIHa HaH-qeCTO ~eHCTBYBaJl B xmrrepnaana na IleplIHT.

3. BEO~ xmvoc. Br.pxy .lI.'bHOTO na csna, Me)K~y KOHueHTpHqHlI OKP'b)KHOCTlI; e spasaa rpaqmr B pen. nanexc KAINO. C'b)l.'bT e nax npareacanne na KOTHC H npOlISXO)K.lI.a OT Beocl6•

<I>opMaTa, KOHTO ce csrnacyaa C ronounaa, e OqeBlI.lI.HO ztorrsnnenne K'bM TeKCTa aa nannaca. TH He MO)Ke na ce npesene C "HOB", KaKBOTO e SHaqeHlIeTO na CT. rp. xatv6~, aautoro B TaK'bB CJlyqaH 6HxMe HMaJlH Ha BCHKa ueHa VEO~. ETO santo neue npennoaoxcax, qe <popMaTa e eTHoHlIMI7• C npyrn ~YMlI, TOSH Beoc e KeHHHcKHHT II uie C'bOTBeTcTBYBa sepoarno na KHnepToBlIH Bennaoc npa .lI.H. BYHapJI'b B paaona na Anpn, sa na 6'b.ll.e JlOKaJllISlIpaH YMecTHo na repnropnara na nO-K'bCHaTa crparerna KeHlIKe.

Ha TaSlI reparopas HaH-paHo ca ynoxeHaTlI anClIHTlIlITe C'brJlaCHO Tpa)l.lIUHHTa, npenanena OT Xeponor (VI 34). Ilpea VB. np. H. e. TaM ce nOHBHBa nJleMeHHOTO liMe Ha naHTlITe, KOlITO Xeponor (VII 110) pasnoaara lISTOqHO OT KlIKOHlITe, a nasopare aa Apaan B "AHa- 6aslIca" (I 11,4) - Me)K~y p. Xe6poc II p. Me.nac. TOSlI eTHOHHM e nosra xanaxc II HSqeSBa npea IV B. np. H. e., .lI.OKaTO OHeSlI na KeHHTe, no CTpa60H (XIII 4,2) II THT JIlIBH" (XXXVIII 40, 7), ce nOHBHBaT C'bC CBOH npenlICTOPlIH B HaqaJlOT~ na II B. np. H. e. Cera MO)Ke .lI.a ce nonycne, qe TaSH npeaacropas aanossa npes rrspsara nOJlOBHHa na IV B. np. H. e., xoraro KeHlIHcKoTO nJIeMeHHO liMe ce nOHBHBa sa np'bB n'bT.

4. rlltcrtotl-at, retcrtotl-at e SaCBlI.lI.eTeJlCTBYBaHo B 2 Poroseacxa nannaca, nax OT KOTlICOBO apeve, II B aanrmca B'bpXY <plIaJlaTa ,OT C. AJIeKCaH.lI.pOBO, JIoBellIKlI OKp'brIS• IllIcMeHH lISBOPlI sa TonOHlIMa HHMa.

TpaKHHCKaTa OCHOBa e ye(cr)t-!YU(cr)t-, nosnara OT MeCTHlI, JIlIqHlI II nnexeaaa lIMeHa. TH MO)Ke 6lI nopa e csxpaaeaa B xopyrrrena OT VI B. KaTO Ferptvoc H rlltptcrtaoo~, KaCTeJllI B XeMlIMoHTI9• Cnopen MeHe TH C e c'b)l.'bp)Ka B lIMeTO na nOSeMJIeHOTO lIMeHHe Gestistyrum, Getystyrum, Getistirum'", pasnOJIO)KeHO na 6pera aa p. Xe6poc, aa OKOJIO 18 KM IO)KHO OT A)l.plIaHOnOJl. TpaKlIHCKaTa npananneacHOCT aa TonOHlIMa 6e nOCTaBeHa non C'bMHeHlIe21, HO II OTHOBO B'bSCTaHOBeHa no pr.xonaca na rp'buKaTa sepcas aa )KlITlIeTO aa CB. <I>lIJllIn OT X B. xpes carypaara rpaxaacxa <popMa rETII:TYPON22.

2

JIoKaJIHSaUHHTa aa O.ll.PHCKOTO yxpeneno cennme na MHCTOTO aa 6'b~ew.aTa K'bCHOplIMcKa BlIJla e C'bBCeM: cnOJlyqJlHBa sa nopeqHeTO Ha Xe6poc npes rrspsara nOJlOBHHa na V B. np. H. e. ,UOPH MHCJlH, qe MHO)KeCTBeHOTO qHCJlO na TonOHHMa OT nannacnre e sene SHaK na rpenasanaa, .lI.OKaTO c06CTBeHO TpaKHHCKaTa <popMa 6H 6HJla B en. q., T. e. re(cr)to~, B )K. pon. TH 6H MOrJla ~a 6'b~e ornecena ~OpH sa BpeMeTO npenn KOTHC. KOJle6aHHeTO B HsnHCBaHeTO eill nOKaSBa HeCHrypHOCTTa npn npe~aBaHeTO Ha TpaKHHCKHH SByK, HeHceH B .lI.'bJl)KlIHaTa CH.

5. Epytoxr], Hpvioxn, Apytcxn. TonoHlIM'bT ce cpenta B 3 KOTHCOBH H 1 KepcerinenTOB Ha.ll.nHc23. JIHTepaTYPHaTa My <popMa e nOSHaTa OT ,UeMocTeH (XVIII 27) H OT ECXHH (I II 82). THe 'Epyicrxll.

CeJlHrn.HOTO HMe npOHSXO)K.lI.a carypao OT XH)l.pOHHMa 'Aypt(lve~/'Apyulve~, ~H. p. Eprene, HaH-rOJleMHHT JlHB npnrox na Mapuua. 3aToBa JlOKaJlHSaUHHTa My ce T'bPCH no nopeqHeTO na TaSH pexa, B IO)KHHTe CKJlOHOBe na CTpaH~)Ka. ATHHCKHTe oparopn ro SHaHT HSMe)K~y yxpenenare O.ll.PlICKH MeCTa, cpeiuy KOHTO BOIOBaJl <I>HJlHn II Me)K~y 346 H 341 r. np. H. e. Eprncxe e KOTHcoBa H KepcerinenTOBa peSH)l.eHUHH, HO nOCeJleHHeTO e cHrypHo no-crapo OT THXHOTO apexe. OT CXOJlHHTe K'bM UHTHpaHOTO MHCTO y ,UeMocTeH JIHqH, qe CeJlHutero e 6HJlO nese CJlaBHHHSHpaHo rrpes IXX B., samoro HMeTO My e npenaneao B'bB <popMaTa I:epyEVt~tV24.

3a cszcaneaae B TYPCKa TpaKHH He ce nposeaoiar HHKaKBH pasxonxa H BCHKaKBH H~eHTH<pHKaUHH sacera ca HeB'bSMO)KHH.

6. I:ao3apa. TOnOHlIM'bT ce cpema sa npr.s H e~HHCTBeH TI'bT B KOTHCOB Ha~nHc26. OCHOBaTa I:ao-/I:aou-/I:ap- e nOSHaTa OT I:aoa~ to~/I:aoua~to~, I:apa~to~, a -3apal-tapal-oapa rn.e 6'b.ll.e TyK naa-paaaara saCBlI~eTeJlCTByBa <popMa na-dava-deva B IO)KHa TpaKHH,c KoeTO enna OT xapaxrepncrnxare na T. Hap. )l.aKO-MHSHHCKH eSHK OKOHqaTeJlHO ornana, He e as-

'KJIlOqeHO HMeTO .lI.a e aayxano na TpaKlIiicKlI *I:auapa" K'b~eTO Y Aoa (B v Apa, Y APavte~, y APapt~) ~a e HlIM<paTa, KOHTO )l.06lIJla OT Iloceanon Eprncx.renoaana aa Epr acxe, KaKTO csorimasa ECXlIH (I II 82). B TaK'bB CJlyqaH Caya6a e TeO<POPHO liMe II KaTO TonOHHM me oaaanasa XTOHlIqHO KYJlTOBO MHCTO na oP<PlInecxara penaraa. Toraaa rera-ra B paHHHH TpaKlIHCKlI MO)Ke II na e C'be~lIHlITeJlHa (HeClIrYPHa) csr .nacna, KOHTO )I.'a ce e saxpenuna B C'bqeTaHlIHTa OT TOSlI THn, aapann SHaqeHlIeTO aa CT. rp. OCHOBa 3a- (B 3aacrcrco, 3axeuco, 3aXlllla ,3iixo~ II np.) "CH~aM, cenanante", OTK'b)l.eTO .ceamne" a r. H.

Kasano na peJlHrlIOSHO- nOJllITlIqeCKlIH eSlIK na enoxara, B TaSlI peSH)l.eHUlIH na KOTlIC lIMaJlO ,UlIOHlICOBO 'CBeTHJlHllJ,e. TH 6lI TPH6- BaJlO na 6'b.ll.e B nJlaHlIHCKlI paHOH. TaKlIBa paHOHlI B Kiroaaroxaa TpaKlIH ca .lI.OCTa qeCTH,

H TO He caMO B CTpaHA~aHCKHH MaCHB H B Caeuieaara nnanaaa. AKO :Eau3a~a = *:Eaua~a, TO :Eauaoa Mo~e na e K'bCHoaHTHlJHa xopyrrrena aa <popivlaTa OT IV B. lip. H. e.,

1 5. H H K 0 J1 0 B, C rr. M a III 0 B, TI JI. l1 B aHOB. - H3KYCTBO, 1986, 6. Hov ep a U.IHiTa aa 113- nonay nauare TyK HaJ(nHCH e rIO KaTaJIO)KHH5! CrrI1C'bK na ct.ncsere B Ta3H rry6J111 KaUI1 H, Koiho Chll'bp)Ka H I1HBeHrapHaTa car naiyp a OT ona ca aa HHM.

2 Crrop osere B'bB BceKIlllHeBHH5! II B nepIIOllll4HII5! uexar ca TpYllHO npOCJleAHMII. B)K.3acera auann aa aa A JI. <P 0 .Ii. I~apcKIITe HallrIHCH OT Por03eHCKHTe C'bllOBe (ua aHl'JIIIMCKH e3HK). - C60jJHHK B 4eCT na HB. Benenaxoa. C., 1987 (noll neuar}, II C 1: ur n H T. KOTHC, CHH aa AnoJl0H (IIa aHr.~HMCKH e3HK). - C60pHIIK B uecr na f. MIIXaHJlOB. C., 1987 (non neva r).

3 B)K. A JI. <P 0 JI. TIOJlHTIIKa H" xy.nryp a a npcana Tp axn n np ea V H IV B. IIp. H. e. Ilpenaaparenaa 6e" .ije)KKH. - H3KYCTBO, 6, 1986, c. 2"-4. TIpCllH U1HOTO uereue ua nrop ara rpyua 6YKBH cJle.II HMero aa nap 51- rtpu rexcaren KaTO I1Me aa MaIkTOpa BiK. Y I1 Il. Be" He J( H K 0 B. Hannn care m.p xy TpaKH?icKI1Te 1m3-JlH. -Apxeo.;lOrJHl, 2,1972, c. 1--6.

4 BiK. N~ 28 = 5 471, 31 = 5 472, 40=5 591, 41=6 476, 42=,6 479, 43=5 490, 44=5 474, 45= 5 475, 46=5 478. 47=5 477. Hn sepcna ra (pOpMyJla BlK. non N~ 30= 5 47.3.

5 B)K. 6eJl. 4.

G TIo St ep h. By~. 107, 5.

7 B)K. A JI. <P 0.11. Ilp oyvnauu a B'blJXY rp'bllKHTe H3BOPH aa np eeua TpaKI1H IV. Teon ovm: "fpbuKa ucropn 51" 11 "IiCTOPH H ua <PIIJm II l [I MaKeJlOiicKH I" .-' fCY, I1<t>, 69, 1975, cO(rll5l. 1980, c. 22, J\"2 I 26 C .IJHTepaTyp8.

8 N2 30=13 47.3 f1 3!=6 .172. » N2 28=13 471 H 29,,",5 439.

10 B}!{. B e Hell H K 0 B. ILHT. C'b'!.

11 DaK TaM. <t>opMaTa na OKOH4aHHeTo sa PO)l. naue»; B Te?H HallfTIICH He e ct.xparena, K8KTO R Po; 0-

T'bH KaTO CMHC'bJI'bT aa TorrOHHMa (="Ca6aa3HeBO/ ,llaoHHcoBO MHCTO") me OCTaHe aerrpoMeHeH. Cayana ce .:iIoKaJIH3Hpa na cesep OT Kap.n:HH26, Kb.n:eTO e H B'b3BHllIeHHeTO Kop y-nar.

3E'HC!One. Ko,1e6aHH5ITa B H3rIHCB8Hero OIJ~C ca Bb3- ~1O)KHI1 IIl'e3 n sp nara rIOjiOBI1Ha xa IV g. IIp. H. e. 12 B)K. fl. 11 BaH 0 B. CbKpOBHu,eTO 01' c. Eop ono. - I~3KY(;TbO, 3-4. 1975, c. 20.

13 BR<. 1> 0 JI. rIpoYlJ.BaHHH IV, C'. 13-14. J\"2 I 3 11 I 4. B'bB sp t.sxa C T03H np06J1e\1 cp . 1I0c"~eJ(HO A JI. <P 0,1. OllPI1CKI1 11 TpH6aJICKH u ap e B Por03eH' CKHTe !I<lJ(rIHCH. - Bcxonc, 1986 (non neuar).

H Il o D. De t s C h C w. Die thr akischen Sprach r est e. Wien. 19762, S. 46, 51 C H3110pfire.

15 BiK. <P 0 JI. O.I\PHCKI1 H TpH6ajlClmUape,

IIlEl .NQ 15.

lr. N~ 40=6 491.

17 Bile 6e.!i, 15 3<1 NQ 10.

18 N9 45 = 5 475 11 47 = 5 477. BiK. Bell e· .II 11 !( 0 B. ILHT. C'b'!.,C. 2.

lH no De t s C hew. Op , ci t ., S. 105 H 106. 20 De t s C hew. Op. ci t., S. 103 C OCHOBHil'Ie U:'UO[HI.

21 V. Vel k 0 v. Gest istyrurn -- ein angcbl ich thr akisches Wort. Linguisti que Balkani que, 1972, XV-2, S. 37-39.

22 Fr. L 0 c h 11 e r- H ii t ten b a C h. Z um

Or tsnarnen Getis tyr on. Die Spr ache, 1972. 18, S, 196-198. Cp . Z. Vel k 0 v a. The Traci a n Glosses. Ams ter darn, 1986 s. v. yt'too'topa.

23 .NQ 42 =06 479 H 46 = 5 478 C ¢opivlaTa APruxa, 43=5 490 c rpop vara HPrILKH H 44~c6 474 C ¢op~lala EPrILKH.

24 ,\1. R. D i 1 t s. Schol i a Dernosthenlca I. Leipzig, 198::', p. 208 ad De 111. XVIII 27 ... 'Epyic;xl1 OI.,EyOUc;t VUV LEPYEV't'~tv (F2 Yvp - IX - X), LEPYE~tV (vp - post X).

25 N2 ·11=5 476.

26 Flo De t s C hew. Op. cit., S. 427.

Essai de localisation des toponymes des inscriptions de Rogozen

AL. FOL

(R e s u In e)

11 y a 15 inscriptions du tr esor thrace du village de Rogozen, dep , de Vraca, dont 10 conti ennent 6 toponymes: Apros, au Iem., qui est l a forme "thrace ancienne d'Aproi (auj. Kestr i dj e), Bees, au fern., qui semble etr e Beodizos dans l a region de Per inthe, Beos Kainos, au Iern., dens l a region dApr ol , Ge ist oi ,

Iorrne t hr ac e ancienne de Gest ist yr urn de la Basse Anti quite dans l a region de Han dri an opl e, Ergiske, qui provie nt de 1 'hy dr onyrne Argianes (alij. Ergene) d Sauta ba, qui est rn ent i onne e pour l a premiere Iois comme forme thr ac e ancienne de Sauada, station de 1a Basse Ant i qu ite au nord de Kar di a.

3a CaKpanHHH XapaKTep Ha HaXO~KaTa OT POr03eH

DJIAHA rEP rOB A

C OTKpHBaHeTo na Por03eHCKaTa KOJIeKTHBHa Haxo~Ka 3Ha'IHTeJIHO ce 060raTH H3BOposara 6a3a aa H3CJIe~BaHe aa TpaKHllCKaTa· KyJITypa1. Haxonxara <POKYCHpa B ce6e CH np06JIeMHTe na T. Hap. "TpaKHllCKH C'hKpOBH~a" H ct.snane 6JIarOnpH5ITHa nOQBa aa OLKHBeHH ~HCKyCIIH2. no rrspaara 01' T5IX MHor06pollHHTe OTKpHTH B D'hJIrapH5I KOMnJIeKCH 65Ixa TpeTHpaHH e~HHCTBeHO KaTO C'hKpOBH~a, sapHTH B 3eM5ITa no speae na onaCHOCT. 113KJIlO'IeHHe 6e HanpaBeHO caMO no OTHorneHHe Ha TpHTe ct.na 01' c. Ka3H'IeHe, KOHTO no MHeHHeTO aa AJI. ¢OJI npe~CTaBJI5IBaT CHMBO-' JIH'IHO norpeoenne". Ho cnopen npeorinanasamara HHTepIlpeTaUH5I na Y'IeHHTe BCH'IKH I Te3H HaXO~KH B e~HH HJIH ztpyr BapHaHT ca . rpaxancxa uapcxa c06cTBeHocT.

B xona na rrspnara H aropara ~HCKyCH5I B'hPXy Poroseacxara HaXO~Ka H B H5IKOJIKO IlOCJIe~BaJIH CTaTHH 6e Ilpe~JIOLKeHa 3a Il'hPBH rrsr enna HOBa XHIlOTe3a OTHOCHO xapaxrepa He caxro na T03H KOMnJIeKC (aarepnperupaa KaTO caxp anno LKepTBonpHHorneHHe aa 60roBe C IlOJIHCeMaHTH'IHa CHMBOJIHKa), HQ H na MHoro'IHCJIeHHTe HaXO~KH 01' Ilo~06eH THn, OTKpHTH na 3Ha'IHTeJIHa TepHTOpH5I B Kapnaro-IlynanCKaT3 06JIaCT 01' cpe~aTa Ha 6poH30BaTa ~o Kpa5I na LKeJI5I3HaTa erroxa". HOBaTa XHnOTe3a n03BOJIH re ~a 6'h~aT TpeTHpaHH KaTO BaLKeH H3BOP 3a H3Y'IaBaHeTO He caMO Ha uapCKaTa H~eOJIOrH5I, HO H na peJIHrH03HH5I LKHBOT B TpaKH5I H306~05.

Cnopen He5I T. Hap. "TpaKHllCKH C'hKpOBH~a" npe~CTaBJI5IBaT C'h3HaTeJIHO 3apaB5IHH B 3eM5ITa non <popMaTa na CHMBOJIH'IHO norpe- 6eHHe CBe~eHYI ziapoae, KOHTO TpaKHTe nonHaC5IJIH na nO'IHTaHaTa OT T5IX 60LKeCTBeHa xnnepoopeacxa rpnana - BeJIHKaTa 60rHH5I-MallKa }I 6JIH3I-IaUHTe ApTeMH~a H ArrOJIOH. KOJIeKTHBHHTe HaXO~KH 01' csnoae ca enna 01' xareropnare CBe~eHH ztapoae napen C HaKHTHTe, npennerare aa B'hOp'hLKeI-IHeTO, CJIHT'hUHTe H ~p. 6 CaKpaJIHH5IT xapaxrep aa Ilo~06eH BH~ HaXO~KH ce ,n;OK33Ba 01' CTpYKTypaTa na "C'hKpOBHlll,aTa", Ha'IHHa na 3apaB5IHeTO H 'IHCJIOBHTe 3aKoI-IOMepHocTH B 06lll,H5I 6poll na npenuernre, C'hOTHOrneHHeTO MeLK~y OT~eJIHHTe THIlOBe, cuean, H306paLKeHH5I H IIp.7 ¢aKT'hT, 'Ie pasnpocrpanenaero na Ilo~06eH THIl KOJIeKTHBHH HaXO~KH e OrpaHHQeHO rrO'ITH 6e3 H3- KJIlO'IeHH5I aa TepHTOpH5ITa aa Cesepoaananna D'h.rrrapH5I H 'Ie 3apaB5IHeTO na naposere B 3eM5ITa ce e rrpaKTHKYBaJIO B IlpO~'hJILKeHHe na IlOBe'Ie 01' XHJI5IAOJIeTHe, csmo IlOKa3Ba, 'Ie oTKpHBaHHTe B rpaxaacxnre 3eMH "C'hKpO-

4

BH~a" OTpa35IBaT He CJIY'IallHH, a 3aKOHOMepHH 5I'BJIeHH5I, CB'hp3aHH C rpaxaitcxara peJIHrH- 03Ha npaxrnxa".

I1MeHHo aa Ta3H IlpaKTHKa C'hOTBeTcTBYBa H H3BE!CTHOTO 01' nHCMeHHTe H3BOPH CBHAeTeJICTBO, 'Ie "CBe~eHHTe napoae na xanepoopeare cIlopeA H5IKaK'hB MeCTeH 06H'Iall ce Ila35IT He nozt IlOKPHB, a IlOA OTKPHTO He6e"9. 06~0- IlpHeTo e, 'Ie xanepoopeare ca eAHH " ... B'hO- 6paJ_KaeM napon, 'IHllTO nponaxon ce A'hJILKH na eCTeCTBeHOTO HAeaJIH3HpaHe na Te3H Hen03- HaTH aaponn, KOHTO 06HTaBaT 3eMHTe OTB'hA rpaHHU.HTe na Il03HaHHeTo"lO. Ho enaa 01' rJIaBHHTe JioKaJIH3aUHH aa T03H MHTH'IeH napon e B TIoAYHaBHeTO H csnnana C TepHTOpH5ITa na pasnpocrpaaeaae aa "CbKpOBH~aTa". MHoroKpaTHO e rronsepranaaa Bp'BllKaTa-Me-*~y· XHnepoopenre H TpaKH5I, C K05ITO ce CB'hp3Ba H caMOTO B'h3HHKBaHe aa XHIlep60pellCKH5I MHTll. Te3H B3aHMHO Aorr'hJI~a~H ce H3BOP H HH ~aBaT OCHOBaHHe Aa CM5ITaMe, 'Ie B T03H MHT MoraT na ce OTKPH5IT eJIeMeHTH 01' pea.nnara AellCTBHTeJiHo'CT B TpaKH5I npes K'hCHO- 6pOH30BaTa H LKeJI5I3HaTa enoxa.

Ct.ureapexeaao TB'hp~eHHeTO, 'Ie .xnnep- 60peHTe HaBC5IK'hAe ca LKpeUH aa ArrOJIOH", KaKTO H ap-ssxara na CBeTHJIHlll,aTa B neJI<pH H J(eJIOC C xHIlep60pellcKH5I MHT Ha TpaKHTe C J(eJI<pH IlOKa3BaT, 'Ie Ilp05IBJ-ITe na xnrrep- 60pellCTBOTO Tp5I6Ba Aace T'hpC5IT HMeHHO B crpepara na peJIHrH03HH5I LKHBOT B TpaKH5I, C KOllTO cnopen rrpeAJIOLKeHaTa XHrrOTe3a ca CB'hp3aHH H "C'hKpOBHlll,aTa". 11 raxa na repnTOpH5ITa, 06HTaBaHa 01' MHTH'IHHTe xnnepoopen H 01' HCTOpH'IeCKHTe TpH6aJIH, e OTKpHTa H Por03eHCKaTa HaXOAKa.

TIo 6p05I na . C'hAOBeTe, pa3Ho06pa3HeTO aa BapHaHTHTe, MHTbJIorH'IHHTe cuenn H MHoro- 6pOllHHTe HaArrlICH HaXO~KaTa 01' Por03eH e HaHCTHHa YHHKaJIHa. Ho at.npexa TOBa T5I ce BMeCTH B IlpeAJIOLKeHH5I HOB MOAeJI sa IIHTepnpernpane na T. Hap. TpaKHllCKH "C'hKpOBHlll,a" KaKTO TepHTOpHaJIHO, raxa H C U5IJIOCTHaTa CII CTpYKTypa, K05ITO 6e IlOAP06HO aHaJIlI3lIpaHa APyraAe13. C'hCTaBeH cauo 01' C'hAOBe, KOMrrJIeKC'hT 01' Por03eH rr03BOJIH na ce OTKpH5IT H5IISOII 'IHCJIOBH 3aKoHOMepHOCTH, YCTaHOBeHII npn noBe'IeTO "C'hKpOBHlll,a" - HaJIH'IHe aa rpn UeHTpaJIHH csna: 06~ 6pOll na Ilpe~MeTII, ~eJIHM aa TpH; 3apaB5IHe aa ABa A5IJIa H np.14 J(BaTa ~5IJIa na HaXO~KaTaOT Por03eH ca pa3IlOJIOLKeHH na OKOJIO 5 M e~HH 01' npyr II ca npenCTaBeHH C'hOTBeTHO 01' 65 csna (1 'Iarna, 42 KaHH'IKH II 22 <pHaJIH) H 01' 100 csna (2 'I anr II , 12 KaHH'IKII II 86 <plIa.rrH)15. Bt.pxy 2 KaHH'IKH

H 14 <pHaJIH HMa Ha,nnHCH, a B'bpXY 14 <pHaJIH - 3Ha~H16.

~HOrOqHCJIeHHHT Poro3eHcKH KOMnJIeKC OT csnose nauapa napanena B oriumpnara repnTOpHH OT I13TOqHOTO Cpennaenaouopue ,no Kapnaro-Ilyaaacxas 6aceMH. Ha rrspso MHCTO me cnoxenea naxonxara OT nemepara IlKCHPO na KPHT, C'bCTOHrn.a ce OT nan 500 csnose, aaenno C M'b2KKH H' 2KeHCKH rJIHHeHH <pHrypKH B MOJIHTBeHa rroaa, OqeBH,nHO crrspaaaa C peJ1HrH03HaTa npaxrnxa aa oCTpoBa17• ~Horo- 6pOMHH csnoae o6pa3YBaT nacr OT CBern.eHHH ztap na 6oroBeTe,-'H B penaua npyrn KYJITOBH MeCTa aa r'bp~HH18. Ha cesep csmo OTKPHBaMeno,no6HH CJIyqaH OT sropara nOJIOBHHa na II XHJIH,nOJIeTHe np. H. e., CB'bp3aHH C KYJITOBaTa npaKTHKa19• Cpen THX ocooen HHrepec npencraanasa MOrHJIHaTa naxonxa OT Cycaan, narnpana B XI B. np. H. e,20 B Ta3H MOrHJIa ca 3apoBeHH B qeTHpH nJIaCTa H pa3- npenenean B 10 rpyrm nan 200 C'b,na OT rJIHHa. KaKTo H npn Porosea, npeoo.nanaaar ,nBa THna csnone, B CJIyqaH xaum H xynn. OTKPHTH ca rpynn OT TpH e,nHaKBH <paJIepH, TpH C'b,na, nernpn csna n T. H. Oco6eHO HHTepeCHa e urecrara rpyna, B KOHTO 66 csna ca pasnpe,neJIeHH B urecr nonrpyrra H enno rOJIHMO 6mo,no e 3ao6HKOJIeHO OT pa3nHJIHHO 2KHTO. Ilonaraaero na C'b,nOBeTe H eTam-IOTO aarpyrmaue aa MOrHJIaTa, npH,npY2KaBaHO OT ,non'bJIHHTeJIHH oripennn ,neMcTBHH, ztanar OCHOBaHHe na H3- CJIe,nOBaTeJIIITe ,na H CB'bp1KaT C norpeoenne ua JIH~e C 2KpeqeCKH <PYHK~HH.

Ha 6a3aTa na T03H cpaBHHTeJIeH MaTepHaJI 6e uanpasen nonpooen aHaJIH3Ha CTpYKTypaTa na Porosencxara naxonxa - TpHTe naura, ,nBaTa ,nHJIa, C'b,nOBeTe C'bC c~eHH H C'b,nOBeTe C Ha,nnHCH H 3Ha~H21. B T03H aHaJIH3 6e H3- Ka3aHO npe,nnOJI02KeHHeTO, qe npHC'bCTBHeTO na TpH ~eHTpaJIHH C'b,na B'bB BCHKa rOJIHMa KOMnJIeKCHa Haxo,nKa e CB'bp3aHO C 60lKeCTBeHaTa rpnana na xanepriopenre, nepconntpauapauia TpHTe r JIaBHH He6eCHH TeJIa - 3eMHTa, CJI'bHnero H JIYHaTa. 5!,nPOTO na Por03eHCKHHT KOMnJIeKC ca C'b~O TpH cr.na H nO-TOqHO TpHTe qaIllH, enna rOJIHMa H ,nBe MaJIKH (06p. 1 a, 6, 8)22. Bt.pxy rOJIHMaTa qaIlla ca H306pa3eHH 4HIIJ,Ha nrnna. C pH6a B KJIlOHa H saex B HOKTHTe, K03eJI, eJIeH H ocnoxpax eJIeH (06p. 1 a) . .llpyrHTe ;nBe qaIllH ca KOTHJIe H CKH<pOC, rrspsara yxpacena B ropnara qaCT C seaeu OT 6P'bIllJIHH, a sropara - C "II03JIaTeHH naJIMeTH (06p. 1 6, 8). Ilo name MHeHHe nsere MaJIKH qalllH CHMBOJIH3HpaT Aprenaaa H AnOJIOH KaTO l:Ie6eCHH 602KeCTBa. E,nHH MHoro 6JIH3'bK napaJIeJI OT csmara TepHTopHH no OTHOIlleHHe ua yxpacara H ceMaHTHKaTa na H306palKeHHHTa e HaKOJIeHHHK'bT OT Bpaua'". Ilpencraaenara na Hero 60rHHH M02Ke na ce T'bJIKYBa He cano KaTO IlOTH'HH Tepon, HO H ApTeMH,na-J3~H,nH,na C HeMHHTe ,nBa snna <PYHK~HH KaTO 60lKeCTBO aa CJI'bH~eTO H JIYHaTa. 3a TOBa CBH,neTeJICTByBa KpaTHH, KOMTO II orpexoia ,nBa BH,na nOqHT -

3eMHa H He6eCHa - HJIH "nOI-IelKe TH HMa nne CBeTJIHHH "::...., coricrsenara H Ta3H na CJI'bH~eTo"24. B T?K'bB acnexr e B'b3MOlKHa HHTepnperauaara ,Ha Bpaxaacxara 60rHHH KaTO 60rHHH na CJI'bH~eTO, npeztcraseaa OT orpanara OT CJI'bHqeBH JI'bqH ,nHCHa nOJIOBHHa na JIH~eTO, H RaTO 60rHHH na JIYHaTa;, rrpencrasena OT 3aT'bMHeHaTa JIHBa nOJIOBHHa. CBH,neTeJICTBaTa na npesnnre a13TopH nOKa3BaT, qe ApTeMH,na qeCTO CMeHHJIa <PYHK~HHTe CH C Te3H na CB05I 6JIH3HaK AnOJIOH25. Taxa zraere MaJIKH qaIllH 3aeMaT paBHOCTOMHO MHCTO cnpHMo rOJIHMaTa C oCMoKpaKHH eJIeH. JIorHqHO e zta ce ztonycne, qe rOJIHMaTa naura CHMBOJIH3Upa BeJIHKaTa 60rHHH - HOCHTeJI H na ,nBeTe naxana, M'blKKOTO H lKeHCKOTO - H qe BepoHTI-IO HeHH CHMBOJI e oCMoKpaKHHT eJIeH.

IlPHC'bCTBHeTO na TpHTe nannr B naxonxa OT Por03eH norat.pzcnaaa HeMHHH caxpanen xapaxrep H spt.sxara C TpHTe xHnep60peMCKH 60lKeCTBa. Y CTaHOBeHaTa spt.axa na csemeHHTe napose C rOJIeMHTe peJIHrH03HOKaJIeHnapnn npa3HH~H26 npennoaara, qe H naxonKaTa OT Por03eH e 6HJIa 3apoBeHa no BpeMe na qeCTBYBaHeTo na HHKOM OT npa3HH~HTe na xarrepoopeacxara rpnana". I13X02K,n:aMKH OT nocraaoaxara, qe CTpYKTypaTa KaKTO na BCHqKH T. Hap. "C'bKpOBHma", raxa H H3 Por03eHCKOTO e ,n:'bJI60KO OCMHCJIeHa, HHe CqHTaMe, qe C'bCTaBH~HTe ro npenjrern ,n:aBaT 3HaqHTeJIHa H ct.ruecrnena HH<popMa~HH no Te3H st.npoca.

E,n:HH OT KJIlOqOBeTe sa H3HCHHBaHeTO na st.npoca e <pHaJIaTa OT rpt.nxn nponaxon C H306pa3eHHTe Asre H Xepaxr,n. T'bM KaTO TH e ITJIHTKa H HMa ,n:BOMHO ,n:'bHO, onenanao ax~eHT'bT e H3MeCTeH OT qilCTO <pyHK~HOHaJIHOTO B'bPXY caMHH CMHC'bJI na cnenara H nanmrcure. Han ,n:BeTe <PHrYPH C 6YKBH, paanananamn ce OT OCTaHaJIHTe aaarmcn, e H3HeceHO AyrH LlHAALlH (06p. 2). T03H nannnc ce sere HaM-pa3JIHqHO OT H3CJIe,n:OBaTeJIHTe. E,n:HH ro npeseacnar KaTO "HeC'bMHeHO TOBa e ABre"28. .llpyrH T'bJIKYBaT sropara ,nYMa KaTO ennrer I-Ia X epaK'bJI29. TpeTH npnenar, qe ,nYMaTa e crpemena H qe e nanncaaa BMeCTO HMeTO na XepaK'bJI30. 3a,naBaMe m.npoca, He e JIH B'b3- MOlKHO sropara nyxa, KOHTO no Mop<POJIOrHqHII ,naHHH MOlKe ,n:a e lKeHCKO HMe31, na 6'b,n:e OTHe~ ceaa He K'bM Xepaxt,n, a K'bM Asre, orne noneae, qe ,n:eJIHa,n:H H ,n:eJIHaCTH ce uapnnar yqaCTHHqKHTe H yqaCTHH~HTe B rOJIeMHH npaslJHK na ArtOJIOH .lleJIHOC, qeCTBYBaH aa BceKH nernpn ro,n:HHH aa OCTPOB .lleJIoc32•

He caxo T03H apr yuenr Hll HaCOqBa K'bM H3HCH5iBaHeTO na npaaanxa na .lleJIOC H ct.noCTaBHHeTO My C'bC crpyxrypara na Por03eHCKaTa naxonxa, I13BecTHO e, KaKTO rro-rope aene nOCOqHXMe, qe nncxeaara Tpa,n:H~HH naCTOMqHBO CB'bp3Ba OCTpOBa C MllTHqHllTe XHneptiopen. Ct.mo raxa aene 6e nonnepraao, qe apXeOJIOrHqeCKaTa KapTHHa aa cesepoaanannare TpaKHMCKH 3eMll II nncnenare 113BOPH HH nasar OCHOBaHHe 06HTaBaHHTe OT TpH6aJIHTe

5

• 06p. 1. Tpume «auiu On! POiJ03eN a) eo nstnama uaiua; 6) «oniuseino; 8) cniuboc sm, Fig. 1. Les trois tasses de R,ogoZeri. a) la grande iasse; 6) koiile; 8)

skiphos .

3eMH na ce OIIpe)I.eJI5IT KaTO OCHOHHaTa repnTOPH5I, Ha·K05lTO· ce IIp05lB5IBaT ~epTHTe Ha XHIIep6opeficTI30TO. CJIe)I.OBaTeJIHO M02KeM zta IIpe)l.rrOJI02KHM, ~e ·C H3KJIIO~eHHe aa 3apaB5IHeTO aa cseuteaarenapoae IIO)I. OTKPHTO aeoe KaTO Me'CTeH xauepoopeacxu 06H~afi B Ceseposanaana TpaKH5I, Me2K)l.y 06pe)I.HTe B xnnep-. 6opeli:cKa 3eM5I H' CBeTHJIHI.IJ,eTO B ,UeJIOC He e HMaJIO )l.pyrH C'brn.eCTBeHH pa:3JIH~H5I. A TOBa 03Ha~aBa, qe HMaMe IIpaBO )I.a H3IIOJI3YBaMe 6braTaTa HH¢OpMaUH5I sa npoaezsnaaero na )l.eJIOCKHTe IIpa3HHUH C or-nen H351CH5IBaHeTO na

1

xapaKTepa Ha Poro3eHcKaTa HaXO)l.Ka H CB'bP- 3aHHTe C He51 pHT'yaJIH H rrp.

fIpa3HHK'bT na AIIOJIOH ,UeJIHOC 6HJI IIpa3- HHK na TpHTe xunepoopeacxn 602KeCTBa - JIeTo, Aprevana H ArrOJIOH, HO B Hero ocooena rrO~HT ce OT)l.aBaJIa na 6JIH3HaUHTe, nopann KoeTO TOli: ce ~ecTByBaJI Hali:-MaJIKO nna )I.HH. B npaanaxa y~acTByBaJIH csemeaa npareHHUH - reopa, OT MHoro rpt-uxa rpanose'". H5IlWH CBe)l.eHH5I rrO)l.CKa3BaT, ~e 6p05lT na y~acTHHUHTe Bep05lTHO e 6HJI perJIaMeHT~paH rro H5IKaK'bB Ha~HH, T'bli: KaTO HMa )l.aHHH 3a yxacrae na 103, 118 H T. H. reopn, T. e. nan CT034• fOJIeMH5IT 6poli: KaHH~KH H ¢HaJIH B Poroses H ~aIIlH H xyna B Cycana npennonara B'b3M02KHOCTTa )l.a ce IIOT'bPCH enao Bep05lTHO

2

• 06p. 2. CPLw/wfna c sc CHef-Lama HJ! A.e.?e u XrpaK'V.1. Fig. 2. La [iale aoec l a scene d'Auge et d' Hemetes

C'hOTBeTCTBHe MeM,lI;y 6po51 na yqaCTHHUHTe B peJIHr'H03HaTa uepeMOHH5I H 6po51 na C'h)J.OBeTe. OCHOBaHHe aa TOBa HH nana H onacanaero na npasnmca aa AnOROH B "I1JIHa,ll;aTa"35, B KOHTO ce rosopa, qe na BceKH yqaCTHHK 6HJIa nonaneaa xauia. MOMe·)J.a ce ztorrycne, qe H 6p05lT na yqaCTHHUHTe B npaaanxa, CB'hp3aH C'hC 3apaB5IHeTO cnen napa (?) na CBelll.eHH5I nap B Por03eH, Bep05lTHO e 6HJI TOJIKOBa, KOJIKOTO ca.rpaannre B naxonxara -:- .108. TOBa npennOJIOMeHHe 6H C'hOTBeTcTBYBaJI0 na CBe,ll;eHH5ITa, cnopen KOHTO ,lI;oHaC5IHHTe B rpsnxare xy JITOBH MeCTa csnoae o6pa3YBaJIH sacr OT CBelll.eHH5I ,lI;ap36. KocBeHH ;:i.aHHH aa 6po51 na yqaCTHHUHTe B rrpasnaxa npn Porosen xorar ,lI;a ce H3BJIeKaT Bep05lTHO H OT C'hOTHOllleHH5ITa MeM,lI;y

• 06p. 3. Besunama 60~UIiH, Ap meuuiui a Ano/IOH IJ"bPXlj eiinu om KUHU'iKume. Fig. 3. 1.a Grande deesse, Artemis et Apol lon sur an des petits braes

pa3JIHqHHTe BH)J.OBe C'h)J.oBe. TaKa HanpHMep 6p05lT na KaHHqKHTe Cnp5lMO <pHaJIHTe B Por03eH e -1:2. Onronreaaero na xynare K'hM naunrre B Cycana e 24 % :59 %. TOBa Bep05lTHO oanasasav ve BceKH ,lI;BaMa yqaCTHHKa B PHTyaJlHH5I .nap ca nOJI3BaJIH enna ooma KaHHqKa H qe TYK._OTHOBO ce cpemaue C'hC CHMBOJIHKaTa na caemenara rpaana.

4ecTBaHeTo na 6oMecTBaTano spexe na npasaaxa B. ,UeJIoc HMaJIO H CBOH TaHUOB

- pHTyaJI sa BC5IKO OT 6oMecTBaTa. ,UBaTa HaHcrapa . H3BeCTHH ranua 6HJIH "TaHU'hT na Mepasa" - 100 06HKOJIKH. OKOJIO MepTBeHHKa na AnOJIOH, H pHTyaJIHOTO 6HIJ'YBaHe OKOJIO caemenoro ,lI;'bpBO - B necr na ApTeMH,lI;a37•

CBelll.eHOTO ,lI;'hpao (enno OT KOHTO e MaCJIHnara - na rp.· xonvoc) aaezmo C OJITapa ce HaMHpaJIH B cpenara na KyJITOBOTO npocrpancrno, HJIH TeMeHoca. ETO KaK H3rJIeM)J.aJIH CBelll.eHOTO )J.'hPBO H pHTyaJIIITe, CB'hp3aHH C Hero, na e,ll;HH OT AnOJIOHOBHTe npa3HHUH - ,Ua<pHe<popH5ITa: ,,)KpeUHTe HOC5IT MaCJIHHeHH KJIOHKH aa npasnaxa na AnoJIO'H H B'h3nHBaT 60ra C xop OT MOMHqeTa. Te yKpaC5IB1:lT aspxa a a MaCJIH'HeHOTO )J.'hPBO C JIaBpOBH KJI9HKH H JIaBpOBH UBeT5I. Ha B'hpXa nOCT'aB5IT 6pOH30Ba crpepa H OT He51 npOBHCBaT nO-MaJIKH C·<pepH. no cpenara H_a npi.sxara 3aKaqBaTC<pepaTa, nO-MaJIKa OT Ta3H aa mspxa, H 51 06B'hp3'BaT C xepsenn HHlllKH. I'opnara epepa e CJI'bHUeTb, C KoeTO CB'hp3BaT AnOJIqH, ,lI;OJIHaTa - ApreMH)J.a. MaJIKHTe BHC5IllI.H crpepa ca 3Be3,l1;HTe H C'h3Be3,l1;H5ITa, a HHlllKHTe nOKa3BaT BpeMeTO, T'hH KaTO re ca HanpaBHJIH 365 HHlllKH."38 B caeuienoro ,lI;'hP.BO. H pHTyaJIHTe, CB'hp3aHH C Hero, MOMe.)J.a ce OTKpHe nOJIHCeMaHTHqHaTa CHMBOJIHKa na nsere 60MeCTBa, aa KOCMoroHH5ITa, aa ce30HHTe H np., B T. q. H npencxa- 3aHHeTO no HH~KHTe. B CBeTJIHHaTa aa T03H nHCMeH H3BOP CaKpaJIJIH5IT CMHC'hJI na qHCJIaTa H qHCJIOBHTe 3aKOHOMepHOCTH B' HaXO)J.KaTa OT Por03eH ca OIIJ,e nO-OqeBH)J.HH. Oc06eHO 3aCJIyMaBa na ce 06'hpHe BHHMaHHe aa enna raxasa 3aBHCHMOCT, a HMeHHO: KaKTO BeJIHKaTa 60'rHH5I OJIHueTBdpHsa ce6e CH H 6JIH3HaUHTe, raxa H

3

7

'YTpoeHaTa JJ,H<ppa 100 ua e~H~H5! ~5!JI na naXO~KaT.a nJIIOC 65 csna OT BTOPH5! ce paBH5!BaT TOqHO na Op05! aa ~HHTe B rO~HHaTa. Bnponen spr.axara na BeJIHKaTa 00rHH5! H na Apreanna C'bC CBellJ,eHOTO ~'bpBO. e nonsepraaa II m.pxy ezma OT uan-xyoaeare KaHHqKH OT POr03eH (06p. 3). BeJIHKaTa 00rHH5! e B CBOHTe nse XHnOCTa3H KaTO KOJIeCHHqapKa. B ,n:5!CHaTa KOJIeCHHJJ,a cena Apresmna, zrspxcanta CBern:eHOTO ,n:'bPBO C'bC Ce,n:eM KJIOHKH C no TpH rrsnxn, a B JI5!BaTa e AnOJIOH C JI'bK H CTpeJIa.

Taxa OJIH3HaUHTe H T5!XHaTa Maii:'Ka .B'bnJI'bmasar enao ~HaJIeKTHqHO cxsamane aa npenHHTe aa JKHBOTa, B KOii:TO OCHOBeH 3aKOH e . e,n:HHcTBOTO H oopoaTa aa npoTHBOnOJIOJKHOCTHTe. 3aToBa e ~'bJIOOK H CMHC'bJI'bT na cuenara C Asre H Xepaxs,n, CHMBOJIH3HpallJ,a CBellJ,eHH5! opaK; 3aTOBae caemeno H M5!CTOTO, . K'b~eTO e CTaHaJIa cpemara na ~B~MaTa cesepno

OT xpaxa na ATHHa AJIea, Kpaii: CKaJIHH5! H3BOp39. I13pa3 aa ~HaJIeKTHqeCKOTO e~HHcTBO na npoTHBonOJIOJKHOCTHTe ca H ~BaTa PHTYaJIHH ranua, nOCBeTeHH na ApTeMH~a H AnOJIOH.

C epOTHqHOTO CH c'b~'bPJKaHHe cuenara C Asre H Xepaxsn Han'bJIHO OH C'bOTBeTcTBYBaJIa na oprHaCTHqHHTe MOMeHTH B rpaxaacxare peJIHrH03HH npa3HHUH - npa3HHUH Ha B'b3-

· paJK~allJ,aTa ce npapona. B T5!X csuto naxnpa

· ()TpaJKeHHe Ta3H npencrasa aa ~peBHHTe aa ~yaJIHCTHqHaTa npapona na nemara. CneUHaJIHO B Haxo,n:KaTa OT Por03eH, KaKTO H npH npyra "C'bKPOBHrn:a" OT T03H rnn, csemeaaar

· ~ap e aapoaen aa nsa ~5!JIa HMeHHO B qeCT na M'bJKKOTO H JKeHCKO OOJKeCTBo.

Onpe~eJI5IHeTO . na Op05! aa C'b,n:OBeTe B'bB BceKH ~5!JI H3r JIeJK,n:a cstno OHJIO B C'bOTBeT<.::TBHe C H5!KOH npasana npH asaspumanero aa JKepTBOnpHHOllleHH5!Ta. I13BecTHo e, qe Haii:rOJI5!MaTa JKepTaBa OHJIa "xeKaTOMOaTa",. 03- nauasauia "CTO BOJIa". T5! OHJIa crrspaana C npHHaC5!HeTO U.JKepTBa OOHKHOBeHO na noaene OT OOHKHOBeHiuI QPoii JKHBOTHH40. 113r JIeLf{,n:a, qHCJIOTO 100 HMaJIO .saauenae H npn .nonaaC5!HeTO sa npyrn ~apoBe. 3allJ,OTOTOqHb 100 ca C'b~OBeTe OT BTOPH5! ,n:5!JI Ha Por03eHcKaTa naxonxa H nOqTH 100 ca cszosere OT "JKepTBenara 5!Ma" B MOrHJIaTa npn CycaHH41. Taxa CaMH5!T KOJIHqeCTBeH C'bCTaB na nsara ,n:5!JIa norrrspaoiaaa C'bllJ,HOCTTa na Poroaeucxara naxonxa KaTO csemen nap.

3a~'bJIJKHTeJIHa npaxruxa no BpeMe aa necTBYBaHeTo Ha npa3HHKa cnope~ HerOBHTe H3- CJIe,n:oBaTeJIH OHJIO pasxasaaaero na JIereH,n:H42. B'snpexn rOJIeMH5! opoii: KaHHqKH cavo B'bpXY nener OT T5!X HMa H300pa3eHH cJJ,eHH HJIH no- 3aOeJIeJKHTeJIHH MOTHBH43. Kareropnuao npeoOJIa,n:aBallJ,O B cueanre e JKeHCKOTO HaqaJIO, npencraseuo OT BeJIHKaTa 00rHH5! H ApTeMH~a, H33eJIa oseannno MHoro OT <PYHKUHHTe na CB05!Ta Maii:Ka. T5! e npencrasena KaTO noxpoBHTeJIKa na JIOBa H nnonoponaero, cpen <paHTaCTHqHH JKHBOTHH, asnema JI'bBHua H T. H.44 B cHMeTpHqHHTe KOMn03HUHH B'bpXy KaHHq-

KHTe, KaKTO H OT npyrn MOMeHTH, JIHqH 5!CHO,

. qe H TyK, B cJJ,eHHTe, e 3aJIerHaJIa ,n:'bJIOOKaTa H,n:e5! aa ~Boii:cTBeHaTa npnjiona na neruara. T5! e B'bnJI'bTeHa He cano B KaHHqKaTa C rerJIeHHTe OT KpHJIaTH KOHe KOJIeCHHJJ,H, B KOHTO Ce~5!T TpHTe OOJKeCTBa, HO H B ztpyr-n ~Boii:KH H300paJKeHH5!. Taxa nanp. nspxy ennara OT KaHHqKHTe MeJK~y ztsere CHMeTpHqHHH300paJKeHH5! na 06rHH5!Ta, asnema JI'bBHua, e H30- 6pa3eHa cueaara "JI'bB aanana eJIeH"45. Bt.pxy ztp yr a cpemaue ,n:Ba rrsrn cavo cnenara "JI'bB narrana KOlllYTa"46. Br.pxy ennara or KaHHqKHTe C JIIOCneCTH JKHBOTHH HMa n05!C OT Op'bWJI5!HOBH JIHCTa OKOJIO IImii:KaTa, ~OKaTO m.px y BTopaTa n05!C'bT e rJIa,n:'bK47 .

Bexe oe H3Ka3aHO npe,n:nOJIOJKeHHeTO, qe cneanre OT Por03eH 0<pOPM5!T ennn pa3Ka348• MOJKe ~a ce xasce, se re HaCOqBaT K'bM xp sr OT .nerenna, CB'bp3aHH aaa-aexe C xnnepoopenCKaTa rpaana, K'bM MHTOJIOrHqHH npezcrasn, B KOHTO npUC'bCTBYBaT cesepaare, "XHnepoopelicka" 3eMH, ITO,n:YH8BHeT049, no,n:BH3HTe na XepaK'bJI H npsaxara My C'bC 3MHeHoraTa ooc rHH5!50, rpnrpoanre - C1;>Ce,n:H na xnnepoopenre H na3HTeJIH na 3JIaTOT051.

Taxa B CTpYKTypaTa aa C'bKpOBHlIJ,eTo xaHHqKHTe C H300paJKeHH5!Ta C'bOTBeTcTBYBaT aa e,n:HH npyr csmecrsea H 3a,n:'bJIJKHTeJIeH MOMeHT OT qeCTBYBaHeTo na npa3HHKa - pasxaaaaHeTO na MHTOBe aa ooroBeTe.

ITpHJIOJKeHH5!T nonxon K'bM C'bKPOBIIrn:eTo, npn KOii:TO ce OTqIITaT B3aIIMOBp'b3KIITe MeJK,n:y BII,n:oBeTe II Op05!T aa npenxerare II xapaxrepi.r na CIOJKeTIIn~, oe npIIJIOJKeH a no OTHOmenae aa Ha,n:nIICIITe, HaHeceHII B'bpXy ztse KaHIIqKH II 14 <pIIaJIII52.

HaJIHqHeTO Ha Ha~nIICH ca~o B'bpXy ~Be OT KaHIIqKHTe, zmara ~5!JIa aa C'bKpOBIIlIJ,eTp, BJIOJKeHaTa B Hero II~e5! aa ztsere rraxana, KaKTO II <paKT'bT, qe H5!KOII OT Ha,n:nHCIITe ca no ,n:BOii:KII ~aBaT OCHOBaHIIe H TyK na ce C'bO- 6pa3IIM C qIICJIOBIITe OTHOWeHII5! II no,n:pe~HM Ha~nIICIITe no ~BOii:KII (06p. 4). OT CB05! crpana nonpenenare no ,n:BOHKII Ha:rr.nIICII COqaT csmecTBYBaHeTo H8 TpII rpyrra.

Ilt.psara H Haii:-MHoroopoii:HaTa rpyrra e C'bCTaBeHa OT <pIIaJIIITe, B'bpXy KOIITO e nanecena <popMYJIaTa C'bC C'bCTaBKa KOTYOL03. Cauo na enna qmaJIa KOTYOL e RaMeCTeHO C KEPLEBAEIITo04. Cnopen nOCJIe,n:HW'e qeTeHII5! Ha~nIICHTe C KOTIIc Tp5!6Ba na ce nerar: "C'b,n:'bT e npIITeJKaHHe aa KOTIIc II npOII3XOJK~a OT IIMeTO na CeJIIIlIJ,eTO. "50 KOTIIC e TpaKHii:cKH5!T JJ,ap, 3aeJI O~PIICKII5! npeCTOJI npes 383 r. np. H. e. 4eTeHeTo na <p0pMYJIaTa H3XOJK,n:a OT nOCTaHOBKaTa 3a <PYHKJJ,HHTe na TpaKHHCKH5! uap H KaTO JKpeU H OT II3HCKBaHeTO na opdmuecxara penurns napar eJKerO~HO na OOHKaJI5! BJIa,n:eHH51Ta CH56. CTPYBa HH ce, qe K'bM xerenero na Ha,n:nIICHTe He MOJKe ~a ce rrpacrr.na 6e3 C'bOOpa351BaHeTO C H51KOH OOCT05!TeJICTBa. Ct.nose C· <po'pMYJIaTa ca H3- BeC:THH sese OT MHoro MeCTa OT TpaKII5I-

4

• Orip . 4. Haonucume om. Poeosen, Lig . 4. Les inscrip tions de Rogozen

KaKTO' B csxpoaama, raxa II B MOrlIJIHII norpe- 6eHlIH Bopoao, Bpaua, AJIeKcaH,npOBO, A,n:tKlIrbOJI57• I1PII TOBa Ha,nTIIICIITe ca aanecean KaKTO B'bpXy MHoro 1I3HII.I.HII PIITOHII Bopono, raxa II B'bpXY C'bBCeM 06IIKHOBeHlI qmaJIII Porosea. He MO:tKe na ce npeaeoperne II reorpa¢CKOTO lIM pa3TIpOCTpaHeHII'e. Te ca II3- BeCTHII caxo cesepno OT Crapa TIJIaHIIHa, T. e. 1I3B'bH repnropusra na O,npIICKaTa ,n'bp:tKaBa.

2 ApXeOJlOrHf!, 3, 1987

113JIO:tKeHIITe ,nOTYK ¢aKTII, qeCTOTO cperuaae na IIMeTO B'bpXY C'b,noBe II CaKpaJIHIIHT xapaKTep Ha Haxo,nKaTa ,naBaT OCHOBaHlIe ,na ce ,na,ne ,npyra xapaxrepncrnxa na Ha,nTIIICIITe. Haasepoarno TOBa e csemeaa, oopenaa ¢opMYJIa, caspsana C TIOqIITaHeTO ua BeJIIIKaTa 6drIIHH, KOHTO ,noMIIHlIpa B C'bKpOBIIII.I.eTo. E,nHO OT HerrHIITe IIMeHa e KOTIIC II TO Harr-BHpHO orpa- 3HBa OT'b:tK,neCTBHBaHeTO if C'bC CBeII.I.eHOTO ,n'bPBO - Ma'CJIIIHaTa na rpv xottvoc, K'b.ll.eTO TpH6Ba zta ce T'bp,CII Hall-BepOHTHO II eTIIMOJIOrlIHTa na

9

HMeTO H. BbB spr.axa C TOBa MOJKe,IJ,a ce npennOJIOJKH, qe npa3HHKbT, C KOJ1TO e cat.paana POr03eHCKaTa HaXO,IJ,Ka, ca H3BeCTHHTe OT nHC'MeHHTe H3BOPH KOTHTHH58.

CTpOrHTe 3aKOHOMepHOCTH, OneTeHH nocera sa CTpYKTypaTa na CbKpOBHIIJ,eTO, OnpaB,IJ,aBaT H HHKOH ,IJ,OnbJIHHTeJIHH Ha6JIJO,IJ,eHHH BbPXY Ha,IJ,nHCHTe C HMeTO KOTHc. Taxa aanpnuep narepec npe,IJ,CTaBJIHBa <paKTbT, qe B TpH CJIyqaH - Boposo, Bpana H Por03eH, <popMYJIaTa

KOTYOL E=j; BEO e asnacaaa TpH TIbTH BbPXY TpH Cb,IJ,a, KoeTO OTHOBO HanOMHH 3a 3HaqeHHeTO Ha qHCJIOTO TpH B eBeHTyaJIHa apr.sxa CbC cnemenara TpHa,IJ,a.

C onpe,IJ,eJIHHeTO na <P0pMYJIHTe KaTO nOCBeTHTeJIHH H crrspanauero HM C npasuaxa na BeJIHKaTa 60rHHH KOTHC CTaBa no-06HcHHMO H HaJIHqHeTO na <pHaJIHTe C Ha,IJ,nHcH C HMeTO KOTHC B HHKOH OT TpaKHHcKHTe norpe6eHHH. no spexe na qeCTBYBaHeTo na npaannxa ce opraHH3HpaJIH cnopTHH CbcTe3aHHH, Ha KOHTO Harpa,IJ,a 3a n06e,IJ,HTeJIH 6HJIa HJIH KJIOHKa OT cnemenoro ,IJ,bPBO, HJIH <pHaJIa C Ter JIO Ha,IJ, 100 ,IJ,paXl\1H59. Bepoarno HMeHHO KaTO narpann HJIH nap OT CBeTHJIHIlI,eTO na JIHua, H3!IIbJIHHsarna BHCOKH JKpeqeCKH HJIH COUHaJIHH <pyIiKUHH, MoraT ,IJ,a ce rpernpar H <plIaJIHTe C Ha,IJ,IIlIcH.

Bnponea HMeHHO aKTbT aa rrO,IJ,HaCHHeTo na <plIaJIHTe H306Il1,o KaTO nap saocrps BHHMaHHeTO BbpXY <pHaJIaTa ct.c cnenara C Asre H XepaKbJI. <PHaJIaTa H KyrraTa 6HJIII e,IJ,HH OT 6611- qaHHHTe napose na CBeIll,eHHTe nparenann B fbpUHH60. HaH-BepoHTHo H Ta3H <pHaJIa e ,IJ,ap, rrO,IJ,HeCeH OT CBeIIJ,eH npareanx aa fbPUHH, H no-rosno ATHHa, aa npasanxa B TpaKHHcKHTe 3eMH. TOBa e HarrbJIHO nepoarno, KaTO ce B3eMe rrpe,IJ,BH,IJ, rrOJIHTHKaTa na ATHHa OT xpas na V B. rrp. H. e., xoraro HaH-BepoHTHo ce O<pOPMH H CBeIll,eHHHT nap OT Por03eH61. AKTHBHO nonrroaar-aiuara HrpaeIIJ,HTe BaJKHa POJIH B rrOJIHTHqeCKHH JKHBOT na ,IJ,peBHOCTTa peJIHrH03HH nearpone ATHHa OqaKBaJIa THXHaTa nonxpena'". Tt.pcenxa C6JIHJKeHHe C O,IJ,PHCKHTe BJIa,IJ,eTeJIH no BpeMe Ha neJIOnOHeCKaTa BOHHa, TH BbBeJIa B ATHHa KyJITa na BeH,IJ,H,IJ,a63. nHcMeHHTe H3BOPH cBH,IJ,eTeJICTB'YBaT sa npnCbCTBHeTo na CBeIll,eHH npareanun B TpaKHH npes d S'l r. rrp. H. e. H yqaCTHeTO lfM BepOHTHO B peJIHrH03eH rrpa3HHK, Ha KOHTO H3JIHHHHe nanpaaan CHTaJIK, 6aIIJ,aTa na CaToK64. HarJIeJK,IJ,a, BbB ap ssxa C rrO,IJ,HaCHHeTO na <PH aJIaTa C Anre H Xepaxr.n BbPXY HeH ,IJ,OrrbJIHHTeJIHO,;Ha pb6a, C rrpaBIIJIHH 6YKBH 6UJI H3LJYKBaH Ha,IJ,rrHCbT L'.IL'. YKAIM066, TbJIKYBaH xaTO JIHqHO HMe. Karo ce HMa npe,IJ,BH,IJ, npenHa3HaqeHHeTO na <pHaJIaTa KaTO rrOJIHTHKOpeJIHrH03eH ,IJ,ap, rrO-BepOHTHO e T03H Ha,IJ,rrHC ,IJ,a rrOTBbpJK,IJ,aBa rrOCBeTHTeJIHHH aKT.

Ha,IJ,rrHCHTe BbPXY KaHHqKHTe O<pOpMHT rperara rpyrra Ha,IJ,rrHCH. BbPXY e,IJ,HaTa KaHHqKa CTOH Ha,IJ,rrHCbT KOTYL AIIOAAONOL IIAIL, qeTeH KaTO "KoTHc, CHH p06, CJIYJKHTeJI aa AnOJIOH"66. BbPXY sropara KaHHqKa

10

e H3rrHcaHO HMeTO LA TO K067 . T e3H ,IJ,Be HMeHa, KOHTO He ca BKJIlOqeHH B CBeIIJ,eHaTa <popMYJIa, BepOHTHO ca HMeHa Ha KOHKpeTHH JIHua, yqaCTBYBaJIH B 06pe,IJ,HTe. B rrOTBbpJK,IJ,eHHe na TOBa e H rrpHCbCTBHeTO na HMeTO LATOKOI BbPXY e,IJ,Ha OT <pHaJIHTe68. Taxa TO e H3qYKaHO BbPXY ,IJ,BaTa OCHOBHH Cb,IJ,a, He06- XO,IJ,HMH aa H3BbpilIBaHeTO na pHTyaJIHO H3- JIHHHHe. CBbp3BaHeTO Ha TOBa HMe CbC CHHa Ha CHTaJIK, npeBbpHaT B ueHTpaJIHa <pHfypa B ATHHO-O,IJ,pHCKHTe OTHOIlleHHH, He 6Y,IJ,H Bb3- paJKeHHH69. Ha pemirH03HHH npasnax AnaTypHH B ATHHa, CJIe,IJ, npeonnaaaaero na CBeIIJ,eHHTe npaTeHHUH npn CHTaJIK, TOIH 6HJI 0651- BeH sa aTHHCKH rpaJK,IJ,aHHH npes 431 r. np. H. e.70 Bropa BaJKHa <pnrypa na npaaanxa 6HJI KOTHc, JKpeU na ArrOJIOH cnopen Ha,IJ,nHCa OT KaHHqKaTa.

Har .rieJK,IJ,a, ct.orsetcrnyaanta aa acpeaeCKaTa KaHHqKa e e,IJ,Ha e,IJ,HHCTBeHa no xapaxTepa na 3HaUHTe rrspxy HeH <pHaJIa71. Ilon Pb6a na YCTHeTO TH HMa TpH 3HaKa (06p. 5). TOBa ca ,IJ,Ba JIa6pHCa C ,IJ,PbJKKH, nOCTaBeHH B npoTHBonOJIOJKHH nOCOKH, H H306paJKeHHeTO na e,IJ,Ha CHJIHO CTHJIH3HpaHa BO,IJ,Ha rrrnua npen THX. Karo CHMBOJI na BJIaCT ,IJ,BOHHaTa 6pa,IJ,Ba ce cpema ouie OT KPHTO-MHKeHCKaTa erroxa, H306pa3HBaHa HaH-qeCTO B psuere na JKeHCKH 60JKeCTBa72. Ilpes paHHOJKeJIH3HaTa erroxa B TpaKHH H MaKe,IJ,oHH5I TH ce cpeuia caao B JKeH'CKH rrorpeoenaa'". B p saxara MeJK,IJ,y ,IJ,BoHHaTa 6pa,IJ,Ba H BO,IJ,HaTa rmnia e H3BeCTHa onte OT KPHTo-MHKeHcKaTa enoxa'". CJIe,IJ,oBaTeJIHO MOJKe ,IJ,a ce norrycue, qe He caxo nsere ,IJ,BOHHH 6p a,IJ,B II , HO H TpHTe 3HaKa KaTO KOMrIJIeKC ca JKpeqeCKH H ca CBbp3aHH C KYJITa KbM xunepoopeacxara TpHa,IJ,a75. CHMBOJI na BeJIHKaTa 60rHHH, rrspna B HepapXH'51Ta, e BO,IJ,HaTa nruua. CHMBOJI na ApTeMH,IJ,a e ,IJ,BOHnara 6pa,IJ,Ba C ,IJ,BeTe ,IJ,PbJKKH. CHMBOJI na AnOJIOH - HeHHHHT aHTHnO,IJ, - BTopaTa 6pa,IJ,sa C e,IJ,Ha orn.puara narope ,IJ,pbJKKa. B THCHa apr.axa C ApTeMH,IJ,a CTOH H 3HaKbT, rrOCTaBeH na MHCTOTO na 6YKBaTa ,,0" B HMeTO na CaTOK BbPXY <pHaJIaTa. B Hero ca BrrJIeTeHH cnopen MHeHHeTO aa AJI. <POJI 6yKBHTe ,IJ,eJITa H nnCHJIOH, 06pa3YBaIIJ,H uapcxa nneorpava". Ho, OT ,IJ,pyra CTpaHa, OqepTaHHHTa Ha T03H 3HaK HH ,IJ,aBaT OCHOBaHHe ,IJ,a nonycneu, qe TOH CbIIJ,O e cm.psan C ApTeMH,IJ,a JIYHapeH 3HaK? <paKTbT, qe TOH e nperineren TOqHO C HMeTO na CaTOK, He e 6e3 snatrenne H orne Be,IJ,HbJK nOTBbpJK,IJ,aBa rrpe,IJ,rrOJIOJKeHHeTO, H3Ka3aHO norope, aa uerosara ocorieaa POJIH B npaanaxa, C KOHTO e cat.paaaa Poroseacxara HaXO,IJ,Ka.

AHaJIH3bT aa HaxO,IJ,KaTa OT Por03eH noKa3Ba B3aHMHaTa 06Bbp3aHOCT na CbCTaB5IIIJ,HTe 51 rpyrm naMeTHHUH, H306paJKeHHH H Ha,IJ,rrHCH, MaTeMaTHqeCKaTa H JIOrHqeCKaTa xapMOHHH na CTpYKTypaT3, 06YCJIOBeHa OT xapaxTepa H na csemea nap, nO,IJ,HeCeH B srecr aa xanepriopencxara TpHa,IJ,a. YCTaHOBeHaTa apusxa na CTpYKTypaTa na CbKpOBHIIJ,eTO e

5

• 06p. 5. c[JuuJ1Uma c niputne :JHaIW .- eoona nmuua II iiee oeounu ripuoeu. Fig. 5. I.a phiale auec !es trois signes :»: oiseau d'euu et deux hac/res doubles

oripennara CIICTeMa ua npasuaxa na rpaanara (,nOKOJIKOTO TH ce YJIaBH) e CJIe,nCTBlIe na THXHaTa ooma aneoaornsecxa OCHOBa. CBoeTO 06HCHeHlIe aaunpa II CaKpaJIHaTa POJIH na qlICJIaTa, KOIITO OTpa3HBaT e,nIIH MaTeMaTlIqeCKII Mo,neJI na ,npeBHIITe peJIlIrlI03HlI BHpBaHIIH. ,UaHHIITe, C KOIITO Beqe paanonaraxe aa CTPYKrypara II qIICJIOBIITe 3aKOHOMepHOCTII na "C'bKpOBIIrn.aTa" OT Ceseposananaa TpaKIIH orne OT cpenara na II XIIJI. np. H. e. zto eJIIIHlI3Ma II 1I3BopIITe aa nIITaropeHCTBOTO, HII nOKa3BaT, sre T031I Mo,neJI e 6lIJI oom II aa TpaKIIH, II sa r'bpU:IIH.

B r'bpU:IIH MaTeMaTlIqeCKOTO eCTeCTB03Hanae II rrspsare nOCTaHOBKII na m.npoca sa KOJIlIqeCTBeHIITe 3aKOHOMepHOCTlI B npaponara ca CB'bp3aHII C IIMeTO na IlIITarop77. Cnopen nlITaropeHCKOTO ysenae qIICJIOTO e HaqaJIOTO na BCIIqKII uaxana, a qlICJIaTa ce ,neJIHT aa M'b)KKII qeTHII II )KeHCKII HeqeTHII. Cseuteuara e,nIIHIIu:a e MaHKaTa na BCIIqKII 6oroBe, OCHOBa aa BCIIqKII npaponnn HBJIeHIIH. ,UBoHKaTa e npII3HaK na npoTIIBOnOJIO)KHOCTIITe, a TPOHxara - TplIe,nIIHIIe na rrspaouaxanuero C npoTIIBOpeqlIeTO ua CTpaHIITe II T. H. C MIICTlIqHOTO T'bJIKYBaHe Ha qIICJIaTa 6IIJIII CB'bp3aHII

1 J13KYCTBO, 6, 1986.

00 110BOA 0 I"KpH BaHeTO H a Por-oseucxa ra H8- xOJ(Ka 65!xa opr-anuaa p anu fl.Be !(HCKYCIIH -- B BAH B3 29 arrp n,n H B HI1M np es M. Maii.

3 /\ J1. <P 0 J1. CHMBOJ1H'lHOTO uorpericaa e OT Ka-

:~HlJeHe, COi1HfICKO. - H3KYCTI30 . .3-4, 1975, 11-1.'3.

~ JJ.. rep rOB 3. Tp3KHi1cKHTe CbKPOIHIU(3 H XII nep6opei'!cKH 51T MHT. - II r,IE'/KAYHap OAeH KOIHpec no 6bJlrallllcll1K3, ~131{ 1986 (noJ( lielJ3T); XH[](jH'33T3 33 C8Kp3JIHHH xap ax rep H3 'CbKPOBHIJl3Ta 13 Tp3Ki111 6e H~Ka:l3Ha 33 u sp ua IlbT H3 JlllCKYCIHITa OT 29 aup n,n 1986 r., HO no HE'o651CHHMll npHLJHHH T51 He HaMepH orp axceua e B np ecara (OTeqE'CTDE'n rpPOHT OT 29 311pHJI 1986 r. H Ylll1Te."cKo nCJlO OT 22 Mail 1986 r.).

5 il. rep rOB a. LLl1 r Cb'1. r, OaK TaM.

7 03K T~M; The Find from R ogozen and One Religious Feast in the Thr aci 311 Lands. - XVII Eirene Konfcrenz. Berlin, 1986 (In print).

,neceTTe OCl!OBHII npOTIIBOnOJIO)KHOCTII - KpaHHO II 6e3KpaHHO, CBeTJIO II T'bMHO II np. - II CBeT'bT csnto TaKa 6IIJI pasnenen na necer c~eplI. TaKa qIICJIaTa TpH6BaJIO ,na oTpa3HBaT xapMoHIIHTa na KOCMoca, C nJIaCTlIqeH II )KII3- HeH CMIIC'bJI aa BCHKO OT THX. ACTPOHOMIIHTa, MY3lIKaTa II rpavarnxara 6lIJIII cstuo raxa nonxanemr OT nIITaropeHU:IITe na apIITMeTIIKOreoverpanaa crpyxrypa. IlIITaropeHCTBOTO 6IIJIO He caMO ~IIJIOCO~CKO, HO II peJIIIrII03HO reuenue, T'bH KaTO B'b3TOpr'bT npen qlICJIaTa II onepanmrre C THX BO,nIIJI nOCJIe,nOBaTeJIIITe My K'bM MIICTlIqHO npenacraane II OC'brn.eCTBHBaHeTO aa qIICT )KIIBOT CJIe,n ,nIIOHIICIIeB OprIIa3'bM.

06rn.1I5IT MaTeMaTIIqeCKII Mo,neJI, KOHTO ce ynans B T. Hap. TpaKIIHCKII "C'bKPOBIIrn.a" II KOHTO e 1I3BeCTeH OT nIITaropeHCKOTO yqeHIIe, ce ,n'bJI)K1I aa oorua II,neOJIOrlIqeCKa OCHOBa. B HeHHOTO II3rpa)K,naHe OTHaqaJIO aKTIIBHa POJIH IIrpaHT TpaKIIHcKIITe 3eMlI II TpaKIIHCKII5IT op~1I3'bM78, a no- K'bCHO nOJIYMIITlIqHaTa ~lIrypa na Ilnrarop, CB'bp3aH C TOBa yqeHIIe II ocorieao C sapara B 6e3CM'bpTlIeTO na nyurara. OT'b)K,neCTBHBaHeTO na Ilnrarop OT ,npeBHIITe C AnOJIOH X IInep6opeHcKII79 HII np sma orne Be,nH'b)K K'bM nsnpoca aa xanepcopencrsoro II uerosara pOJI5I B asrpaxcaaaero aa peJIlIrlI03HIITe II MIITOJIOrIIqHIITe npencraaa na ,npeBHIITe TpaKII II r'bpU:II. Te3II npe,ncTaBII ce pa3npOCTpaH5IBaJIII II pa3BIIBaJIlI 6JIaro,napeHlIe na )KpeqeCKOTO C'bCJIOBIIe Ha xlInep6opeIITe, nOCOqeHII HaBCHK'b,ne B ,npeBHIITe II3BOPII KaTO :>KpeU:II na AnOJIOH.

CaKpaJIHIIHT xapaxrep na "TpaKIIHcKIITe C'bKPOBIIrn.a" II HOBOTO serene na xnneptiopeaCKIIH MIlT nOB,nIIraT e,nIIH nOqTII Hepa3pa6oTeH B TpaKOJIO)KKaTa nureparypa m.rrpoc sa csrn.eCTBYBaHeTO na )KpeqeCTBOTO 1I3B'bH u:apCKIITe IIHCTIITYU:IIII B TpaKIIH II aa aerosara POJIH B'bB ~opMIIpaHeTO na o6rn.OTpaKIIHCKIITe peJIIIrlI03HII KYJITOBe II nOM'bp)KaHeTO lIM B rOJIeMIITe TpaKIIHCKII peJIlIrII03HlI U:eHTpOBe. Por03eHcKaTa Haxo,nKa C HeHHIIH CaKpaJIeH xapaxrep e CBII,neTeJICTBO aa MHorOBeKOBHOTO npaKTIIKYBaHe Ha KYJITa Ha xIInep60peHCKaTa rpnana B TpaKIIH.

8 Jl. rep rOB a. I(H1'. Cbl[.

9 1<. p a t 11 H. JleJ10CKHTe. CP[J. 22. -.- 113110Pl1 aa HCTOpH5ITa H3 TpaKH5i H TpaKHTe. c., 1981, c. 168. 10 G. H. Mac u r d y. Troy and Paeoui a. New York, 1925, p. 204.

11 Ibid., p. 209.

12 CXOJ1llH KbM Op.HJl.ap. III OJ111MllHf!CK3 OAa,

16. - I13BOPll 33 HCTOpH5ITa ... , 70; XepO}(OT IV, .35, I. - .. OaK Ta;,I, 204; A ,1. cP 0 J1. OpOY'IBaHl151 BbpXV r pi.ujorr e H3bOpH sa Jl.peBH3 TpaKH51. II. Tp aK!lliciU151'r aoroc Ha Xep onor. -- TCv , H<1>, lXVII, 1973/74. C., 1977, c. 21.

ia B.)!{. 6e.J1. 7. 14 DaK 1'3;\1-

15 Fl vr , H D 3 HOB. OTKpa1l3HeTO 11<1 Tp3KHH.-

CKOTO CbKPOBl1l1l.e OT Porosen .-113KYCTBO, 6,~1986,5-6. 16 C II. M a III 0 B. HaJ(!lHCH1'E' BbPXY C'bJl.OBeTE' OT POr03E'!ICKOTO CbKpOBl1l1l.e. -. 113I(YC1'BO, 6, 1986, 41-45.

11

17 B. Rut k 0 v ski. The Cult of the Aegean.

New Haven and London, 1986, 203-209.

rs W. H. D. R 0 u S e. Greek Votive Ojf er i nus.

Hi l deshe irn - New Yor k 1976 p. 354. "

10 A I. V u I P e, V. M i h R i Ie s c u-B i r I i· b a. Der Gol dschat z von Padeni . J u d "Ie"1l1t, in der Westm ol da u. - PZ, 60, 1985, S. 68.

2fl J. S t r a tan, A I. V u I p e. Der H iig:el von Susani.-PZ, 1-2. 1977,28-60, Tar. 1-28.

21 JJ. rep rOB 3. TpaI011:CKI1Te CbKPOBHllJ,3 ... 22 6. H H K 0 Jl 0 D. 4 aWH Te 01' Por oseucxoro CbKpoBHwe. - H3KYCTllO,' 6, 1986, 37-40.

23 H B. Map a 30 D. HaKOJIeHHHKbT 01' Bp aua. 24 K jJ 3';' H H. Tpal<HJ1K!lTe, epp. 81. _. Y!3BOPII 3a n c ropn sra ... , c. 169.

25 H. A. 0 H a i'l K o. /\rrOJIo10H rHlIep60pefl-

(lmll. - B: HCTOPHH M xy.m.ry p a aHTM'IHOrO MMpa. M, 1977, 153-159.

ZG 6. M. M 0 3 0 JI e B C K H fl. TUBC'l'il ·!vIOfHJl3.

M., 1977. c. 226. .

27 D. G erg 0 v a. Op. cit.

28 01' CJlOBOTO KbM HCTHHaTa. - Ore-iecruen (jJpOHT, 8. VIII. 1986 1'.

29 6. H H" 0 JI 0 B. CPHJIHaJlKJ'e 01' POI'03f'H-

CKOTO csxpoantue. - HclKYOSO, 6, I 1986, 8-16. 30 Nt A v Ii p o v i x o <;. Mia 'apxawA,oYlxi] 'EX- 1tA,i]'I'TJ O''tTJ BOIJAyapia. TO BEl"~A, 17. VIII. 1986.

31 01' CJ10BOTO KbM I1CTlIHaTa ...

32 M. Dar e III 1; erg et E. Sag 1 i o. Les

Delia. Di cti onnair e des ant i qui tes gr ecques r-t r oma ines. T. I l. Paris, 1892, 55--58.

~3 Ibid., 55.

34 Ibid., 55.

350M H p. I1JiHar!.8. C, 1976, J, 441-486.

3n \V. H. D. R 0 use. Op . cit., p. 354.

37 _"'1. Dar e rn b erg et E. Sag 1 i o. 0 p. r i t., 55--58.

38 G. H. Mac u r d y. Op. ci t., p. 127:

39 ,n. 0 I' H e HOB a. 6e.ne'KKH nsp XV (jlH a.na ra

OT POr0:lCHCI<OTO CbKpOBI1U,e C MOTHB 01' MI1Ta aa Xer1al<LJI HAufe. -_ ApXeOJ10rYil1,' I(H. 3, 19117 (ITO" HC4aT) .

40 M. Dar e m b erg ct E. S a g 1 i o. 0 P

ci t., 56-57.

41 .T. S t rat a n, A 1. V 11 j P e. Op. ci t.,

p . 47.

42 M. Dare Til b c r g et E. S 8 g 1 i o. Op.

c i t., p. 55.

43 D. H H K o zt (J B. Kaun t e. 41 [J3K TaM, 26 CJI.

·46 [JaK TaM, 27, N2 155. 46 naT< Ta~1, N2 156.

.. 47 [J3KT3M; N2 160 l1 161.

~8 I13T(33BaHe na M. 4,p.JHKOHa ua Jl,l1rI<YCM51TR or 29 IV. 1986 r.

19 [J H 11).( a p. III H VIII O.~MMI!MiicIW oua.

I-bBOpH ..... , 69-72.

,,0 X e p O,T\ 0 T IV, 8-10./}\. M. X a 3 a H 0 H.

Coun a.n r.uas HeTOpl1l1 Cl<Hq,OB. M., 1975, c. 37.

51 X e p 0 It 0 T, IV, 13, I. -113BOpH ... , c. 202. 52 r IT. "\1 a IJJ 0 ll. JJWf. c s-r.

53 IlaK TaM. N2 29, 42, 46, 43, 30, 31, 45, 47, 41, 40, 28. 44.

51 Flax TaM, c. 44, M 44.

55 A .~. c'[) 0 Jl. O!.(pI1CKH Jl 1[nI6aJiCKH uape UT

POI'03eHCKI1Te nanrm ca , -- Bercoao, 4, 1986, c. B. 56 Flax rav.

57 11 B. B e H e ,IJ, 11 I< 0 B. HaJ'.IlHCI1Te m.p xy rp aKllIkT<HTe rjJHaJIH. - ApXeOJIOflHI, 2, 1972, 1-6. 5S D. G erg 0 I' a. The Rogozen Find ..

59 ;\1. Dar e 1TI b erg et E. Sag 1 i o. Op. ci t., 55-58.

60 \V. H. D. ROll s e. Op. ci l.. p. 278.

61 D. rep rOB a. HaXO.T(KaTa 01' Por03eHH3BOp 33 peJl!HH03HHl1 M nO.J1HTH'I(,CKHII iKHBOT B Tp axu st B «p as ua V B. n p. H. e. - B: Il occ.naureu iKHBOT B TpaIGIH. 5hlOOJl, 1986 (non neuar).

62 M. Dar em b e r g et E. Sag I i o. Op. ci t., 55-58.

HB D. no n 0 B. Tp axn iicx a ra 60rl1HlI neHJI,MJI,a.

r: 1984, 39-55.

6·\ II. rep r o. B a. HflXO)IKaT3 OT Por03eH ... ss ell. M a III 0 B. IJ,l1T. Cb'l., N2 4.

IIG ell. M a 1lI 0 B. ll,l1T. CbLI., c. 41; A JI. <P 0 J1. [JOJll1THKiI M «y n ry p a B flPCElIW Tp axu s rrp es VIV E. irp. H. e.-- H3KyCTBO, 6, 1986, c. 3.

&7 ell. M a UJ 0 B. UW!'. Cb'l., NQ 118.

G~ Il aic TaM, oN\> 27.

69 A JI. cP OJI. O,[LPliCKH 11 rpH6aJICI{11 uap e ... ,c. 8. 70 n. r e jJ r 0 H a. I-laXO':lK3T3 OT PorU3eH ..

71 ell. M a :J.I 0 B. 11,11T. ct.n., 42, NQ 66.

72 A. (1) . .110 C e E. AHTI1'!l1<ll1 'lwq,OJIOrMl1 B ee

I1CrOpM'leCKOM pa3HI1THH. M., 1%7, e. 115 CJI.

n 3a HHlpop:11aUl1l1Ta 6J13rOJl,apH ua I(OJleI'3Ta . K. KHCbOB.

H A. CPo no c e B. Llu r. Cb'l., C. 117.

75 MHeHHeTO aa iKpCQerKI1H xap ax rep n a Jl,BOHJ-IMTe 6paJl,BI1 6e 113Ka3aJ-lO OT rt p odi. K. B,TaXOB ua 06C'b)j()laHPTO B HEM. 3a n a, 6p3fUJa KaTO uapcxo-scpexecxa eM6,leMa; A Jl. <P o.n. DOJlMTHKa 11 xy.n rvp a ... , c .. 3.

76 A JI. <P 0 JI. O!1pMCKH 11 TpI16aJlcJ(H ... , 6-7. 77 A. <P. II 0 c e B. HCTOpl1IT aHTI1Lll-](lfl eCTeTI1K'l.

Il03J1,HMl~i 9J1JlI1HlB:,I. M., !980, 0-19; M. H. III a xI! 0 B H lJ. Ilepsoouruas MI1CPOJl01HH H q,lljlOCOq,HII. II., 1971, 44-tl8; A JI. cP 0 JI. 1)aI<HHCKIHIT OlHjlH3bill. C, 1986, c. 157 CJ1 .

78/\,11. cp OJ1. l~HT. (bLI., 12---13, 143.

70 Tlax TaM', C. 143; A. <P. JI 0 C e B. IIur.

Cb'l., e. 11.

Sur Ie car actere sacral de la trouvail1e de Rogozen

D. G ERG 0 V A

(R e sum e)

L'auteur etu di e l a t r ouva il l e de. R ogczen a l a 1 umi er e de I'hy pothese ernise r ecemment par I ui au sujet du car ac ter e sacral des tresors thr aces. Sel on la ut eur leur propagation terri tor ial e l irni tee avant tout dans l cs terres ihr aces nord-ouest, l es cir con stances de leur decouverte, l a structure des tr esors d311S laquel1e l e role sacral des nombres determine leur c ornposl ti ou quantitati ve. sout autant des trmoignages egalement du car act er e sacral de la partie pre d omi na nt e de ces tr ouvaili es. Ell es r epr esentent des offrandes sacr ees. enf ouies ri t uellernent

12

SOUs forme de Iuner aill es sym bol i qucs des Thr aces en 1 'h onneur de dieux vener es par eux.

Le rite de lenlouissernent et.abl i par voie archeol ogi que correspond aux informations dans les sources ecri tes de l'existence d'une c outum e locale chez les Hyp erbor eens de garder leurs offrandes sacrees en pl ei n air. Ce fait, ai nsi que l a localisation des Hyperbor eens precise.uent d a ns l a Thr ace nordoccidentale n ous au tor isent a trailer l es traits du hyperborceni stnc comrrie partie integrante de I a CIlractcr isli que cul turclle dcTa Thr ace antique.

A la lurni er e de cettc hypothese tine ollran de sacr ec offerte en I 'h onueur de l a triade hyp er boreenne (l a Grande deesse, Artemis et Ap ol l on) r epr csente egal enient l a ti ouvaill e de Rogozen. L'ali irrnat i on est Iait e sur l a base de' la comparaison de l a strut> t ur e de 1,1 tr ouvaill e de Rogozen avec l e systc me ri tuel pour l a cele brat ion d'une des plus grandes fetes de l a tr i a de hyper bor eenne dans I '1Ie de Delos, et d ont n ous disp osons d'un materiel abondant. L'auteur donne une interpretation des elements f ond am eutau x de l a s tru ct ur e d u tr esor - les trois vase, comrne per sonni li ca t i on de l a tr i arle, l es deux parties cornrne expression de l a nature double de la Grande deesse, 100 vases cornme vari ante de I 'hecatombe. II analyse l e rapport entre l e Hombre des di Her ents types composa nt l a tr ouvaill e, l e s eus des representations, etc. L'nuteur propose uue nouvelle car acter ist i que des inscriptions comme dedicaces en I 'h onneur de l a Grande decsse, q ui , ici, porte Ie nom de Koty s.

L'anal yse du tresor montre que l e uom bre, l es rapports nurner i ques, l es scenes m yth ol ogi qucs ct l es inscriptions se ccmpl etent mu tuel lern ent pour rellcter les idees rel igieuses t hr aces, ~a cosrnogonie thr ace et l a mythologie. Le lien et abl i cutr e la struc-

tur e clu tr esor et l e svsteme r i t uel de l a Iet e est In consequence de eur fondement i deol ogi que comrn un. Lc role sacral des n orn br es , n ui rellel.ent un modele mathc rirati que des cr oyances rel ig ie us es antiques, tr ouve egalemen!: SOil e.xpl icat i ou. 11 est p ercu dans l es di t s .Jr esors'' et est COI1!lU de l a doctr i ne p y thagoricienne dan- le dif icat i on de l.aquelle un r ol e actif j ouai ent egal em cnt l es terres i hr aces, I'orphisme thr ace. L'identification de Pythagore avec Apol l on Hypcr bor een n ous r arn cne de nouveau vers l e hyperb orcenisrn e et 5011 r ol e dans l 'e dl lica ti on des i dees religieuses et rn yth ol ogi quos des anciens Thr accs et Grecs. On p eut c onsirler er que cest pr ecisernent grace aux Hyperbor eens q ui s ont p ar t out des sacti Iica t eur s d' Ap ol l on que ces i dees se propageaient el se devel op p ai ent.

Le car acter e sacral des "tr6sor5" thr aces et l a l ectur e nouvelle du my the hyperbor een soul event un pr obl em e non etudie dans 13 l itter atur e thr acoI ogi que- eel ui de I 'existence d u sacerd occ ell dehors des i nsti tu ti ons roy al es en Thr ace et son rol e dans la formation des centres religieux thr aces generaux. La lrouvaille de Rogolell avec SOil car acter e sacral est lin des te moignages de Iii pratique secul air e du culte de Iii tr i ade hyp er borcerme en Thr ace.

HaXO,lI.KaTa OT POr03eH - Tpa,lI.HUHOHHH

H HOBH eJIeMeHTH B TpaKHHCKaTa TOpeBTHKa

RAe I1 11. TI. B A C f'I 11 E B

HaXO)l.KaTa npn C. Por03eH, BpaqaHCKH oxp sr, H3Be)l.Hb}K HH nonece 165 cpeot.paa Cb)l.a, 6JIH30 xernpn rrsrn nosese OT H3BeCTHHTe nocera. B HeH npeorinaaanar THIIHqHHTe aa 3eMHTe na TpaKHTe ¢OPMH - ¢HaJIH H xaHHqKH, HHKOH OT KOHTO C Ha)l.rrHCH. TaKHBa HMa H na csnose OT no-paannre HaXO)l.KH H re OT)l.aBHa ca H3CJIe)l.BaHH H HHTepnpeTHpaHH B pa3JIHqHH acnexrn, ECTecTBeHO e, qe nannnCHTe H peaerpnre rrspsn npHBJIHKOXa uarepeca na CneIJ.HaJIHCTHTe, 3allI,OTO B THX ce csm.paca Ba}KeH MaTepHaJI aa HCTopHHTa H penaruara aa TpaKHTe. B rrspnara rry6JIHKaIJ.HH na naXO)l.KaTa 3ae)l.HO C onHcaHHHTa Ha OT.n.eJIHHTe npenvera ca nanenn H MHoro )l.aHHH H Ha6JIlo)l.eHHH 3a TeXHHKaTa na H3pa60TKaTa, KaKTO H sa IJ.HJIOCTHOTO TOpeBTHqHO Maii:cTopcTBO na TpaKHTe npes T03H nepnon-. Ho enna raxasa HaXO)l.Ka BHHarH )l.aBa H306HJIeH MaTepHaJI 3a HOBH, qeCTO rrsra npornaopeuauia aa rrspsonaqaJIHHTe MHeHHH.

Haunrre Ha6Jl1o)l.eHHH He MoraT na nperennapar sa rrbJIHO 06XBallI,aHe aa xrarepnana HHTO sa HHKaKBO xpaano H e)l.H03HaqHO pemeHHe aa Te3H' rrp06JIeMH. CaMHHT xapaxrep aa aaxoaxara H3KJiIOqBa TOBa.

Han-nanpen 6HXMe HCKaJIH H TyK)l.a crro)l.eJIHM HHKOH OCHOBHH nOJIO}KeHHH aa Cb3)1.aBaHeTO H CbxpaHHBaHeTO na TOpeBTHqHHTe Tpa)l.m.J.HH2. TeXHHqeCKHTe HaBHUH H YMeHHH OT naa-npocrare nOMOIII.HH npOIJ.eCH )1.0 aaaspureno Maii:cTopcTBO ca 6HJIH HanbJIHO opraHHqHO yCBoHBaHH. Te3H HaBHIJ.H ca OCTaBaJIH H ca ce rrpHJIaraJIH npe3 IJ.HJIaTa )l.eii:HocT Ha Maii:cTopHTe. MH03HHa Maii:cTopH H3IJ.HJIO ca Bb3npHeMaJIH HHKOH HOBH ¢OPMH H TeXHHKH, npyrn - caao qaCTHqHO, HO BbB BCHqKH CJIyqaH HOBOTO He e MO}KeJIO HanbJIHO na H3MeCTH CTapHTe pa60THH HaBHIJ.H, npH.n.06HTH B rrpoueca na 06yqeHHe H OpraHHqHO Bb3rrpHeTH. B TopeBTHKaTa ce aarimonaaar penaua OCHOBHH TeXHHqeCKH MeTO)l.H B pa60TaTa Ha MHoro noKOJIeHHH Maii:cTopH m.npexa aenpexscnarnre H3MefieHHH BbB ¢opMHTe, CTHJIa H nexoparasHHTe eJIeMeHTH. TaKHBa Tpa.n.HIJ.HOHHH MeTO)l.H MoraT )l.a ce OTKpHBaT H npaxo, H HH.iI.HpeKTHO B rpaxnacxara TopeBTHKa OT I x'HJI. np. H. e. C HHKOH npHMepH ot HOBOOTKpHTHTe Cb)l.OBe me ce onnrane OTHOBO )l.a nOKa}KeMe Te3H MeTO)l.H HJIH THXHOTO H3MeHeHHe.

Han-aanpen me ce cnpeve aa n03JIaTHBaHeTO, KoeTO B aHTHqHOCTTa HMa· H3BbHpe.n.Ho

13

rOJIHMa POJIH npa yxpacara na cpeot.pnare npenaern. Haa-crapara TeXHHKa sa TOBa e JIHCTOBOTO n03JIaTHBaHe, 3HallHTeJIHO nO-K'bCHO ce e nOHBHJIO H aMaJIraMHOT03. B HaXO.n.KaTa OT POr03eH CaMO HHKOJIKOC'b.n.a C 6e3CnOpeH lIyLK.n. npOH3XO.n. ca C avanraaua n03JIaTa. BCHlIKH OCTaHaJIH ca C JIHCTOBO n03JIaTHBaHe4• 11 TyK TH e nOJIOLKeHa na onpenenenn MeCTa, raxa lie zta no.nyxa onpenenen nOJIHXpOMeH e¢eKT. KaTO npaBHJIO B aHTHlIHOTO H3KYCTBO JIHueTO H OTKpHTHTe lIaCTH na THJIOTO nnxora He ca nOKpHBaHH C'bC 3JIaTO. Ta3H Tpa.n.HUHH ce e nOHBHJIa BepOHTHO npn nan-crapare KcoaHOHH, CJIe.n. TOBa npea XpH30eJIe¢aHTHHnara nJIaCTHKa e npexmaana H B MeTaJIOnJIaCTHKaTa. Taxa H B HOBHTe csnose HHMa HHTO enno n03JIaTeHO .mme HJIH oTKpHTa lIaCT na THJIOTO, KoeTO Beqe HH e n03HaTO OT Haxo.n.KHTe OT Boposo, JIeTHHua, JIYKOBHT, CTpeJIlIa H np. 113KJIlOlIeHHe npasa cauo JIHueTO aa MacKaTa, C KOHTO 3aB'bpIIIBa .n.p'bLKKaTa na KaHHlIKa .M! 159, .n.OKaTO na pa3nOJIOLKeHaTa nozt HeH MaCKa e n03JIaTeHa caao .n.'bJIraTa xoca. r JIaBHTe aa LKHBOTHHTe B'bB BCHlIKH CJIYllaH ca H3UHJIO n03JIaTeHH, HO npH TeJIaTa HMa pa3JIHKH. Xapaxrepaara JI'bBCKa rnaaa, r.nenana orrope, e H C n03JIaTeHa rpnaa, KaKTO npn .n.BoiiKaTa anJIHKaUHH OT JIYKOBHT. T5IJIOTO aa cspnara m.pxy xaaa .M! 155 e yxpaceno C MaJIKH lIeTB'bpTHTH napxenua 3JIaTO H C TOBa Han'bJIHO ce nOBTapH HallHH'bT na yxpaca aa nOCOlleHHTa anJIHKaUHH OT JIYKOBHT. 11 TyK npn nO-BHHMaTeJIHO BrJIeLK.n.aHe MOLKe na ce 3a6eJIeLKH orne enna xapaxrepna ocoeeHOCT B paoorara na rpaxaacxare TopeBTH. 3JIaTHHTe JIHCTa He ce H3pH3BaT TOllHO no KOHTypa aa ¢HrypaTa, xpamuara ce nonarar H m.pxy OKOJIHHH ¢OH. Tpynno HI1 e na npaeMeM, lie aMaJIraMHOTO n03JIaT5IBaHe He e 6HJIO H3BeCTHO aa rpaxnacxare MaiicTopH. I1MaJIo e .n.OCTaT'bllHO BHOCHH H3.n.eJIH5I, MaiicTopH BK~JIOHHHTe, OT KOHTO .n.a ce nsanpaeae T03H HallHH aa pariora. Ho nOJIaraHeTO na 3JIaTHl1Te JIHCTa e 6HJIO enna OT Tpa.n.HUHHTe na rpaxaaCKaTa TopeBTHKa. 11 KaTO Haii-K'bCeH npnxep ca .n.OCTa rpy60 H3pa60TeHHTe Kyna C peJIe¢ na KOHHHK H ¢aJIepaTa C 60rHHHTa OT 5!KHMOBCKOTO C'bKpOBHIll.e. ITPH THX H JIHuaTa ca n03JIaTeHH, KoeTO nOKa3Ba enao aepasoapane na Tpa.n.HUHOHHHH nOJII1XpOMeH npHHUHn6.

B naxonxara cavo H5IKOJIKO KaHHlIKH ca OTJIeTH. Be3 C'bMHeHHe zmere ¢HaJIH - 6JIlO.n.a NQ 1 H NQ 4, KaKTO H NQ 97 csuto ca OT JIHBaHI1, KaTO no C'bIll.H5I HallHH ca H3pa60TeHH no.n.06- HHTe csnose OT KYKoBa MOrHJIa npn 'uYBaHJIHii H Pazuoaeae. BCHlIKH OCTaHaJIH ca KOBaHH. 3a HallHHa na H3pa60TBaHe na ¢HaJIHTe ce TB'bp.n.I1, lie ca H3KOBaHH nt.pxy MaTpHUH C LKeJIaHaTa ¢opMa, B KOHTO 6HJI 3aJIOLKeH H OCHOBHH5IT opnavenr, CJIe.n. TOBa OCTaHaJIHTe no.n.p06HOCTH 6HJIH O¢opMHBaHH lIpe3 rpaBHpaHe H UH3eJIHpane". Cnopen Hac T03H MeTO.n. 6H MOr'bJI .n.a ce H3nOJI3YBa caMO 3a H3KOBaBaHe Ha C'b.n.OBe

14

KaTO ¢HaJIHTe - 6JIlO.n.a NQ 2 H NQ 3. Ho npn OCTaHaJIHTe ¢HaJllI H ocooeuo npn ¢HaJIHTe lIaIIIKH TOBa npaKTHlIeCKH e HeB'b3MOLKHO, H TO nopann CaMI1H xapaxrep aa ¢opMHTe. BCHlIKH ¢I1aJIH HMaT enno 3HallHTeJIHO pa3IIIHp5IBaHe B cpenara aa THJIOTO, CJIe.n. TOBa CJIe.n.Ba CTeCHHBaHe H OTTyK sanoxaa HOBO pa3IIIHpHBaHe na r'bpJIOTO K'bM npO¢HJIHpaHOTO YCTHe. ECTeCTBeHO e, lie e.n.HH cperispeu JIHCT MOLKe .n.a 6'b.n.e H3KOBaH m.pxy MaTpHua C raxana rpopna, HO KaK CJIe.n. TOBa pa3IIIHpeHaTa cpenna lIaCT na MO'.ll.eJIa me ce H3Ba.n.H npes 3HallHTeJIHO noTeCHH5I OTBOp? ETO sarno TOBa rm.pnenae e Han'bJIHO HenpHeMJIHBO aa Hac. Ha6JIlO.n.eHH5ITa HH no rpaxaacxare ¢HaJIH naaar B'b3MOLKHOCT na TB'bp.n.HM, lie 're ca 6HJII1 H3pa60TBaHH OT TpH lIaCTH - YM60, THJIO na ¢HaJIaTa C lIaCT OT r'bpJIOTO H YCTHe csmo C lIaCT OT r'bpJIOTO, KOHTO nOCJIe.n.OBaTeJIHO ca 6HJIH npnxpenaaaa enaa K'bM .n.pyra. ITPH MHoro ¢HaJIH HCHO ce OTKpHBaT nYKHaTHHH MeLK.n.y YM60TO H THJIOTO. Haa-zroripe T03H HallHH na paoora ce BHLK.n.a npn ¢HaJIa NQ 2, K'b.n.eTo· YM60TO JI5Ira m.pxy .n.OCTa IIIHpoKa HBHua MeTaJI. OT.n.eJIHaTa H3pa60TKa na YM60TO HCHO ce BHLK.n.a H rrpn ¢HaJIa NQ 42.

3a KaHHlIKI1Te B. HHKOJIOB npennara cxozten MeTO.n. aa H3pa60TBaHe OT TpH OT.n.eJIHH lIaCTH - CTOJIlIe, THJIO H IImiiKa C YCTHe, KaTO BCHKa lIaCT e HMaJIa OT.n.eJIHH MaTpHUH7. CneUHaJIHO aa THJIOTO ce Ka3Ba, lie e H3pa60TeHo OT U5IJI JIHCT, KaTO CJIe.n.nOCTHraHeTO aa LKeJIanara ¢dpMa Toii 6HJI or-ssaa H .n.BaTa Kpa5I npI1n05IBaHH, CJIe.n. TOBa na MHCTOTO aa npHITOH 6HJIa nOCTaB5I.Ha .n.p'bLKKaTa. Tsspna ce, lie CTOJIlIeTO H YCTHeTo csmo 6HJIH npanoasann K'bM THJIOTO. 3a TOllHOCT na TepMHHOJIOrHHTa OTHOBO TpH6Ba .n.a npHnOMHI1M, lie lIaCTHTe Ha KaHI1l1KHTe HHK'b.n.e He ca 6HJIH npHnOHBaHH, a ca C'be.n.HH5IBaHH lIpe3 CKJIenBaHe Ha Kparrmara na Cpe6'bpHH5I JIHCT enaa K'bM npyra . Ho TB'bp.n.eHHeTO aa C'bep.,HHHBaHe ua cperrspHHH JIHCT na THJIOTO na .MHCTOTO non .n.p'bLKKaTa HH ce CTpYBa npaospaaao H .n.OCTa He060CHoBaHO.· KaK rorana e 6HJIa I13pa60TeHa Macxara - LKeHCKa rJIaBa na KaHHlIKa NQ 159, pa3IIOJIOLKeHa TOllHO non MaCKaTa ua .n.p'bLKKaTa, T. e. TOllHO TaM, K'b.n.eTO 6H .TpH6BaJIO .n.a CTaHe npHnOHBaHeTO. Ha csnnrre MeCTa HMa peJIe¢HH H306paLKeHH5I 11 no KaHHTe NQ 157, 158, 162, H ocooeno no NQ 154 .. ,Ua He rOBopHM sa MHOroopofiaare opHaMeHTaJIHH MOTHBH, KOHTO KaTO HenpeK'bCHaTI1 nOHCH nOKpHBaT H Te3H MeCTa. 3a r-sp.nara H YCTH-HTa csmo rpynno MOLKe na ce npaene n'bJIHOTO· HM I13pa60TBaHe st.pxy MaTpI1UH-no.n.JIOLKKH. TaKHBa 6I1xa MOrJIH na ce H3nOJI3YBaT caMO KaTO no.n.JIOLKKH npI1 CKJIenBaHeTO na xpamuara ua Cpe6'bpHH5I JII1CT. 3aIll.OTO r-spnara na BCI1l1KI1 KaHHlIKI1 ca C pa3JII1l1HI1 ¢OPMH H pasaepa - .n.'bJILKHHa H IIIHpHHa, KOI1TO ca C'b06pa3eHI1 C ¢opMaTa H pa3MepHTe Ha cpe.n.HaTa lIaCT H no-CneUHaJIHO C HeiiHHH ropes OTBOp. C'bIll.OTO MOLKe .n.a ce

1

2

• -06p. 1. cf>IWJia .110 82 - iiema :1.1 om !JKpaca.rna na msinomo. Fig. 1. Fiale J\0 82 - detail de La decoration du corps

• 06p. 2. a) rpuaAa J\0 83 - (JUlIO; 6) rpU({.1a om JJYKo6umcKorno C'b/cpOBU!W· Fig. 2. a) phiale Ne 83- fund; ri) phiale du tresor de l.ukooit

KaJKe H aa CTOJIqeTaTa na KaHHqKHTe. ETO santo TOqH<Y ormcanne aa MeTO.ll.HTe, no KOHTO TpaKHllCKHTe MallCTopH ca H3pa6oTBaJIH cpe- 6bpHHTe KaHHqKH, me MOJKe ,n:a ce ztane ensa cJIe,n: e,n:HO OCHOBHO rrpoyqBaHe Ha MHoro eK- 3eMnJI5Ipll C nO,n:XO,n:51mH MeTo,n:H.

Heooxonavo e ,n:a ce cnpev no-nonpoono H aa TBbp,n:eHHeTO, qe OCHOBHH5IT opaavear na q:maJIHTe H KaHHqKHTe e 611JI 3aJIOJKeH BbPXY nom.pxuocrra na MaTplIUHTe II otue npn H3- pa60TBaHeTO na TeJIaTa ce e ornenarsan BbPXY TbHKH5I cpeospen JIHCT. B T03H CJIyqa:ii: npoyxBaHeTO, none npn <pHaJIHTe, e 06JIeKqeHO OT Bb3MOJKHOCTTa ,n:a ce Ha6JI1o,n:aBaT H nsere CTpaHH na csnosere. 11 3aTOBa IIMeHHO TyK OTKpHBaMe THnHqHHTe 6eJIe3H sa HaqHHllTe aa H3pa6oTBaHe aa oT.lI.eJIHHTe eJIeMeHTH aa yxpacaTa. KoraTO npH H3pa6oTKaTa Ha opHaMeHTHTe ca 6HJIH H3nOJI3YBaHH MaTpHUH-rrO.ll.JIOJKKH HJIH neqaTH, H3pa6oTeHH OT CneUllaJIHa 6POH- 30Ba CnJIaB HJIH JKeJI5I308, BbPXY TbHKH5I MeTaJIeH JIHCT OT CTpaHaTa Ha y,n:apa ce nOJIyqaBaT pe3KH H .lI.o6pe OqepTaHH KOHTypH Ha H306paJKeHlleTO. 06HKHOBeHo TOBa ce vsarieJI5I3Ba naa-noope npu pb6oBeTe, K'b,n:eTo MeTaJI'bT naii-secro e or-saar nozt npas 'brbJI. Cnopen CHJIaTa na ynapa H TB'bp,n:OCTTa na no,n:JIOJKxara JIH'ueBaTa crpana na penepa ce e nOJIyqaBaJIa C pa3JIHqHa crenen na P5l3KOCT. I1o-

'pa,n:H CaMH5I xapaKTep Ha pa60TaTa P5l,n:KO ce e CJIyqBaJIO zta ce norryvar nsa ennaxnn no KaqeCTBO orrtenar-sxa OT ezuta H cstua MaTpHua IIJIH neqaT. TOBa B rOJI5IMa CTeneH 3aBHCli OT CJIOlKHOCTTa aa H306paJKeHHeTo.

Han-npocrare CJIyqaH aa H3nOJI3YBaHe na MaTpHUIl II nexaru oTKpHBaMe B CJIyqaHTe, xoraro ce e HaJIaraJIO H3pa6oTBaHe aa 6a.ll.eMH. I1PH paJ-IHHTe <pHaJIH OT rnna .N2 42 H KYKoBa MOrHJIa npn JlYBaHJIHll, ocooeuo pasnpocrpaHeHH npes VI B. H:caMoToIHaqaJIo na V B. TIp. H. e., acexa 6a,n:eM;ejTOJIKOBa rOJI5IM, qe m.pxt.r Myi.ll.OCTllra .lI.O YM6oTO, a 3ao6JIeHaTa xacr ormpa - B neputpepuara. ECTecTBeHo e, qe raxasa <popMa Ha:ii:-JIeCHo:611 MOfJIa na ce 113- KOBe st.pxy TIo,n:JIOJKKa, na K05lTO ca 113pa6oTeHIl II cannre 6a,n:eMIi. I1PII oripaoorxara cnen TOBa otiexntocr-ra na oT,n:eJIHIlTe 6a,n:eMIl sauaru e MOJKeJIa na ce YBeJIllqll npes ,n:onbJIHIITeJIHH ynapn C nenar HJIH npocro C'bC caooonna pt.xa. Ho TyK e YMeCTHo:,n:a HaTIOMHHM H sa enaa ,n:pyra TeXHHKa 3a H3pa6oTBaHe Ha TIO.ll.06HH <pllaJIH, Ha6JIID.lI.aBaHa npH H5IKOH rp'bUKH eK- 3eMTIJI5IpH OT VI B. np. H. e. JlBe OT T'5IX ca yxpaceun C no 18 MaCKH na 6pa,n:aT M'bJK. ~acKIiTe ca C 6a,n:eMoBH.lI.Ha <popMa H BCHqKH ca H3pa6OTeHH no e,n:HH H csm Mo,n:eJI. CJIe,n:

TOBa re ca npnrroeaa m.pxy B'bHIlIHHTe CTeHH na <pHaJIHTe9. I1PII ,n:pyrH <pHaJIH 6a,n:eMHTe C'bmO ca H3pa6oTeHH OT.lI.eJIHO H CJIe,n: TOBa ca 6HJIH MOHTHpaHH B CneUHaJIHO npnroraeaa OTBOpH no CTeHaTa na C'b,n:a. Be3 C'bMHeHHe TIpH Te3H CJIyqaH MOJKe na ce roaopn aa JIHHH5I na pa3BHTHe B TOpeBTHqHaTa TeXHHKa. Ensa CJIe.n.-

15

aaiuare qma.lIH sese ca OH.lIH H3paOOTBaHH m.pxy nO,n.lIO)KKH C 03HaqeHHe na Oa,neMHTe. Ho npa pennna qmam! OT TpaKIUI OTKpHBaMe C'bBCeM npyra TeXHHKa aa H3pa60TKa. Hanp. npH ~Q 82 OT Por03eH BCHqKH 6a,neMH ca H3- paooTeHH e,nBa C.lIe,n H3KOBaBaHeTO Ha ~e.lIHH C'b,n. flo st.rpeumara nOB'bpXHOCT ca OH.lIH aanecena MeCTaTa na 6a,neMHTe, cnen TOBa C'bC cne~Ha.lIeH neqaT Te ca 6H~H H3qYKaHH. OTBeCHHTe p'b60Be OTB'bTpe Oe3CnOpHO nOKa3- BaT ·TOBa. Y,napHTe C nexara nonxxora ca OH.lIH TO.lIKOBa CH.lIHH, qe na MeCTa nOqTH ca npOOHTH p'b60BeTe B CTeHaTa aa qma.lIaTa (o6p. 1). Ho na csmara qma.lIa nanvernre ca H3pa60TeHH no C'bBCeM ,npyr HaqHH. T03H n'bT MarrCTOp'bT e HaHeC'b.lI pa3qepTaBaHeTO Ha opnaaeara no B'bHIII!IaTa CTeHa. Cnen TOBa e 3anOqHa.lI ,na H3,n'b.lI6aBa BCHKa e,nHa OT na.lIMeTHTe C'bC CBooo,nHa rpaBHpOBKa, KaTO npH TOBa HeBHHarH ce e npmrspacan K'bM npensapnrenaara cxexa. Torr e pa60TH.lI C'bC 3aOO.lIeH HHCTpYMeHT - ,n'b.lIoaq, KoeTO HCHO .lIHqH OT p'bOOBeTe na BCHqKH nannern, KOHTO ca pe.lIeqlHo H3r1'bKHa.lIH no B'bTpeIIIHaTa CTeHa na qma.lIaTa. Taxa Torr e nOCTHrHa.lI n.lIaCTHqHO oooraraaaue H na nsere nOB'bpXHOCTH na csna. Xyoaa nO.lIHXpOMeH epexr e nOCTHrHa.lI H KaTO e nanector 3.lIaTeH .lIHCT B'bpXy YMOOTO H xpr-ra nanvera OKO.lIO Hero, a ,npyrHTe nannern e n03.lIaTH.lI npes eznra.

Csmeapeaeaao C'bW;HHT HaqHH aa paoora ce OTKpHBa H npn cpHa.lIa ~Q 83 OT Por03eH H Han'b.lIHO no,n06HaTa no yKpaca H HaqHH Ha H3'pa60TKa rO.lIHMa cpHa~a OT JIYKOBHTCKOTO C'bKpOBHw;e (o6p. 2 a, 6), HO rrpn THX HHMa n03.lIaTHBaHe. CXO,nCTBOTO Me)K,ny Te3H cpHa.lIH e TO.lIKOBa rO.lIHMO, qe cnoxoiino 6HxMe Mor.h'H ,na rH npHeMeM 3a pa60Ta Ha e,nHH MarrcTop. Bee C'bW;OTO xapaxrepno HB.lIeHHe MO)Ke ,na ce orxpne H npn penuua npyrn cpHa.lIH. Te ca OH.lIH aspaooreaa OT MarrcTopH, KOHTO cnopen cnococnocnrre CH ca MO)Ke.lIH na B'b3'npOH3Be)K,naT cpopMaTa, HO TOpeBTHqHHTe HM cIIoc06HOCTH ca 6H.lIH C'bBCeM OrpaHHqeHII. Bt.npexn TOBa npn YKpacaTa aa cpHa.lIHTe re He ca H3nO.lI3YBa.lIH HHKaKBH noaonma cpencraa, KaTO MaTpH~H H nexara, a ca paOOTe.lIH xpea rpasapaae C'bC cnooonaa pt.xa . .il.ocTaT'bqHO e ,na nor .lI e,nH eM zrsaara na Por03eHCKHTe cpHa.lIH ~Q 80, 86, 87, 96, 98 H ,npyrH, sa ,na oTKpHeM T03H THnHqeH HaqHH aa paoora (o6p. 3). Torr sese HH e n03HaT H OT npyrn cpHa.lIH OT Cesepaa Br.nrapnx - B.lIa,nHHH, JIYKOBHTCKaTa naxonxa, Pa,nIOBeHe. Orne nO-HaT.lIe,nHO TOBa aspaooraaae ce BH)K,na H npn H306pa3HBaHeTO aa penerpaa rparypanna yxpaca no KaHHqKHTe H cpHa.lIHTe. I1 TOBa Ba)KH He carao sa rO.lIeMHTe KOMn03H~HH, HO H sa OT,ne.lIHHTe e.lIeMeHTH. ECTeCTBeHO OH OH.lIO na ce npennO.lIO)KH, se aa H3pa60TBaHeTO na qOBeIIIKHTe r.lIaBH no ,n'bHOTO Ha cpHa.lIa ~Q 100 e 6H.lI H3- nO.lI3YBaH cneunanen nesar, KaK'bBTO oe3 C'bMHeHHe e nOC.lIY)KH.lI aa OTneqaTBaHeTO aa OHqHTe

16

r.naaa no ~Q 94 H.lIH )KeHCKIUe oopasn ITO ~Q 99 (o6p. 4). Ho B T03H c.lIyqarr MarrCTOp'bT nepoarno e pasno.naran cano C e,nHH ,nOCTa IT.lIOC'bK nexar C H306pa)KeHHe na r .nana, ITO,n06eH na T03H OT c. Aptiaaac, AcenoarpanCKOll. C Hero e 6H.lIO B'b3MO)KHO ,na ce no.nyun cavo enno naa-oomo onepraaaae na ooeMa H cpopMaTa, cnen TOBa BCHqKO OCTaHa.lIO e 6H.lIO H3pa60TeHO qpe3 cB060,nHO H3qYKBaHe, MaKap MarrCTOp'bT ,na e 6H.lI C OrpaHHqeHH B'b3MO)KHOCTH aa TOBa. C'bW;OTO MO)Ke ,na ce xaace H sa qOBeIIIKaTa r.naaa H CPPH3a OT rpaaanecerre OBHeIIIKH rnaan no KaHHqKa ~Q 162. Ilonocen HaqY1H aa aapariorsaae II03HaBaMe H OT cepnare cpetrspna M'bHHCTa - r.lIaBHqKH OT Bpaua, JIyKOBHT H CTapOCe.lICKa. MHoro IIO-BHCOKH IIenarn, nanatun TOqHH OTITeqaT'b~H, ca OH.lIH H3- IIOJI3YBaHH OT MarrcTopHTe, H3pa60TH.lIH cplIa.nara-xaurxa C )KeHCKH rnaan OT JIYKOBliT H

/

3

4

cxmpoca OT Crpensa. Ho npn T5IX ,n:On'bJIHHTeJIaara rpaauposxa no nOB'bpXHOCTTa e saaunTeJIHa H ua TOBa ce,n:'b.iDKaT pa3JIHKHTe Me:tK,n:y OT,n:eJIHHTe .1lOBelllKH r.naaa. Belle HMaXMe B'b3- MO:tKHOCT ,n:a ,n:OKa:tKeM, tIe xoraro TpaKHHcKHTe TopeBTH H3nOJI3YBaT MaTpH~H H nexarn, re HHKor a He ce 3a,n:OBOJI5IBaT cavo C orneuart.xa, a npom.nxcasar CJIe,n: TOBa ,n:a nopaoornar noB'bPXHOCTTa C rpaaaponxa. Ilopann TOBa BceKH ornexa T'bK C no nemo ce OT JIHllaBa OT npyr-are. 11 npn <pHaJIa NQ 94 OT Poroses nOB'bpXHOCTHaTa rpaBHpoBKa no 6HllHTe rJIaBH rH npaBH pa3- JIHllHH. 3aCJIy:tKaBa na ce oT6eJIe:tKH, rre :tK'bJI'b,n:HTe no csiuara <pHaJIa ca 6HJIH H3pa6OTeHH C nexar C raanxa 'nOB'bpXHOCT, KaKBHTO ca H3- nOJI3YBaJIH aa oanesorre. Ensa CJIe,n: TOBa spes rpannposxa no JIH~eBaTa nOB'bpXHOCT re ca nOJIYllHJIH '3aB'bpllleHH5I CH BH,n:. Ho H HaH- 06HKHoBeHHTe KaHeJIIOpH no <pHaJIHTe He ca 6HJIH 03HallaBaHH sspxy no,n:JIO:tKKHTe-MaTPH~H, aKO TaKHBa H306Ill,O e HMaJIO, a HaHnanpen ca 6HJIH B 06Ill,H JIHHHH pa311epTaBa}IH no T5IJIOTO H CJIe,n: TOBa H3pa6oTBaHH penerpao. 11 3aTOBa He e P5I,n:KO 5IBJIeHHe OT,n:eJIHH xaneJIlOpH ,n:a ca C paannsna nnrpnna H ,n:'bJI:tKHHa, a sa H5IKOH ,n:a e OCTaHaJIO C'bBCeM MaJIKO M5ICTO. T03H HallHH na paoora MO:tKe na ce nao.aronaaa noxrn no BCHllKH TpaKHHcKH <pHaJIH. ,U06PH np anepn sa TOBa ,ztaBaT <pHaJIHTe NQ 54 OT Porosen H OT Me3eK (o6p. 5).

• 06p, 3, cf>ua/w Jv2 69, Fig, 3, Phiale Jv2 69

• 06p, 4, jJ,'bHa IW tbuo.na Nr. 99 u. Jv2 100, Fig, 4, Fonds des phiales No 99 et No 100

Ka3aHOTo~,n:OTYK C'bBCeM~He~Tp5I6Ba"',n:a ce npnexa KaTQ n'bJIHO OTC'bCTBHe aa MaTpH~H B TpaKHHCKaTa TopeBTHKa OT T03'H nepnon. Belle pasnonarave C ,n:OCTaT'bllHO ornesar-su» OT MaTPH~H, npaaeun no. pa3JIHllHO apeae H aa pasJIHllHH ~eJIH. I1MaMe H H5IKOJIKO MaTpH~H C pa3JIHllHO npennaaaaseuae. B naxonxara OT Porosen MO:tKeM ,n:a oTKpHeM pariora C enna raxasa MaTpH~a. TOBa ca xoaennorre rJIaBH B'bpXY YM6aTa aa <pHaJIHTe M 101, 102 H 103 (o6p. 6 a). 11 B TpHTe CJIYlla5I 06pa3'bT e npaBHJIHO ornenaraa ar.pxy Cpe6'bpHH5I JIHCT H ,n:06pe npopaooren no nOB'bpXHOcTTa. MeTaJI'bT OKOJIO MaCKaTa e 6HJI npaBHJIHO H3- pH3aH, aa na MO:tKe ~5IJIOTO napxe na ce BM'bKHe spes npnxnenaane B T5IJIOTO na <pHaJIHTe. Ho B Haxo,n:KaTa HMa oIll,e e,n:Ha <pHaJIa C rJIaBa st.pxy YM6oTO - NQ 42 (o6p. 6 6). Macxara e Han'bJIHO CX~Ha H 6e3 C'bMHeHHe TOBa e OTnesar-sx OT csniara MaTpH1l,a. Ho B T03H CJIYllaH T5I e 6HJIa JIeKO aaaenena K'bM 6pa,n:aTa. I1opaaa TOBa H306pa:tKeHHeTO e rrpH,n:06HJIO no~ npyr H3pa3, aa KoeTO nonpnaacs H He,n:OCTaT'bllHaTa ,n:on'bJIHHTeJIHa oopaoorxa na nost.pxHOCTTa. MeTaJIHH5IT JIHCT riaoKOJIO nopn He e 6HJI paBHOMepHO H3p5I3aH H H3paBHeH CJIe,n:

Or'bBaHeTO npn H3pa6oTBaHeTO na r.nasara. Taxa T5I e 6HJIa npnnoeaa xaro YM6b B'bpXY 3HallHTeJIHO no-crapara <pHaJIa NQ 42, mterc YM60 e 6HJIO npoonro. T03H CJIYllaH HH ztana HHTepecHH ,n:aHHH 3a pa60TaTa Ha e,n:Ha pa6oTHJIrIHu,a. I1o,n:06Ha panora C MaTpH1l,H (noBelllKHk,rJIaBH) HH e Belle rrosnara OT nerre

4

3 ApXeOJIOrIllI, 3, 1987

17

cpeospna anJIlIKaIJ,1I1I C 1I306pa)I{eHlIe aa Ano'JIOH OT Ilananopaute.

Koraro roaopax aa rpannuan B rpaxnacxara TOpeBTlIKa, Tp5I6Ba na pasr JIe,naMe 11 H5IKOll OT opnaxearnre no csnosere OT Por03eH. E. H 11 KOJIOB oT6eJI5I3Ba, lJe OKOJIO y"M60TO aa qmaJIa oN!! 38 (o6p. 7) liMa npscren OT nep na, C'be,nllHeHlI C ranrnpauia OTCelJKlI, 11 rre 1'0311 opaaaenr ce cpeuia MHoro no-paso 11 m.pxy ,n'bHOTO ua 3JIaTHlI5I C'b,n OT Ka311lJeHe12• T0311 opnaxenr, lJeCTO napauaa ,,65IraIIJ,0 xyue", e 1I3BeCTeH no xepaxrnxara OIIJ,e OT Kpa5I na 6pOH30BaTa enoxa He cavo y Hac, HO 11 no aaanornnaare csnose OT Tp05I VII 6 213. C'bIIJ,lI5IT npom.nacaaa aa ce cpenia 11 no H5IKOll MeTaJIHlI npezxeru OT apxanxara, ClIHXPOHHlI na C'b,n;a OT Kasaneae. B'spxy MaJIKII5I narpsnHlIK OT fOJI5IMaTa MOrllJIa npn .uyBaHJIIIU T0311 opnaxenr e 1I3n'bJIHeH no C'bIll.lIR HalJlIH, KaKTO B'bpX\Y C'b,n;a OT Ka31111eHe. M02KaXMe na YCTaHOBlIM, lJe no 1j)1IaJIlITe OT Porosea T0311 opnaMeHT ce cpema B H5IKOJIKO sapaaara. Ilo B'bHlllnara CTeHa na oN!! 46 B xpr.ra OKOJIO YM60TO ca aanecena C KP'brDJI nyH'IJ, enananecer xpt.ra C roxxa B cpenara (d6p. 8). C'be,nHH5IBaIIJ,lITe TaHreHTlI ca vaspacorena xpea Bp5I3BaHe C pe3eIJ,. TOBa e Hau-CTapH5IT n'bpBlIlJeH Mo,ne~, KOUTO e Han'bJIHO rparpasea, KaKTO e npn xepaxaxara. CJIe,nBaIIJ,lI5IT sapnanr npenana opHaMeHTa Belle B nJIaCTlIlJHa lj)opMa. Ha 1j)1IaJI~a oN!! 53 xp sroaere ca 1I3lJYKaHlI peaepao, TOlJK HTe B cpenara 11M ca CTaHaJIlI MaJIKlI nepna (o6p. 9). TOBa e 611JIO aanpaseao C zisa pasJIlIlJHlI lIHCTpYMeHTa - aaii-aanpen ca 6lIJIlI 1I3pa60TeHlI xpt.roaere 11 CJIe,n TOBa nepnare, KOllTO HeBlIHarll ca TOlJHO B IJ,eHT'bpa. TaHrllpaIIJ,IITe JIlIHlIlI C'bIIJ,O ca penepao 1I3pa60TeHlI upes ynapn C peseu. HaKpa5I lI,n;Ba nOCOlJeHlI5IT cnyxaii, npn KOUTO ca 611JIlI 1I3pa60TBaHlI caxo nepna. MB rpnre CJIYlJa5I MaUCTopllTe ca pa6oTlIJIII 6e3 npeaaaparenno passepranane, saTOBa ,nBa Kp'bra ca ,nonpeHlI e,n;lIH ,no ,n;pyr. T0311 opuauear HH nOKa3Ba anrepecno paaBlITlIe OT rparpaxaocr K'bM rrsnaa nJIaCTlIlJHOCT. MO)I{e 611 enao nO-3a,n'bJI601leHO npoyssaae aa T0311 opnaaenr IIJ,e orxpne II npyra npnxaaa

18

5

• 06p. 5. cPuuAa.M 54-op/nalIA. Fig. 5, Phiale N.! 54 - detail

• 06p. e a) aIlAUKm{UH-cJzal3al37Jpxy(pua.1aJ\~ 101; 6) au nutcauun - e naea 6'bpXY tbuasa .M 12. Fig, 6 a) application-tete sur fa pliiule No 101; 6) applica-

tion-tete sur la phiale No 42 '

OCBeH Tpa,n1lIJ,1I0HHOCTTa 3a HerOBOTO TOJIKOBa ,n'b.iIro C'bIIJ,ecTBYBaHe 11 rpaacpopaapaue B TpaKlIUCKaTa TopeBTIIKa.

KaHlIlJKlITe OT Por03eH C'bIIJ,O npennarar nocrar-sxno MaTepllaJI sa Ha6JIlO,n;eHlI5I no rpa,nllIJ,IIOHHIITe MeTo,n;lI B npe,n;aBaHeTo 11 pa3BlITlIeTO na 1j)0pMlITe 11 oT,n;eJIHlITe opHaMeHTII. Haa-nanpez IIJ,e ce cnpex na nari-xapaxrepHlITe eJIeMeHTlI B T5IXHaTa 1j)0pMa - r-sp.nara, YCTlI5ITa 11 ,np'b2KKlITe. BCHlJKlI KaHlIlJKlI OT TpaKlI5I lIMaT BlICOKlI r-spna, 3HalJlITeJIHO crecHeHlI Cnp5IMO TeJIaTa. KaTO CB'bp3BaIIJ, eJIeMeHT Me2K,!(y T5IX ce 5IB5IBa enna 1I3n'bKHaJIa liB lIIJ,a , xecro noxpara C OBlI. Y CTlI5ITa 11M HaBC5IK'b,ne ca xpsr JIII II C 1I3,n;a,neH XOpII30HTaJIeH p'b6. Or Hero ,np'b2KKIITe 3anOlJBaT C XOp1l30HTaJIHa lJaCT, K05ITO CJIe,n; TOBa non pa3JIlIlJHlI 'br JIll ce cnYCKa Ha,nOJIY 11 lJpe3 peJIelj)Ha anJIliKaIJ,lI5I ce nparroasa K'bM T5IJIOTO. Flonrn BCIIlJKII 113- BeCTHII HlI eK3eMnJI5Ipll IIMaT enna xapaxrepna oc06eHOCT. B ropnnre KpaIIIIJ,a liMa no nsa BOJIY'rHO 1I3BIITlI TeJIa, KOllTO nOH5IKOra nJI'bTHO onapar m.pxy XOP1l30HTa:JIHlI5I p'b6 aa YCTlIeTO, a B ,npyrll CJIYlJali ca B,n;lIrHaTII OTBeCHO Ha,n Hero II TOlJH'O orpaacnar ropnare KpaHIIJ,a aa ,np'b2KKlITe. Hanpasno 611XMe T'bPClIJIlI -napaJIeJIlI sa Te3II eJIeMeHTlI npn rpt.uxare KaHIl OT apxaaxara II KJIaClIKaTa H nopn nO-K'bCHO. MeTaJIHlITe KaHII OT,n;aBHa ce 1I3YlJaBaT. Y CTaHOBeHa e H XpOHOJIOrII5ITa 11M II xapaxrepnare oc06eHOCTII Ha npOH3Bo,nCTBeHlITe IJ,eHTpOBe B fOJI5IMa f'bPIJ,II5I 11 ETPYPll5I14. M3,n'bJI2KeHaTa eneraarna 1j)0pMa na TeJIaTa rrpn 'rpaKlIUCKlITe KaHlIlJKlI e Hen03HaTa sa rp suxnre OT C'bIIJ,OTO speue. Te ca 3HalJlITeJIHO nO-lllIIpOKII, npaBlIJIHIITe 5IUIJ,eBII,n;HlI TeJIa CT'bnBaT na MaCIIBHlI OT,n;eJIHO OTJIlIBaHII CTOJI xer a , HO lIMa 11 1j)0PMlI C nJIOCKII ,n'bHa. Ilpn nOBelJeTO OT TlInOBeTe KaHlI npeorinanasar TPllJIIICTHlITe YCTlI5I. CaMO H5IKOJIKO Ij)0PMlI lIMaT Kp'brJI 11 , HanpllMep HlICKlITe MaClIBHII OTJIeTlI KaHlIlJKlI, II3BeCTHlI y

9

• -G6p. 7. cfJUtl.1u.N!! 38 ~ iJemC1L1.1 OI1l aN-Wfl1O. fig. 7. Phiale No 38 _- detail au [ond

• Gop. R. cfJuaJlQ M 46 -- iJemal1.1 om iJ7J1Wmo.

Fig. 8. Phiale No 16 - detail du. [oud

• G6p. 9. <PULlIW M 53 ~ bemai;» am a7)/-lOJ}1.O. fig. 9. Phiale No 53 --_ detail du fond

Hac OT HaXO,n:KHTe B Bauroaa MOrHJIa ITpH .uYBaHJIHH, EYKbOBU:H H Bpaua. OPH T5IX H ,n:pb)KKHTe ca CbC csurara ¢OpMa, KaKTO ITpH TpaKHHCKHTe KaHH. Ho HaH-xapaKTepHOTO aa ,n:pb)KKHTe na rpbU:KHTe KaHH oiue OT apxanxara e BHCOKaTa H3BHBKa narope HeITOCpe,n:CTBeHO aazt YCTHeTO. B U:5IJIaTa HaXO,n:Ka OT POr03eH HMa CaMO TpH ITO,n:06HH ,n:Pb)KKHna KaHHqKH N!! 113, 115, 141. OT npyrn aaXO,n:KH B TpaKH5I TaKHBa He ca H3BeCTHH. OPH TOEa ,n:pb)KKHTe na N!! 111 H na N!! 113 ca 3a6HTH C HHT KbM T5IJIOTO, a TOBa e a6coJIIOTHO cnr-ypea 6eJIer aa BTOpHqHa yrrorpeca-> pa3ITOeHHTe qaCTH na ennn Cb,n: unxora He ca 6HJIH OTHOBO 3aIT05IBaHH, a 3aqYKBaHH C HHTqeTa15. Taxa HHe He 3HaeM ,n:aJIH TOBa ca OpHrHHaJIHHTe ,n:Pb)KKH aa KaHHqKHTe, HJIH ca ITOCTaBeHH ,n:OITbJIHHTeJIHO 3a 3aM5IHa Ha H3ry- 6eHHTe opHrHHaJIH. T03H THIT KaHHqKII OT MeTaJI H xepaanxa 6e3 cbMHeHMe ca 6HJIH xapaKTepHH 3a 3eMHTe Ha TpaKHTe OT T03H nepaon, HO enuo ITO-3a,n:bJI60qeHO npoy-mane na naxonxnre OT U:5IJIOTO ITbpBO XHJI. ITp. H. e. 6H Mor JIO na nonpnnece rm.pne MH<;lro sa H35ICH5IBaHeTO aa T03H ITp06JIeM.

Ha H5IKOH opHaMeHTH. ITO KaHHqKHTe ce aaaara ,n:a OT,n:eJIHM crreU:HaJIHO BHHM-a}!He. E. HHKOJIOB OT)I,eJI5I KaTO HaH-paHHa rpyrra Te3H c opaaxenr cave BbPXY- paxeaere na T5IJIOTO. OT T5IX N!! 109, yxpaceaa <;aMO:C pen OBH BbPXY H3rrbKHaJIH5I Pb6 Me)K-il:Y T5IJIOTO H npJIOTO, ce npaeaa 3a wIH-CTapa -: 06Ill,0 IV B. rrp. H. e. - cnopen-napanena 0'1' Tlananopnme, P030Beu: H JIYKOBHT. CJIe,n:BaIll,HTe Bep05ITHO rrO-KbCHH BapHaHTH ce xapaKTep~- 3IIpaT _C ,n:Ba pena OBYJIII - e,n:HH rro-¥aJIKH BbPXY H3fIbKHaJIH5I Pb6 Me)K,n:y T5IJ):OTO H rbpJIOTO H BTOpH rrO-H3,n:bJI)KeHH BbPXY paMe~· aere na KaHHqKHTe - N!! 110, 111 (o6p. 10). 11 HaKpa5I ca rrOCTaBeHH BapHaHTH, npn KOHTO opHaMeHTHTe OBH H rrJIHTKH -KaHeJIIOpH B pa3JIHqHH KOM6IIHaU:HH rrOKpHBaT u:eJIHTe TeJIa na KaHIIqKHTe OT N!! 113 ,n:o N!! 123. Te csuio ca ,n:aTIIpaHH B rrspnara rrOJIOBHHa - na - tv B. IIp. H. e., KaTO aa TOBa ca npnanesena napanenn

OT Bpaua II EYKbOBU:H. .

11MeHHo na Ta3H rpyrra KaItHqKH 3aCJIyxcaaa ,n:a ce CITpeM ITO-ITO,n:P06HO. Han-uanpen e He06xo,n:HMO enno YTOqH5IBaHe na TepMHHHTe. 113,n:bJI)KeHHTe OBYJIH, 06Be,n:eHH C ,n:BoHHa Bp5Isaaa JIHHH5I, KaKTO ca H3pa60TeHH rro paxeaere na KaHHqKHTe N!! 111 H Ta3H OT MOrHJIaHCKaTa MOrHJIa - Bpaua, ce 03HaqaBaT B apxeo.nornsecxara JIHTepaTypa KaTO "e3HU:H" (Zungenrnuster , tonguepattern). OpHaMeHTbT ce rr05IB5IBa B rpr.uxara TopeBTHKa H e ,n:oMHHHpaIll,

21

B yxpacara aa MeTaJIHHTe ct.aose OT IIOCJIe.ll.Han 1J:eTB'bpT na VI B. H rrspsara IIOJIOBHHa na V B. IIp. H. e. Haii:-6JIH3KHTe IIapaJIeJIH na HanHITe .lI.Be KaHHqKH C rronoona 1 yxpaca'[rro pavenere ca H3BeCTHaTa cpeospaa xaaa OT MaJIa A3H5I, HaMHpaIIJ.a ce B MeTporroJIHTeH My3eYM - HIO VIOPK, H penaua 6POH30BH oii:HoxoeTa, Me)f{.lI.Y T5IX H enno OT rpo6 I IIpH Tpe6eHHIIJ.e B HaUHOHaJIHH5I apXeOJIOrHqeCKH My3eii: B COCPH5I16• TexHHTe .lI.P'b)f{KH ca nspa- 60TeHH KaTO KypoCH, KOHTO C .lI.BeTe CH p'bue .lI.'bp)f{aT OIIall1KHTe na JI'bBOBe, OBHH H np., HO B cnysas TOBa H5IMa snasenae aa Hac. DO.ll.o6Ha yKpaca OT e3HUH caMO IIO paMeHeTe HMa H IIO MHoro6poii:HH npyrn csnose - xparepn, XH.lI.PHH, aMcpopH H .lI.p. OT C'bIIJ.OTO speae HMa H MHoro6poii:HH csnose, IIpH KOHTO "e3HUHTe" IIOKpHBaT U5IJIOTO T5IJIO. 06HKHOBeHO Te ca pa3IIOJIO)f{eHH B .lI.Ba II05ICa - e.ll.HH no paxeaere H npyr B'bpXy T5IJIOTO, H ca pasneJIeHH C rJIa.ll.'bK IIJIH yxpacen C IIJIeTeHHua II05IC. Ilonoona cxena HMa IIpH poroaencxare KaHH oN!! 115 (o6p. 11) H oN!! 119, K'b.ll.eTO B noaca ca H3pa6oTeHH IIaJIMeTH H BOJIYTH, a B'bB BH.lI.OH3MeHeH BH.lI. C'bIIJ.O II IIpH oN!! 122 H oN!! 123. DOKpIIBaHeTo na renara na csnonere C no H5IKOJIKO OT.lI.eJIeHH e.ll.HH OT .lI.pyr II05ICH OT e3HUH ce cpeiua C'bIIJ.O IIpe3 T03H nepaon. I1 Ta3H cxexa oTKpHBaMe IIpH KaHHqKHTe, HaIIp. oN!! 113 (o6p. 12) H oN!! 116 (o6p. 13). Ho B CJIyqa5I TOBa ca caxo Haii:-06IIJ.H 3aHMcTBYBaHH5I aa .lI.eKOpaTHBHHTe cxexa OT K'bCHOapxaaxnara TopeBTHKa. B H3II'bJIHeHHeTO na OT.lI.eJIHHTe eJIeMeHTH oTKpHBaMe BCHqKH npHC'bIIJ.H na rpaxuacxare TopeBTH HaqHHH na paoora. DPH rpsnxare csnose "e3HUHTe" ca caMO IIJIHTKO H3rpaBHpaHH B'bpXY CTeHHTe H 3aTOBa ca rpadinsea opnaxenr. DPH KaHHqKa oN!! 111 "e3HUHTe" ca nJIaCTHqHO H3pa6oTeHH no C'bIIJ.H5I HaqHH, KaKTO H KaHeJIlOpHTe IIO cpHaJIHTe. C'bIIJ.OTO BH)f{.lI.aMe H IIpH oN!! 115- IIO pavenere HMa IIJIaCTHqHH "e3HUH", cnen rJIa.ll.KH5I ri05IC oease CJIe.ll.BaT B.lI.JI'b6HaTH xaHeJIlOpH, HeIIJ.O HaII'bJIHO Heo6Hqaii:Ho IIpH rpt.uKHTe csnose. J1.0PH pa3nOJIO)f{eHHTe B IIeT II05ICa "e3HUH" IIpH oN!! 116 ca H3pa6oTeHH nJIaCTHqHO. TOBa H365IrBaHe Ha rpacpHqHOCTTa sa CMeTKa aa IIJIaCTHqHOTO npenasaae na opuaMeHTa ce OTKpHBa H B opHaMeHTaJIHaTa yxpaca Ha BCHqKH OCTaHaJIH KaHHqKH. I1 TyK Tp5I6Ba C'bIIJ.O .lI.a oT6eJIe)f{HM enno THIIHqHO 5IBJIeHHe B rpaxnacxara TopeBTHKa - H3qYKBaHeTO na TOqKH B KpaHIIJ.aTa na OBYJIH, KaHeJIlOpH, "e3HUH" H B npOCTpaHCTBaTa Me)f{.lI.Y T5IX. KOJIKOTO H IIpeTpYIIaHO .lI.a asr.neaora TOBa na

10

• Gop. 10. I(IlHU4JW oM 111. Fig· 10. Petit brae
No 111
• G6p. 11. I(aH.II'IKa Nt 115. Fig. 11. Petit brae
No 115
• G6p. 12. i(WLlltIKLt "~2 113. Fig. 12. Petit brae
No 113
• 06p. is. Kauu.uea .N2 116. Fig. 13. Petit brae
No 116 11 22

12

IIp'bB nor.nen, TO e nanpaaeao He cauo sapana )l{eJIaHHeTO aa BC5IKa II.eHa .ll:a ce lIOCTaB5IT .ll:eKopaTHBHH eJIeMeHTII m.pxy BceKH caoooaen MHJIHMeT'bp. Te3H B.ll:JI'b6HaTH TOtIKH YBeJIIInaaar lIOB'bPXHOCTTa na MeTaJIa H xpea T5IX ce C'b3.ll:aBa e.ll:Ha IIrpa Ha CBeTJIIIHaTa B'bpXy cpeoporo, a TO BHHarH H HaBC5IK"b.ll:e ce e II.eH5IJIO IIMeHHO 3apa~H 6JI5IC'bKa My.

TYK OTHOBO Tp5I6Ba na ce B'bpHeM K'bM npo- 6JIeMa aa .ll:aTHpOBKaTa na Te3II KaHHtIKII. rp'bII.KIITe MO.ll:eJIH sa T5IX ca TIIlIIItIHII aa K'bCnara apxanxa H K'bM cpenara na V B. IIp. H. e. re aese He ce cpeiuar. B'b3MO)l{HO JIH e TpaKIIHCKHTe TopeBTII .ll:a ce sptauar C'bC 3aK'bCHeHIIe nosexe OT lIOJIOBHH BeK K'bM Te3II MO.ll:e.iIli? Tpa.ll:HII.IIOHHOCTTa II KOHcepBaTII3M'bT, sa KOliTO TyK rOBopIIM, ca OT C'bBCeM .ll:pyr xapaKTep. MO)l{e 6II lIpIIBJIIItIaHeTO na nosexe cpaBHIITeJIeH MaTepIIaJI II npepasr JIe)l{.ll:aHeTO na CTapH .ll:aTHpOBKII na MeTaJIHHTe npezxern OT TpaKH5I 6Hxa .ll:OlIpIIHeCJIH 3a e.ll:HO HOBO .ll:aTIIpaHe Ha Ta3H rpyna OT KaHIItIKH B V B. IIp. H. e. 3aroaa TPY.ll:HO MO)l{eM.ll:a lIpIIeMeM II TB'bp.ll:eHJ1eTO, tIe xaaasxara N!! 109 C r JIa.ll:KO T5IJIO II IIp'bCTeH OT OBYJIli B'bpXy r'bpJIOTO e HaH-cTapaTa OT Ta311 rpyna, Cnen 113tIe3BaHeTO na e3HII.llTe TeJIaTa na csnosere C MHoro MaJIKII 113KJIIOtIeHll5I He ce lIOKp"BaT C opHaMeHTli II TOBa npom.nacaaa .ll:O eJIllHII3Ma, xoraro ce lI05IB5IBaT csnose C 60raTa II nopn nperpynana ~llrypaJIHa H opHaMeHTaJIHa yKpaca.

11 OTHOBO me HalIOMHHM, tIe rpaxniicxara TopeBTHKa liMa caoe co6CTBeHO paasnrae. HalI'bJIHO eCTeCTBeHO e .ll:a ce B'b3lIp"eMaT OTB'bH ~OPMll II nexoparnsna eneaearu, KoeTO e TIIlIlitIHO 5IBJIeHlle 3a BC5IKa KyJITypa II 113KyCTBO. Ho B CJIytIa5I e MHoro lIO-Ba)l{HO .ll:a OTKpHeM KaK Te3II B3allMCTBYBaHH5I 3alIOtIBaT na ce npecssnaaar II pa3BHBaT OT MeCTHIITe MaHCTopll, KaK CTaBaT tIaCT OT T5IXHaTa XY.ll:Oxcecraeaa H 3aHa5ITtIIIHCKa Tpa)l.llII.H5I. B CJIytIa5I opnaaenri.r "e311II.Il" HaHCTliHa e 611JI B'b3- IIp"eT OT rp'bII.KaTa TopeBTHKa II C'b.ll:OBe, HO TOH HaBC5IK'b.ll:e e B'b3lIPOH3Be.ll:eH C TlllIIItIHHTe 3a rpaxaacxare TopeBTH paoornn MeTO.ll:Il. Db C'b~Il5I HatIIIH ca m.anpnera II pem.r OBYJIII, lIaJIMeTHTe, JIOTOCOBIITe II.BeTOBe H np. opnaMeHTaJIHll MOTIlBli. Ho II T5IX HaBC5IK'b.ll:e BH)I{.ll:aMe H3pa6oTeHH B xapaKTepHll5I TpaKllHcKli

. CTliJI. CaMo6IITHOTO KOM611HllpaHe na TaKHBa eJIeMeHTli HaH-5ICHO ce lIp05IB5IBa B KaHlitIKIITe II ~llaJIllTe OT Tllna "OYKbOBUll". Ilpa T5IX TeJIaTa ca yKpaceHII C enna II csuia opHaMeHTH, HO 6e3 npenaapnrenno uapaooreaa II MexaHlitIHO lIOBTap5IHa enna II csma cxeva. DPH BceKH e.ll:llH OT csnosere opnaaearare ca 611JIli H3pa6oTBaHII na pt.xa II B e,l(Ha HalI'bJIHO CBO- 6o.ll:Ha KOM6IIHaUll5I, nopann KoeTO BCIItIKH ~llaJIli H KaHIltIKH ce OTJIlitIaBaT enna OT npyra. TYK orxpasaae II eJl.HO THlIlitIHO aa Ta311 rpyna II aa TpaKIIHcKaTa ropearmca aaneaae - OBYJIll, lIOCTaBeHll nernana enna Jl.O Jl.pyra B XOP"30HTaJIeH pen (o6p. 14).

23

ITPH Ta3H rpyna Cb~OBeTe H opHaMeHTHTe no nut ca M3pa60TeHH aa MHoro BHCOKO TeXHHqeCKO HHBO. HaH-rOJI5IMaTa Tpy~HOCT ca npeztCTaBJI5IBaJIH H3~bJI)KeHHTe H 06bpHaTH e~HO KbM ~pyro "JIHCTa" HJIH "e3H1_l,H", KOHTO 6HXMe Mor JIH ~a paar JIe)K~aMe H KaTO npOH3JIe3JIH OT H3~bJI-)KeHH 6a~eMH. 11 TOqHO re ca aspa- 60TeHH HaH-~06pe. ,UOCTaTbqHO e ~a rH cpaBHHM C no~06HHTe opHaMeHTH no qmaJIa N2 87 (o6p. 15), aa ~a pasriepea pa3JIHKaTa BbB Bb3MO)KHOCTHTe na ~BaMaTa MaHcTopH. B raKbB CJIyqaH cnOKOHHo 6HxMe MOrJIH na rOBopHM aa npO~yKUH5I na .enna pa60THJIHHua, B K05ITO e HMaJIO H CneUHaJIH3HpaHe aa MaHcTopHTee~HH e H3pa60TBaJI Cb~OBeTe, npyr e HaHaC5IJI opHaMeHTHTe. Taxosa CneUHaJIH3HpaHe B rpt.uKHTe pa60THJIHHUH OT~aBHa e CbIll,eCTBYBaJIOH aa Hero ce ~bJI)KH ~06pOTO Te'XHHqeCKO H3- n:bJIHeHHe na npO~yKUH5ITa. 3aIll,OTO B nosenero crrynaa MeTaJIHHTe npenvern OT rp snxare pa60THJIHHUH, C KOHTO ztnec paanonaraxe, He ca YHHKaJIHH npOH3Be~eHH5I Ha H3KYCTBOTO, a cairo qaCT OT pe~OBHOTO npOH3BO~CTBO. 3aT.OBa ome.or MUKeHCKaTa enoxa B TaKHBa patioTHJIHHUH ca 6HJIH H3nOJI3YBaHH HeraTHBHH H n03HTHBHH MO~eJIH, MaTpHUH H nesarn aa OT~eJIHHTe opHaMeHTH. B HaXO~KaTa OT Poro- 3eH THnHIIeH npnxep aa T03H HaqHH na paoora e <pHaJIaTa-6JIIo~0 _N2 4, Kb~eTO na ~bHOTO C e~HH H CbIll,H neqaTH ca HaHeceHH naJIMeTHTe H JIOTOCOBHTe UBeTOBe, a H Me~aJIbOHbT C Xepam,n H Aare e 6HJI H3pa60TeH BbPXY MaTpHua H CJIe~ TOBa ~oH3pa60TeH no JIHuenara nOBbpxHOCT. CbIll,OTO MO)Ke na ce xaxce H sa CJIO)KHaTa yxpaca na <pHaJIaTa N2 2', qHeTO H3pa60TBaHe 6e3 nOMOIll,HH eJIeMeHTH e HeBb3MO)KHO.

11 OTHOBO me ce BbpHeM KbM OCHOBHaTa rpyna TOpeBTHqHH MaTepHaJIH, H3pa60TeHH OT

24'

TpaKHHCKHTe MaHcTopH. B T5IX npe06JIa~aBaT ~3KoBaHHTe H yxpacenn CbC cB060~Ha pt.xa Cb~OBe H 3aTOBa JIeCHO MoraT ~a ce HanpaS5IT H3BO;iH sa HH~HsH~yaJIHHTe cnoc06HoCTH na acexn e~HH OT MaHcTopHTe. <PopMaTa aa <PH aJIaTa e enna OT HaH-eJIeMeHTapHHTe, He3aBHCHMO ~aJIH e 'OT "rpbUKH" HJIH "axeMeHH:n.CKH" THn. Ho H npn T5IX HMa OTJIHqHO H3pa6oTeHH eK3eMnJI5IpH, HMa H TaKHBa C no-rpy6a <pOPMa

H H3pa60TKa, nanp. N!i 73, 78, 87, 100 OT,' Por03eH. KbM T5IX MO)KeM na npH6aBHM H ~ rOJI5IMaTa <pHaJIa OT rrspsara EYKboBcKa aaXO~Ka H H5IKOH nO-MaJIKH OT JIYKOSHTCKOTO ci.xponnnte. Te ca 6HJ1il: H3pa66're'HH OT MaHCTOPH C He~OCTaTbqeH onHT B H3pa60TBaHeTo na TaKHBa <pOPMH HJIH rrsx TOBa ca 6HJIHOT~eJIHH CJIyqaH B npaxrnxara HM. CbIll,OTO paarpamoraaaae na cnocoriuocrtrre na paaminHHTe MaHcTopH 5ICHO ce oTKpHBa H npn napa- 60TsaHeTo na rpanapanare opHaMeHTH. ,Uocera pasno.naraxne C He3HaQHTeJIeH 6pOH yxpacean Cb~OBe H xapaxrepnare MeTO~H na ropesTHTe MO)KeXa na ce Ha6JIlO~aBaT rJIaBHO no anJIHKaUHH J1 np. npe~MeTH17. 11 cera npn cb.iI.oBeTe OT Por03eH oTKpHBaMe ct.unrre rpa~HUHOHHH MeTO~H na paoora. BceKH MaHcTop e npe~nOQHTaJI ~a H3pa60TH <pHrypaJIHaTa H opHaMeHTaJIHa yKpaca qpe3 H3qYKsaHe H rpannpaae CbC cB060~Ha pt.xa "penyce" H 3HaQHTeJIHO nO-p5I~KO e H3nOJI3ysaJI MaTpHUH H nesarn. ,UOPH xoraro He ca HMaJIH He06xo~HMll'Te cnoc06HOCTH, see nax ca pa60TeJIH raxa. Pa3JIHKaTa B H3pa60TKaTa na naJIMeTHTe no N2 80H N2 81 HJIH N2 100 e OQe6HHHa. Ho oiue nO-5ICHO npo.nanana T03H MeTO~ na pariora npn yxpacara na rOJI5IMOTO r06eJIe N2 165

H TpHTe npyr-a OT A~)KHrbOJI H /KeJIe3HH spara

H lilJIeMOBeTe 01' csiuara rpyna. IJ;5IJIaTa CJIORma yxpaca C MHor06poHHH <PHrYPJi HopHaMeHTH,

15

• 000. 14. C/Jua;w M 89 - oenuuis; Fig. 14. Phiale No 89 - detail

• 06p. 15. C/JU(Ufl M 87 -. in.ua, Fig. !5. Phiule

No 87 ._. fond

qeCTO BnJIeTeHH e,nmr B npyrn, OH MOrJIa MHoro nO-JIeCHO na ce aapariorn C IIOMomHH Mo,neJIH. Ho KaTO Bep05ITHa IIpHqHHa aa npenrrosuraHeTO na caooonnara pariora B CJIyqa5I OH MOrJIO na o'b,ne CMHCJIOBOTO 3HaqeHHe na KOMII03HllH5ITa. B'bB <pHrypaJIHaTa yxpaca na BceKH enatr OT Te3H csnose H IIIJIeMOBe oe3 C'bMHeHHe HMa no e,nHa npe,nBapHTeJIHO H3paooTeHa nporpava. I1MeHHo 3aTOBa HH e rpynno na npaexex oe3YCJIOBHO rar.pnennero, qe "H5IKOH pa3JIHqH5I B KOMn03HpaHeTo na H30opa)J{eHH5ITa B HHKaK'bB CJIyqai'r He napynraaar OOmOTO CTHJIOBO e,nHHCTBO. Te caMO nOKa3BaT qe qeTHpare qaIIIH ca paOOTeHH OT pa3JIHqH~ Mai'rcTopH H B pasnarrna 3JIaTapCKH aTeJIHeTa"18. Biro samo HHe HMaMe OCHOBaHHe na nlnreMeM seeKH e,nHH OT H3pa'6oTeHHTe H yxpacenn OT rpaKHi'rcKHTe Mai'rcTdpH csnone aa e,nHHHq'HH, YHHKaJIHII H HenoBTopHMH FIp'~.n:MeTH, AOKaTo H3- BeCTHHTe HH r'p'bUKH csnoae ca ,neJIO na' U5IJIaTa pa60THJIHinia. 11 Ta3H npaxrnxa n~po.n'bJI)J{aBa na ce npanar a H no-xr.cao. Haa-noepasr n'p'HMep aa TOBa e enna xyna OT C'bKpoBH\:ueTo npn HKHMOBO, K05ITO nOKa3Ba KaK MecnIH5IT Mai'rcTop e yon'5IJI JJ:a B'b3npOH3Be,ne npocrara <papMa na MHHHcTlmecKaTa xyna, a peaepa na KOHHHKa e H'3paOOTHJI C T'pa,n'nUIIoHHHTe MeTo,nH na CBOOO,nHO H3IJ:yI<BaHe cnopen ,nOC'l'3 orpamrseanre CH B'b3MO)J{HOCTH. ClrlmoTo ce OTHaC5I n aa qiaJIepaTa C H30opa')J{eHlre aa oomHR OT naxdnxara. A H n03JYaT5IB3HeTO na penerpnre

4 Apxeonorna, 3, 1987

nax e H3lU5IJIO Tpa,nHUHoHHO, HO aexe 3HaqHTeJIHO orpytieao.

Bexe HMaxMe B'h3MO)J{'HOCT ,na nOCOqHM ue aaa-crapare aacera H3BeCT}1H HH TpaKHi'rcK~ TOpeBTHqHH npoH3Be,neHH5I nOKa3BaT n'bJIHOTO OBJIa,n5IBaHe na onpenenerrn TeXHHqeCKH MeTO,nH, KoeTO e oe3cnopeH oeJIer aa T5IXHOTO HeKOJIKOBeKOBHO Tpa,,nHI.(HoHHO npanaraae. Csnonere OT Porosea HH ,naB ar OCHOBaHHe OTHOBO

,na TB'bp,nHM TOBa no OTHOIIIeHHe aa Te3H OCHOBHH MeTo,nH. ITOqT'H BCHqKH npe)(MeTH ca OT Y B. ,no cpenara ua IV B., OT nepnona na HaH-rOJIeMH5I pa3UBeT aa rpaxaacxara ropesTHKa. ,UeTai'riIHH5IT CTHJIOB aHaJIH3 na csnosere H cpaBHeHHeTO HM C nocera . H3BeCTHIITe me nonpnaece ome rrosese sa H35ICH5IBaHeTO aa npOOJIeMHTe OKOJIO JIdKa.hH3HpaHe'r0 na paooTHJIHll'u,HTe, xotrro C Il"bJIHO npaso MotaT ,na ce T'bPC5IT npe,nIIMHO B OOJIaCTIITe Me)J{,ny BaJIxana H JlYHaBa.

KaTO H3KJlIOqHTeJIHO HOBO II Ba)J{HO 5IBJIeHHe e n05IBaTa na <pHaJIHTe H KaItUqKIITe OT T'nna "OYKbOBUII". Cera aa rrspnn rrs'r 5ICHO BlUK:rr.aMe nosese eK3eMnJIISIpII OT npo,nYKUII5ITa na e,nIIH TpaKIIi'rcKII Mai'rcTop HJIII paOOTIIJInaua. 11 TyK ca OIIJIH npIIJIaraHII see csmare Tpa,nHUIIOHHII MeTo,nII na H3paOOTBaHe. Ho csnto 'raxa e Tpa,nIII.(HOHeH II cpeMe)J{'bT na Mai'rcTopa,na He nOBTap5I MeXaHIIqHO nee C<iII(II5I Mo,neJI, a BceKII rrsr CBOOO,nHO na csanasa KOMOIIH8,UIIII OT opHaMeHTH, C'bOOpaSeHiJI C OCOoeHOCTIITe na <popMaTa. Hurepecao me o'b,ne ,na ce C'bIIOCTaB5IT II YKpaCIITe B'bpXy ,nP''b)J{KHTe na K8HHqKIITe OT csmara rpyna.

,Uocera cajro na H5IKOJIKO TOpeBTHqHII npoII3Be,neHH5I MO)J{ellie ,na ce BII,nH enno xapaxTepHO npencraasne na ,n'bJIra Ha',nHnJIeHa )J{eHCKa ztpexa. Hai'r-JIecHOTO 005ICHeHHe e TO na ce OKaqeCTBII KaTO HeYMeJIO 'nJIII aepasripaao noapaacanne aa rp-bI.(KIITe npOTOTIInOBe. Ho no KaHIIqKII OT Por03eH OTHOBO ce n05IB5IBaT csunrre Ha,nHnJIeHlI npexn. 11 e 5ICHO, qe TOBa csmo e e,nIIH qIICTO TpaKlli'rcKH Tpa,nIIl(IIOHe'H II30opa3HTeJIeH nOXBaT, II3n'hJIHeH C'bC CXO,nHII TeXHHqeCKII cpeacrna.

Haxonxara OT Por03eH nOKa3Ba, qe B 3eMIITe aa TpaKIITe TopeBTIIKaTa e HMaJIa CB05I caMOCT05ITeJIHa II Harr'bJIHO caMooIITHa JIHHII5I na pa3BIITIIe. Taxa ca ce C'b3,naJIH 'i'pa,nIIUIIHTe B CTHJIOBeTe II300pa3IITeJIHII cpencraa II B qIICTO TexH-IIqeCKOTO Mai'rcTopcTBO. KaKTo BiB BCIIqKH apevena, II TyK e HMaJIO B3aHMcTBYBaHH5I na <pOPMH II oT,neJIHH eJIeMeHTII, HO B noaesero CJIyqaII re He ca MeXaHIIqHO npenaC5IHII, a ca OHJIII npeTBOp5IBaHII H OpraHIIqHO Cn05IBaHII B C'b3,na,neHaTa MeCTHa TOpeBTIIqHa npaKTIIKa. A TOBa cnopen Hac e orne enno ,nOKa3aTeJICTBO 3a ,nbJIOOKHTe KopeHH Ha Tpa,ll.IIUIIIITe B TpaKIIi'rcKoTO II3KyCTBO npes nspBOTO XHJI. np. H. e.

25

1 B. H H K OJI ,oB.~8aJl8Te or Por03etlCKOTO CbKpOBHUJ,e; KaHHTe OT POr03eHCKO-roC1iKPOBHUJ,t'. - 113KYCTBO, 6. '.1986, C •. 88 CJl.

:I V. P. Va s j 1 e v. Einiae char akteristische und tradi-tionelleMt,thoden in derfhr aktschen Toreutik. '- Pulpudeva, 3, 1980, 'So 149-164.

3 H. "B 1 ii m n e r. Terminologie und Technologie der Gewerbe und Ki:Jlste. B.4. Leipzig, 1886, S. 150.

J ,B. H H K 0 JI 0 B. KaHHTe ..• , c. 17.

r. B. n. B a C H JI e B. TeXHOJlOrH'IecKH HaOJllo.

il€HHSI BbPXY c sxpoaaurero OT 5lKHMOBO. ~ H3KY-

CTBO, 1975. c. 56 H CJI. ,

6 R. H H K 0 JI O.B. KaHHH' ... , c.17. 1 B. H H K 00'1 0 a. cIIHaJlHTe •• , c. 8.

S B. ell. r a Ii .ll Y K e B H 'I. AHTH'IHblii 0POH-

WBhlii IHTilMn, Haii].leHHHii [I THpHTaKe.-" CA, 6, 1940, c. 298; 11. ,lI.. Map'! e a K o. MaTepHaJlb 110 Meraanooepaoorxe H M eranaypraa naHTH xanea. M11A CCCP, 56, 1957, c. 166; B. Fl. B ac H JI e B. TpaKHI1cKH OPOH3OB rreuar OT IV D. lip .. a, eo ~ BeKOBe, I, 1978, 62-65.

9 D. V. Bot hm e r. A Greek and Roman

Treasury. - The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bulletin, 19M.Nr. 16. 17, p, 2-tr-

10 Ibidem, Nr. 18, p. 25.

, 11 B. ,n. B a C It JI e B. BPOH3OB lie sar, C. 64.

12 B. H II K o.li 0 B. 4JHa.IIHTe,.~t:. 10.

13 .n. n . .n 8 M 8 1 P 0 B. TpOB VtI B 2 8 tiaJrKaHCKHTe TPaKHAcxH B MBSBieKH JJJleMeRa ...... A JI xeoaora lJ,

KH. 4, J968t c. 1-14. '

14 T h. Web e r. Bronzekannen, Frankfurt

aiM, 1983, S. 6 H.

111 H. Dr esc her. Untersuchungen zur

rornischen Lottechnlk. Technische Mitteilungen zur Archiiologie, B. I, S.78. B. Il. B a C H JI e B. T'exHOJlOI'H'IecK8 HaO;lIoJleHHSI, c. 54.

l~ K. A. N e u g e b a u e r , Retlarchaische Bron zevasen mit Zungenmuster. - RM. 38/39, 1923/24. S. 342; B. F i I 0 v. Die archalsche Nekropol e von Trebenischte. Berlin, 1927, S. 59, Nr. 72, Taf. 10

u. II: T h. Web e r. B ronzekannen, S. 68.

l? V. P. Vas i lev. Char. und traditionelle

Methoden. s. 161.

18 B. H 'H K 0 JI 0 B. llamKTe OT Poroaeacsoro

CHpOBHlJ{e. - H3KYCTBO, 6. 1986. c. 40.

Latrouvaille de Rogozen - elements traditionnels etfiouveaux dans la toreutique thrace

V. P. V A S I LEV

(R e 5 u me)

La trouvaill e de 165 vases d'argent pres du village de Rogozen fournit un nouveau materlel tres fiche pour 1 es cherchettrs de la toreutique thrace. Ils ont etudie certaines methodes de travail traditionnelles, caracteristl ques des rnattres thraces du [er mlllenaire av. n. ere.

La dorure de certaines par ties des vases est elIectuee par I'appl icati on de l arnell es d'or, seuls quelques objets cIant avec une dorure arnalgamee. Les phiales sont executees en trois parties - umbo, corps et embouchure qui sont attachees avec un dou. Les petits brocs sont travaill~ egfil.~t en

!~hsoJch~~~ To~~e1'esp~:!!~~~r1rk:!in~~¥~a~~~

p ousse". Lesorneme;1\ts sUr' eu~cs6nldatts lit '!>1uparf des cas- executes de la m&me'ttllini~e:: A<vl!C' descui41S soot travn;iHees lesllm<i11'des dans la phiale , No 82, rnais IE's palrnettes sont gravees. au "rep.ousse" d 'apres une esquisse preal ablement' posee (fig. 1). De la

msme mamere .sont e~ut~es les amandes, et.Tes palmettes egale!11ent sur.La phiale No 83 t't sur." une phiale du tresor de Lukovit (flg~ 2 a, 6). On decouvre Iesmemes traits aussi sur a'autres phlales (fig. 3). Pour un 'grand 'Hombre - d'ornements sont utilises des seeaux speciaux (fig. 4, 6 a,6). L'auteur Hudie les differentes variantes de l'ornement "chien fuyant" (fig. 7, 8, 9) qUi cie graphiques deviennent volumtneuses. Sur 'certains brocs on decouvreilne "repetition exactede,;Zungenmusler" et bien desexemplairesmo.ntrent .~di!£e~eute.s variantes locales de .cet orn,e(nent , (ft~,. ,{O, JJ. 1.:. ,./:11. _, Un, ornement caract~aic({i~~en\ent l~.'.ra,.'!:'(S d. 'ovules couches Uilti'n'jJ~UI"~'ndiftbrQTx'ae}~'soot 'lavan· les;'da ft$'un· 'M:eliet; ou d'tm; lrn11tre\ ~ qDi ~t '(;81'8CteFt&ti-qua,des vases-de la trouvallle c'est que Ies traits styllstfques traditionnels sont habilement combines avec de nouveaux elements qui sont rernanies par Ies mattres tfiraces ..

fEOPf11 MHXAtlJIOB

Yl3BecTeH 6poA npe.n.MeTH .HMaTrp'btJ.KH sannHCH, KOHTO ca H3pa'6oTeHH no Jl,Ba HaqHH8 - anposea "H3pa60TeHH" MOlKe Jl,a ce KalKe e8MO sa rrspsas BRJl,: c nYHKTHp (a), HJlH H3Jl,'bJl6aHH

26

IiJiH . Ha.llpaCKaJlH c ocrpae (6 H B). HO BCHtlKH OT paa.llHqHH p'sue. no CBOSlT8 ~opMa H XYJl,OlKeCTBeH CTI1J1 eJJ.HH OT C'bJl,OBeTe (e) TPH6B8 na ce OTJJ.eJlH aacrpaaa: T08 HMa JJ.Ba nannaca,

KOHTO ca aaaecena B paMHqHH apeaeaa aa JI.Be PasJIH'lHH MeCTa H HBMaT HHKaKBa Bp'bSKa

nOMeJK.lJ.Y CH. -

a. Hadnucume c nYHlemup. Ilpena OTKPHBaHeTO aa TOBa C'bKpOBHDle OT npeJI.HWHH aaXOAK" OT cstnara OCSnacT H HSTOqHO OTHea '18K AO YCTHeTo Ha .LlYHaB UH 6S1xa HS8ecTHH C'bAOBe C'bC csnnrre RJlH C nOJI.o6HH MADRCH, KOHTO 6ua T'bJIKYBaifH pasJIHqHO H, 061Jl0 meTO, Hey6e.llHTeJIHO. Poroeeacsare C'b.lJ.ose HH AaBaT KJllOqa .Ila 06BCHHM noqTH Il.eJIHH )laTepHY. Cnopen npHeT3Ta. npalrl'lilca HHe He cnaraMe .IlHaKpHTHCUfIl SHaIl.H (npH.Il'bX.H yaapenae) aa TpaKHHCKHTe HMeHa, MaKap H re naca aanacaae C rp'bIl.KH (iYKBH H. nonaeneaa no rpsusara CKJIOHHT6eHaCHCTeMa OCBeH xoraro ca B uaTaTH OT rp'bIl.KH. asropa,

(1) HHB,. 480: :tatOKO. Haxpas, cne.ll 6yl(· sara xana, MaHCTOP'bT. e HSIfYKaJI Heiqo K&TO Opaa)leHT (HJlH HHKaKBa cTp8HHa JlHraTypa ?). K'b.lleTo· .. oace .Ila ce OTKpJJe MM OMJl.IePOH H HeIlJ,O apyro aeonpeneaeao.: HJIH IJMJl.IePOH H UnCUA-OH (oo), HanMcaHH B CJlOlKeU KOUnJleKC OT TO'IKH. KaKBoTo _. A8 e 6uJlo aeroso HaMepesae, B CJlyqaH SaB'bpmeK'b1' . sa Hac e <Sea SH8QeHHe. nOpl.llH TODd. 'Ie .IlpyrHTe Ha.llnHCU OCBeTJlHB8T npo6JleM8 no 6escnopeH H8'IHH.

(2) HHB. 464: 111.3UKQ1.JlO.

(3 H 4) HuB. 478 H 479: Koroo; ~ ApylaKTI~. (5) I1HD. 491: KO'tU<X; ~ HP'Y'(JKTI~.

(0) HHB. 472: Koeoo; sl; Anpo.

(7) Him. 473: "EI; Anpo KOtUoc;.

(8 H 9) HuB. 471 H 491: Koteo; AI; Bso. (Bm.c'bII(o 1'12 25.) .

- (10) HIIB..439:i'~ ~:.Beo .;. ~ snoi1los. 'OteA 1Jso. ~"T It.~& e ~ .. nea H .Il0JlKaT8 sacr aa CJle.llB3I1J,81'a6yKBa nOVR mmCBa, HO TaSH 6)'KBa He Mome za 6'b.lle aAifJa, nOHelKe BJDfa CpeJI.Ha xacra (paseapa ce, B nYHKTHp), 8 e.lJ.RHCTBeHO oenma HJlH A-a.M6iJa. HHe npeAnO'IHT8Mt; KaKTO n'bpBRST HSJI.aTeJl ~tcrA.olQ~,

nOHelKe' e eanaseaa e.llHa C'bBCeM M'bHHqKa sacr OT .lloJIHa X8CTa .110 .lJ.SCH~ HaKJIOHeH8 xaCTa na ·6YKB8Ta. HO npa H31l0JlSyNltaTa OT MaReTOpUTe eDRrp8<l>CKa TeXHRKaTOB3 He )lome Aa ce TB'bP,ll,H C a6COJIIOTHa CRrYPHOCT II BHUK He 6R 6RJ10 CTPaHHO, aKO e.llHH AeHBTplICliACKaT8 OBOMaCTHKa ce nOHBH H HMe'l'0 • A\o'A.ot~.

(11)_11 .. ~. BB. 4.77: Koroo; b rst(JtQ)v. (12) I1HB.475: Koreo; sy tStcrtQ)v.

(13) I1BB.476:Ko~ t~ :EQUSuj3ac;. B'bB BTOPOTO RMe DTopaT8 CSYKBa OT .IlSlCHO H8 JlRBO e nanacasa A, 06aqe HBMa HHKaKBO C'bMHeH~e, 'Ie u:aifCTOp'bT He e H81D1C8J1 cpennara xacra na CSYKB3Ta a.Mj1a, A, xoeroae e eAHIICTBeH cnyqaH B enurpa<l>HKaTa, n'bK H MOPCPOJlOFHRTa noKa8B8, qe tpR6Ba .Ila ee npHeMtTOBa nereae.

(14) I1HB. 540: Kot~ 'A1toAA<ovoc; 1tatc;. (15) 11118. 474: K8pcre~A.87ttO tl; EP'YlcrK~. I1spa6OTeHHTe C nYHKTHpBa.llnHCH OT npen-

XO.llItHTe naxO.llKH, KOOTO IIJ,e .Il0RMHRT csuieC1'8eHOpor08eBCKHR MaTepHaJl, ca . cne.llHHTe:

(16) <l>HaJla OT MOrHJlaHCKaTa MOfHJla B'bB Bpaaa: K~ s{y) Bsoo. MaHCTOp'bT e aanp88MJI rpemka, HsnHcoaiiKH ET BMeCTO Er, K8J(T0 e. B .N!! \10: Ay &0. Paseapa ce, S1: e He~6lKHa cp6pMa DMeCTO sl; HJlH eK R caeaoB8~" '6estIlHCJleHa.

(i,?Y·"Ha.naoTAJieKCaH.IlpOBO, Jlosemxo :

Ko~ it·· TytltmDv.

(18) ~;H8MepeHa aepOHTHO B IlaeaeaCKO, HO ce·ftIIRpa B 'l3CTHa KoneKIl.HB : Koroo; eK nnotmv· HJlHnt~. He C'bM BHASlJI HHTO CaMHH -C1>.Il, HIfI'() ~. sa KOfiTO CnOMeH1B8 81rr0P'bT Ha n'bpB8TanyrsmntalUlH;38TOB8 C'bIIJ,O TaKa He SH8H KaKB8 4M>Pwa liMa R ripe.lJ.JtOf"bTtl;. b HJIB ty.

. (19 II 20) PHTOB H xana OT 60POBO. Pyce-

HCKO: Koruo; Al; neo, .

(21) PHTOH OT 60POBO: . Koroo; tel; OJiH K, HJtH y) Bso. MaACTOP'bT e aanacaa EBEO, KoeTO HBHO e rpennca : He Mome JI.a ce MRCJlH S8 onpOCTBB8He na enna reMHBara pp, nOBDHJla ce KaTO peSYJlTaT aa aCHMHJl8URg )(~> ~p HJlH yP> pp.

(22) <l>HMa OT A.Il)!{HI'bOJl, Cesepna .ll06- PY.Ilma: Koeno; sy Bso.

(23) <l>H8Jl8 OT Bpaaaxeao, IllYMeHcKo: TTJPTl~ AJlQtOKOU tTl na<>pu.

6) rpaifJumu C'bC coocmeeuu U.MeHa.

(24) B'bpxy 4>HaJla N!! 12 aa P8scToHHHe 5 CM BJIHBO OT ITbpBHH HaAnHC· e asnacan nO-K'bCHO .Ilpyr HS.IlnHC C OCTpHe C HeA'bJl60KR JlHHHH 0 aeaaoro rpH}l{JtHBO, HO C'bC carypaa pssa:

Karo.

- (25) Ha .Il'bHOTO aa q,uaJla Xl! 9 e·HSflHcaDO He6pelKH(H Ka1Vo. (Bm. nO-.IlMY N!!29.)

(26) Ha .Il'bH01'O sa e.llRa 01' KaHHTe {HHB.

N!! 542) . O'K01IoeJl.Ha . KP8CJrBa posen e HupaCK3H C ocrpae crbBoeJt !He6pelKlfO CJlOlKeH KO"naesc OT 6YKBHH tftpnt,e)lHH nO-ll'bJl60KO H BCHO, .Ilpyrn C'bBCeM 2Ko.TeKCT'bT sanosea C'bC :EattOKO, cease rperara 6yKBa He e CurYPH8:

HMa ezsa OepTHK8JIHa xacra sa iioma .H rope. BJlRBO OT TUH DCTa, ce Sa6em13Ba enaa MHorO ne8 H JleKO .IlpaCHBT8 noaerara qepTHQK3., QHiiTo .IlOJleH Kp8H COqH.K'b". sepTHKaJtHaTa xacra ; 83eTH SaeJI.HO .ll.Be'l'e Qep'l1J MOraT.Ila oopasYB8T unCllAoH;Y. Bcell8K HI .eR MKce CTPyoa. Qe qeTeHeTO iioma e sa npe.lJ.llOlIHTaHe npea uncu.!JOH H se M8JlKaTa qepTJl1lKa rope ce .ll'bJImH H8 He6pemHocTTa aa nHC8'18. CJleJI. TOBa :EattOKO HJlH :EUUtoKO D.II.e e.llDH MHoro rpy60 Ha.Ilpa.cKaH KOMnJleKC, 0 KoiiTO MOlKe na ce pasJlHIHI eaaa CUZ.MaD cJle.n HeH TpH TPH'bf'bJIRH 6yKBH, BCHKa OT KOHTO Mome .ll.a 6'b.lle aA-cjJa HJlH A-a.M6aa, H eneJ1 T03B~MnJleKCHMa aemo KaTO aaxaoaeaa dJltjJa H MOlKe 6H eJI.Ha MRoro JteKO IUUlpacxaua tuexa : BCH'lKO TOBaMOlKe .Il86'b.zt-t .:EaU.a HJIM :taA.A.~. Ilocaensera .auMQ. '" e H3.11.paCKaHa B'bpXy UJiH B'bpXY HeH e HSAp8CK8B nocae (npH· nOqHCTB8HeTO naraaara e orcrpaaeaa, TaKa 'Ie ae Mome.lla ce K3JKe xoe KaK eCTaHaJlO) KOMIUJeKC OT rpH tpH'bI"'bJlIIHKa, qHHTO JlHHHH nOBe'le HJlH nO,.MMKO

27

epe.zr.Ha. ,XaCTa,

mn T. e.I\"A 1I.11l MA.

,

JpSl6sa . .zr.a, ce 3aKJlIOtUI, tIe TOSH KOMnJleKC. e HaqaJlOTO Ha .zr.pyro HMe H .zr.a ro H3T~J1KyBaMe KaToMu,. HO BCUlIKO· rosa e MHoro HeCHrypHO. Caez rosa ce xere HCHO pt'ta~, nocae npasao .MSlCTO KOJll(OTO sa enaa 6yKoa, ,. cnen Hero 6YKBaTa: H ltcJI,e,ll HeH, MaJlKO npasso MHCTO~ KoeTO 11 orneas OT l:at'toxo HJlH l:ao'toxo, sa KO.eTO roaopaxse 0 HaqaJlOTO ~ raxa ce sa" TBapH xpsr-sr. 3HaQeHHeTO aa rosa Ma(?)pt't~ H eeemama He e HeHO.

B. 3Hal{-U. I1Ma ra aa 15 csna, ner OT f{OHTO S'b.zr.ooe ca C aaannca OT I1.~pBHTe nsa aaaa.

. (27) I1HB. 432: Ha B~HWHaTa crpaae aa p'b6a Ha ~UaJlaTa ca HsnHca,HH cnYHKTHp TpH SHaKa: n'bpOHHT OT TSIX OpHJlH'{8. lia sacr OT oraopesa cnapaaa, a ApyrHTe)J',Ba HMaT ~opMaTa aa .zr.aoHHa 6pa,ZI.Ba (J1aoproc); rrspsara e C K~ca .zr.p'b}l(Ka Ha.zr.OJIY, o6pasYBaHa C aaoea pea TO'lKH. a aropara e B 06paTHa nOCOKa, KaTO COQel.QaTa if aarope .zr.p'b}l(Ka e C~BceM K'bCa qePTH'IK8. "CnHpaJlaTa" H rrspsara opa.zr.aa ca HSqYKaHH OT enaa H csma p'sxa, .zr.OKaTO aropara e OT npyra p'sxa.

(28) I1H8. 442: Ha .zr.'bHOTO na ~HaJlaTa e aaapacxaaa .zr.ooHHa 6pa.zr.oa (J1a6pIOc).

(29) B near-spa Ha .zr.'bHOTO na ~HaJla Nil 9 (= Nil 25) e aasepraa 0 xp'sr KoMnJleKC'bT

@SF; K'b.zr.e e nasaaoro MY, e HeH3BeCT-

HO. I1SB'bH T03H xpsr. e H3DHcaHO Kmvo (Nil 25, 8m. no-rope),

(30) OTO'bH aa ~HaJla Nil 15 ca HaqepT8HH 6YKoH'I'e IITTTT. Ha YM6oTO B'bTpe 0 C1>.zr.a e

asnacana OT .zr.pyra p~K8' 6YKBaTa ... fL· .

(31) OTB'hH HaP'bDa sa KaHa Nt ·26 e. sa-

lIeptall KOMWIexc'bT~ JFff-. .; , ,

, (32) HaY'-M60T0H8 cpaua Nt 13 caaaaaCaltR 6yt<BMte H·lI (c TOqKa nOMe>I<.zr.y HM). (33) Ha .zr.'bHOTO aa ~Hana Nil 3 ca asnaca-

flU 6YKoHTe ~ (HJlH 06paTHo* ?).

(34) Ha p'b6a aa YCTHeTo HJlP aa npyro MHCTO - HaM-Delle H8 .zr.~HOTO - Ha e.zr.Ha rpyna OT c~.zr.OBe ca aasepraaa SHal.\H C pa3J1HQHa cpopMa, HO He Mome na ce YCTaHOBH 0 xaxaa

nOCOKa ca 06'bpHaTH: ~ ~HaJla Nil 5),'A."

(~HaJla HHB. 501). ~ (~HaJia HHB. 533), H rrp,

3a na; npUKJlKNHM. C'bC 8Jlal.VlTe, MomeM ,!I,a KameM, qe rpynare .OT. 6YKBU ,03RaQaBa,T. Mome OU TemeCTTaH8 M~ ... a ,nqp~J,l 8en03HaTa MeTpHlIHa ('HCTeMa, HOTOB8. e. cauo XHJlQTeSa, noaeace IITTTTHe naaa H~~""', .,CMHC'bJI. Teacecrra na ~HaJlaTa cerae147,9 rp, AQKaTO II=1ttv'te, ner .zr.paXMH~ T'=='ttlA.QVtov:;: 6~

28

.zr.pa~MH UJIB = 'te'tapl'l1Jl6ptov = 1/4 OT 060Jla, raxa lIe.ITTT 4 X 6000.=24000 npaxaa, HJlH 1/4+ 1/4+ 1/4+ 1/4= 1 06oJl: OQeOH.zr.HO Tooa HHMaCMUC'bJI. ~ JFII- ae e Bn0R' • .iI.06po nonolJ{eHHe: ~. He osaasaea TelKeCT.:a caao lIRCnOTO 200, o6alle KaKBO OT 2oo?_ I::;; 1 06oJl, F == ? H 1=-1 060n,Ho BCHlIKO, TOBa o6pasyaa enaa HeHOpMaJlHa cepas. 3H3I.\HTe' KaTO reoMeT.pHlIUH ~HrypH (HSIKOH OT TiX HMaT tilopMa aa J1HraTypH) ca C'bl.QO rasa C .aeonpeaeaeaa npapona,

e.Tlsumuomo 6.1tlOiJo (HqmaJla"), yxpaceao csceuena Xepaxsa H roaa meHCKa ~Hrypa, ROCH Ha.zr.nHC'bT AyrH (nan raasara na meaara) H' cJle.zr. R3BeCTHO npasao npocrpaacrao AHAAAH (.zr.o raasara H8 XepaK'bJl). 6YKBH1 e ca aaxepraaa C .zr.BoiiHHJlHHHH.T93IfH8,llnuc e 6HJI H30ucaH. 9 . pa60THJiHmtaT8 e.zr.If0sPeMeHHo C Hspa60TBaHeTo aa 6J1iO.llOTO, a nO-K'bCHO npyre p'bKa e . nanacaaa C nyHKTHp na p'b6a A1.ooxatJlo (N~ 2). AKo 0 rrspaara .zr.YMa neCHO ce paanosHaD a npeaaara 60rHHH na naonoponaero B Teres AJleH, H.zr.eHTH~Hl.\HpaHa nO-K'hCHO C ATHaa H HaH-ceTHe nerpanapaaa 0 paar na npaaueca c HMe Auy1'J (OT aOY11 "CJI'bHlIeaa caerJlHHa"),c KOHTO XepaK~J1 HMa J1IOOOBHa HCTOPHH, OT KOSITO ce pa}f(Aa Te.nelfJ H ce C'b3.zr.aBa.ll.ocra CJlOmeH MHT, TO 3HatieHHeTo tta at}W~ ~eHeHCHO. C'bm;eCTOYS8 enso rp-bl.\KouapeqHe81'JA.a011 HHCHO, oxeaanao", HO 6H6H.IIa noeese OT crpanaa caMOCTOHTe.llHaTa ynorpeea, 'H80'bH KOHTeKCT, na aapexae, orne nO-MaJlKO nbK C raxosa 3HaqeHHe ; TO' H1IMa 3HaQeHHe aanonxaaa, KaKTO ce nOAXB'bpJlH OT HHKOH •. He n03HaooMe H csl.QeCTBHT;eJIHO m. pail "'OTJA.U~11, HUTO R~K aanRHC'bT e *OTJA.U011~, ra na ro T'bJIK)'BaMe Ka'l'O HOO, HenOSHaT nocera, enarer HaXepaxDJI, KllKTO npe,nno.llo}l(u. n'bpBHHT' HSJ,lareJi. Orrope Ha ,BCHIIKO lIBTO'qeM SL pDA':·.6q1aDiJ~, HHTO M,~.poBv'~1'Jb'iit:e&'e6~HW.~ CnpeJUlIUJIIIITe '. T'bIlKyuaHHH . - Ha" HaJU)IICIlTe ftO $HaJlHTe-nOKa3Ba,lIe He TPH6B8 0 TaKHBa cJlylIaH J,la ce H36~p3Ba, B~npeKH lie T'bJIKYBaHeTo "olleOR.zr.HO (TOBa e) Aare " He e HeS'hSMO}l(HO.

Han-aaacaare aannaca ca Te3H OT n'bpOaTa rpyna. Te ce C~CTOHT HJlH caao OT enno-enaaCTBeHo co6CToeHO HMe (aHTponOHHM) B pozareaea nane:« (Nil 1 H 2). "J1H OT C06cTBeHO HMe Bp<>.zr.Hrezea naaezc, nocaenaaao OT' reorp~cKoHMe (TonoHHM) 0 po.zr.HTe.iIeH na,llelK C npennora s~ "OT", KoATO nopaaa HallaJIHHSl SByK na tonoHuMa Mome ,na ce fl8H It nOA <pop.an Sx unH sy: tx f'&1.cmDV (Hi 11)u Sy r1'JtO'tmv (M i 2 H 17). sr Bso HJIH ty'Beou (Hi 10, 16 M 22), KaTO TeSR ,nBe ~OPMH npencraaaaaar 06"KHOBeHO ~OHeTHqHO "MeHHe B rp'bI\KH, n03HaTO HM B no.zr.o6Harpyna S1BJleHH5I OT enarpadnncara: aCHMHJlaUHSI crropen cnenaamare g H b.

Co6cTBeHoTo UMe B pon. rr, H B nears cJlyQaSf osaasaaa, lie C~.zr.'bT npuHa.zr.J1e>KH na HOCHTeJlH aa HMeTO, a reorparpceoro HMe c s~ 'I',RSlooa na ce T~J1Kyoa, lie C'b.zr.'bT HJlM MeTaJl'bT

npoli3xO>KAa (ltABa)oT MHCTOTO, qHeTOHMe e npanpyaceao OT TOSH npenaor, a He, tie JlHl.{eTO npOli3XOlKJ{a OT TOBa MHCTO HJIH 'Ie }l{nBee B Hero; 8'hB BTOpHH cJlyqaA TpH6Ba aa ee otJaKsa e,nHH ,neM.OTHKOH HJIH e1'HHKOH OT rana 'A&1')vai~ HJllt AaK80alJi6vt~. HHe He psa6HpaMe C'h~O TaKa, lie JIHl.{eT9 H,nBa 01' 03Ha>ieROTo MHCTO, KaKTO nte BH,nHM nO-AOJIY. Cne,nOBate.>1HO 8HaQeHHeTO e: (c'Oo) na Camo«; (c'OO) 'HaJ(ttiJlO1Caii.Moc; (c1J#) na Komuc,om Epzttctce- (e) iUIH Apeucxe, om-Anpoe HnH AnpOH,OT J;eoc linK Bean, om FeliemoiiHJlH Feiicnttlri UJIlt Feiicma (cp. po~), om Cayma6a, H (c'bd) na Kepcetinenmec, om Epzucse. Ta3H e npHtUIHara e,nHHHHT OT HiI,nIHfCHTe (M 7) na 6o,ne c'sCTaBeH B 06paTefi peA: om Anpoc (c'biJ) na Komuc. Ha,nnRCHTe He oaaasasar, 'Ie C'b.llOBere ca no,nap'bUH, ,naaeHH (npareaa) OT rpanosere:

B TaK'bB cJlyqaif TpH6Ba na ce osaxaa tVOpMy.na C npenaora u1t6 HJIH a1t6. Paseapa ('~, C06CTBeHHK'b-T e MOroJI aa ra nO.!lapftBaHa .!lpyrH JIHl.{a 8 B TaK'bB CJIyqaAMO>Ke,na·ce SaKJlIOtfH, tie C06CTBeHHK'bT e nO.!llfepTaBaJl, ·1reCeJIHIIteTO, omlC'OOemo U08a npe.ll;MeT'bT,MY e ·npmrn,nJIe>KaJlo. S'bSHHKBaTH ,l.{pyrH np06JieMH: KoM e 6H.1I COOCToeHHK'bT aa C'hKpOBH~eTO Ii aanro HMa esnose CbC C'b~HTe Ha.ZlnHCH, SapOBeHH B ,neBCTBeHa seMSI (C'bKp08H~eTO OT SOpOBO), a ,npyru nOCTaBeHH S rp060Be (MorlfJIaHCKaTa MOr8JIa H ap.): sa xoro eHaAn8CBaJi c06CTBe~ HMKbT npe.!lMeTHTe - sa ce6e CH UJiM sareaa, na KOHTO rH e .!lapHBaJI, aKO rosa ca 6HJIM nO,l.{ap'bUM; samo caao aasecrea opoA ca HaAnscaaa, .B.OKaro no-roassrara qaCT ca 6ea HaAnRCH H Ha.llmtCaHijTe C~.!l()~ npf!~CT1u~irre:l!~, JI~ ca H8 n().1·O~16Ui -l'fl)'ftHOT~m,r? 8c~~ 'teSH B'bftpoCH;-Kaim) Itpe~'.!q)ynt, KOllTOM'OraT ,l(aB'bSHHKHaT- aanpmsep, S~O nO'ITR BCIflI}{H T8K8Ba HaXO.!lKH, C MaJiKH HSKJIIOtreHHH (.D.YBaHJlH), rrpoaaxoseaar OT .D.YHaBCKaTa paBHHHa, - ae sacsrar, crporo saero, e3HKOBOTO TbJIKysaae H. ca Ba>KHK sa SaKJlIO~eHHHOT .!lpyr xapaarep, . HO HHe TPHosa,na ra HMaMe· BHHarH

npensaa, MaKap· It M'hJI'I3JIMBO.' '

ASTOPbT aa trspsara ny6J1HKar.vm ~pHeMa, a H npyraaasasaxa no e.!lHHHJlH ApyrHa'lHH C'b~O'rO MHeHHe no spexe aa .!lHcKyC~HTe; eralIaJIH npes MaH 1986 r. Hi ABe Kp'LrJIH MaCH, se aarponoaaaare ca HMeHaR3 M.aACTopH., 06atIeTOsa T'h.1lkyB~lHe ne e npMeMJIHBO, noaezce : (1 jaee B'hSMO>KHO .!la RMa neraxa MdcTOPH C HMe KOTHC OT ner paSJIHtJHIf ceaaata ; (2) HKTO e,nHM MaAcT6p KOTHC, npoasxoscnam OT ner pa3JiH'IHH MeCTa, .liJIH rrsryaam OT eaao MliCTO, aa APyro, }{.II" npareacaaam pa60THJIHHtiH B 'fe'su rrer pa3JiHtlHH MeCTa, T'bM KaTO. He e M-HCJIHMO csmecraysaaero HI. ooraT coecrseaHK aa paOOTHJIH~H B uapcrso OT H3TOlJeH - THn, kaKBOTO e 6HJlO TpaKHikKOTO. EJIIO.ZlOTO C XepaK'bJt HMa ABa aannaca S HarI'bJIHO pasJIHqe~ C11I.1I: HaAnKC'hTnpH . <purypHTe na . Aare H XejfaK1,JI e -rpaBHpaHnpH 'HSpaOOTBaHeTO HI! cl>)i.a B pa60THJIHHl.{aTa, a Ha,l.{nHC'bT .!1t50xatJlo· eOAJI

HStJYKaH BnOCJIe.llCTBHe OT . apyra p'bKa B CTHJla aa OCTaHaJlHTe Ha.!lnKCH. K'bM TOBa ce npn6aBSI H e,nHH ,l.{pyr pemareaea apryxear :' aKO MaACTOP'bT e HCK~ Aa nOCTaBH HMeTO CH aa 83- pa60TeHOT atf6 npe.!lMeT, ToA ro e nOCT3BHn B HMeJlwteJIeH rra,nelK, npH,npY}l{eHO 0'1' fJlarOA8 1t0l8(1)' "npan, Hapa60tBaM" B MUHano BpeMe tnobn, J4mtt1tol1'}aS ".HanpaBH, wpaOOTK", H HHe HaM8paMe'fOtlHO, TaSH <popMYJIa B Nil l(}: (e'biJ) H.tI f{otnfil,g, ·o:mBeoc (Beon). Ilucsoaac 1«Jnpa8lJ. .. (?()'!'= C5Otlj.~TO liMa . TOIlHO C'bOTBe'[CTBHeB.eJUla. cJMta",. · .• 0'1' IOlKHa PYCHH:

S8~aVO)(O~. Tapol.)~.··~~i81 :fMH. (c'biJ) naKCe~aHo1C. 1'apY/l,ac (ClO) Hqnpa8fl. (cmpy8a) 48 3/1,arnHU uouemu.

1:16 HHe He MO}l{eM ,l(a cnpea TyK: samara aarepnperauas na aaanncare ce nOJl.KpenSi OT aprYMeHTH OT .;1>YE" xapakrep Ii ~ HMeHHO 3aOOtIBa HCTHHCK'aTa'H~TOPHtJeCKa CTOHHOCT Ha CbKpOBH~eTO. sxynox C .!lpyrHTe u.aXO.!lKH OT C'b~HSI BH.!l. KOH ca .LJ:H.!lIOKaHMOC, CaTOKOC, KOTHC H Kepceoaenrec ? He ce .Zl'bJI}I{H aa npocra CJlyqaHHOCT, tIe nocaenaare TP" HMeHa ce HBSlBa:r, KaKJ'O na G_b,nOBeTe. .raxa It B o,npu.CKa'Fa ,nHHacTHH B. KpaR aa V H HallMOTO aa IV B. np, H. e. CaTOKoceHMeTO sa C}iTaJiKO" ijHHCnH, I,{OHTO. H3q~Ba OT HCTopHlleCK}lTe usBOPH CJIe.!l QPlllHHaTa ellCM'bpT 8 424r.; KoTHe e ,MOf'bIl{BJJa,neTeJI aa OP.PH~KOTO napcrso (383.-359 r.), "CTapHH"r KOTHC, 8eJIRIQIIIT KoTHC", H HMeTO aa HerOBHH CHH e Kepcetiaenrec (359-34.1 _r.); uapcrsoro aa Kepceoaenrec e npessero Q_T .<P~!'fn II MaKe,noficKH HTpaKPJJ npeBWWlTa.B. M~AAoHCKa lJPOBHHUHH, ynpas:JnIBa~, 01' .: e.a,HilM~.AOac~H_ crparer- .. I1MeHHo EPrHCK~ (B 'PaaH.~~~p .. a)~en03HaTIl K;8T9 eaao OT TpciI(HH.tKH;Te.. MecTa~ :cn~ella:rR OT ,UeMocTeH ,H ECXHH . ij'bB Bp'hSl(aC . <PHJlHRODHTe nOXO)J.H B TpaKHS1;.oea ~'bMHeaHe roaa CeJIH~e TpHoBa na ce JlOKaJI~SHpa HliK'b,ne no lO}I{Ha Mapaua H HerOBOTO HMe. e CPO.ll.HO C,HMeTO aa pesa EprHHQ~ (n-Hec Epseae), JlPHTOK aa MapH1l8. "Anpoc JI~H AnpQllce JlOKMHsapa D.CD~at~ ~ lC;era. :KeCTPHA>Kt~) .. aeJl.anell OT Mp~o.pHO MOpe. Beee HJI,H ~QH He e saCBH.z(eTeJlCT&y~~,nocera, so .0Jm30 >AQ Anpoc ce HaMHpa e.!l~ ImM~Ka rrsraa. CTaHUH,H SeO-.!lH3OC HJlH Se-)(HaOC.~QHTO HMil maHC"T na o'b.!le C'bUlOTO MHPO, 06aqe C'b~ecTByBa H enao npyro MHCTO, Baoc (B>K. no-aoay), Hue He SHaeM KoA e OHJI ,lJ;H)l.IOKaifMOC H.TOBa HMe ce liBHDa sa np'sa n'bTB TpaKHAcKaTa OHOMaCTHKa. He MOlKeM na ,nOKa>KeM C nOJIO>KHTeJlHOCT, lie CaTO!'OC!YKe" GHT8.!Il(OBHSlT CUH ~ JlHIlHO asc .. sT8M,lle. e<TaK~ -:- H TyK rroxsar npe.!lnonolKemmTa" ?a, C'bAOaTa aa "CaToK: . cnope,n HSBopHTeCH'faJlK e 6HJI aacaenea OT 6pa,:" TOBHH . QI CHH Cear (1) H e C'bB~eJ4 JlOrl{lJHQ Aa SaKJIIOIlHM, lie CaTOK He ce cnOMeHaBanope'le 'B HcropHtIeCKJfTe H3!JOPH, nOHe>Ke, e .. ~JI. OTcrpaaea OTBJlaCTT8 C ,n'bp>KaBeH;BpespaT, KaKT9 as'MHCJlH H C'bM HSJIO>KHJI npyrane TOBa CH

'29

MHeHue, HO MOlKe 6H HMaH .lI.pyrH Erb3MOlKHOCTH3a OOHCHeHHe. K~To· H aa e - H TyK e HMeHHO OCHQBHOTO,- He MOlKe,lla HMa HUKaKBO C'bMHeHHe, ''Ie KOTHC H Kepceeaenrec ca O){PHCKHTe aaaaereaa, sa KOHTO CTaHa ){YMa, H re )l.B3MaTa )l.aB3T TOllHOTO spexe aa C'b){OBeTe, KOHTO HOCHT TeXHHTe UMeHa, H UMeTO aa KepCe6J1enTeC YCTaHOBHB8 terminus ante quem sa cseapanero na l{HnPTO C'bKpOBHII{e.

BCUlIKO TOBa cssnaaa He CaMO C XY)l.OlKeCTBeHHH CTHJI Ha nocne)l.HHTe npe,llMeTH OT C'bKpOBHII{eTO, HO C'bII{O H C enarpatpcxare H eSHKOBH ){aHHH. C H3KJlIOlIeHHe na Ha.z(nHca aa )1H)l.IOKaHMOC (N!! 2), KOHTO e HaH-)l.06pe aspa- 60TeH H MOlKe na 6'b)l.e OTHeceH KaKTO K'bM V, raxa H K'bM IV B. np. H. e., enHrpaljJcKHHT CTHJI aa OCTaHanHTe Ha){nUCH COllH K'bM nO-K'bCeH H cpaBHHTenHO,ll'bJl'br nepeon --;-' or .. 1V B. )1.0 paHH3Ta eJlHHHCTHqeCKa enoxa: .q,oPMR'l'eHa 6YKBHTe 8, " H._. nOHSlKora -.n~ (C PlllKpaqeHH ropaa H )1,01188 xaCTa;D Ng 10 TSlnSYKBa 9Ma )l.OCTa excrpaaarasraa clJopMa B 6l1HSOCT ){O

p'bKOnHCeH CTHJI), ....r-. , pa3J1HlIHaTa rOJleMHua aa OJUlI(POH - MaJiKO UJIH BHCOKO xaro npyrare 6yKBH, a nonsxora ca ynorpeoeaa B e)l.HIJ H C'bII{ Ha){nUC H )l.BaTa pasaepa. CaenoB8TeJlHO He e B'b3MOlKHO )l.a CTeCHUM rpaHUl{HUHTe aa nepaona e)l.HHCTBeHO B'ba OCHOBa H3 enHrpaljJcKHH CTHJI, KOHTO He e xoxoresennopaaa HeCp'blJHOCTTa aa M3HCTopHTe H TeXHHxara Ha nyHKTupa. 3a II{3CTUe HMa )l.pyrueJleMeHTH, KOHTO MoraT ,lla noaoraar. Hue Belle cnoaeaaxae sa terminus ante quem. LUo ce OTHaCH rrsx )1.0 terminus post quem, TO sa H3,llnRCHTe C KOTHCOBOTO RMe OT aHaqeHHe e He cauo npHC'bCTBHeTO na HMeTO MY, 80 C'bII{O H HSpa3S1BaHeTO aa reHeTHBHOTO OKOHlJaHlle C'LC 3HaKa -0. TOSH snax ce ynoTpe6oa 'xpaAHO pSl){KO caea cpenara aalV 8';. up. H. e. T03H e TpaJJ.HnHOH.HRHT ftHIIetimnpuBOltlft,RO'C B'bBelK,llaHero aa II31'OlIitoiiOH~a (MIMeTCKaTa) npaaonacna CHCTeMa npa apXOHTa EBKlIH)I, (403-402 r.), B KOHToreHeTHBHOTO OKOHlJaHHe ce oT6enHSB8 C -OU, HMa KOJle6aHHe B rrpaaonaca, KaTO enno no npyro ce ynoTPe611- BaT H -0, H -OU, .u.OKaTO HaH-nocne ce YTB'bplK,llaBa -oU. Ha,nnHC'bT Hft Kepceoaenrec HMa csnro raxa '-0 (N!! 15), a Ha.ll.nHC'bT na Tepee (N!! 23) 8Ma sese -D\) (Aueroxou), TaSH CMHHa aa npasonaca e npasaaa U aa e.u.HOBpe"leHH3T8 rrossa aa S H TJ aa .lI.'bJlraTa raacaa B Epyt01CTJ (Ng 15) H Hp'YlO'xTJ (N!! 5), H E H TJl sa ,ll'bJlrHH .lI.H~· TORr B rStO''tCllV (N!! 11) rTJlO"tCllV (N!! 12 H 17). Ho TOBa eSlBJIeHHe He caxo C oprorparpcxa CTOHHbCT: HaJIar8 ce 3aKnIOQeHHeTO, 'Ie BO.ll.PHCKltH .lI.BOP e 6HJl8 cD ynorpeea aTHQeCKaTa nHCMeHa CHCTeMa MTosao6c'l'OHTeJlCTBO e C HCTOpHlJeCKO H KyJlTYPHO 3Haqeltlfe! TO nOKaSBa, se He cauo npee n'bpBaTa fiMoBHHa na IV B. np. H. e., T. e. npes HaH-.u.o«SpHH nepIiO.Il ua BTopHH aTHHCKH MOpCKH C'bI03, noJlJi~KHJtT HII'l'epec

30

aa O.u.PHCKOTO l{apCTOO e 6HJ1 HaC01feH K'bM r'bpl{HH H no-cneuaaaac K'b~ ATHHa, KoeTO e aemoecrecraeao npea rosa apeae, HO csmo (H TyK e C'bllleCTBeHOTO), lie T031{ aarepec npenCTaBJlHBa npo.u.'bJllKeHHe aa e)l.lia crapa rpaaal{UII OT enoxara caen Bropara rp'bKo-nepCHHCKa BOHaa : npea rasa HMeHHO Belle epoque sa ATuHa O.u.PHCKOTO l{apCTBO, KoeTO ce e OTK'bCHano OT nepcHHcKaTa HMnepHH H sanOlJH3JIO ){I ce npeep'sma OT Tepee I aacerae B MOII{Ha ){'bplKaOa, aa CTaBa nOJlHTHlIeCKa caaa B peraoaa H HaH-nocne aTHHCKH C'bIOSHHK npa CHTanK, ce e HaMUpaJlO no.u. aTHHCKO BlIHHHHe.

AAmpOn01lUMUme

n'bpBHHT H3BeCTeH HOCHTeJl aa HMeTO Koru; e CTapmrr KOTHc, a cne)l. Hero 0 TPaKHiicKHTe .llHH8CTHH H nO-K'bCHO B 6OCnopcKOTO l{apCTBO ce HBHBaT accra KOTHC'OBl(H. Opes nCHaTa kJIaCRlJeCKa H npes eJIHHHCTIflIeCKaT3 enoxa OOHKHOBeHH nHlla C T083 HMe ca ManKO; TO CTaB8 cpaBHHTeJlHO IIIHpOKopasnpOCTpaHeHO MelK.u.y OORKHOBeHHSI napon npes pHMCKaTa nxneperopcsa enoxa. TOBa nOK33Ba, lie OT aalJaJlOTO no npeaaxaasero na TpaKHHCKaTa .lI.'bplKaB8 KOTHC e 6HJlO THnHQHO uapcxo HMe. Cnopea )1. ,llelJeB Koro; e csxpareaa cpopMa sa CJlOlKHO HMe C n'bpBH eaexear Kom-, HO TaKODa HMe He e ,llOCerasacsHJieTeJICTByaaHo. C'bmeCTBYBaT cnOlKHH mrtrHH HaieHS Ko't\l~p\>A.A.O~ (lK. p.) H Ko'tu('t)-'ta~ (E. p.), o6alJe re (KaKTO e oT6enH3aJt oute )1. Ileses) ca npoH38e.ll.eHH nO-CKOpo OT HMeTO aa 60rHHHTa K6't~ HJlH Kow't(t)cD, KaK'bBTO e cnyqaHT H C &Me TO Konretmv (M. p.; III B. np, H. e.), KoeTO e npOHSBe){eHO OT HMeTO aa npaanasa aa 60- raasra Korornu unH Ko't\)'ti~ top'tit. Osxpa .. reaa $opMa HJIH He, OqeOH.lI.HO e, lie 8HTpOnoHHM'bT Konx e cpoaen, aKO He H MeHTHtieH, C li'bpBaTa$opMa aa BeTO aa 60rllHIITa K~ .. ~H.K,o~'t~ ... DOIIHT~ . no-cneuaaaso yTpatnl'tf..e~Od.:._~.ac~ lIaf~Mdxa; ~'. rrpasilHnH K01U't'tl4.· ca . &1JIH C

opmaC1'H1IeH xapaxrep H ca ce pasnpOCTPaHUJIH .lI.OpH B r'bp~SI. ,llocera HHMa y6e.ll.HTenHa eTHMonorHH KaKTO aa TeOHHMa, rasa H aa anrponOHHMa, HO B cnyqaH TOBa He e OT saaseaae.

Paseapa ce, npsaxara MelKAY ,llBeTe HMeHa He e caao e3HKOB; HO H peJIHrHOSeH npoeaea, Cnopen nannaca Komuc, call Ita AIWAOH (N!! 14), TOSH qOBeK ce e CMIITaJi (a e 6Hn CMHTaHH OT OKp'blKaBantHTe ro) He caxo C 60lKeCTBeH . npOHSXO.ll. - HeW;O eCTeCTBeHO 3a eaaa nap, - HO H sa ,lleicTBll're.neHCHH na AnoJloH H TOBa HanOllOOJ, Hanpaep, CJryqaJlT C AJleKCIH,ll1;P BenHKH, tHIf' Ha 3esc. TOSH HMnac e pe.n.aKTHpaH KaTO nannaca TTJPTJ~ AJ.1a'tOKO\) (N!! 23), Tepee (CUll «a) Axamos, 6e3 ~a e He06xo~HMa .lI.YMaTa nat~ "CHH" -- TaKa ce Ka3Ba aa rp'bnKH. B KOTHCOBHH sanmrc 06atie e CJlOlKeHa .lI.YMaTa nat~ "CHH" yMHm~eHO caMO sa ~a ce nO,lllJepTae HSPHQHO TO~pnesaerc H ,lla ce Hs6erne BCHKO .u.pyro T'bJlKyBaHe.

H ero lie WIH3aMe S peJlHfH0.3HaTa aruoc4>epa osoao npaauana aa uapcxara WIaCT y TpaKHTe, Ko.iho. npHHUHn e OM noseaen .If.6 napo.KCHS'bM H .If.O HCTHHCKa peaaraosaa JlY.lf.o.CT, mania, y CTapHSI Ko.THe. Y ATeHeH (XII, 531e-532a=Theo.po.mp, fro 31, Jacoby) e 33- naaen caenuaar 4>parMeHT or Teonoxnoaara .. HCTo.PHSI sa <l>MHn": .. Ha TpeTHSI aea (or rrsryaanero CH .If.a ce CpeIIJ,He C Ko.THc) <PHJlHn npacrnraaa B Oaoxapcnc (= Mo.Kapcoc, A. <1>0..11), MBCTo. s TpaKHSI C ro.J1BMa ropa, xy6aso. nonpeneaa H npHBTHa sa npe6HBaBaHe. OCo.6eHo. opes J1BTo.To.. To. (SMo. enao or MeCTa1-a, npenno.lIHTaHH or Ko.THc. Ko.H1'o. OT BCHlIKH rpaKHAcKH nape ce ornasaa HaA-MHoro. aa Y.lf.o.So.JlCTSHSI H p33KOW. To.H 0.6xo.Qan crpaaara CH II rnero SHlK.lf.aJI MeCTa 'ceHlIeCTH C .If.'bpSeTa H 60.raTH C So..lf.H. nocrpoaaaa saaa sa nHpWeCTBa. H xaro nocemasaa SCHKo. eaao or THSI MeeTa, Ko.JlKo.To. n'bTH My ce Y.lf.aBaJlo., npHHaCSIJI lKepTSH na 60.ro.BeTe H 0.6WyB8J1 C'bC CaHo.SHHUUTe ca H ce lIYBCTBYBaJI 6J1alKeH H IIJ,aCTJlHB, noKaTo. HaH ceTHe .If.p'bSHaJi .If.8 6oro.xYJlcTSYsa H .If.a o.cK'bp6S1sa ATHHa." HamHSlT nacarea pasKassa no-narar-sx, lie Ko.THC YCTpo.HJI napuieCTSo., xaro lie JlH 6o.rHHHT3 ATHHa IIJ,SlJla .Ila ce o.M'blKH sa Hero, npHro.T8HJI Ii 6pallHa CTaH H o.lIaKBaJI B nHHHo. C'bCTo.HHHe 60.rHHHTa. Koraro My ce no.MpallHJI Belle paSC'b.lf.'bK'bT, To.H asnpaTHJI e.lf.HH o.p'blKeHo.cen.lf.a BH.lf.H • .If.aJlH 60.rHHSlTa e nomaa S (SpallHaTa eras. A xoraro o.p'blKeHo.ceU1.T ce 3aB'bpHaJi H xasaa, IJe HHKo.H HHMaJlo. 8 CTaHTa. y6HJI C'bC. crpeaa H nero, H STo.PH .If.pyr o.p'blKeHo.ceu no.P8.llH C'bIIJ,aTa npallHHa, noxaro TpeTHIiT ce .If.OCeTHJI H Ka33J1, qe 60rHHSlTaOT.lf.aBHaOHJIa .If.owJla H ro lIaKaJIa.T0.3H nap, KaTo. 6M o.63eT BeAHalK or peBHo.CT K'bM men CH. napssaa SI Co.6CTBeHo.p'bIJHo.. xaro no.lIHaJi o.:r cpauaare Ii lIaCTH" (npes, BeWeBJIHeS-MHXaAJl0.8).

n'bpsaTa lIaCT or rosa C'bo.OIIJ,eHHe Hano.MHH sa e'bOHpaHHHTa H yro.IIJ,eHHSlTa aa 3aJlMo.KCHC H aerosare XHno.CTa3H (lKpeUUTe xaro nHKeHeH) C TpaKHAeKHTe OJlaro.p0.D.HHUH (BlK. Xeponor, CTpa60.H H np.), 'uaJIH BTo.pa'i'aIJaeT TPSl6sa aa ce T'bJiKysa xaro .. csentea 6paK", kieros gdmos, HJIB He, e .npyr np06J1eM. Tosa, xoero e or o.eo.(5eHaBalKHOCT B CJlYliaH. TO. e, lie roaa B'bo.(SpalKaeMO o.OIIJ,ysaHe c ATHHa He e sa KoTHe o.OHKHOBeH peJlHrH03eH pHTyaJl. spee Ko.ATo. , ce BJlB3a .S 06IIJ,YBaHe c 60lKeCTBeHHH CSIIT no. e.lf.HH HJlH APyr no.Bo..lf., no .If.eHCTBHTe.neH aKT, Ko.ITo. To.A e HCKaJl Aa H3B'bpWH He xaro csmecrno C 1I0.BeWKI, a C Oo.lKeCTseHa npapona. T33H oesYMHa JlI060.SHa HCTo.PHH aa Ko.THC C ATHHa HH n0.3Bo.JlII83, MHCJlH, na .If.o.nYCHeM XH~ noreaara, 'Ie sa caMHH Ko.THC HMeTo. MY He e 6HJlo., npocro sa csnasasanero My xaro HH.lf.HBH.lf., ao eM8HaitHH aa Oo.lKeCTseHHlI npHHUHn na 6orHHHTa-\laAKa KOTHC (Ko.THTo.), B'bnlrbTeH Y Bero.,Ko.HTo. e C'bIIJ,eSpeMeHHo. H CHH aa AnOHOH. Toaa npHHUHn My e n03So.JUlBaJI na iJ'bpmH BeIIJ,a, KOH1'o. 6Hxa OMH HeHo.pMaJlHH

sa 0.6HKHo.seHHH soaex, no He H,,3a enno 60.lKeCT80.. To.A e no.CTaSSJJI nocr-snxare CH aa ~.IlHo. MBo.ro. no.-SHCo.KO HHSO, o.TKo.JlKo.TO TOSa, KOeTo. ca Mo.r JlH )J.a aanpaasr ysacraysaunsre S KOTHTHHTe. '¥o.HTo. ca 6HJlH npaaaysaaa S 0.6CTftHo.sKa· aa . eKCTa3, KaKTo. lJeTeM y CTpa60H (X, 3,16): "Ha MaJIo.a3HHCKHTe np33HH1U1 npHnHlIaT KOTHTHHTe H oeH.IlH.IlMHTe • npasayaaaa ... ,o.T TpaKHTe. or Ko.HTo. npoasJle3JIH H o.p4>H'leClOITe np33HHUH. 3a 60.fHHllTa Ko.THC y e.D.OHlfre H sa HeHHHTe MYSUKaJlHI1 HHclpYMeHTHEc*Wl, roaopa.« THll .If.YMH: .. CaeIIJ,eHaTa Ko.THe y eAOBHTe, ,Ko.HTO IlMaT naaHHHCKH HHcTpYMeHTH", cJle.ll I(OOTo. nOOT'bT senaara npHoaBsl sa. CJlYlKHTeJlHTeHa 11Ho.HHC: .. E.D.HH .D.'hPlKH s P'bU.e 4>Jleiira, H3KYCHo. .IleJlo. aa crpyrap, Ii C npscnrre CH H3H'b.1IHHSa necen, uio no..Il0YlK.Ila K'bM JlY.lf.H SHKo.Be; npyr n'bK r'bpMH C Me)J.HH KHMSaJUI." Ha npyro MllCTO noer-sr rosopa: .. ExTH seceaa necea ; crpamaa MHMH, no..D.palKaSaHKH ua 6HK8, peaar or CKpHWao MHCTo..; YJKaCHHllT K'bHTelK aa THMnaHa ce p33HaeR KaTO nonseaen I'P'bM." Tosa npaaasa aa 4>PHrHHcKHTe ceeuieaoneacrsas, xoero e eCTeCTSeHo., 3aIIJ,o.To. caaare 4>pHrH carrpeceJleHUH or TpaKHH H caeaoaareano Te3H caemeHo..lf.eHCTBHSI ca npeaeceaa o.TTaM" (npea

Kauapoa - )laHo.s). ,

Mo.lKe 6H >KeCTo.Ko.To. yOHi-iCTSo. aa Ko.THCo.sara lKeHa He e 6liJlo. npe)J.H3BHKaHo. or pesHo.CT, KIKTO HH npenasa Teonoxn B UMTHpaHHSI no-rope nacaac, a e 6HJlO H3S'bpWeHo. xaro aKT aa peaaraosea eKCTa3. To. Hanot.fHH aa .If.eHcrBUTe.neR oprsacrasea diasparagmos -- "paaK'bCBaHe na napsera- (xaxap H TyK aa e ynoTpe6eH rJlatOJl:bT dvatEJ1vro "paaCHIJaM aasacTH"), xoero e iIPHC'b~o. !fa .D.H9HHCo.BHTe opraaCTHIJHH np33HRUH, H .e BC'b'llHo.CT BH)J. lKepTsQnpaaoureaae, paa6Hpace, TyK nHncsa npyrasr nHo.HHCo.B eJleMeHT. omophagia - SJ.IleHeTo. Ha p33K'bCaHo.To. lKHSo. lKHBo.THo. o.IIJ,e CYPo.BO, no rosa He npoueaa C'blllHo.cTTa aa H.IleHTa. 40.aemsoro lKepTSo.npHHo.WeHHe, xaro SCHKo. .If.pyro. lKepTBo.npHHo.meHHe, no.CT88H Jlei-icTBRHTa H npHJl.pYlKasaIIJ,HTe ra npe}f(HSHSaHHH nosese WlH nO*ManKO B e.u.HB. nO-BRco.K3 oecraHo.BKa. K'bneTo. troseWKHSlT H 6olKecTBe"HHT e.neweHT0.6pa3ysaT e.lf.HHCTBO H npacscrayaa MarHlIecKo.To.. Y TpaKHTe ca 6HJlH npaKTHKyBaRH IJo.seWKH lKepTBo.npHHo.meHHH II HHe me npHno.MHHM e.llHH csmecrsea npaxep. Ha caar- 6aT8 CH uapsr aa KeHHTe Ilaeraaac (B 0.6nacT- . ra no. IQlKHa MapHua" II n, np. H. e.) npaaeC'bJI S lKepTBa .IlsaMa rp'bIJ.KH Mna.lle>Ka, ysealIaHH xaro lKepTseHH lKHSo.THH, xaro CaMo.p'btfHo. ra pa3CHK'bJl, C enaa Y.lf.ap H npHC'bCTsYBaIIJ,HTe S'b3XsaJlSlBaJIH C neaaa nerosara CP'bllHo.CT. Cnopen 1lHo)J.o.p, KOHTo. HH pasxaasa T33H cnY1lKa, nHerHJlHC H3BHKan, se 0.6HKHo.seHHTe xopaa uapere He CM CJlYlKeJlH C eAHH H C'bIIJ, SH.lf. lKepTsH. 01leSH.IlHo. nHcaTMHT e nonsepraa cauo lKeCTo.KQCTTa aa nocr-snsara, ao He e pa36paJi HCTHHCKHHT Ii CMHC'bn.

31

BcH1IK0 TOBa'Hase~ Qa MHC'bJITa, 'Ie KoTHC .Ilan Ha CHM~H:_eTij'tKepc:~nellTec HecnYlJaitHo~ ;K8~~ e CnO>KRO HMe, no.tt.oOHO ·HaKspcn~fkI&~. .tt.pyr· TpatCHfiCKH uap, Ifa8tCTeH caMd!'ljT MOHeTHTe My npea rrspaara RonoBitHa Hif III' B. np. H. e. HMei'o aa KOTRCQ~HlI·Clflf CeHBHBa BABe <P0PMR: KspQsf}A.E1t~ B eAHH AenlftRHcKH HaAnRC H eAHOBpeMeRHO KsposPA.s1rtT](; H KspO"opA.s1tnl~ B eAHH aTRHCKH AeKpeT, KaTO nOCJleAHaTa <IxlpMa e 06HKHOBeHaTa y rp'bQKHTe asropa (lleMocTeH, EcXHH:H Ap.).Cera· MomeM Aa KameM, xe Ao6- para TpaKHiicKacpopMa e UHna KsPO"sllA.s1tl"ll~. BTOPHllT eneMeHT -1lA.sn:'tl1~ e saCBMAeTeJlCTSY· BaH caxo B TOBa HMe H BJ}'bSKaTa My C rp'bUKHSI rJl8rOJI PU1tCO .. rJleAaM" e npoero xanoresa aa n. Kpenaep, <t>OPMaHT'bT -1t'r- ce HBHBa H B· ApyrH TpaKHikKH. HMeRa: AeA.&rrl1~ (60- lKecT8o). .. Al.ux'tu (tonoHHM,cp. P.)II .. !;AM1t't1'l~ (AeMoTHKoH),MO_ 6H~U;(aH~ponoiHtM, lK. p0JtcpaBHeHC ZepcH"'iPO.ft}i~3«'ltiadrti1t'( 3am.PBIIReJleMellT' MO>ife;;M*;ee': KWfeReIl(O nosese, C_e6ltyaa .~;.(JT awrpono~: npocra HMeHa K89<Jit~;· Kirp(r~~' K«po'~, Kap~~, Kgtx;;a, H Jl.p., ;cJIooKlnt"~K&pmPaUA.~, Ka~o-~~, If ¥orieHIKI,,:. ,1(4Poo.;. Kupow, HAP., Kapcn-&Uft, 7Ov6i<a~,flij~ BeHO aa M6xapO'o~. EneMeH'l"bT Kepcn-/Kt1pO-t· He Mome Aa CC OTAeJIH,KaKTO e YCTaHOBeHO OTJJ;aBHa, OT TOSH B HMeHaTa sa ABaMa OT Ka6H· pare, BeJlHKHte caMOTpaKHHCKH oorOBe: 'A~tOxspO"a H 'A~t6-xspoo~, C'both.ueHH B eAHH CXOJlMOH K'bM AnOJlOHHiI POAOCKH: .. B CaMOTpaKH HMa MHCTepHH aa Ka6HpHTe H Maaaeac Aapli COOMeHa· Da HMeHaTa HM. Ha 6poil ca lIeTHpHMa: 'A~{sp<x;, ·A~t()xtpO"a. 'A~t6xspo~. Axcaepoc e .lleMeTpa, AKCKOKepca e Ilepceipoaa, Axceoxepcoc e Xaaee. OpH6aBHHHHTlleTB'bPTH, ~Uo-JU~, .. e Xepuec, KaHTO pa3K83Ba lbIOHHc()AOJ1~·TesH HMeHa capaanHIIHQ T'bJlKYBaIlHH-'~.He HCKaMe Aa 9J1H8aMe . B .~C~JiH (mY ··'reIHH're eTHMOJlOrHH, . HO ... ()T •• ~HQ3Iijf'<r.neAHi;:TMtia e OC06eHD BaHC.k,/qei'iYJiK?'HB.ilf{a6tfp,rie·8 .. TpaHHetciflt"CaM~",:'c<Hel'oJntsl 'rfpOUSXOA H MHC1'epHH, liMa HaqSJlOTO eH B-so'paT8 - aa 6aJlxaao-erejlcxara Q'HBHiIIUSal{HH. -11 HHMa HUIl(O erpaaao B rose, tieca MorJlH ~a BHpaaT, lie THXHaTa XTOHHIIBa iJPHPOA8' - aKO ra ,If;eHc,... BHTeJlHO e 6Ma ~'XTOHHqHa' UJIH nO-AoOpe - cauo XTOHHttH8 _:_ Il COJUipHHIlT AnonoHoB eneMeHT ea 6unH B'bRll'bTeHH ; B ROTHeR- Kep" ce6J1tmT, aTe3H AHa eJieMeHT8He MoraTAa ce oT,AeJiHT eAHH' OT 'APyr,Te BIIKora He ce' HBg':' BaT B "HeTa CPOPM8,' B'hOpeKH 'Ie eAHinm-r OT TIlX 1I(OiKe Aa-: npeo6Jr8A8Ba. Pascapa ce, He e B'b3MoliCfiO. - A8 ce CXHaHaT BCHqKH HI08HCU B :rOSH . ~'1(J)KeH tnlillrilleHc OT qYBCTBa' H yeemaHUHY K~H .It.' ce pas6epaT BCH'lKH MOTHBH aa HeI'08OTO nGBe.!l.eftae,; HO : lie' . I.Qe C'bMHeHHe, lie TO.A e lKHBJI" o6iP1>SeH' O'r 60>KeCTBeHa aTMoccpepaH qpes·peJr~rrpelKBBSIBaue e AOCTHrHan Ao' TaM All ce Clf1Pra . ~ : )l(HBO. 6Q.o. meCTBO.

l:a'to)t~, • KaKT() BmKAaMe cera, e aBTaHTHIIsara CPOPM8mt }(MeTO aa; CIiTaJlKOBUSI CHR, xoaro ce HapH'la y TYKU.!I.HA (H Y npyra asTOpM)l:6.00:x~; nocaeasara 'mOPMa. CJIe,!(OBaTeJlHO e BTOpUIIHa. 'CTpyKTyp~-mHa TOBa HMe He e scaa AKo' ro paaJl0ltCH¥. ,- aa . l:a-'tox~, TO. I.Qe aaese B 60raTara . cepHH rpaKHi%cKu HMeHa C BTOpH eaeaear "'tOKo<;, ~l)o)Co<;, rmrsr AJlu-'to~. AJlu-l)ox~ H np., o6alle. BT03H cJlyqaH l:a- u"e OCTaHe H30JiHpaHo. BIl· MOr'bJl zta ce npaaene KaTO napaJleJlaHTponOftUM'bT l:~l)aA.a~ = paaaeasaero My Hal:a~l)aA.~ e B'b3- MomHO, cpa AaA.a~, AaA.l1-1tOp1.~ It np., HO CDmeersyaa If- BbSMOlKHO.CTTa MMeTO na ce pas-' nOlKH aa Ial)-a-A.-a~, cpa, Mu\-'O'al)-fl~, Mfll)oO"ul)-11<; H np., H usrJrelltAa, .. tlt~ TaSH B'b3MO>KHOCT e aa npeA11O'10TaHe; eneA()B~'ten-1!0.·6HXr.fe MOF JIM Aa MHCnBM~- . sa eAHoo6pasytJaJIHel:atO-K-O~ (C'bC'CyCPHKC8.-X-). KoeTO RHMa mUUO oOInO C'bC cepHHTa-'t/I)O"l.O~, HO e6HJrO rrpaC'beAHHeHO K'bM HeR nO.PaJJ;u B'bHIDHa-ra npaaaxa, C orne;ll . aa xasa HOTO TyK' He. e M"HC'l'O'rO Aa ce s8HBMasaMe C eaexenra --c/(}oxo<;. XanoTeSaT!, . ..e 'l:a'toxcx; e Fp'bUKOHMe or rana Ea""'"1't~' e' . a6CYPJUfa;

C TOsa~"~1Jm6aa.tt:ace 'cB'bpmeHMeTO B rpaq,~a~26' ':K1JAeTO-c-tilfe'fe-l:a't'to)to HJlH £(lu't'oxa, Ka'rO'BToPtYt0 qeftltevi!+Tra-~ in.3:' MOlKHO. llm!JTOHM.;'a.t g':;Jmt01t<r'l'pemy U· B l:a-roxo 6H MOr'bJl Aa HMa napanea B !attstA.a~ B eAHH HaAnMC or pHMcKaTa HMnepaTopCKa enoxa (OT Ilaareflcxata 06J1aCT), KoeTO rrpenCTaBnRBa BapHaHT aa 06HKHOBeHaTa <popMa l:al)aA.~, npa YCJlOBHe,lIe at B l:at&:tA,.a~ HMa cToilHocTTaHa AHcpToHr ai, a He OTt>eJfIl3'Ba rnacaara e (at BM. e), xaxro Mome na ceaaKnfOlfH OT tPopMaTa l:soaA.~· .HJ~O-CKOpOTa:K'bB e. HMeH.HOTYK cnyqaHT .(B HiiJ(._n:~(a Zipas Sed. f. €IL 3; 6US- npeanoJlolKeHHt!ToAa ce peKOHCT-

.py " .. P!'I e ..•.. A.:t .. ,." '~.' .. ,pMa .. ' _. s."'.e fl .. '.I!f 7.~ .. ,l,Ie~~o .. ,."HB.,*, .: a II.a .•... a .. p. r .. y.~

MellTIf).l, ~pJ,t_mkaJllt8t:a: ,~PMtf~ .. ~ '.w~':; l( He

E:~8~;.:'Nt . .It~~e··!~~l{tL·)lP.O~~afg ~l>a (T8SH OpOMJlHa e XHOOTeTRtllt,{,hm,03a. }l.;l{eqeB; MHeHflero. aa BJI. I'eopraea, lie Ta'SH npoMHua e HaCTaH8Jlll B "naKO~MIlSHHCKij'" C'buto' raxa e Hey6eAHTeJlHO). 06P~'rtlp -;- He-61fXMe MOrJlHA8 AonYCHeM H npO.!wIHR~ra>at. nOHeiKe HSfMa napaneJl sa Tooa. CJle.ll:OBl;lTenHol:qttOxo~, K~TO npes V·:-JV,a: np. H. e~,,~.yp~6Ba .!I.a6'P.!J.e lIe1'eHO Sait'()/ws, OCTaBa HS<;JJIJfpaH8 H He-b6SlCHUMa . CfIopMa: -_"i3r9pa1'a' <pop~a!a:K(),AeHCtBIf'l'eMIO''l'He ~t~O<; ~lIeJq~h ·K~to~~a~Me, ItO-M'aJIKO ~~*H<t-; .. e_ ~:m?-~~O .1;PY1llfa sa .·O(}~H~~ '. ~~. ,~1;le'tt!~JnTOJIata ~1fOJtHO TptTtq>aH.~·~' 1f(~ Jattn,·~}t!tttH~KH:·· aw a a, a Bn. feoptHeB"rOBopH eAHHetBeHO sa H. e.aw ~He sa tilt I) ~ .~~JlO B'" rpa~ilCKH" au, aa .. J(aKO-MHSHHCK!I~~;q; npl!M~P.1>T MY' sa TpeTHpaaero B ';)l~I1.-~Sl!HCKH" ·~.~;Aii-)(-Ot, Au"x~o{ OT . ~dhaWokb:s~; 'B1>JlK" (9TJ!..a~Ha tJpeAJIO~eHa eTHMO~oru~.~ '~<?Jl9rHSI'(a)1f!.'BJ'opHSJ'My'lIPW'Mep &ixva ,,1!1i'.lt ~Hel,fOaH!I""r ':or *dhaw:../t-1ttv-e caao XHITOTesa~, Otlatle n'LpBOHallanHaTa $Op-

Ma TpH6Ba }J,a 6'b}J,e *d1!A~-qi>daw-oi, K'h}J,eTO HHTepBOKaJIHOTO W, MO}K,e aa H3q_e3He (CpB. A~o~" ~()o~ .. Da.'Oos),8 A(1:X-01., e oopasyBaRO OTAii,QI.: C iH~n~yBaHe . aa cyIPHKca-k-.' llelleBoTo06HCHeHHe HaAiixol.H Aiiol OT ABa paMH~ifl' 'KOIWHa .e, Pa36~a. ce, HenpaeMJIHBO. Ho KaKTO H, ;A.a ,eTO": B1>npOC'hT cA~\! ~o:A 'He MO}Ke }J,a HH,. noaorae . sa oraomeaaero au: a, nOHemeHe 'MooKe }J,aCMHTar.e, qe C'hMH·HTe.nHOT9 ~C1U't9X~ ',e Ou.no n'hpBomiqa.nHa~a q,opMa, pa3B~~ ce, B I:a.'to'.'q~., H~H-~OC?le H~ H rpera B'b3MOlKH,?cr, KOHTO .C'WlCeM· He e aaH3K.lUOll~. saae npii :rOSH: jI~pe}KHO '~a4p~~KaH: Ha.D.n8~-· lie . BepTH~.nH~Ta .xaCTa ,ce. . .1J.l>.n}KH ,Ha rpeWKa H na ce YCTaH~BH' HOpMaJIHa~a q.opM,a l:a.{t}-· 'tOXO.

T'1PTt~ Auuroxou, l1'MeTo, TTtP~ ce cpenia B O}J,pHCKaTa }J,HHaCTHH: tI'hPBHHT'H USBeCTeH HaM Mow.eH BJIa}J,eTen, 6amaTa aa CHTa.nK, ce uapasa TaKa H e}J,HH MHTHlIeCKH TpaKHHCKH uap HMa HMeTO TTtPt~. ETHMonorHHTa My e .apyr npoeaea, HO MO}KeM }J,a KalKeM, lie BCHlIKH onHTH He ca yoe}J,HTeJIHH. LUo ce OTHacH }J,O AjlCl'tox~, TO OqeBH}J,HO oparauaaaara 4l0pMa e. 6H.na C -'t., ane e A""a50x~. Toea e HMeTO na aaaxa O,n;PHCKH BnaAeTeJIu: AMaToK I, aac.nc,n;HHKa aa CeBT I, OKO.nO 400 - npeaa 386/5 r. np. H. e., xoaro e noaaar c-suio KaTO Mit'toX~ H Mit5,9~ H HerOB CUH e BepOSiTHO Tepee II, napaaaaacr H nocae uap B TpaKHHcxara .llenTa npH BH3aHTHoH; AMarol{ IT, B'h3- uapHn ce caen YOHficTBOTO aa . KOTHC B 359 r. U uapysaa }J,O c.ne,n; 350/349 r., c.n~}J, KorOTO e Belle uap B 346 f. HeroBHHT CUH Tepee III, C'h103HHK aa ct>HJll.Ill. II H npo,t:liBJ!H_!( aa Kepce- 6JIenT H }J,eTpoHHpWi xaro jrero B 341 r. Hue, TyK HHMa ,n;a pasr.ne}K}J,aMe oraonremrero Mem,n;y Te3H TpH IPOPMH, HHTO me ce cn~paMe HaeTHMonorHHTe - T03H, B'hnpOC ce HY}K,lJ,ae OT HOBO npoyxaaae aa IlIHpOKa OCHOBa, H TO B'hB ap'ssxa H C· JlpyrH BbnpOCH" OT TpaKHHCKaTa oHoMacT~K8; (a. cnYllaH . nanp. MOHeTHTe C aerenna M Tt'tol(o ce CMHTaT sa q.anwHBH, a resa C AJ-la.50xo Hsrne1K}J,ar C~MHI:ITeJIHH).' 3acera HCKaMe caao na Ka}KeM, lie Ha,IlnHC'bT nosaaaa, lie ce xacae HJIH aa Tepee II, Hnu RO-Cl(OpO sa Tepee III. "'" , " .'

Ato\)xalJlo~ ce vsasaa "sa npbB rrsr TYK.

Ih-psara ,lIaeT H8 Toaa ABYOCHORHO HMe HMa CBOHTe B'h3M01KH~ na~eJuj." B . Attu-A.-a~ (ApHCTOq,aH), At 't()-~lcr't~, - *l'tO'U-1ta.ti3t}~, Ditu-gentus. AKO rosa npe',n;,nono.x,reaHe e BHPHO, Atou"'alJ-lO~ e pesyarar.na aCHMHna~HH d-t>d-d. Aa He MH('nHH306mo sa HHKalCBO ",n;aKO-MHSHiicKa" IPopMaC' -d .. ,cpemy "TpaKHiicKa"

C -to. ,

Kmvo; He e rp1>U~OT:~; iIp!l~~raTe.nHO. Katv6~ "HO~", HO e}J,HHCTaeI10 lIHC.IJ_O OT HMeTO HaTpa-' KHH~KOTO' nJIeMe Ka.tvoi,' KOHio ca 6HnH Cl,· CeJ{MllaaCTHTe H ,Ca }KHBe~IiMe1K,n;y !plKHHTe ~PH!OI1H aa EprHHOCH np()nOHTH.n;a~' 3Halle· HHeTO My TyK He e flCHO. M01Ke.n;a ce npennOJIOlKH, lie TyK TO e 'iiiOTpe6eHO xaro nHtiHo

5 ApxeoJlorrur, 3, 1987

HMe, HO B Ta3H. enoxa TpaKHTe He H3n0Jl3YB?T, e,THOHHMHTe KaTO .nHllHH ,HMeHa (noae ziocera HamaT~ o!'-o,li:y~e~Ta~HH H~ CbJl1.p}Ka T8KHSac.ny.' IIaH)_ ':i .~~. MO~~ ,n;a, HH~H~ nap~eJIH B HIlieHa, K8TOBW''tcov a Kixcov, KOHTO ca enOHHMU aa IJ.IleMeaaTa:eicr'tov~ H Kixov~.B HMeHa 'Ha p06HH3B-bH'Tp8KHsi' K~TO Aa~: r&'ta~ H ep~~, HHTO a 'Cy(kT~THaitpaHH' 'npH.IlaraTe.nHH xaro 'Acr'ttx%. Ii- 'll(i)i9uvtx6~ . B . nO-K'hCHOBpeMe •. T03~ rpalflHT (~'25)' e .Ha}J,.'hlfOTp Ha ifJua.naTa C orpUl¥!il.;iH!lFf ,~~~~Jfp~u~" ~~ '}~eo' (N2 ,~ HTOBa, ~~T(~_SI,!fJ.fC.rBO .. I_l9-S1'0po~y ;~n~~MnH, C.aMOCTOHTeJIHO MHCto,. OTK0llJ(0T0)1a 6'h}J,e, nocTaBeHBl,B BP~Ka' C 'Tosii" ieKcT: ' rtoaezee He M01Ke na " ce CB'hplKe C Ko'tuOS .~ ,TOBa' 6if OH.nO aocyp.ziAo: KOTHc' He' e 'OT iI~eMeTO 'KeHI:t, a e onpaseu, ~HTO' n1.K C Bso, 'nOHe}Ke K atvo~' e. C'hmeCTBHTeJIHO, a He npHnaraTeJiHO.Ta aa, osnasasa, 'lie Beoc ce HaMMpa B TepHTOp"HTa' na KeHHTe,' a He' HHKaK'hB ,n;pyrBeoc B npyra, QOnaCT. Bee nax sacera HaH-nO}J,XO.IJ.Hw.OTO o6fic.' HeHHe e, lie HMaMe paeora' C aurponoaax (osaaqasam HHKaK1.B BTOpH. eoocTBeHHK ?). .:

~1.crA.ota~ HflMa napaaeaa B. rpaxaacxara oaoaacraxa, HO TOBa He oaaasaaa, lie' He e

"CTHHCKO TpaKHHCKO MMe. '

AKo lIeTeHeTol:aA.A.a.(~)' e TOllHO, T03H cny-' lIa" e e}J,HH 01' KpanHo pe}J,KHTe npaaepa sa TOBa HMe npea npenpaucxara enoxa (.l{pyfHTe npa-. MepH ca B rpaxaacxa ceMeHCTBa B . Kopiorpa MenanHa H B Hcca), }J,oKilTO npes PHMcK3Ta HMnepaTopcKa enoxa TO e lIeCTO. '

Tonosuuume

n'hpimHT rononaa ce HB~lBa B TpH IPOpMH :.' Ep'}'tcrxTt, Hp11miTt H ApY1.crxTt .. <l>opi.taTa 'Epyi: qxTt 'e sacaaaereacrayeaaa y E"CXHH ".neMO.,CTeH. Ce.nHmeto 'e OHno pa3I10n01KeHO BOOaacrra aa pexara 'Ep'Ytvo~ -H H~eTO My e 6WIO 06pa3YBaHO OT TOBa aa pekara C nosonrra. aa IlIUPOKO pasnpocrpaaeaas B. TpaKufkKH e3HK CYIPlfKC -crx- (CPB: Aoplcrxo~, 'Ap'ticrxo~, ApaJ3'll~ qx6~ H ap., HHe pasr.iIe}K,naMe T03lf CYIPHKC npyraae), BapH:aHTHTe Ep-, Hp- HAp_' ca'a oo.naCTTa aa He "ouie peq.IeHHHIIpOoiteM. sa j,O-' ne6aHAeTo eta » TP~HticKH '(aa Koijfo ce n~H-, capa. cera soaa KoiiaeriuHir),C:'hlltOTO Ha.ite.HHe:

IIH, npe.n.mira H' HMeio' Ha'\ caaara pexa, KOHTO' y Xeponor HMaij>op.MilTCl ·A'Yp1tlvTt~BM. "'A pit-

aVTJ~ napen C <p0pMaTa' ·Epyrvo~.· '

Kasaao 6ellie' Belle, lie" AItPO'~ (TaSH IPOPMa: e sa npe,n;nollHTaHe ' npen cpe,n;HHH PO}J, Aspov) e nOSHaT ome npes enHHHcTHlIecKaTa enoxa H lie npo,n;'hn}Kasa na C'hmecTBysaH no' spexe ua pHMCKaTa HMnepHH:." Aipo~ (Teonoun y Crerpaa BH3aHTHHCKH), Ap ros '(fJJI~H~) H ... A1tpro.;; (KoH-

cTa.HTHH. nOP4J. H,' Poi?eH",~T, )'.'.' ".f\~. 1'01 (n. ton~M. en. ) u.H,' Apr:i (HMilHC OT PaM), "'A1tpcov (npoKoriHH)"

Colonia ClaUdia' AprimsiS (Ha,n;riHc If Tpoana) H Ta3H YCT3HoBKa npasa H )I'hP~HT aaaarea, ,B~ "JiH Bsov, KaKTo xaaaxue, ce cpema TyK aa npsa msr, HO HMeTo 'TpHoBa na ceo ,rio~' CTaBHB1.B apsaxa -c TOB8. aa rrsrsara craauns Mem,n;y Pesacro H Anpa, KoeTO ce HBHBa B e}J,HH

33

H C'b~ HSBOP (ltinerarium Hieresolymitanum) nOA ABe q,oPMH 118 ABe pasmAilH MeCT8:· Beoduo H Bedizo (atSJI8TMB OT BMe H8 -os ; -dizos HJIH-.diza .. yicpeneHOMHcTo"). n'bpBHHT HSAa~ TeJI HlleHTHq,HlI.Hpa resa ABe MeCTa. I1Ma 06aqe H eJJ.HH xacrea B JJ.OJIHHaTa aa MapHlI.a Bt-7tapa (Ilpoxonaa; -xapa "CeliO"). I1M3HKH npeJJ.BHJJ. KOJIe6aHHeTO ale B TpaKHHCKH, MOllCeM .lll cpasHHM HJIH nO-CKOpo na CB'bpmeM H3WHI Bso; C'bC CeJIH~eTO Baos MellC.llY Viminaciuro H Hotreum Magni (Itlner, Hlerosolym.), HO C'b~OTO HMe He osaasaea, qe CeJIHrn.eTOe C'b~OTO. Baos nOJJ.CKaSBa, se M'bllCKHHT poa B~ e sa npeAnosarane.

rS\O'tO\ HJIH rS\<Ttat HJIH rS\ata (cp.poJJ.) H rTlt- e HenOSHaT TOnOHHM. nOHelKe TpHTe npenxonaa CeJIHIUa ce JIOKaJlH3HpaT B 06.ucTTa aa .aOJIHa Mapana, nOrJlllHO eAa TbpCHIIH TOBa MHCTO -HHK'bJJ.e TaM, HO T088 HHMB'C'roAHOCT aa HCTHHCKH apryMeHTH e caMO npHeMJlllBO npeJI.DOJlOICeHHe. OpHC'bC1'BHeTO aa eaeMeHTa -<n-C'bSA8.Ba Bne1laTJleHHeTO, qe TOBa HMe npHHa.llJIemH K'bM rpynara eTHoHHMH, TOnOHHMH H aHTponOHHMH C'bC cyq,HKca -st-, KOHTO e I1lHPOKO pasnpocrpaaea B ueurpaaaara 6aJlKaHCKa SOHa OT TpaKHH JJ.O I1JIHPHH: 'A<Ttai, ITtua'tat, '0 pto'tat , fl>axlaata{, AO'Yx1'\ata{; Ai>o't~, Kupto'tO<; ; MTI~Hat~, BopsPto't~ ; H np, H np. (06aqe He BCHKO -at- e CycIJHKC, nanp, HMeTO na pexara N to't~ e OT "ned-tos, M JJ.p.).

HaA-ceTHe :Eao3upa. n'bpBHSlT HS)1.aTeJI npeanOJlO}l{H, qe rosa CeJIH~e TpH6Ba na ce aoxaJlHSHpa no )1.HCHaTa crpaaa aa )lYHaB, HHK'b.lle Me}l{.llY Iatrus H Trimammium, H lI.HTHpa W. Tomaschek (Die alten Thraker II, 2,82), HO TOMa· mex rosopa sa C'bBCeM paSJlHqHO MHCTO: Scaidaoa. B qaCTHH paarosopa H Ha opraaasapaHHTe no np06JIeMHTe aa PoroseHCKOTO C'bKpoBHIUe Kp'brnH MaCH npes Mal 1986r. MH6elue 83.ll8B8H B'hnpOC'bT,Aa.m'l'03H .TonOHRM C'bA'bPlK8 eJleMeHTa ~'·6Cloo, -ospa, Http. ( .. yKpeneao MHCTO HJlH CeJlHmeK). Tosa eaeaear .ll0- cera He ce HBHBa KaTO caMOCTOHTeJlHa AYMa C HSKnlOqeHHe B enaa XeSHXHeB TeKCT: A.tpa· xOA.tr; {mc> E>pq.xli'lv "rp8.ll OT TpaKHTe (ce aapuqa).tte6a", K'b,zr.eTO OTKpaH spexe e pasnoaaarara $opMa titpa H TH e aanoaaysaaa KaTO eAHH OT apryxenrare sa csmecrsysaaero aa "AaKO-MHSHHCKH" eSHK,p83JlH1IeH OT "TpaK.mCKH". ETHMOJlOrHHTa e naaeaa y Il, Ilesea cnopen B~ TOMameK H n. Kpesaep: OT xopena ·dh~-II-: dhs-u- 'setzeo; griinden' (CpB. aapaxov IT. e. 3uFaxov]' 84xov i1 Sp6vov XesHxHH, aTH1l.-.II.op. Suxo<; 'Sitz~. rp'bnKH Saaooro 'sitze' H TpA6sa na ce T'h4f'YBa K8.TO 'Sitz, Siedlung, Wohnort, offenes Dod'.. Bn. feoprHeB,KoHTO HMeHHO orneaa OT TP8KHiCKH •.. roSR "ARKO-MHSHikKH" eSHK KaTO caMOCTOHTeJIeH.npHeMa TaSH eTHMOnorHH H 06HCHHsa sapHaHTHTe de'Oa, aaoa » dooa KaTO xpoHonoruqeCKH H ,ll.ltaneKTHH aa-

pHaHTH B ".llaKO-MRsHicKH,,; O!>i>a (IV ~I B.

34

np~ H. e.»o (II-VI-B. HaH. e.). AKo npHeMeM npe.llnollCeHaTa eTHMOnOrHH, ';08TO HsrnelK.lla y6e.llHTenHa, M'b1lHO me 6'b)(e.lla 06HCHHM -Sap« OT C'b~HH xopea, nOHellCe! (1) Cnope.ll )1.eqeoI'eopraesara-reopaa B. e. ·di:>Tp8K.d, T. e. pesynTaT'bT TpH6Ba AI 6'blle C'bUlWHT, KakTO B ",zr.aKHAcKH"; (2) Iao&apa eeAHHCTBeHO 1IHCJlO, a -3ap« e MROllCeCTBeHO.K8KTOCeSSKJlIOlIaoa OT cIJoPMaTa Apysoooov s OcIJHIJ,H8mlHSI Ha,llnHC B seer aa AKOPHHoH OT .llHoHHconon (S8JI1IHK) OT cpeaara na I anp. H. e.; napaaeano C T83H $OpM8 8JlHsa B ynorpeea H MHOlKeCTBeHOTO "'RCJlO -- It opes I B. np. H. e. HMa Kone6aHHe MelK.llY -3apov H -6$, ,IlOKaTO· aropara q,opMa, KOHTO ce HMIra, sanesaa Aa ce exaama KITO e.ll.HHCTBeHO 1IHeJlO. nap.,nen sa TOBa SlBneHHe HMa B -1tapOVH -1tCiptl,. HaRp. Bsao61tapov H

BooO'U1tapa. .

no JIHnca na napaJItJIH sa IaoSap« He MOlICeM aa aH8JlHSHp8Me CTPYKTypaTa· na TasH ,zr.YMa: :Euo-SajJa HJIH Iaukpa (:EaoSa-pa TPH6- aa na ce HSKJIIOIIH KaTO B'b3MOllCHOCT) • .al pasraenaae BceKH OT naara cJlyq8H. (1) Iau-SajJa:

Iao- ocraaa aaoaapaa eaeaear, ECreCTBeHO TOH MOllCe na :npeAHBH caonre npaaa aacsiaecrsysaae, - B'bnpeKH qe He MomeM na CXBaHeM SHaqeHHeTO My. AKO -Sapa npoaaaaaa OT *dhell- : dhalt-. TO· rptIfSB8 ,11.1 IIpHHa)lnelKH aa .ll.pyr eSHK, B KoiiTO ·dh>th. T83R npoaana e nOSRaTa 8 rp'bl\KH, HO TOBa He Mome .lla 6'b.ll.e rp-suxa ,llyMa. nOHe)1(e aanosaa C'bC I-, a B rp'blI.KH Ha1lanHOTO *s- npea raacaa ce paaaasa B h-, OTK'b,zr.e ce HBHBa B TaK'bB cnyqlA TOBa -th-? .LlanH ce xacae sa HHK8K'bS H. e. xopea C -t-, KOHTO cnopen )1.eQeB-feopraeaara reopaa tpH6Ba na ce npOMeHH a -th-? Ho TOraDa "nenaarRHCKH" MOllCe .lla Dpe,ll.HBH npasara CH. T.~. ,ll.a ce xacae sa qylK.110 HMe, BJUISJIO B Tp8lOlICKH, H rosa HHMa na 6'b,zr.e e,II.HHCTBeHmrr enyqaa B .T03He8HK •.. As MHCJlH, tIe.'IuUSUPti e Tp8KidleICR T0I10BHM B B'hnpoc1tT sa S·B HaQ3JIHO H cpeaso nOJlOlKeHHe B peAHlI.a .llYMH ce HylK~ae OT HOBO Hscne.llB8He. (2) IaoS-ajJa: :EaoS- HSrnellC.lla KaTO IeoS-, KoeTO HMe HMa SeAH'b}l{ q,opMara Sautes, HO TOBa e MHoro cJla6 apryMeHT .ll.a nOCTaBHM ~e.llHO nsere c1JOPMH. Illo ce OTHaCH .11.0 BTopaT8· sacr -apa, csmecrsysa eAHH rpaa .. Apa HJIH .. Apu\ B'bB <l>OKHAR; MeCTHOTO HMe ZUA.3-apa e aropHqHa cl>oPMa (csanaaeaano 8HanOrHH aa IUHPOKO peanpocrpaaeaara rpyna C -3apa 1) HI ZaA.3-a1ta. 06aqe BC~KO TOBa e xanOTeTlAHO.

I1MeTo *tau8apa, K8BTO 1'pB6sa .lla ce B'bScraaosa HMeHHTenllltJln8.!lelKcoopeA POAHTeJIHHH Iao3u~; sacsaaeteacrayaaao B aDteHTHqeH TpaKHHcKH Ha.llnHC. e MHoro BamHO OT MOPq,OnoruqHa rne.llHa T01IKa: H. e. OKOHqaHHe ·a npa a-OCHOSHTe ce aanasaa B TpaKHIcKH; OKORqaHHeTO -1'\ B Epyta1<1'\ Hp- Ap- e cnopea 8TH· qeCKOTO a-CKnOHeHHe. KoeTO n'bK e .llpyro.llOK83aTeJlCTBO sa aTH1leCKOTO BJlIIHHHe B TplKJUt npeaa enoxara aa KoAlie.

* * *

KaKTO lIHTaTeJlHT SepOSITHO Belle e 3aOeJIH- 3aJI,. B CTaT~T~ He ce UHTHpaTH3.11.aHHSI H KHHrR. TOBa e aanpaaeao C .ll.06POTO aaxepeaae .ll.a He ce 3aTpY.ll.HHBa HeHYlKHO xereaerc aa TeKCTa. TpaKHikKHHT MaTepHaJ[ ce HaMHpa y D. De t s c he v. Die thrakischen Sprachreste. Wien, 1957. 584 p., Zweite Auflage. Wien, 1976. 28+584 pp. (xoero B .ll.eHCTBHTeJIHOCT He e HOBO, a CTepeOTHnHO H3.11.aHHe C .ll.06aBKH H nonpassa OT caMHSI .nelles, KaTO e .ll.06aseHa 6H6JIHOrpacl»HH aa nepaona 1955-1974, C'bCTanena OT )i{. BeJIKOBa). Herosara KOHuenu.HH.3a TpaKHHcKH e3HK e H3JIOlKeHa· CBCTeMSTltlUfO B Charakteristik der thrakischen Sprache B:

BaJIKaHCKO e3HKOSH8HHe, 2, 1960, c. 141-212. 3a YJIeCHeHHe na lIHTaTeJIH me npHnoMHHM, lie rJIaBHHTe xapaKTepHcTHKH Ha TpaKltUCKHSI e3RK ca npousaara na R. e. o>a H rasa Hap. .Lautverschiebung', T. e. npOMHHa aa CJIe.ll.HHTe rpyna C'bI.:JIaCHH raxa :

H. e. TpSK.

b, d, g > p, t, k p, t, k > ph, th, kh bh, dh, gh;» b, d, g

Ba, I'eopraea 3a6eJIH3Ba B 1957 r., lie T83H CHCTeMa· He MOlKe aa ce npHJIOlKH nOCJIe.ll.OBaTeJIHO R npae, lie e BMaJIO naa esaxa, KOHTO TOU . Hapeqe "TpaKHRCKH" - C qepTHTe npe.ll.:JIOlKeHH OT ,ll. p.eqes, It pasnpocrpaaea, 06~0

asero, B 06JIaCTHTe IOlKHO OT Crapa nJIaHHHa' H w.ll.SKO MH3HHCKH" - aa cesep OT Ta3H neaTpaJIHa 30Ha, nOHSIKora aapauaa caao .. naKHH-:CKH" HJIH "MH3.HHCKH", KOUTO He e HMaJI Te3R XapaKTepHCTHKIii H. e. ;:; craaa at 06aQe JIHnCBa Lautverschiebung:

H. e. .ll.aKo-MH3. p, t, k > p, t, k b, d, g > b, d, g bh, dh, gh> b, d, g

BlK. nocaenaara My K.HHra "TpaKHTe H rexHHHT e3HK". C., 1977. 348 p., c 60raT8 6H6JIHOrpa$HH, H HanOCJIe.ll.'bK B xparxa cI»opMa: Thrakisch und Dakisch, In ; Aufstieg und Niedergang der Rornischen Welt, 2<} sa, 1983, p. 1148-1194 (bibL); Thrakische und Dakische Namenkunde, ib. 1195-1213.

B 6'bJIrapCKaTa HaYKa ce pa60TH C Ta3H nOCTaUOBKa, HO JIHlIHO. 83 He. C'bM y6e.ll.eH, qe reopasra aa .n. .neqeB aa JIaYT!l>epwH6yura e .ll.06pe apryaearapaaa, HHTO n'bK qe reopasra aa Ba, Feopraea aa naara e3HKa e noxasaaa. no resa B'bnpOCH CbM ce liSK1l3aJI aaKpaTKO B .ll.sa MOH ,lI;OKJIa,lI.a: L'onomastique dans l'aire thraco-rnacedonienne, - In: Ancient Macedonia. Fourth International Symposium held in Tbessaloniki, 1983 [1986], 377 -392; H On the Character of the Thracian Language. Onomastic Problems. - In: 4th International Thracian Conference. Boston, 1984 [1986]379-388. CMHTaM .n:a H3JlOlKa CXBaIItaHHHTa ca no Te3H B'bnpOCH no-noapodno nO-HaTaT'bK npyrane.

Les inscriptions du tresor de Rogozen GEORGI,\\IHAILOV

(R e s urn e)

Apres la publication prellminaire du tresordans In revue d'art "Izkustvo", 1986, 6, I'auteur a revu les inscclp tions et a Habli les Iectures.Ice n'est qulun petit nombre de graffiti qui exigent un examen supplementaire). Avant cette decouverte, on, con" nalssait par dautres trouvallles des inscriptions executees de la msme rnanier.e et ayant une redaction identi que ou sernbl able: I'auteur les a prises en consideration. La l iste des textes se trouve au cebut de 1 'article: a - Inscriptions en pointille: No 1- 15 de Rogozen, 16 de Vraca (Mogilanska Mogila). 17 de Aleksandrovo, 18 probablernent du departement de Pleven, dans une collection privee (non vldil), 19--21 de Borovo, 22 de Agighiol et 23 de Branlcevo; b - Graffiti de noms propr es: No 24-26 de Rogozcn; c - Signes: No 27-34, de nature indeterminee; d - Ins:ription sur Ia phiale representant Auge. dont Ie nom est ecr it sur sa tMe, el Heracles, aupres duquel est gravee l'jnscriptioll enigma· ttqite ~Ao3Tt. L'auteur s'occnpe principalement des inscriptions en polntrlle. Les noms propres au genitif Satoko, Dfdvkaimo,. Ko.tyos et Kerseblepto Indi quent q\le le reclplent appartlent au porteur du nom.· Pour Partisan est employee la formule ordinail'e: Distotas:« execute (Ie recillient).:Le toponyrne au.genl-.

tif precede par la preposition ex (ek.eg) i ndi que que l'ohjet 01.1 le metal provient de Ia Iocalite mentionriee. n s 'agit de princes thraces.: Satokos est selon toute probabillte Ie fils du:tof snal~~ qui a ete ecM'te du tyouvOfr par "!OO. cousin SeuthAS I en 424, apres la.nlQrt de. Sitalkesj Didykaimes.est un prince inconnu;. K.otys est 1 e roi des o dryses , 384/3-359, et Kersebleptes soh fils, detrdne en 341 par Philippe II; la Thrace devient province macedonienne. Teres Amatokou est ou bien Ie fils de Amatokos I, 100-386/5 au. bien Ie fils de Amatokos II, 346-341. Ayant en vue l e caractere de Kotys et sa fa~on. de se comporter (Theopornpe), ce qui" nous conduit a I'idee qu'Il consideratt 5011 nom comrne expression t'eelle du prinelpe dlvin de la deesse-mere K.otYSj ou K.otyU6(dout leculte .etait .orglaque), I'inscriptio~ (n .. 14)J~otils N.ls d·Appllon,· te·.fait,que K.otys a appele 50n'111s t\ersebteptes, ce qUI n'etait, pas sans doute dtl lfu hasard,ca'r ce nom est apparenteaux noms des ,deux des Kabiri, les Grands Dieux a. Samothrace - Axiokersos et Axiokersa •. '"!'"", 011 .arrlve a la conclusion que K.otys se <:onsidetait: et se cornportatt comme unedivinite en' croyatlt que la nature chthonienne des K.abiri et l'e}enient: solaire apollinien etaient incarnes dans ~:a .Pers.ont!e:

et dans celle de son fils. Les .toponymes. Ergiske ou .. t\rgiske ~t ApfQS )lont. C01m\lS,.Qe~, (Beon) dolt etre cherche dans la msme .region; "Geistoi (Geistal ou Geista, neutre) et Sautfiaoa (dOflt la fin He doit pas' Hre expl iquee comme-dat·al-dt'i.'D 'ville') apparalssent iei pour la premiere lois. La transcrip-

ti on grecque des noms thraces transmet leur prononelation authentique et contr i bue_a I' explication de certains phenomenes dans la langue thrace. L'orthographe atti que 'teriloigfie' dc'l'influence "culturelle d'Athenes en Thrace, L'auteur prepilre une version plus developpee ou it s'occupeta.4galemcnt d'aulres problernes.

,5eJIeiKKH OTHOCHO Ha,l.\I1HCHTe.BbpXY Cb,ll.OBeTe OT POr03eH '

IBJ1AllHMI1P '11. I'EOPfHEBI

~--------------~----~'-------~.

OrKpHTHeTO B Porosea paiB'bJiIlYBa HallIHSI aonycxax, qe ce. xacae sa rpsuxa TeKcT. aapon H ococeao ,!paKOJIOSHTe. To o60raTH rl1tO''tu e MO:>Ke 6H nponasonao OT yfj .. 3eMSI, 6'bJIrapCKaTa TpaKOJIOrHH. Bspxy Hero me HMa noxaa" C HaCTaBKa -ure-, KaKTO B namare ome ,II.'bJIro speae Aa ce pasacxaa. TYK me ,II.yMH 6JIaT-HCT, rop-ncr, KaMeH-HCT, TpeBH-

ce cnpex sspxy HaAnHCHTe, noaesce ce aa- HCT, X'bJIM-HCT.

npasaxa HHKOH norpenma npeAnOJIO:>KeHHSI. 6. Koro e seposrao AHaJIeKTHa !Jx>pMa

Tesa HaAnHCH ca aa rpsuxa eSHK C HHKOH (HJIH rpewKa?) BMecTO K()'flh flaT. na.u.e:>K,

AHaJIeKTHH OTKJIOHeHHSI OT aTHqeCKH. en, qHCJIO "Ha KoTHc".

1. Koroo; e pOAHTeJIeH naaeac, KOHrO 7. Haa-anrepecea e TeKCT'bT Korooc. 'Ey

oaaaxasa npnressaaae: .. (TOSH C'blJ. e) aa Ko- Bso. AtO'A.otu~ S1tOlllO'&. .Ha KOTHc. OrBeo. THC". TOBa e aeposrrao KOTHc I, nap na O.nPH- JlHCJIOAaC (ro) nanpasa," JlHCJIoitac e HMeTO CHTe (OKOJIO 383--359 r. np. H. e.). na TpaKHHcKHSI MaitcTop. ETHMOJIOrHSITa My

2. MecTHHTe HMeHa t; Bso, ty Bso, t; e SlCHa. Kacae ce aa ABYOCHOBHO JIHqHO HMe,

'A1tpo, KaKTO H 8; 'ApyiO'Xl1~, t; 'Epy{- rrspsara xacr ua KoeTO e At-, Ha3BaHHeTO aa

O'x'1<; ca B pO,ll.HTeJIeH naneac eA. qHCJlO: 0 e TpaKHifeKHH 3eBc, KaKTO aanpaxep B TpaKHA-

AHaJIeKTHO OKOHqaHHe aa pOA. na,ll.e:>K ea. CKHTe JIHqHH HMeHa At-puS<x.;, At-1top~, 4t-

qHCJlO BMeCTO aTHqeCKOTO -ou. TOBa ca Ha3- oupoc. BTOpaTa C'bCTaBHa sacr ·O'A.ot~, npo-

BaHHSI aa CeJIHma, KOHTO ca HanpaBHJIH no- H3JIH3a OT .nc-crapo O'A.oF-\o(v~ (c asnana-

Aap'bUH aa cnOMeHaTHTe B HaAnHcHTe TP8KHH- He aa F, . KOeTO ce ,A'bJI:>KH H8 <j>aKTa, xe aa

CKH BJIa,lI.eTeJIH. MecTHOTO HMe Beoe sanaseao craporpsuxa OT V-IV B. np. H. e. He MO:>Ke B n'bpB8T8 xacr HB Tp8KHicKOTO CeJIHW.e &0- .ll.a ce npezaze 3ByK'bT F HJlH noaesce Ft e 8t~O<;. KoeTO OSHallan BepoJl1'HO "KpenOc'rr8 6HJIO H3MeHeHOB t, KaKTO B rpsuxa). TSI

Beo", 8 Epracxe H Anpoc ca H3BeCTHH Tpa- C'bOTBeTCTBYBa TOqHO aa cTapo6'bJIrapCKOTO

KHifeKH CeJIHma. C~OK~(;H npaxacrae, CpB. pyc. U'bPKOBHO-

3. B pOA. na,ne:>K en, lIHCJIO ca C'bw.o Ksp- CJI8BSlHCKO C JI 0 B JI 10 "CJIaBSI, npOCJIaBSlM, a&j}A.&1t'to, Ka1.Vo, A1.o\)')((1\J.lo. Kepceoaenr xBaJtSl" (c eneHTeTHqHO .4), KaKTO H sropara (359-341 r. up. H. e.) e CHH sa KOTHe I. C'LCTaBHa lIaCT ua aannrre rJlarOJIH 6 JI 8 r 0-

4. Kmvo Koeuoc 03HaQaB8 "Ha KaiHHell8 c JI 0 B H, C JI a B o-c JI 0 B SI. Te npOH3JIH-

KOTHc" pOA. na,ll.eJK. Ku1.VO e eTHHKOH (:>KH- sar OT HH.llOeBpOneiicKO k'lew-io CpB. rpsu-

TeJlCKO "Me) B poa, nB}J.e:>K OT HaSBaHHeTO aa KH XA.ero, X).£{O> "CJIaBH, XBaJISI, npOCJIaBHM".

TpaKHHCKOTO nneae Kewor, KaKTO Bo\o)t~ npOMHHaTa, s OT HHAoeBp. x' (H ew--ow)

.. (SeoTHeu." OT B()\o>'tol ,,6eoTHiiuH", 8sO'aa- e THnHqHa sa TpaKH'AcKJlH CJIaBSlHCKH. At-

A.~ nTec8JlHell" OT &O'O'uA.oi .. TecaJlHiiUHu H ap. O'A.ot~ 3HaqH 6YKBaJIHO "CJlaBeru. (60ra) AI",

5. MectHoTO HMe 8X r&tO"t'(l)V, 81 F'11.O'" CpB. pyc. U'bPKOBHOCJIaBSlHCKH 6 0 r o-c JI 0-

'to)V e 8 pO)I..na,a,e}IC MH. lIHCJIO OT r&tO'tu B JI 10.

rl11.O''ta, MH. qHc;;no cp. pOA. TOSH TeKCT 8. Iutox(l)t (?) "Ha CaTOK" e ,II.aT. nan •• ,naB8 B'b3MOJKHOCT }J.a nonpaaax CTapHTe en. qHCJIO. CaTOK e CHH ua O.nPHCKHH Tp8KHH· npe.ll.i'lOJIO~eHH!I~a B8;AnHCa B'bpxy Cp~PHOTO CKHSI uap CHTaJIK (431--424 r. np. H. e.). Ti.~qe. ,o,!, ,c. 'A~J{caH.npoBO -, \ KO'rY()t ,Er-~ 9. Kotl><; &; IuuSupA.~ (?). qeTeHeTO He rHIITON, sa KOeTO HSiKOH npeArtoJiar'axa, . eearypao, MO:>Ke 60 TOBa e l:uyu8u\)u CeJIHw.e,

1Je e HaSBaHHe aa TpaKHicKO naese, a as H3TOqHO OT JlYPOCTOPYM, AH. CHJIHCTpa.

36 f

10. KOt\)~ • A1t6A.A.O)v~ 1tat~. "KOTHc CHH aa Anonoa."

11. Bspxy e~HH C'b~ HM eaaa HHM$a Ii:

Xepaxsa e aanacaao AiYyit Al1A.a~it,,(ToBa e) RBHO (HeC'bMHeHo) Aare." Cnopea 'rpsuxera MHTOJlOrHR Aare e 6HJla JlI060BHHuaHa Xepaxs,n.

B'b3 OCHOBa aa cnOMeHaTHTe TpaKHHcKH BJla~eTeJJH CaToK, KOTHc H Kepcednenr MOJKe ~a ce npeJlnOJlOJKH, qe C'bJlOBeTe ca OT BTOIlaTa nOJlOBHHa aa V B. ~ H m.psa'ra IlOJlOBHH8 aa IV B. np. H. e.

TyK MOJKe Jla ce nanpaea CJleJlHOTO npennOJlOJKeHHe.

Te3H 165 C'b)J,8 npencrasnaaar BepoRTHO qaCT OT C'bKPOBHlIJ,eTO aa OJlpHCKHTe nape, KaKTO JlHIIH OT cnOMeHaBaHeTO na CaTOK, KOTHC H Kepceenenr. K'bM cpenara na IV B. np. H. e. c!>HJlHn II MaKe)l.OHCKH aaxaysa B TpaKHR H B 341 r. OKOHQaTeJIHO CJlOMSlBa C'bnpOTHBaTa na Kepceonerrr, IJ.apRT H nercsara CBHTa ca

ce onnraaa Jla H36S1raT aa cesepesanaa, BePORTHO' npa- tpH6a'nHTe. C'bKj>OBHlIJ,eTO GHno sapoaeao B' Porosea, sa Jla 6,,~e sanaseno. Ho xopara, KOHTo\ca ro sapoaaaa, ca 3arHHaJlH, H TaKa TO e ocraaano sanaseao JlO JlHec.

* * *

MaJlKo npeaa Jla nOQHHe, axaa. BJlaJlHMHp Feopraes npacrsna K'bM. HHTepnpeTaUHRTa aa H8,l{DHCHTe OT POro~CKOTO C'bKpOBHlIJ,e. tIaCT OT npeJ(sapJiTeJfHHTi! 6eJIeJKKH 6R'xa ny6~ JlHKYBaHH (e 6'DJJrapcKa' TpaHcKpH6uHR aa craporpsuxare TeKcTOBe) B'bB B. .Haponaa xynrypa", 6p. 30 OT 2510JlH 1986 r. B HerOBHSI apxHB6flxa OTKPHTH H JlPyrH 6eJleJKKH, aa 6a33Ta aa KOHTO ce o<t>oPMH HaCTOfllIJ,OTO KpaTKO C'b06lIJ,eHHe, KOeTO $aKTHqeCKH e rioCJle~HHSlT HayqeH npHHOC aa rOJleMHfl6'bJlrapCKH . yqeH. C'b06lIJ,eHHeTO e pe,IlaKTHpaHo H no~rOTBeHO sa nesar OT npotp. Beaasap BeJIKOB.

37

MamepuG,JlU U csoouienu«

-r OJIHMaTa lIawa OT Por03eHCKOTO CbKpOBHme

BornAH

HI1K0J10B

B Por03eHCKOTO rpaxaacxo C'bKpOBHIII.e, . KoeTO C'bJI.'bp:>Ka 165 cpecspan C'bJI.a - qmaJIH . n KaHH, HMa caao TpH lJalllH1. Ilspaara OT T5IX HMa ¢opMa na CKH¢OC C BHCOlJHHa 7 cm, TerJIO 104,4 rpaxa H HaH-6JIH3'bK napanen B Cpe6'bpHH5I CKH¢OC OT CTpeJIlJa2• BTOpaTa lJaIIIa no ¢opMa HanoJI.065IBa "KOTHJIe" - C'bJI. sa MepeHe Ha )KHTO Y TpaKHTe H JI.Ocera 6e n03- nara cano KaTO H306pa)KeHHe B'bpXY MOHeTH na H5IKOH TpaKHHCKH BJIaJI.eTeJIH3. Bropara lJaIIIa e JI5ITa. T5I HMa BHCOlJHHa .8,2 CM H TerJIO 167,3 rpaxa.

B CJIeJI.Balll,HTe penoae rue ce crrpex . nonOJI.p06ao B'bpXY rperara lJaIII3 OT Por03eHCKOTO TpaKHHcKo csxpoaame H B'bpXY HeHHHTe H306pa:>KeHH5I. T5I e HaH-rOJI5IMa no 06eM H rer JIO OT OCTaH3JIHTe nse lJaIIIH H Han'bJIHO ce pa3JIHlJaBa OT T5IX no ¢opMa H HalJHH na napa-

60TKa. fOJI5IM3Ta lJaIIIa OT Porosencxoro csKpOBHllI,e HMaBHCOlJHHa JI.O 20 CM, JI.HaMeT'bp

. na JI.'bHOTO no 12 CM H ,nHaMeT'bp aa YCTHeTo no 13 CM. T5I Te:>KH 316,2 rpaaa H e H3pa60TeHa OT BHCOKa npotia cpe6po. PeJIe¢HHTe H306pa:>KeHH5I B'bpXY He5I ca n03JIaTeHH lJpe3 aMaJIraxapane. qaIIIaTa e H3KoBaHa sspxy MaTpH~a OT l(5IJI cpeospeu JIHCT H CJIeJI. TOBa e or-saara H npHnoeHa. TaKa e nOJIYlJHJIa ~HJIHHJI.pHlJHa ¢opMa Ha T5IJIOTO, KoeTO e paBHoMepHo npHCBHTO B cpenara. TOBa H npanana eJIeraHTHOCT na JIHHH5ITa H csmo raxa 5I npasn no-npaK-. THlJHa npn xnamaae aa H3nOJI3YBaHe. HaKpa5I • 06p _ 1. Omspueane na IJmOpUH c1YU! om Poeosencsomo C'bKpOI3UW,e. BARBO ce l3uJICDam CMa'IKaHU U pastcscanu am nnuea eona uacuena «ana U eonssuima uaiua, Fig. 1. Decouverte de La seconde partie du tresor de Rogozen. On voit a gauche, brises et laceres par fa charrue, un broc massif et fa grande tasse

38

1

2

• 06p. 2. Tonsuiama 'WIIW om POcU3PHCKnn!n C'b· Kp06UIJ¥!. Fig. 2. La grande tasse du tresor de Rogozen

e npnnoeno .u.'bHOTO, KoeTO e H:3KOBaHO OT.u.eJlHO P'b6'hT na YCTH:eTO e npas, a .u.'bHOTO e paBHO. LIaIl1aTa H~Ma cnena OT .u.P'b)KKH:. TeXHH:KaTa na 06pa60TKa H: .u.eKopaUHH e Ha BH:COKO HH:BO H: nOKa3Ba enna YMeJla Il1KOJlOBKa aa MeCTHH:Te TpaKH:RCKH: MaRCTopH.

rOJlHMaTa naura OT Por03eHCKOTO C'bKpOsame e HaR-nOCTpa.u.aJlaOT OCTaHaJlH:Te csnoae ouie npena OTKpHBaHeTO na UHJlaTa naxonxa. TH e CHJlHO CMaqKaHa H e pa3K'bCaHa Ha HHKOJlKO MeCTa. OT.u.eJlHH MaJlKH: napxera C H30- 6pa)KeHHH JlH:nCBaT OT HeH. Bee nax TpH6Ba . na ce saae, 'Ie rOJlHMaTa .qaIl1a OT Por03eHCKOTO C'bKPOBHllI.e He e pasxt.caaa "pH:TyaJlHO", KaKTO neue CH: nOMHCJlHXa HHKOH4• Pa3K'bCBaHeTO H CMaqKBaneTO na Ta3H: sauta e CTaHaJlO no .cneanas npOCT HaqHH. TH 6e OTKP'HT? saenso C'bC· CTOTe cpeespun C'b)J.a OT BTOpHH .u.HJl na C'bKpOBHllI.eT06. Orne B .u.peBHOCTTa npa sapaBHHeTO aa ~'bKpOBHllI.€TO B 3~MHTa Ta3H: xanra H enna MaCHBHa KaHa6 ca 6HJlH naji-orrope aa ueJlHH xyn H: nopana TOBa ca OCTaHaJlH: H HaHnJlH:TKO JI.O nonspxnocrca. Taxa H3MH:HaJlH: nOBeqe OT 23 BeKa H: BCH:qKO CH OCTaHaJlO Ha MHCTOTO. I'panaaara, K'b.u.eTo 6e OTKpH'fO Por03eHCKOTO C'b'KPOBH:llI.e, HanOCJleJI.'bK e- paso-

. pasaaa qeCTO C rpaxropen nnyr aa .u.'bJl60qHHa 30-40 CM. I1PH enno OT Te3H .u.eHCTBHH nJlyr'bT e aarpeoan rOJlHMaTa qaIl1a H: MaCHBHaTa xaaa H: rH e nOBJlHK'bJl aa OKO;JJO.1 M OT 06ll1.HH xyrr.

Taxa re ca 6HJlH CMaqKaHH H paarcscaan. TOBa ce BH:)K.u.a H na .u.oKYMeHTaJlHaTa <pOTOrpa<pHH, nanpaseaa rrpa oTKpHBaHe na BTOpHH .u.HJl OT C'bKPOB.HllI.eTO na 6 snyapa 1986 r. OT BpaqaHCKHTe apXeOJl03H: (o6p. 1).

L(HJIaTa B'bHIl1Ha nOB'bpXHOCT na rOJIHMaTa xama e 60raTo yxpacena. I1306pa)KeHHHTa aspxy HeH ca penerpau, a no.u.P06HocTHTeUH3eJIHpaHH. ,UeKopaUHHTa e cscpeaoroxeaa B e.u.HH HenpeK'bCHaT Il1HpOK <pPH3, KORTO saena UHJIaTa BH:COqHHa na csna. B OCHOBaTa e rpaBH:paH nOHC OT CHJIHO CTH:JIH3HpaHH naJIMeTH, orpaaea orrope H OT.u.OJIY C no ABa npncreaa OT aacexxa. Orrope CJIe.u.Ba BTOpH npscrea, KORTO e H3pa3eH C OBYJlH. Han oBYJIHTe e aanpasen Il1HPOK nOHC OT JIlOCileCT opnaxerrr, KORTO e pansapaa C JIeHTa OT xpt.r-rera, cse.u.HHeHH C raarapaura OTCeqKH. T03H nOHC YCJIOBHO 0603HaqaBa TepeH3, B'bpXy KOHTO ca CT'bnHJIH H306pa3eHHTe nan Hero )KHBOTHH. I10.u. YCTHeTO na qaIl1aTa e H3qYKaH nenpeK'bCHaT peJIe<peH <PPH3 OT CTHJlH3HpaHH pora na eJIeH. Pa3KJIOHeHHHTa na porara ca npenCTaBeHH KaTO IITUqH rJIaBH (o6p. 2). EneaoBHTe pora ca H306pa3eHH C .u.BoHHa ycrropenna JIUHHH, a B cpenara ca yxpacenn C TOqKH. r JIaBH:Te aa nTHlLHTe HMaT H3BHT KJIIOH KaTO na XHllI.HH:K, a OKOTO e npenaneno C MaJlKO xpsrne. Bspxy Il1HPOKOTO CB060.u.HO nOJIe B cpenara na xaurara H HeBHCOK penerp e H3KOBaH nenpexscnar <PPH3, KOHTO npe.u.CTaBJIHBa T'bp)KeCTBeHa nponecns OT )KHBOTHH: enaa XHllI.Ha IITHlLa, enan 6pa.u.aT K03eJI C MaJIKH KpHJIa, e.u.HH eJleH C He06HKHOBeHO .u.'bJlrH: pora H orne e.u.HH C ocen xpaxa (o6p. 3). BCHqKH )KH:BOTHH ca .u.a.u.eHH B np0<pHJI U B .u.BH)KeHHe Ha.u.HCHO. Te ca .u.06pe .u.eQ>HHHpaHH, <popMHTe H: 06eMHTe HM ca H306pa3eHH peaJIHO, a II03HTe H:M ca eCTeCTBeHH H aKTHBHH.

XHllI.HaTa nruua HMa orpouen por na r.nasara, yxpacen C TOqKH. OKOTO e rOJlHMO H xpsrno, oxeprauo c nse BnHcaHH KOHueHTPHqHH JIHHHH:. r JIaB~Ta e orneriena OT IIIHHTa c ztsa npscreaa, OT KOHTO .u.OJlHHHT e C HaCeqKH. Ilepara m.pxy THJIOTO aa nrauara ca H306pa- 3eHH C JIIOCnOBH.u.HH MOTHBH, m.pxy KOHTO ca UH3eJIHpaHH TOqKH H HaCeqKH, pa3nOJlO)KeHH B CHCTeMaTa "pu6eHa KOCT". Flepara na onaurxara H KpHJIaTa ca MapKHpaHH C. JIeHTH OT HaCeqKH no- cstuara .u.eKopaTHBHa CHCTeMa. I1THuaTa H:Ma rOJIHM H3BH:T KJIIOH, B KOHTO ;i'bP)KH paoa, Jhocnnre na pnoara ca IIOKa3aHH C .u.'brHqKH, a IIepKHTe H onauncara ca MapKHpaan C HaCeqKH. I1THlLaTa e H306pa3eHa C enaa xpax C orpoMHH HOKTH, C KOHTO .u.'bP)KH aaex. )l(epTBaTa e C K'bCH yIl1H H Kp'brJIO OKO. Ha JlaIIHTe ca oT6eJlH3aHU no xerapa np'bcta, a xpaxara OT3a.u. ca yxpacena C JIeHTH: OT HaCeqKH. I\OC'bM'bT aspxy THJIOTO na saexa e rpaaapaa C T'bHKH npecaxaura ce JIHHHH, KOH:TO 06pa3YBaT HenpaBHJIHHqeTHpH'br'bJlHHUH.

Bpaaarnsr K03eJI HMa T'bHKH .yIIIH H rOJlHM por, KORTO aanoxaa OT qeJIOTO Me)K.u.y OQHTe H:

39

• 06p. 3. H306paJICeflUfl U op nanenmu. W6{JXfj 20/Ziisiama uaiua om P0203i'liCK0I71.O CbKPO(JIUW. Fig. 3. Representations et ornements sur fa grande tasse du tresor de Rogozen

aasnaa BbJIH006pa3HO nasan KbM Pbp6a. TOH HMa TpH MaJIKH KpHJIa, KOHTO nO-CKOpO rrano,n:065IBaT nJIaMbUH. E,n:HOTO CTOH na r-spria MY, a npyrare ,n:Be orrope aa xpyna, Ornpen na rspnare My e H306pa3eHO CbIII.O enno KPHJIO, HO e rpyzmo ,n:a ce pasoepe ,n:aJIH TO e npenna- 3HaqeHO 3a HerO,HJIH 3a eJIeHa, KOHTO e npe,n:

Hero. OKOTO na K03eJIa e rOJI5IMO, npenaneno C ,n:Ba BnHcaHH KOHueHTpHqHH Kpbra. RonHrara na xpaxara ca pasnsoena H nan T5IX OT3a,n: HMa yxpaca OT JIeHTH C HaCeqKH. KoCbMbT Ha rpHBaTa e H306pa3eH C ,n:Ba pe,n:a, CHOnqeTa OT HaCeqKH, KOHTO Hano,n:065IBaT nJIaMbUH. BbPXY r-spria na 2KHBOTHOTO ca rpanapann TpH BepTHKaJIHH JIeHTH C nacenxa, KOHTO ce penynar C JleHTH OT TOqKH. BbPXY xpyrra ca Bp5I3aHH nerapn XOpH30HTaJIHH pena OT ,n:brHqKH, a nan-orrope ce BH2K,n:a e,n:HH pez OT KpbrqeTa, Cbe,n:HHeHR C TaHrHpaIII.H OTCeqKH. BH2K,n:aT ce H sernpnre xpaxa na KO- 3eJIa.

Ilpen K03eJIa BbpBH eJIeH, na KOHTO CbIII.O ce BH2K,n:aT sernpare xpaxa C pasuenena KOnHTa H JIeHTH OT HaCeqKH B 3a,n:HaTa qaCT Ha,n: xonarara. I'nasara aa enena JIHnCBa,' TbH KaTO na TOBa M5ICTO xamara e pasrcscaua. Porara My ca MaCHBHH H ,n:bJIrH, 06bpHaTH nasan H ,n:OCTHraT MYIIYHaTa na 6pa,n:aTH5I K03eJI. IToKa3aHH ca H ,n:BaTa pora, BceKH OT KOHTO HMa .no ner pa3KJIOHeHH5I; 06bpHaTH narope. ITo· cpeaara ca yxpaceaa C TOqKH· ..

40

ROCbMbT BbPXY IlIH5ITa H T5IJIOTO aa enena e rpasnpau C npeCHqaIII.H ce TbHKH JIHHHH, KOHTO 06pa3YBaT HenpaBHJIHH qeTHpHbrbJIHHUH - no CbIII.H5I HaqHH, KaKTO e H3pa3eH KOCbMa na aaexa B HOKTHTe na XHIII.HaTa nraua.

Ilpen T03H eJIeH e H306pa3eIi O1.IJ,e enaa, I' JIaBaTa aa Te3H ,n:Ba enena He ce BH2K,n:aT, 3aIII.OTO na TOBa M5ICTO xamara e pastcscaaa H JIHnCBa napne. ,U06pe ce Bll2K,n:a rpnsara, npencraseaa CbC cnomera KaTO nJIaMbUH. 3anaseaa e qaCT OT 6pa,n:aTa. Ornpen na rspnure HMa MaJIKO KPHJIO, KoeTO nO-CKOpO npanana na 6pa,n:a na K03eJI. Ilpennara xacr na T5IJIOTO e YKpaceHa C BepTHKaJIHH JIeHTH OT HaCeqKH, a BbPXY Kpyna na 2KHBOTHOTO ca rpaaap ann BepTHKaJIHH JIeHTH OT no.nyxp sr-aera. HasaJIOTO na xpaxara e MapKHpaHO C no enna BOJIyTa. T5I JIHnCBa npn xpaxara aa npyrnre 2KHBOTHH.

,UbHOTO na sanrara e ooopaeao KaTO KP'hrbJI Me,n:aJIbOH, orpanea C nsa npscreaa OT aacexKH (06p.4). B cpenara aa Me,n:aJIbOHa e H306paseaa cuena "B'bJIK nanaaa rJIHraH". XHIII.HHKbT H 2KepTBaTa ca npencraseaa B npO¢HJI B ,n:BH- 2KeHHe Ha,n:5ICHO. BH2K,n:aT ce II qeTHpIITe HM xpaxa, BbJIKbT e CKOqHJI BbPXY r-spria na rJI II ran a , 3a6HJI e HOKTIITe CH B T5IJIOTO My II ro e aaxanan aa e,n:HOTO yXO. 3b6iITe i3 OTBOpenara My nacr ca MapKHpaHH C JIeHTa OT HaCeqKII. ITo,n:06Ha JIeHTa OT,n:eJI5I rJIaBaTa OT IlIII5ITa. YIlIHTe My ca MaJIKH II CIIJIHO 3aOCTpeHH, a OKOTO e eJiHncOBH,n:HO H rOJI5IMO, oxepraao C ,n:BOHHa JIHHH5I. fbp6bT e pasnenen aa ner Bei)TIIKaJIHII noaca, yxpacena C ,n:brnqKII, KOIITO HMHTHpaT KOCbMa. 3a,n:HRHT KoaK Ha BbJIia

3

4

• 06p. 4. Cuenatna ,,8'MK nanaoa e nuean" WbPXY O'bHOmo ua eonstsuimu «atua om P0203e:'{CKOmO C7JKpOGUIl{C. Fig. 1. fa scene "L Gap attaque un sanglier: sur Ie [ond de la grande tasse du tresor de Rogoren

aam.pmaa npn X'bJI60Ka C BOJIYTa. Ha xerapnre JIanH ca H306pa3eHH no xernpn np scra C OCTpH HOKTH. Ha)J. JIanHTe HMa no enna JIeHTa C HaCeqKH, raxa KaKTO TOBa BH)J.5IXMe npn OCTaHaJIHTe )KHBOTHH. I'nasara na r.naraua e nsnpaaena nanpen H e OT)J.eJIeHa OT rnH5ITa C JIeHTa OT HaCeqKH. OKOTO e rOJI5IMO it Kp'brJIO, paMKHpaHO C )J.BollHa JIHHH5I. Ha qeJIOTO My ca rpasnpana rpaxeprn, a MYIJ,YHaTa e H30- 6pa3eHa nJIaCTHqHO. DHBHHTe Ha rJIHraHa He ca nOKa3aHH. 4eTHHaTa· B'bpXY T5IJIOTO e Mapxnpaaa no C'blll.H5I HaqHH, KaKTO TOBa e CTOpeHO npH 3aeKa H npH n'bpBH5I eJIeH, KOllTO e npen K03eJIa. .Kornrrara na r JIHraHa ca npenCTaBeHH no C'bIIl,H5I HaqHH, KaKTO e npn K03eJIa H npn eJIeHHTe. TOBa ca H306pa)KeHH5ITa B'bpXY rOJI5IMaTa xaura OT Por03eHCKOTO C'bKpOBHIIl,e. AKO ce BrJIe)J.aMC no-nO)J.p06HO B TeXHHKaTa aa H3pa60TKaTa, CKOPO llI.e ce y6e)J.HM, qe MallCTOP'bT 3JIaTap na Ta3H qarna e 60paBHJI npn IJ,H3eJIHpaHeTO H rpasnpanero C onpenenen BH)J. HHCTpYMeHTH sa Ta3H IJ,eJI. C e)J.HH TOll e H30- 6pa3HJI repena non )KH'BOTHHTe, a cerne C'bC csnmre e HanpaBHJI yxpacara B'bpXY xpyna Ha K03eJIa H npe)J.HH5I eJIeH. C )J.pyrH HHCTPYMeHTH e MapKHpaJI KOC'bMa na saexa, aa BTOPH5I eJIeH H na r.nnr-aaa. KOC'bM'bT na B'bJIKa H rpnaara H KpHJIaTa na OCTaHaJIHTe )KHBOTHH ca nanpaseaa C'bIIl,O C e)J.HH H C'bIIl, HHcTpYMeHT. ,Upyr e HMa'JI sa kpanara na IITHIJ,aTa H np.

ITo run, rro rpopwa H rro H300pa)KeHH5I rOJI5IMaTa xaura OT Porosencxoro C'bKpOBHlIJ,e e Beqe qeTB'bpTa rro 6pOll cpe)J. Haxo)J.KHTe OT TpaKHllCKH5I xY)J.O)KeCTBeH xpr,r. Ouie TpH rro)J.06HH na He5I xaurn ca navepeun B PYM'bHH5I ~ nse npOH3XO)K)J.aT OT MOrHJIHO norpeoeaae

6 Apxeonorun, 3, 1987

C rp06HHIJ,a, pasxpuro no A)J.)KHrbOJI B Cesepna ,Uo 6p_y)J.)K a , a rperara e aaxepeaa npn )KeJIe3HH spara ua ,UYHaBa. Te ca )J.aTHpaHIl csmo OT rrspsara rrOJIOBHHa na IV B. rrp. H. e., KaKBaTO )J.aTHpoBKa HMa H xaurara OT Por03eH. T5IXHOTO paarneacnaae me HMa aaaneaae He caxo xaro ycnopenaua na aaurara xaura, HO TOBa 6H HH nOMOrHaJIO )J.a CH H35ICHHM 06rn.H5IT CMHC'bJI H OCHOBHaTa H)J.e5I, K05lTO e BJIO:lKeHa B TeXHHTe H306pa)KeHH5I.

TpHTe xama, naxepeua B PYM'bHH5I, H xamara OT Por03eH Han'bJIHO CH npHJIHqaT no <popMa, no CTHJI H no TeXHHKa aa H3pa60TBaHe. Te ct.mo raxa ca 6JIH3KH no pasvepa. Cpen T5IX csmecrnyaar OT)J.eJIHH pa3JIHqH5I, KOHTO me rrOCOqHM, HO Te B HHKaK'bB CJIyqaH He Hapymanar CTHJIOBOTO e)J.HHCTBO aa H306pa)KeHH5ITa. Te )J.OpH He H3MeH5IT HaH-06rn.aTa H)J.e5I, BJIO)KeHa B TeMHTe H 06pa3HTe. Pa3JIHqH5ITa cavo nOKa3BaT, qe Te3H nernpa xaum OT cpe6po ca H3pa60TeHH OT pa3JIHqHl'1 puue B xernpa pasJIHqHH aTeJIHeTa. 4arnaTa OT )KeJIe3HH npara (cera B MeTpOrrOJIHTeH My3eyM B HID I1:0pK)7 H xaura N!! 1 OT A)J.)KHrbOJI8 ce pa3JIHqaBaT 01' Por03eHcKaTa rro TOBa, qe nOCJIe)J.HaTa H5IMa rpasnpan JIIDCrreCT opuauear non p'b6a aa YCTHeTo (o6p. 5 a, 6). B )J.BeTe nOCOqeHH xaum ca H306pa3eHH )J.Be npoTHBOCT05IIIl,H enaa na .rr.pyra nTHIJ,H - rOJI5IMa H MaJIKa. B xaurara OT Por03eH MaJIKaTa nTHIJ,a He e H306pa3eHa. B TpHTe qarnH OT PYM'bHH5I OCMOKpaKH5IT eJIeH B'bpBH npen 6pa)J.aTH5I K03eJI,' a npa xaurara OT Por03eH TOll e ornpen ua npOIJ,eCH5ITa, Porara na eJIeHHTe OT PYM'bHCKHTe qarnH HMaT pa3KJIOHeHH5I narope H Ha)J.OJIy. ITPH sropara qarna OT A)J.)KHrbOJI na MallCTOpa5lBHO He My e CTHrHaJIO M5ICTO na H306pa3H nTHIJ,aTa C pnoa H saex (o6p. 5 e). Bspxy Me)J.aJIbOHa na )J.'bHOTO na uaurara OT POf03eH e H306pa3eH B'bJIK, KOllTO e saxanan sa YXOTO rJIHraH oe3 6HBHH. ITPH xamara OT )KeJIe3HH spara H N!! 1 OT A)J.)KHrbOJI B'bpXY r.naraaa e CT'bnHJI C TpH xpaxa JI'bB-rpH<poH C KpHJIa, HO TOll He e aaxanan xcepraara, a )J.'bP)KH B YCTaTa CH xpax OT npyro )KHBOTHO. 3a pa3JIHKa OT )J.pyrHTe TpH xama B'bpXy Me)J.aJIbOHa na xaura N!! 2 OT A)J.)KHrbOJI )KHBOTHHTe ca B )J.BH)KeHHe HaJI5IBO. Hana)J.aIIl,OTO )KHBOTHO e CT'bnHJIO m.pxy aceprsara. 6e3 na 51 saxarre H 6e3 na )J.'bP)KH uemo B YCTaTa CH. Me)K)J.y xaurara OT Por03eH H TpHTe PYM'bHCKH nanm ce BH)K)J.a H pa3JIHKa B )J.Haaiiaa. Ilepara aa nTHIJ,aTa ca nOKa3aHH C'bBcex YCJIOBHO. 3aeK'bT, eJIeHHTe H K03JIHTe HMaT nO-HaHBHH H306pa)KeHH5I na T5IJIOTO, KOC'bM'bT na )KHBOTHHTe e npenanen C'bBCeM CeMnJIO C BepTHKaJIHH penose OT qepTHqKH HJIH xp srxera C qepTHqKH. 4arnHTe OT PYM'bHH5I, MaKap H B C'brn.H5I CTHJI, nOKa3'BaT enna no-nocpenCTBeHa H3pa60TKa H Te B HHKaK'bB CJIyqaH He ca H3pa60TeHH B C'bIIl,OTO aTeJIHe, B KoeTO e aanpasena poroaencxara qarna.

Ho aexa na paaraenaae nOOT)J.eJIHO )KHBOTHHTe, H306pa3eHH st-pxy Te3H xerapa xaunr.

41

a

6

• 06p. 5. Heotip a icenus: 6'bpxy mpunie cpetrspuu 'WIllU, «auepenu e Py,'!'bHiJ.fl: a) om )!(eAe3Hu epaina, ceea « MempunoAumeH .ltyaelll:i HIU J10PK; 6) om A8:J!<:ueeo» Ii Ceeep na Jf.o6pyrJ:J/Cu, 'WUII1 .M 1; 8) om Ao:J/Cueso .. 2, «aiua M 2. Fig. 5. Representations sur les trois hrocs trouoes en Roumanie: 'a) des Portes de [er-acluellement au Metropolitan Museum a Np.w York; 6) d'Adiiguiol dans lo Dobroudja, tasse No 1; 8) ·d'Adjigaiol, tasse No 2

Ha BH)I,HO MHCTO cpen THX CTOH rpa6JIHBaTa TITHlI,a. TH HMa orpoxrea por aa rnanara H Heo6HKHOBeHO rOJIeMH HOKTH. TYK e C'bBCeM HBHO, qeMaiicTOp.bT 3JIaTap e HCKaJI na XHnep60JIH3Hpa oripasa aa Ta3H TITHlI,a. HeHHoTo npencrasane C por na rnaaara ce HBHBa KaTO axoaorpadicxo Cpe)l,C1'BO )l,a ce H3pa3H H)I,eHTa

42

5

• 06p. 6. Hao6paJICi'HUR B'bPXy Bea uine na, IWAtepeuu B PIjJl!'bHUR: a) om AOJICUcbOJ1; 6) om JI,fmpoum; B) om Ilemep u. Fig. 6. Reprisentatiul1s sur trois casques irouoes en Roumanie: a) d'Adjiguiol; 6) de Detroii; B) de Peteru

aa e)1.HO CBp'bXeCreCTBeHo MOr'bIII.eCTBO. KOMll03HUHHTa ~a Ta3H 300Mop~Ha cueHa ce )1.0- rrsnsa OT )1.Ba npyrn eJIeMeHTa - nrnua'ra )1.'bP)KH B KJlIOHa CH pH6a, a B HOKTHTe CH 3aeK.

6

43

8

• 06p. 7. J1306pa:JICi'/Wfl IJ'"6pxy iiea «ueua, na uepeuu B Py.~lbHUfl: a) Olll E'"6lt'leHu; 6) om []omw- 1(OU,OrpPNU. Fig. 7. Representations sur deux casques trouoes en Roumanie: a) de Bulceni; 6) de Poiana - Kocojeni

Te ca nnHqKa Ha rpaonHBHH XHIIJ,HHK. OTMuara ce norrsnsa CIOLKeTHO H OT roneMHH CPPH3 non YCTHeTO aa xamara, K'b,neTO pa3KnOHeHHHTa na eneHOBHTe pora ca npencraseaa C'bIIJ,O KaTO rnaaa aa XHIIJ,Ha rrrnua. OPH paar.resmaae na H,neii:HaTa C'bIIJ,HOCT na axoaorpadmara C xHIIJ,Ha nTH~a OH TpHOBano ,na ce nOMHcnH 3a e,nHo rpaxaacxo oo:iKecTBo, aa KoeTO Ta3H nrnua cnyLKH HnH TH ce HaMHpa B HerOBHH MHTHqeCKH xpsr. I1nH n'bK Ta3H rrraua e HerOB CHMBon H KOii:TO npHTeLKaBa Heii:H0To H306paLKeHHe IIJ,e HMa carypna nonxpena H TH IIJ,'e My nonece nooena.

I1306pa3HBaHeTo aa Ta3H rrrnua B Heii:HaTa rrsnaa CIOLKeTHa C'bIIJ,HOCT He e aexe PH,nKO HBneHHe B rpaxaacxoro H3KYCTBO. OIIJ,e noBneqaTnHBaIIJ,O e TOBa, se XHIIJ,HaTa rrmua ce HBHBa B ~Hna cepHH OT H306paLKeHHH B'bpXy sananaremro H B'hPXy npeanasno B'bOp'bLKeHHe:

MeqOBe, ,Maxaii:pH, KonHH, IIIJIeMOBe H HaKOJIeHHH~H. B'spxy Meqa OT Me,nLKH,nHH e rpaanpaaa

44

rrrnua, KOHTO ,n'bpLKH B KJIIOHa CH 3MHH9. T03H CIOLKeT ce nOBTapH aspxy enaa xana OT Poro- 3eHCKOTO' C'bKpOBHIIJ,e, K'b,neTO no,nOOHa nraua, HO 6e3 por na rvrasara, C'bIIJ,O ,n'bpLKH B xmona CH 3MHHlO. Bt.pxy necnas Ha6y3HHK aa IIIneMa OT .ll.eTpoHTll H IIIJIeMa OT Ilepery B PYM'hHHH12 BHLK,naMe C'bIIJ,HH CIOLKeT - nrnua C por na r.naaara, KOHTO ,n'bpLKH pH6a B KJIIOHa H saex B HOKTHTe CH (o6p. 6 a, 6). B'spxy HaKOJIeHHHKa OT Bpaua ce BHLK,na H306paLKeHHe aa nonooaa rrruua, KOHTO ,n'bpLKH B HOKTHTe CH BJIeqyro13• OT H3BeCTHHTe nocera H306paLKeHHH B CeBep06aJIKaHCKaTa rpyna'Ha TpaKHii:cKoTo H3KYCTBO Ta3H nTH~a e npe,ncTaBeHa CIOLKeTHO Haii:-MaJIKO B TpH ,neii:cTBHH: C pHoa, aaex H 3MHH (anexyro). OTH~H ca H30opa3eHH nnaCTHqHO KaTO aHTeHH aa MeqOBe axanaxec, narapana B VI-V B. np. H. e., H re ca naaepena B C'bIIJ,HH paiIOH14• B'bB BpaqaHCKHH My- 3eii: ce C'bXpaHHBaT neceruna LKeJIe3HH Maxaii:pH, KOHTO ca HaMepeHH B TpaKHii:cKH norpeoeaua aa TepHTopHHTa na BpaqaHCKO H OneBeHCKO (o6p. 8). HHKOH OT THX ca ny6JIHKYBaHHlD• Bt.pxy CTOMaHaTa na Te3H xaxaapa ca rpaBHpaHH no ,nBe nTH~H B xepan,nHqeCKa noaa. 11 naxpaa Ta3H XaIIJ,Ha nrnua KaTO qe JIH

7

,

8

l

,

e

1

J/C

• 06p. 8. 11306paJICHeHu.>l ua nmuuu 6'bpXY a1CeIle3HU mpaxu acxu uaxaiipu. om IlI-ll 6. np . H. e.: a) om Kounape, Il neeenctco; 6, e) om CocpPoHUe130, BpauanCKO; 13) om Ttspnaea, Bpauancso; e) om Peceneu, Ilseeencsa; 0) om Ilonuua, Bpauancso: ate) om AAinu uup, Bpauancxo, Fig. 8. Representations d'oi-

seaux sur des machauru thraces en fer du I I t» -I Ie s . av. n. ere: a) de Koinare, region de Pleven; 6, e) de Sojronieoo. region de Vraca; 0) de Tiirnaoa, region de Vrom: e) de Reselec, region de Pl eoen; 0) de' Popica, region de Vraca, JIC) d' A ltim ir, region de Vraca.

45

pasxpnaa CBOHTa H,!{eHHa c-&lUcHOCT: BH:H(,l{aMe H H306pa3eHa B'hPXy H8Ko.1leHHHKa OT A,!{>KHrbOJI. TH. e xannana B'hPXy )J.HCHaTa psxa aa e,!{HH M'h>K (BJIaJJ.eTeJI HJIH 6or), KOHTO B JISlBaTa CH psxa ,!{'hp>KH pHTOH16• Ta3H nraua HMa C'hIII.O por aa raaaara.

Ho npa nosenero OT Te3H cneaa nrauara He e H306pa3eHa caxa. B naurara OT POrOgeH H Te3H OT MeTpOnOJIHTeH H A)J.>KHrbOJI,3ae)J.HO C HeH ca npe)J.CTaBeHH 6pa,!{aT K03eJI HMeHH. Bspxy IIIJIeMOBeTe OT .lleTPOHT H Ilepery na npOTHBonOJIO>KHHH JISiB Ha6y3HHK e H306pa3eH C'hIII.HHT K03eJI. B xanara OT Por03eH (.N'!! 162) npa nrnuara C'hC 3MHH e H306pa3eH csmo 6pa,!{'aT K03eJI C orpoMHH pora. EJIeHHTe BH)K,!{aMe OCBeH B'hPXy qaIIIHTe, HO C'hIII.O H B'hPXy THJIHaTa sacr na IIIJIeMa OT Ilepery (o6p. 66). TYK eJIeHHTe ca TOqHO TpH H TOBa HH )J.aBa OCHOBaHHe na CMHTaMe, qe H B'hPXy qaIIIHTe OT Por03eH H PYM'hHHH eJIeHHTe ca TpH. Ilopana MaJIKaTa pa60THa nJIOIII., KOHTO HMaT qaIIIHTe, MaHCTOp'hT 3JIaTap He e HMaJI MHCTO ,!{a noxasce H TpHTe eneaa B npouecaara, 3aTOBa TOH HH e npencrasan BTOpHHT H TpeTHSIT eJIeH na B'hpBSlT ycnope,!{HO e,!{HH ,!{O ,!{pyr. TOBa C'h3- ,!{aBa HJII03HHTa sa MeH C ocea xpaxa. IIJJIeM'hT OT Ilepery asnepnsa reaara H CIO:lKeTa C XHIII.HaTa nraua, 6paJJ.aTHHT K03eJI H TpHTe eneaa. OCTaBa na ce paseepe CMHC'bJI'bT aa H,!{eHTa, KOSITO e BJIO:lKeHa B T03H CIO:lKeT. MO:lKe 6H paaxpasaae na aaranxara III.e peurar )130- 6pa:lKeHlIHTaB'bpxy HaKOJIeHHHUHTe OT A)J.:lKH:rbOJI H Bpaua, K'h,!{eTO H,!{eHTa e pa3IIIHpeHa TeMaTHqHO C noaexe CIO>KeTHH Hanp~BJIeHHH. Te III.e 6'b,!{aT )J.on'bJIHeHH H OT H306pa:lKeHHSlTa B'bpXy IIIJIeMOBeTe OT A,!{>KHrbOJI17, ~T. Iloaaa, H B;bB.qeHH18, K'b'!{eTO C8 BKJIIOqeHH nosese 06pa3H H TeMH. B'spxy Te3HIIIJIeMOBe ,!{OMHHHpaT H306pa:lKeHHSlTa aa KOHHHUH, B'hOP'b:lKeHH C KonHH (o6p. 7 a, 6).. HB • .Mapa30B MHCJIH, qe oCMoKpaKHHT eaea OT qaIIIHTe e IIIaMaHCKO :lKHBOTH01D H HerOBOTO MHeHHe ce ssanpaeaa OT A. ~apKallI2G. ToB. C'hIII.O CMSlTa, qe OpJIHTe OT qaIIIHTe H IDJIeMOBeTe ca CB'bP-

1 6. H H K 0 JI 0 B. LJaIlIHTe 01' Poroaeacxoro

cuxpoeame. - 113KYCTI10, XXXVI, 1986, KH. 6, 37-40.

2 r. K H TO B. CKHCPOCbT 01' Crp enua, - 113'

KVCTBO, KH. 5, 1979, 1-5.

• 3 A JI. <1> 0 JI. TpaKHH H fiaJIKaHHTe npes pan- 1l0eJIHHI!CTHlJeCKaTa enoxa, c., 1975, c. ; F. I 1Ilh 00 f B rum e r. Monnaies grecques. Paris, 1885, p. 52, 53.

.1 JL. rep r OB a. Cneepo sa (iorOllCl'e. -- OTe· "leCTBO, XI, OpOH 265 or 28. X. 199s r., c. 2&...-.29,

06p. 5. .

5 Il. II BaH 0 B. OTKpHBaHe aa TpaKHIicKOTO

CbKpOBHUI.e 01' PO!'O::leH. _. M3KYCTBO, KH. 6, 1986,5-7. 6 6. H H K 0 JI 0 B. Kaaarc 01' Por oseacxoro c'sKp0l:lI1UI.e. - HSKycmo,I<JI. 6, 1986, c. 18, N~ 112. ; A. Far k & s. Style and Subject Matter in N ati ve Thracian Art. - Metropolitan museum .1.0111" nal, 16. 1982, p. 33--48, fig. 1-5.

8 D. Be r C i u, Arta- traco-getica. Bucur esti, 1f)69, 54-61, fig. 26.....;28.

. 9 Ihid., p , 21, fig. 3.

10 6. H H K 0 JI () B, I1,HT. C'b'i., N~ 162.

46

3aHH C uapcKaTa H,!{eoJIOrHH H rH pa3rJIe:lK,!{a KaTO 300MOP<PHa cueaa na -HHBeHCTHTopalll•

lIPH 3anOqHaJIHTe Beqe KOMeHTapH B'hPXy MHoro06pa3HHTe H306pa:lKeHH~. sspxy rcpe- 6'bpHHTe C'h,!{OBe OT Por03eHCKOTo C'hKpOBHIII.e 6H TpSl6BaJIO ,!{a ce pemn H )J.OKaJKe KOSI e BC'hIII.HOCT OCHOBHaTa H)J.eSl B II.HJIaTa rpyna H3- 6poeHH TpaKHHCKH naMeTHHII.H OT CeBep06aJIKaHCKHSI xpsr. KaKTO ce BH:H(,l{a, cpeespaare npenxera C TeXHHTe qYAHH H306pa:lKeHHR ca OTKpHTH B emra TOqHO onpeneneaa TepHTOpHSI - OT Crapa nJIaHHHa ,!{O Kapnarare H OT A,!{>KHrbOJI ~O )l(eJIe3HH spara. Ta3H TepHTOpHH e 6HJIa eaaa OT HaH-paHHHTe KOHTaKTHH 30HH OIII.e OT BpeMeTO aa HOBOKaMeHHaTa enoxa H TyK ce e H3B'bPIIIHJIO KOHCOJIH)J.HpaHeTO aa Hath crapare eTHOKYJITYPHH KOMnJIeKCH H CMecBaHeTO aa pa3JIHqHHeTHOKYJITypHH Tpa,!{HUHH. He 6HBa ,!{a ce asnycxa H3 npensaa H KOMYHHKaUHOHHaTa pOJISI aa p • .llYHaB H HeHHHTe MHor06poHHH npHToUH - JIeBH H )J.eCHH. TIpe3 T03H Kp'bCTOn'bT ca MHHaBaJIH pa3JIHqHH aapoaa OT CTenHTe K'hM Ilearpanaa Espona HJIH K'bM BJIH3KHH H3TOK H Erea, Ilopaaa BCHqKO TOBa B'bpxy xasaaara TepHTopHH MoraT ,!{a ce aa- 6JIIO)J.aBaT pa3JIHqHH BJIHSlHHSI H CMecHUH na 1'PaJJ.HUHH, aa xy~O:lKeCTBeHH CTHJIOBe H 06- pasao MHCJIeHe. Te ca ,!{OHeceHH TyK OT pasJIHqHH nOCOKH. H HHe CJIe,!{ TOBa MO:lKeM ,!{a BH,!{HM KaK Te3H KyJITYPH B3aHMHO ca ce 060- raTSIBaJIH H ua Ta3H OCHOBa ca H3rpa:lK~aJIH CBOSI MecTHa Tpa~HUHSI H CBOH CTHJI B H3KYCTBOTO. 3eMHTe MeJK)J.y Crapa nJIaHHHa H Kapnarare ca 06HTaBaHH npes V-IV B. np. H. e. OT TpHCiaJIH, ,!{aKH H rera. Te ca HMaJIH enaa 06III.a nOJIHTHqeCKa c'h,!{6a OIII.e no apeae aa paaaara KeJITCKa eKcnaH3HSI H nOXO)J.HTe H8 MaKe,l{OHCKHTe BJIa)J.eTeJIH. E'!{HO MOIII.HO nJIeMeHHO o(5eJ{HHeHHe e 6HJIO HaJIHue, HO TO e 6HJIO npe,lJ.lIlecTBaHO OT eAHa uelle B3rp8J{eH8 eTHOKYJITypHa o6olHOCT II MH30CT H8 H)J.eHTe, KOHTO BHJKJJ.8Me OTpa3eHH B TSlXHOTO H3KYCTBo. Hec'bMHeHO Te3H HapO,!{H ca HMaJIH H enaa 06III. MHTHqeCKH naareoa.

11 B. Gold man. Late Scythian Art in the West: j he Detroit helmet. - J PE K, 22, Berlin, 1969, taf. 43; A. Far k as. Opld. cit. p. 36, fig. 6-10. 12 E. M 0 S C a I u, Mormintul pr inciar getic de la Peretu (jud. Teleorman). - Thraco-Dacia, VII, 1-2. Bucur esti , 1986, 59-70, fig. 5.

13 H .. 1\\ a p a :I 0 B. HaKOJleHHHK'bT 01' Bpaua.

C., 1980, c. 78.

14 B. H H K 0 II 0 D. TpaKHlI:cKRna~leTliIlIlH B'ba

Bpasaacao. _. MAl1, XXVIII, 1965, c. 171, 06p. 11. 1& Flax TaM, C. 176, o6p. 17.

18 D. B e r C i u. Opid. cit., p. 41), fig. 13.

I? Ibid., 39-43, fig. 8-11.

18 P. Ale x and res cu. Le groupe de tresors thraces du nord des Balkans (II). - Dacia, 11. s. XXVIIl. n 1,·-2. Bucuresti, 19M, p , 85-99, fig. 2, 3 et 7.

19 11. 1\1 a p a 3 0 B. UHBnJ1lI3a!{H HT8 ua naxo-

rerate npes KJlaCH'IeCKIfH nepaoa •• ...,... Ib~YCTIlO, 1;:

1981, c. 39--46. '

20 A. Far k n s. Style and Subject Matter in Native Thracian Art. -- M.I\U, 16, 1982, 33-48. 21 11. Map a 3 0 B. lJ,u r C·j,'I., C. 40.

La grande tasse du tresor de Rogozen B. N I K 0 LOY

(R e sum e)

Dans I es premiers j ours de 1986 pres du village de Rogozen, departement de Yraca,a etc trouve un grand tresor thrace. n etait enfoui en deux parties dans deux losses, une pres de l 'autre. Le tresor comprend au total 165 .. ases d'argellt travailles i! haut tire d'algt!nt et 31 d'eutre eux sout dores, Les vases sont repartts comme suit: lOR phial es, 54 brocs et 3 tasses. L'auteur s'arrete en detail sur la iroisieme tasse du tresor de Rogozen et commente les seines, representees sur elle. La tasse 11 tine forme cyl indr i que, legerement pllce au milteu, d'une hauteur [usqu'a 20 em et de di ametre [usqu'a 1.3 em au plus. Toute la surface est cO.Uverte de representations en relief - ornements et anlmaux. Au milieu, sur une {rise large est repl'esent~e une procession solennelle d'un oiseau de prole qui ti ent dans son bee un poisson et dans Se5 griffes un l ievre, devant lui march!' un bouc barbu aux cernes enormes. tandis que devant I ul -encore trois cerfs. Les deux premiers cerfs sont r epresentes parallelemeut I 'un par rapport

11 l 'aulre et cela donne l'ilIusion d'nn cer] a hui t patt es,

L'auteur fait un parlllJe1e entre Ie grand gobelet de Rogozen et trois pareilles coupes trouvees en Roumanie, dont deux pres d'Adjiguiol dans la Dobroudja du Nord et la troisieme des Portes .de fe t du Danube (3 present conservee au Metropolitan M.useum a New York). SUI' 'Ies Vases de Roumanie figurent presque les memes l'ejitesentations d'animaux que sur le gobetet de R ogozen. Leur' sujet principaL re..ele I~ sens general de l 'tdce Iondamentale i nearnee dans CE'S vases. Etudiant separernent l esvanirnaux represcntes sur ces gobelets, I 'auteur les relie avec des r eprcsenlat.ious sembl abl es sur l es cruches du tresor de R. ogozen et des representations sur des arrnes offen.' sives et defE'nsives - casques, genouilleres .. t glaives.

L'auleur conclut que les figures sur le grand vase du tresor de R ogozen sort des anlmaux sacrosaints du cercl e dune divinite thrace, Cslul qui possede (;CS representations recevra de la divlnite protecti on et ap pui et lui assurera la victoire.

5eJIe>KKH BopXY ,,<PHaJIaTa"

OT POr03eHCKOTO C'b1<pOBHlIJ,e C MOTHB OT MHTa sa Xeparcsn H Asre

nIDBA OfHEHOBA-MAPHHOBA

HSYMHTeJlHOTO Poroseacxo csxposame OT Cpe60PHH C'bAOBesaCSlra MHor06poAHH H MHOrOCTpaHHH np06JIeMH aa TpaKHAexa'l'a HCTOPllR, KYJITypa H HSKyC'J'eQ. C-..cTaB'bT aa C'bKpoBHutero, SlBHaT8 ceJJeKUHR -H8 C'bllOBeTe H TSlXHOTO onpeaeaeao npeAHa3HalleHHeBTbplKeCTBeHH yromeaas HJIH peJIHrHOSHH 06pe.D.H orcrpaHSiBaT Han'bJIHO nOAospeHHSlT8, lie M01Ke Aa npe.D.CTaBJISIBa CJIYllaAHO c60PHO C'bKPOBmu.e, sapeaeso npa Henpe.D.BHAeHH 06cTOSlTeJlCTBa1• TOB8 e H rrspsasr KapAHH8JIeH np06JIeM, KoATO CTOH HaqeJIO Ha USlJIa nopeAHua OT 3araAKH, nOCTaBSlHH nOOTAeJIHO OT BceKH C'bA H ocoeeao OT Te3H C <l»trypaJIHa yxpaca H aannHCH. TaK'bB C'bA e H eaaa OT l08"Te I\!HaJIH, KOSITO He3aBHCHMO OT no-cKpOMHHTe CH pasMepH . npHBJIHqa BHHMaHHeTO C'l>C CBOSlTa He- 06HlIaAHa cpoPMa. yxpaca H HaAnHCH. TOBa e .. I\!HaJIaTa" C HHB. M B-464 OT OKP'b:>KHHSl HCTOPHqecKH MyseA B'bB Bpaua, C MOTHB OT MHTa sa XepaK'bJI H ABre2• Heo6HqaAHaTa cpopMa na C'bA1IeTO, MOTHB'bT OT BrpaAeHHSl Me-

AaJIbOH, npoaaxonsr . H narara ca saranxare, B'bpxy KOHTO m.e ce cnpex H me onaraxe na nOTbpCHM orrosop.

"ct>HaJIaTa" C MHB • .Nil B-464 e HSUSlJIO sanaseno C"bAlIe C AHaMeT'l>P 13 CM, c ~ nJIOCKO AJroHHO A'bHO, C BrpaAeHaOT B'bTpemHaTa, crpaaa eM6JIeMa·Me)l,aJIbOH C . peJIe¢H8 I\!Hry-

. .

panaa yxpaca ...,.... cneaa=enason OT UHK'bJIa sa

Xepaxsn, xasroe HAeHTHI\!HII.HpaHa ouie npa rrspsara npeasapareana ny6JIHKaUHSl (o6p. 1). XepaK'bJI, CenHaJI B'bpXy. CKaJIa, C OTnYCHaTH xpaxa, nonnpan JISlBaTa CH psxa B'bpXy HeR, H8KJIOHMJI rJIaBa K'bM ASlCHOTO CH paMO, npoTSira ASlCHaTa ca psxa I{'bM MJIaAa :>KeHa, KOSITO ce oropauaaa. H3BHJIa TSlJIO H CTbDHJIa B'bpXy JiesHSI spas, C AeCHHSI ce OT6JI'bCBa, KaTO csmeapexeaao C nsere CH psue C ace CHJIR ce onarsa na ce OCB06o)lH H H3TJIaCKa p'bKara aa nOXHTHTeJISI, crpa6qiiJI npexara if .. HaA I"bPAHTe. ,USlCHaTa pssa aa Aare e B AHC-. xapMOHHSl C OCTaHaJIaTa I\!Hrypa.XepaK'bJIe ron, C Ao6pe MOAeJlHpaHH, HO oTnYCH8TR. My-

47

CKy~H Ha TH~O B nOKoH. CaMO ~HCHaTa p~Ka na XepaK~JI e HeCp~qHO npenanena B paxypc. OTnYCHaTaTa H K~IOMHa~a BCTpaHH rJIaBa H H3pa3HTe~HO naTeTHqHOTO ~HI.I.e e na nHHH. K~~pH~HTe Ha 6pa~aTa H KOCaTa ce CMeCBaT C aeneua, yaeasasam rnasara My. JI~BcKaTa KO)Ka, 3aCT~aHa Ha~ cxanara, st.pxy KOHTO e Ce~HaJI, KaTO rre ~H O)KHBHBa H ~~B~T e 3a6HJI 3~6H B~pXy ~HCHOTO 6e~po Ha repOH, a peM~K~T sa npHB~p3BaHeTO if ce YBHBa KaTO 3MHH OKO~O ~HBaTa My pr.xa. 110~ Ta3H p sxa, onpena m.pxy cxanara, ca nO~O)KeHH ~~K~T H KO~qaH~T Ha XepaK~~. r~a~KOTO TH~O Ha Asre ce OTKp05:!Ba nOqTH ro.no m.pxy ~Hn~HTe na pa3TBopeHHH nennoc, aaxpenen aa ~HBOTO pano. ,UHap.eMa YKpaCHBa rnasara C ~~JIrH pa3nH~HHH KHqypH xoca. ,UeCHHHT if xpax e 06YT B n03JIaTeH canaan, ztoxaro ~eBHHT e 60c. KOHYCOBH~Ha BHCHma 06Hua H rpanan at.pxy nscaara puxa H ~ecHHH xp ax pasxpacanar M~a~aTa )KeHa. ,UBe qeTHpHJIHCTHH p03eTH ca rpaaapann m.pxy OT~oM~~HTe aa cxanara. l1enJIOC~T na Asre e pasxpacea C HaCeqKH H nopsoen C JIeHTa OT TOqKH. ,UHa~eMaTa if e yxpacena C Kp~rqeTa. KO~qaH~T aa repos HMa nOBJIeK H p03eTKa. 1103~aTaTa B~I:Jxy ~eTaH~HTe nO~CHJIBa UBeToBo ~eKopaTHBHHH erpexr na HaKHTHTe, seneua, ~~BCKaTa KO)Ka, ~Hn~HTe aa nen.noca, KOJIqaHa H ~~Ka. B~HBO, Ha~ r.naaara na Anre, e ~H3e~HpaH nanrmc C paBHH 6YKBH - A VrH, a na pascroanae, paBHO na TOBa, KoeTO aaexa HMeTO, B~HBO OT rnasara na Xepaxt,n ce nere - LlHAALlH. AOHHHCKa KHMa 06TOqBa pe~e<pHOTO no~e Ha Kp~r~HH Me~a~bOH, KaTO ztornrpa ~O CHTeH nepnos IllHyp, KOHTO npennnasa OT B~TpeIIInara crpaaa na IIIHHKaTa aa ,,<pHa~aTa". HannHCHTe H paMKaTa, 06pa3YBaHa OT KHMaTa H nepnare, ca csmo n03~aTeHH.

B yxpacara na B~HIIIHaTa crpana na csna ca cnasenn YCTaHOBeHHTe HOpMH sa yxpaca na <pHa~H He3aBHCHMO OT n~OCKOTO ~~HO H' OT TOBa, qe MHCTOTO na oxrpana ce aaexa OT H3- KOBaHa Ma~Ka OCMO~HCTHa posera (o6p. 2). KOH~eHTpHqHO Ha HeH H3BHBa BeHe~ OT a~TepHaTHBHo penyaanm ce xerapa nanxera H xerapu ~BOHHH noryca. He06HqaHHOTO B C~~lJeTO e srpaacnaaero OTK~M B~TpeIIIHaTa crpana aa enaa eM6~eMa-Me~aJIbOH C penedma yxpaca. Ta3H eM6JIeMa 3aKpHBa C n~OCKaTa CH noB~PXHOCT ~HJIOTO ~~HO H HaMa~HBa BMeCTHMOCTTa aa csna, KOHTO 6e3 HeH 6H H3n~~HHBa~ CBOHTe <PYHK~HH. Brpazanaaero na eM6~eMaTa ~OpH He e HaH-cno~yqJIHBOTO. I1PH cnOHBaHeTO na eM6~eMaTa-Me~a~bOH K~M rOTOBOTO c~~qe TOH ce e X~~3Ha~ Harope H Ha~HcHo. TaKa ce e nonyxana npo.nyxa aa cpeurynoaoxcaara crpana H .nenrara C HOHHHcKa KHMa, KOHTO nopi.eaa Me~a~boHa, ce ornens OT CHTHHH rrepnos IIIHYP, npenanaaam OT B~TpeIIIHaTa crpana na IIIHHKaTa na C~~qeTo. Ta3H MaJIKa He6pe)KHOCT, He3a6eJIe)KHMa OT npt.a nor.aen, cxytuaaa npn cpaaaenne C KpacHBHH Me~a-

48

1

• 06p. 1. C/Jua.w om P0203el-ICK0I1W crstcpoeu uie, }/;-16. .IV'! E-464 c .1IOm~IR om uuma au Xeprucs : U ABcI'. Fig. f. Phiale du tresor de Rogozen, No d'ino. E-464 avec motif du mqthe d'Heracles et d'Auge

~bOH H rpH)K~HBO odiopxeaara OCTaHa~a qaCT.

CnHpaHKH ce m.pxy <popMaTa na C~~qeTO, TpH6Ba ~a npHnOMHHM, rre xapaxrepen e.nexretrr Ha <pHa~aTa e H3n~KHa~OCTTa B ~eHT~pa Ha ~~HOTO OT B~TpeIIIHaTa CTpaHa - OM<pa~. OKO~O Hero H OT Hero ce opraHH3Hpa H 06ycnans uanara yxpaca na c~~a3. I1PH H3pa60- renara OT e~HH MeTa~eH JIHCT <pHa~a B TeXHHKa penyce, H3KOBaHHTe ~eKopaTHBHH MOTHBH yxpa::HBaT enaospexeano B~TpeIIIHaTa H B~HIIIHaTa crpana. <l>opMaTa H yxpacara ca npo~HKTyBaHH OT npe~Ha3HaqeHHeTO H <PYHK~HHTe Ha T03H C~~ aa H3JIHHHHH, KaKTO H OT B~3MO)KHOCTHTe, KOHTO npe~JIara H3nOJI3YBaHHHT MeTa~ H TexHHKH. Ha TOBa ce ~~mKH H YCTOHqHBaTa <popMa na <pHa~aTa, npeO~OJIH~a XH~H~o~eTHH, 3amOTO TH OCTaBa HeH3MeHHa B CBOHTe xapaKTepHH qaCTH OT 6pOH30BaTa enoxa aacav. 4eCTO r~a~KJ{H, H3~yT OM<pa~ ce OTKpOHBa B~pXy KaHeJIHpaHa HJIH 60raTO YKpaceHa noB~P:X:HOCT aa <pHa~aTa. KaTO- KJIaCrrqeCKH npnMepH MoraT na ce nOCOqaT cpeospnara <pHa~a OT KYKOBa MOrHJIa npn 'uYBaH~HH H 3~aTHaTa <pHa~a 01' l1aHarIOpCKdTO C~KpOBHme4. 110HHxora ca T~pceHH H 06paTHH erpexrn, KaTO yxpacara ce cr.cpenorouaaa m.px y OM<pa~a. Cpeospnara <pHa~a OT MOrH~aHCKaTa Mor'H~a npa Bpaua npencraas e~HH BapHaHT - m.pxy caMHH OM<pa~ e annaxapaaa )KeHCKa nnasa B npo<pHJI H OT HeH pa~Ha~HO Tp~rBaT KaHe~IOpare". MaCKa H posera BMeCTO OM<paJI BH)K~aMe H m.pxy <pHa~H OT Por03eHCKOTO C'hKpOBHme6. I1PH BCHqKH c~yqaH ~eHTpa~HaTa yKpaca He Ha~XB~p~H pasnepnre na OM<pa~a H He aaxspHHBa KOH~eHTpHqHOTO pa3nO~0)KeHHe aa ~eKopaTHBHHTe MOTHBH, HHTO n~K BMeCTHMOC~Ta

2

• 06p. 2. ct>ua/la om PUi!03eHCKomo C'bKpU8UU{e, Hi/B. N!! 5-464 -- g-6HIU!ta cmp atui. Fig. 2. Phia!e du tresor de Rogozen, No d'ino, })-464 -- cote exter ieur

na Cb,n:a7• ITPH "qmaJIaTa" C MOTHBa OT MHTa aa Xepaxr.n H Asre e pasvynen e,n:HH YCTOHlIHB KaHOH H C TOBa ce rrOCTaB5I oIII.e e,n:HH m.npoc, KOHTO OlIaKBa OTrOBOO.

ErrH30,n:bT OT MHTa e npencranen C enna KOMrr03HUH5I na ztse nportraonocrasenn <pHrypn, KOHTO CrrOJIYlIJIHBO ce BrrHCBaT B penerpHOTO no.ne aa xpt.r-s,n Me,n:aJIbOH. 5lBHO KOMrr03HUH5ITa e Cb3,n:a,ieHa sa nonorino none. PaMKaTa OT HOHHHCKa KHMa, K05ITO rropb6Ba Me,n:aJIbOHa, ce aacrt.naa caxo OT Kb,n:pHUHTe 11 seaeua na XepaKbJI H OTJIe,BH5I xpax na Anre, B OC na ,n:HaMeTpaJIHO cpeIII.yrrOJIO){{HaTa crpana na peJIe<pHOTO no.ne. ITo Ta3H OC npoTHlIa H JIHHH5ITa na aanpeacennero MelK,n:y ztaere rrpOTHBorrOCTaBeHH <pHrypH - nananaIII.H5IT X epaxt,n H OT6paH5IBaIII.aTa ce H 01'zipt.naaiiface Asre. I-1KoHorpa<pH5ITa aa rOJIH5I 6pa,n:aT . H yaeasan MblK, cennan BbPXY JIbB-

. CKa KOlKa, npevernara BbPXY CKaJIa, e 5ICHa. ne3YCJIOBJ.IO paanosuaaave Xepaxi,n. Tenara na rrOlIHBaIII.H5I Xepaxt.n, ceanan BbPXY CKaJIa, e H3BecTHa H rrorrYJI5IpH3HpaHa'H spes MOHeTHTe, BKJIlOlIHTeJIHO H na Te3H OT TpaKH5I. Ilpes V B. rrp. H. e. raxa e H306pa3eH m.pxy M'c)HeTH OT A6,n:epa; a npes eJIHHHCTHlIeCKaTa enoxa B MHoro rpanose aa MaJIa A3H5I, BKJIIO-

. lIHTeJIHO H MHpHHa aa OCTPOB JIeMHoc8. ITpe3 PHMCK~l.Ta HMrrepaTOPCKa erroxa rro CbIII.H5I HalIHH e npencrasen Xepaxs,a BbPXY MOHeTH OT ITepHHT, Tormpoc na pexa MeCTa, KaJIXe,n:OH, Ilepran H np." 3aTpy,n:HeHHe .npn H,n:eHTH<pHKaUH5ITa MOlKe ,n:ailp'e,n:CTaBJI5IBa oT6paR5IBaIII.aTa ce MJIa,n:a lKeHa, aKO He 65Ixa H3BecTHH rro,n:p06HOCTH OT .nerennara aa Aare H aKO re He 65Ixa . nOTBbp,n:eHH H OT ropesra, rpanapan nan r.naaara H HMeTO. ,UYMaTa, rpannpana

7 Apxeo.noraa, 3, 1987

BJI5IBO OT Xepaxr,n - ~HAA~H, 5IBHO ce OTHaC5I cano sa Hero H He ce CBbp3Ba C HMeTO

IT "

na repOHH5ITa. pesom.r KaTO ,,5ICHO HJIH

6e3YCJIOBHO" MOlKe zta ce OTHaC5I KbM orrpe;eJI5IHeTO ua repoa, lIH5ITO HKOHorpa<pH5I e TOJIKOBa 5ICHa H n03HaTa, xe He ce HYlK,n:ae OT ,n:pyrH YTOlIH5IBaHH5I H OT H3rrHCBaHe Ha HM~

TO My. .

AKO eM6JIeMaTa-Me,n:aJIbOH CbC CBOHTe pasMepH He H3rJIelK,n:a rrpHro,n:eHa 3a yKpaca Ha <pHaJIa, TO KOMrr03HUH5ITa KaKTO aese H3TbJ{HaXMe, e ct.ananeaa aa BnHCBaHe B KpbrbJI Me,n:aJIbOH. KOMn03HUH5ITa, a H pasnepnre narrOMH5ITeM6JIeMHTe na or.nenanara, KOHTO npes sropara nOJIc)BHHa na V B. np. H. e. H3MeCTBaT ornenaaara C nJIaCTHlIHH <pHrypaJIHH CTOHKH H HaMHpaT IlIHPOKO pasnpocrpaaeaae npes IV B. np. H. e.10 YCTaHoBeHo e, lIe ,n:HaMeTbpbT na Te3H or-nenana ce ,n:BHlKH MelK,n:y 8 CM H 25 CM, HO rrpe,n:nOlIHTaHHTe pa3MepH ca MelK,n:y 14 CM H 17 CMll. E,n:HH nper JIe,n: na ny6JIHKYBaHHTe orJIe,n:aJIa H eM6JIeMH Ha orJIe,n:aJIa ,n:aBa Bb3- MOlKHOCT na ce BH,n:H, lIe aa yxpacara HM ca nonopaua npenmmo epOTHlIHH cuenn H CIOlKeTH C rnacaaa A<ppo,n:HTa H T03H na ,UHOHHC12. 4eCTO ca H3nOJI3YBaHH cneun H H3 UHKbJIa na Xepaxt,n, HO He C HerOBHTe xepOHlIeCKH nonBH3H, a na BJII06eHH5I XepaKbJI13. 5lBHO na ocooena rronyJI5IpHOCT ce e pansan H ClOlKeTbT OT MHTa aa Xepaxt,n H Asre, ,n:bIII.ep5ITa na Aneoc, nap na Terea B ApKa,n:H5{ .• H lKPHUa na noxm-aaara TaM Arana AJIea. Hepenxa ca U MOTHBHTe C KOMn03HUH5I, rro,n:06Ha Ha Ta3H OT <pHaJIaTa OT Por03eH. OIII.e npes MHHaJIH5I BeK ce oTKpHBa B CHPH5I e,n:H.H cpeot.pen Me,n:aJIbOH-eM6JIeM'a C MOTHB OT MHTa sa Asre H X epaxt,n, HO OCTaBa Hepa3n03HaT, m.npexn xe ce ny6JIHKYBa nna rrbTH14. T03H Me,n:aJIbOH rrpHHa,n:JlelKH na KOJIeKUH5ITa QapTopH3KH, BKJIlOlIeHa B KHHraTa na B. 1l,IOXHep napen C OCTaHaJIHTe or nenana B pasnena "OTBJIHlIaHe H JII060BHH cueHH"15. Or JIe,n:aJIO CbC CbIII.II5I MOTHB ce OTKpHBa B MHpHHa na OCTPOB JIeMHOC, CbXpaH5IBaHO B c6HpKHTe na MY3e5I B l1cTaH6YJI16. Hapen CbC cnOMeHaTHTe Belle 'eM6JIeMa H or.nenano ca ny6JIHKYBaHH oIII.e nne npyra CbC CbIII.H5I MOTHB, uaxepean B IOlKHa l1TaJIH5I - MarRa Fpeuna'". MOTHBbT e Bb3npOI13Be,n:eH OIII.e H BbPXY e,n:HH rnrrcos OTJIHBbK OT MeM<pHC, Ernner, CbxpaH·5IBaH B KOJIeKUH5I B XHJI,n:ecxaHM (<I>Pf)18. Ha IOlKHa l1TaJIH5I ce rtpanacaa enno or JIe,n:aJIO CbC CbIII.H5I·MOTHB OT KOJIeKUH5I JIo06 B MIOHxeH, a na fbPUH5r - or.nenano l1HB. N!! 264 01' BpHTaHCKH5r MY3eH19• CbIII.HHT MOTHB e pasn03HaT H BbPXY e,n:HH xepaxasen xan sn OT JIOKPH, CbXpaH5IBaH B ·OpBHeTo (l1TaJIH5I)20. MOTHBbT na cuenara ce H,n:eHTH<pHUHpa OT I'eopraoc l1KOHOMOC C ny6JIHKYBaHeTO na eznro . ornenano, navepeao B EJIH,n:a, ITeJIOrrOHeC, II

CbXpaH5IBaHO B KOJIeKUH5ITa EJIeHa Crararoc B ATHHCKH5I HaUHOHaJIeH Me3yii21._ ITo,n:06eH MOTHB ce oTKpHBa H·BbPXY e,n:HO orJIe,n:aJIO OT

49

3

• 06p. 3. Bpotcsoeo oeneita no om tco sexuust .Enena Cmpamoc" 13 Amuua - ?,u6.Jle,Ht! c J,WlnU6 om uuma ea XepnK.'o/l u ABci' (no r. HKUliO.1WC). Fig. 3. Miroir en bronre de l a collection Helena S tratos a.4 thenes - embleme avec moti] du my the d'Heracles et d'Augii (d'apres G. I1lOfWnlOS)

MeTpOnOJHITeHCKIUI My3eii: B HlO tIOPK, BePOHTHO OT r'hp~HH22. 11 aa ClO2KeTa OT eMOJIeMaTa Ha TOBa orJIe~aJIO ce npe~JIara C'hll\aTa narepnperauns - MOTHB OT MHTa sa Asre H Xepaxroi. HHTO enna OT H3BeCTHHTe eMOJIeMH He HOCH Ha~nHC, HO KaTO ce H3X02K~a OT JIereanara H axoaorparpasra na repoare, H30- opa3eHaTa cuena ce nnrepnperapa OT f. I1KoHOMOC, ,U2K. MHJIH H npHC'he~HHHJIHTe ce K'hM THX f. PHXTep H D. AMaH~pH KaTO MOTHB OT MHTa sa Xepaxt,n H ABre23. Ha~nHC'hT B'hPXy eMOJIeMaTa OT ,,<pHaJIaTa" OT Por03eH OKOHtIaTeJIHO nOTB'hp2K~aBa' B'h3npHeTara-- H~eHTH<pHKa~HH aa ClO2KeTa, cueaara H reponre. 3a nonYJIHpHOCTTa na cioisera CBH~eTeJICTByBaT nosmeaacxara 2KHBOnHC H rp-snxara pHCYBaHa xepavnxa OT rperara sernspr aa IV B. np. H. e.24 ClO2KeT'hT OT namara . eMo.iIeMa, HO B ztpyr-a KOMlI03H~H5f, ce H300pa3HBa B'hPXy MOHeTH na Ileprav, tIHHTO BJIa~eTeJIH ATaJIH~HTe CqllTaJIH sa CBOii: pO~OHaqaJIHHK Tenerp, CHH'hT na Xepaxt,n H 'Aare. OTKpHTHTe MOHeTH npaHa~JIe2KaT Ha pHMcKaTa HMnepaTopcKa enoxa If ca ceseaa no speve na MapK ABpeJIHii: H JIY~Hii: .Bep (161-169 r.)", CXO~HO aa TOBa H300pa2KeHHe na ClO2KeTa ce OKa3Ba H asoopa- 2KeHHeTO B'hPXy MOHeTH OT TpaKHH - OT Tonapoc aa p.MecTa~6. Te3H MOHeTH ca ceseua no spexe na IOJIH5f ,UoMHa (193-211 r.) H na I'era (211-:;-217 r.)27, MOTHB'hT OT neprauCKHTe MOHeTH ce B'h3nplleMa H aa enna eMHCH5I MOHeTH na G'hlO3a .na l;3:Te rpana JIJIH tIOHHii:CKaTa KOH<pe~epa~HH" npn npnoriutananero K'hM aes na E¢ec'H Ileprax, .OKOJIO 139.-:-140 r.,

50

4

• 06p. 1. Om/lU61W om I{ppa.MU'tI'H Ka/l7Jn om XepWHee - e.M6/le.Mu C ,ItOmU6 om AIUInll SU Xeptucs» U O.ltrpa;w (no B. Il, Bxaeamcsu u), Fig. 4. Moulage de moule ceramique de Chersonese+emb leme avec" 'm"r)m du my the d'Heracles et d'Dtnphale (d'opres V. D. Blauatshi i)

no apexe aa uapysanero na AHTOHHH DHii: H MarHcTpaTypaTa Ha a3Hapxa apxHepeii: MapK KJIaB~Hii: <l>POHTOH28. I1HTepecHO e na ce OTOeJIe2KH, qe TaM, K'h~eTO ce 5IBHBa MOTHB'hT OT MHTa aa Aare H Xeparcsn, ca OHJIH cesean H MOHeTH C'hC Ce~HaJIHH B'hPXy CKaJIa Xepaxsn, noxaaam CJIe~ nO~BH3HTe. Taxa e H300pa3HBaH H B'hPXy MOHeTH OT DeJIOnOHeC, OTK'h~eTO rpt.rna MHT'bT sa ABre29• Terea B ApKa~HH aa DeJIOnOHeC H Ilepraa B MaJIa A3HH ca zmara nenr'spa, K'h~eTO ce H3rpa2K~aT nxonorparpCKHTe oopasa na Asre B CTeHonHCH H cKYJInTypa. l.Jpe3 T03H MHT Ilepraa H3HBHBa CBOHTa apr.sxa C ApKa~HH B DeJIOnOHeC, OTK'h~eTO ca OHJIH ~OllIJIH npeCeJIHH~HTe-OCHOBaTeJIH30. D05fnara aa T03H MHT B TpaKHH B'hPXy MOHeTH aa TonHpoc H3HCKBa OOHCHeHHe, aHaJIorHqHO Ha TOBa, KoeTO H3HCKBa H MOTHB'hT B'hPXy <pHaJIaTa OT Por03eH.

MeCTHH5IT MHT sa Terea, B' OOJIaCTTa Apxa~HH na DeJIOnOHeC, 3a. Asre - ~'bll\epHTa na Aneoc - uapar aa Terea, H 2KpH~a aa ATHHa AJIea, ce paanpocrpaaaaa qpe3 enoca H rparH~HTe .. C0<P0K:I>JI. H EBpHnH~ HanHCaJIH npa-

A "A "T th" M U

MHTe " nre, " JIea~H, "eJIe':l' H" H3HH-

~H"31. TOBa ~onpHHaC5I aa nOHBaTa. aa pasJIHqHH BepCHH aa MHTa. Haa-crapare CBe~eHlf5I sa cpemara Me2K~y Xepaxun H Asre ca na Xexarea OT MHJIeT32. PeKoHcTpYK~HHTa aa MHTa, B pa3JIHqHHTe BepCHH, ce OOOCHOBaBa B'bpXY TOBa, KoeTO e ~OCTHfHaJIO. ~O Hac naCTHqHO. CpeI1I.aTa Me2K~y Xepaics,n H Anre ce e C'hCTOHJIa no -spexe na HOll\HHTe T'bp2KeCTBa B necr Ha· 60rHHH~a "ATHHa AJIea, B K0HTO

B3HMa yxacrae H npHHIJ.eCaTa-LKpHIJ.a Asre. EBpHnH~ HH OCBe~OM5IBa, sre Xepaxt.n no npexe na TOBa T'bp2KeCTB9 6HJI nH5IH33• Be3 na paarrosnae npHHIJ.eCaTa, TOH 51 npeJI'bCT5IBa npn CKaJIHH5I H3BOP, B nenocpencraeaa 6JIH- 30CT ~O xpaaa aa 60fHH5ITa. Cnopen H5IKOH BepCHH TOBa e CTaHaJIO B CaMH5I xpax, KoeTO otiaxe M02Ke na oananasa B TeMeHoca aa xpaxa, K'b,ll.eTO e 6HJI, a H cera ce naxapa H3BOP'bT. HapYIIIHJIa 06eTa sa ,ll.eBCTBeHOCT, Asre e 6HJIa npOKY,ll.eHa. OT Terea B MaJIOa3HHCKa MH3H5I. CHH'bT II Teaep H3paCHaJIOTrJIe,ll.aH OT K03a. OT BCHqKH CHHo~e aa Xepaxt,n TOH HaHMHoro npanaxan aa 6aIII.a CH. CJIe~ spexe H TOH nOnaAHaJI B MH3H5I H ce 6HJI B ~By60H npn pexara KaHK C AXHJI. IJ.ap5lT na MH3HTe pelIIHJI na ~a~e Asre sa csnpyra aa TeJIe<p. Asre He acenaena, HO. npaaynena, T5I BJl5l3JIa B 6paqHaTa CTa51 C Meq, sa ~a y6He He2KeJIaHH5I 2KeHHX. 3a na ce H36efHe HHIJ.eCTa H y6HHCTBOTO, ce HaMeCHJlH 60rOBeTe. E~Ha orpoxna 3MH5I 3aCTaHaJIa Me2K,ll.y Asre H HeHHH5I CHH H CTaHaJIO 3HaMeHHe - Te ce pa3n03HaJIH .. Ta3H rexa TpeTHpa CO<pOK'bJI B rparenaara "MH3HHIJ.H". Xy~OLKHHIJ.H H CKYJIllTOPH ca ce CnHpaJIH rJIaBHO B'bpXY TpHTe enaaona na MHTa - CpeIII.aTa na Xeparcsn H Asre, nay- 605lT na Tenep H AXHJI H pa3n03HaBaHeTO na MaHKaTa H CHHa - Asre H Tenep,

ITPH onara ~a H3~HPHM npoasxona H

rrspnooripasa na MOTHBa OT ,,<pHaJIaTa", M02Ke ~a nonpaaece aa TOBa e~HO C'bnOCTaB5IHe MeLK~y

• :06p. 5. An/luKaljuJl om xuopu« om /'v!ecr6pUJlAWmUI3 c Eopeii U Opeumua. Fig. 5. Application d'hydre de Mpss(lmbria- motif avec Boree et Oreithya

6

Hero H eM6JIeMaTa OT orJIe,ll.aJIOTO OT EJIH.1l.a (o6p. 3). YCTaHOH5IBaT ce pa3JIHqH5I caao B no~p06HOCTWf.e H TpaKToBKaTa34• H npn nsere KOMn03HIJ.H5ITa e C'bB'bplIIeHO npHro,ll.eHa 3a yxpacara na Kp'br'bJI Me~aJIbOH. ,UoKa'(o peJIe<pHaTa yKpaca Ha orJIe,ll.aJIOTO ce OTJIHqaBa C nJIaCTHqHOCTTa aa <PHrYPHTe, Ta3H na ,,<pHa- JIaTa" H3~aBa e~HH crpexexc K'bM LKHBonHCHO nexoparnnno npencrasaue H excnpecannocr sa CMeTKa aa nJlaCTHqHOCTTa. Pa3nOJI02KeHHeTO na nsere cpeIII.ynOJI02KHO nOCTaBeHH <pil:rypH na Asre H Xeparcsn e C'bIII.OTO.· H B naere eM6JIeMH e osnaseaa CKaJIaTa aa c:I<aJIHH5I H3BOP, HaMHpaU\ ce B Henocpe~cTBeHa 6JIH30CT C xpaxa aa ATHHa AJIea B Terea, K'b~eTO cnope~ JIereH~aTa ce pa3BHBa npe~cTaBeHoTo ~eHCTBH~. ,Uoim H KOJIqaH'bT C Jl'bKa aaexa C'bIII.OTO M5ICTO ~o CKaJIaTa H npn nsere eM6JIeMH. I'nasara aa nH5IHH5I Xepaicsn e JIeKO ornycaara m.pxy ~51CHOTO My paxo H npn naara penepa, HO npn <pIIaJIaTa TOPC'bT My e noasnpaaea, nO-CTaTHqeH H JIHlIIeH no H3BeCTHa crenen OT JIOrHQHaTa H3BHBKa aa nJIaCTIIQnara <pHrypa OT orJIe~aJIOTO. Ce~HaJIH5IT aspxy CKaJIaTa Xeparcsn OT ,,<pHaJIaTa" e nO-OTnYCHaT II nO-TpOMaB, C YBHCHaJIH xpaxa H HeYMeJIO npencraseaa ,ll.51CHa pt.xa, ~OKaTO m.pxy orxenanoro nponopunare My ca no-xapMOHHQHH, JIeBH5IT My xpax e nonr-snar, a ~eCHH5ITrrporernar nanpen KaTO B 60p6a. H3BHTOTO My T5IJIO npy2KHHHpa, npHTerJI5IHKH JIeHHBO oT6paH5IBaIII.aTa ce MJIa~a 2KeHa. CTOHKaTa aa

• 06p. 6. An,lulwl{UJl am xuiipua om Mece6puJlsiomue c Boped U Opeumua. Fig, 6. Application d'hydre de Meseambria+motii avec Boree et Orrithya

6 51

<plIrypaTa na Asre, K05ITO ce OTKp05IBa rOJIa BbPXY ,n:lIIIJUlTe na paaserna IIeIIJIOC, e CXO,n:Ha II npn ziaara penerpa II cavo IIOJIO)f{eHHeTO na pr.uere e IIO-pa3JIlIqHO. B IIaTeTllqHlI5I nspaa na JIlI.ueTO H B C;lIJIHO canrnre B JIaKbT5I p sue na MJIa,n:aTa xcena OT ,,<pllaJIaTa", XBaHaJIH ,n:JIaHTa na IIOXllTllTeJI5I, liMa IIO-rOJI5IMa H3- pa3lITeJIHOCT BbIIpeKlI nexapvonusmrre IIpOIIOp.ulIlI. ,UBlI)f{eHlIeTO if HlI HaIIOMH5I TOBa na XepaKbJI, XBaHaJI JIaIIaTa Ha JIbBa B 60p6aTa C HeMeHcKlI5I JIbB BbPXY rpanepnre OT ITaHartopauie'", Kb,n:eTO II JIbBbT e 3aXaIIaJI IIO ctIII.lI5I HaqlIH 6e,n:poTo na repos. B Me,n:aJIbOHa OT ,,<plIaJIaTa" ca r-spceun ,n:eKopaTHBHH, 6llX Ka3aJIa, )f{lIBOIIlICHH e<peKTH, KOlITO JIllrrCBaT npn orJIe,n:aJIOTO. Baacnaxe rn npu npencraB5IHeTO Ha BeHe.ua C pa3rrepeHlI JIlICTa BbPXY Kb,n:poKocaTa r.naaa na Xepaxs,n, npn O)f{llB5IJIaTa JIbBCKa r.naaa na onpanara xoxca, saxanana HerOBOTO 6e,n:po, II npn YCYKBaHeTo OKOJIO pt.xara My - aa ,n:bJIbr peMbK. BbPXY or.ne,n:aJIOTO Asre HOCH canaan», HO rpuxcnano cpecannre if KOCli He ca npncrernarn OT ,n:lla,n:eMa, He HOCH 06eUH, HHTO rpnana na pt.xara H xpaxa, KaKTO BbPXY eM6JIeMaTa OT ,,<pHaJIaTa". He e nponycnar II cannam.r BbPXY JIeBH5I if xpax. JIbBcKaTa xoxca, BbPXY K05ITO e cenna,n rep05IT, e npexernara BbPXY CKaJIaTa C r JIaBaTa Ha,n:OJIY, OTKbM JI5IBaTa pt.xa, a BbPXY ,n:5ICHOTO My 6e,n:po e npevernara .nanara na JIbBa. JIllrrcBa II crpeaexct.r KbM pasxp a-

• 06p. 7. Ilemaii» om 11116. .'Vf! 5-464 - AU2C U

Xeptucs», Fig. 7. Detail du No d'inr, 5-464- A uge et Heracies

C5IBaHe, rrp05IBeH H B nasennpaanre p03eTH lIJIH .uBeT5I .IIOIIOBbpxHocTTa na CKaJIaTa, BbPXY K05ITO cenn XepaKbJI,a csino poserxu, naceuxn II TOqKll BbPXY nertnoca, ,n:lla,n:eMaTa II KOJIqaI-I3. BbPXY penerpa OTOrJIe,n:aJIOTO ce qYBcTBYBa rro-Herrocpe,n:cTBeHoTo BnH5IHHe Ha rOJI5IMaTa cxy.nrrrypa, a BbPXY T03H OT ,,<pHaJIaTa" ci.anpaae )f{HBOrriIcHllTe nexoparnauu eJIeMeHTlI, npnct.um aa T. Hap. XaJIKlI,n:lIsecxn" or-nenana, a ct.tuo raxa II na TpaKlIHCKaTa TopeBTHKa36• OTJIlIqaBallI,OTO ce CbC CBO- 5ITa rrJIaCTlIqHOCT orJIe,n:aJIO OT ATlIHa ce rrplInncaa TY na nenononecxara, TY na arnnecxara TopeBTlIKa37.

Bb3 OCHOBa aa ,n:oceraWHllTe lI3CJIe)].BaHlI5I BbPXY or nenanara eM6JIeMaTa OT ,,<plIaJIaTa" OT Por03eH 6lI CJIe,n:BaJIO J]_a ce npnrmme na XaJIKlI,n:llqeCKaTa TopeBTHKa38. B CJIyqa5I rp 5I6Ba na lIMaMe rrpe,n:BlI,n:, qe KepaMHqHll5IT KaJIbrr, OTKpHT B JIOKPH, e CBbp3aH CbC 3aCBH,n:eTeJICTBYBaHOTO II OT npyrn or nenana rrpOlI3Bo,n:CTBO na lO)f{HOHTaJIlIHCKHTe TOpeBTHqHI1 aTeJIHeTa, HaH-lI3BeCTHlITe OT KOlITO ce TbPC5IT B TapeHT39. Hnrepecsr KbM MOTHBa OT <plIaJIaTa e 6HJI rrp05IBeH II TYK. 13POH30Bll or-nenana C peJIe<pHlI eM6JIeMli BbPXY xanaxa ca 6HJIH H3pa60TBaHli H B ,n:opHHCKaTa KOJIOHH5I Ha ceBepHlI5I 6p5Ir na 4epHO Mope - Xepconec. TaM ca OTKpHTH xarn.na sa MaTpHUH na or nenana npn KepaMHQHH pa60THJIHlIUH H nennr'". Haii-ncripe 3aIIa3eHH5IT xant.n HMa ,n:HaMeTbp 14 CM4l. BbPXY xa.nt.na aa or.nenano OT Xepconec e npencrasena cxonua raJIaHTHa cueaa c Xeparcs,n, cano IJe BMeCTO Asre cpeury Hero CTOH

52

7

8

• 06p. 8. Ilematu: om cmenonucunie rna zpotinu ua JI/g 1 om Bepeuna, Trsp uu» -- Xaocc (no Il . X. rjJOH B uuucenxaeen ). Fig, 8, Detail des peintures tnurales du sepu lcre No 1 de s/ ergina, Grece _ Hades (d'apres P. H, Blanhenhagen )

OMcpaJIa, KOHTO My nenana BpeTeHOTO (o6p. 4). B cuenara JIl1rrCBa nanpexceune, a cpl1rypl1Te ca eJIeraHTHI1 11 rrJIaCTl1qHI1.-Ta311 .n:oKYMeHTaUI1H aa 113pa60TBaHeTo npes sropara rrOJIOBI1Ha na IV B. rrp. H. e. na rro.n:06im or-nenana B e.n:I1H rrOJIHC- KOJIOHI1H OT Cenepnoro xepnoMOPCKO Kpan:6peMl1e, noncxaasa, ne THXHOTO 113pa60TBaHe e MOrJIO .n:a CTaHe H B rrOJIHCHTeKOJIOHHH na TpaKI1n:CKOTO liepHOMopCKO xpan- 6peMl1e, KaTO n:OHHn:CKHTe ArroJIoHHH H Onecoc HJIH nopancxara MecaM6pHa. OPH Ta311 MI1CbJI I1HTepeCHO e na ce rrpHrrOMHHT annaKaUHHTe na .n:Be XH.n:PHH OT MecaM6pHa C e.n:I1H H CbW. nexopamsen MOTI1B, HO C pa3JIHqHa nm-epnperauna (o6p. 5). CIDMeTbT e rpa6- BaHeTO na aTHHCKaTa npnnueca Opejrrna OT Eopen:42 (o6p 6). OpH CbrrOCTaBHHeTO YCTaHoBHBaMe, se ennara arrJIHKaU:H5I ce OT JIHqaBa C rrJIaCTHqHOCT 11 XapMOHl1qHH nporiopuan, a npyrara HOCH ci.nnrre 6eJIe3H, C KOHTO ce xapaxrepnanpa eM6JIeMaTa OT "cpHaJIaTa" OT Por03eH - no-neopeacnn rrporropU:HH, 113pa- 3HTeJIHO OMHBeHI1 JIHua H .n:BHMeHHH H TbpceHe Ha .n:eKopaTHBHI1 ecpeKTI1 H eJIeMeHTH. H aKO arrJIHKaU:HHTa OT ennara XH.n:PI1H CJIe.n:Ba OT- 6JIH30 aTHqeCKH nporornn, TO sropara annaKaU:HH rro TpaKTOBKaTa H nnrepnperauaara na Mo.n:eJIa nsuaaa MeCTeH Man:CTOp ropesr. B T03H pen na MI1CJIH HHe CMe CKJIOHHI1 na npnnnureu eM6JIeMaTa na or JIe.n:aJIOTO na arnseCKaTa TopeBTHKa, a eM6JIeMaTa na "cpl1aJIaTa" Ha TopeBTHKaTa OT aTeJIHeTaTa Ha rrOJIHCHTeKOJIOHI1H OT TpaKI1n:CKOTO Kpan:6peMl1e.

OPH TbpceHeTO na rrspnooopaaa, KOHTO MOMe .n:a e B.n:bXHOBI1JI TOpeBTI1Te Ha MOTHBa OT MHTa aa Xepaxt,n H Aare, He 6HBa .n:a rrpeaeopersaxe 06cToHTeJiCTBoTO, qe re ce narnpar KbM rperara qeTBbpT aa IV B, rrp. H. e., a npes cpenara ua IV B. rrp. H. e. BeJII1KI1HT CKYJIITTOP H apxHTeKT CKorrac e Bb3CTaHOBHJI H yKpaCHJI CbC CKYJIrrTYPH xpaMa Ha ATHHa AJIea B Terea, orroxcapen npes 394 r. rrp.

H. e.43 MHTbT 3a. Asre, CBbp3aH C JIereH.n:apHOTO MHHaJIO na Terea, e 6HJI enna OT rJIaBHHTe TeMH, BbPXY KOHTO e pa60Tl1Jl Cxonac 11 C qHHTO cu:eHI1 yKpaCHJI CPPOHTOHHTe Ha xpaMa H MeTorrHTe na nponaoca. 3a CbMJIaHeHHe sa TOBa CMe ocsenoneaa caxo OT OaB3aHHn: 11 no Hac ca .n:OCTl1rHaJIH OT.n:eJIHH cpparMeHTl144. CKYJIrrTypaTa OT MaB30JIeH OT XaJII1KapHaC coase HH npencrana H3KYCTBOTO aa Cxonac". TaM, B pa3.n:BHMeHI1H CPPH3 C aMa30HoMaxHH, cpenraae rrOJIyrOJIH, oT6paHHBaw.11 ce aMa- 30HKH H npyacaaupanrare TeJIa na rpr.uxare BOI1HH, KOHTO HarrOMHHT cpHrypHTe OT eM6JIeMI1Te. TOBa HI1 nana OCHOBaHHe na TbPCI1M rrspsooopasa na penerpa OT or JIe.n:aJIOTO OT EJIH.n:a H eM6JIeMaTa OT "cpHaJIaTa" OT Por03eH B xpi.ra na TBOpqeCTBOTo na Cxorrac. ,UaTaTa, KbM KOHTO 6H CJIe.n:BaJIO na OTHeceM "cpHaJIaTa", e 3aBHCl1Ma 01' csananenare TBOp6H na Cxonac H OT YCTaHoBeHaTa .n:aTa Ha orJIe.n:aJIaTa C Kanaun, nocenm penedma eM6JIeMH, a HMeHHO rperara qeTBbpT na IV B. rrp. H. e. KbM ct.urara nara aaaexcna H arrenar.nanaiuara rrpHJII1Ka MeM.n:y Xepaxr.n OT "cpHaJIaTa" H Xanec OT CTeHorrHCI1Te na rporinaua Ng I BbB Bepr aaa, MaKe.n:oHHH, CbC cu:eHaTa Ha OTBJIHqaHeTO Ha Ilepcepoua'" (o6p. 7, o6p. 8). OPH TOBa cpasneuae MOMe na ce YCTaHoBH 11 BJIHHHHeTO aa MHBorrHCTa BbPXY TopeBTHKaTa H KOHKpeTHo BbPXY 11306paMeHHeTo OT "cpHaJIaTa" OT Por03eH. OPH orrpenenanero na aTeJIHeTO, OT KoeTO e rrp0l13JIH3JIa "cpHaJIaTa", MOMe na ce KOJIe6aeM MeM.n:y e.n:I1H rpancxn uear-sp OT H3TOqHOTO I1JIH IDMHOTO xpanripexcae na TpaKHH. EJIH30CTTa C or nenanara, nparmcana na XaJIKH.n:lIqeCKHTe arenaera, H BJIlIHHl1eTO na CTeHorrlICI1Te OT Beprnaa 6l1xa HaKJIOHHJII1 KbM Erejicxoro . xpaaopeacae. Ho eM6JIeMaTa OT "cpl1aJIaTa" B CBOHTa TpaKToBKa CTOH rrO-6JIH3KO no arrJIlIKaU:HHTa OT sropara XH.n:PHH OT MecaM- 6pHa, OTKOJIKOTO no xparepa 01' ,UepBeH1I47, H TOBa e apr yueur, KOHTO MOMe na Hli HaCOqH npyr-ane - KbM aTeJIHe, cm.psaao rrO-THCHO C TpaKHH.

Bt.npoct.r, KOn:TO Han:-Herrocpe.n:CTBeHO sacar-a "cplIaJIaTa", e santo e 61IJIO He06xo.n:lIMO na ce nrpana enna eM6JIeMa, rrpenuaauaneaa sa or JIe.n:aJIO, CbC CIDMeT, nonopan lIMeHHO aa yxpaca na or nenana. OPH TOBa C srpaacnaaero aa enna eM6JIeMa C unrpox .n:lIaMeT'bp He cano ce napyuraaa YCTaHOBeHlIHT KaHOH aa cpHaJIH, HO ce 1I HaMaJI5IBa 1I BMeCTHMOCTTa aa cr.na, a TOBa osnauaaa, qe ce HaKbpHHBa 1I CPYHKUI10HaJIHOCTTa. C .nmuasaae OT CPYHKU:HHTe en cplIaJIaTa ce rrpespt.ma C(lMO B 06pOqeH nap - anarexa (uvulhlf.lU) HJIli 1tivu~ sixovtxoc. H3BeCTlfa e rrpaxrnxara na nonaacsne KaTO 06pOqHlI napose na csnoae lIJIli xynoacecrsean TBOp6H C MOTHB OT MliToBe48. TaKbB e CJIY'laHT H C enna puoyaana rrJIOCKa naanna OT cpenara aa VII B. rrp. H. e., OTKpl1Ta npa ApTeM1I31I0Ha B T acoc" . T H npencraanaaa enna x ynosceCTBeHa rnopria C MOTHB OT MHTa aa Benepotpoar

53

B'bpXY KpH.naTHH Ilerac, npOHHSBa~ C xonaee- C'bBCeM He ce e MHCJIenO 3a-HOBOTO npeaaaslJy.u.OB~eTO XBMep8. CIO>KeT'bT OT TaSH 06- aaxeaae. rOTOBHHT MOTHB, HSKOB8H B'hPXy

POlJH8 nasana HHMa npHK8 apssxa C 6orHHHTa, MaTpHua, TOpeBT'bT ro e no.u.6R~.n K8TO MO,l(eH

H8 KOHTO e nOCBeTeHa. sa enOX8T8, 8KTyanH3HpaHoT 'H3BaHHHTe OT

KOMnHnaUHHTa C srpaananero na eM6neMa Cxonac npocaaseaa cxyanrypa sa xpaxa na OT oraenano B'bB $HanaTa MO>Ke ,l(a ce HST'bJI- ATHHa AJIea. MO>Ke .u.a ca HManH HSlKaKBO KYBa H xaropesynrar aa HBHHH CTpeMe>K na SHalJeHHe H CIO>KeT'bT - epOTHlJHa cneaa, nporopeara K'bM pasxpacsaaae. Tosa CTpeMe>K TarOHHCTHTe HnH caMHHT MUT. H~ TOBa sacera npoaasaaa H sspxy npyra $HanH OT Poro- HH ce HSnn'b3Ba, KaKTO HH ce asnassaa H seHCKOTO C'bKpoBHlII.e. Karo npaxep MO>Ke,l(a H306pasHBaHeTO aa C'b~HH CIO>KeT B'bpXy MOHece nOC01JH $HanaTa C npaBO'br'bnHaTa eM6JIeMa TOTe OT Tonapoc. ,UOPH H npa YCTaHoBHBaHe C rpadoa, HSMeCTHna oM$analO• Ho HBHO B aa paryaaa, C KoAro e CB'bpSaHO sapassaero

cnY1JaH $HanaT8 C eM6neMaTa C MOTHB OT MHTa aa C'bKPOBHID.eTO, easa nH ID.e ce aaxepa apssxa

sa Aare He e 6Hna npeaaasaaeeaa sa asnoz- C MOTHBa,. SauJ.OTO 0 MOT'bT sa Be.nepo4JoHT ce

sysaaero KaTO $Hana, a KaTO 06pOlJeH ,l(ap. HBHBa B'bPXy 06p01JeH ,l(ap B ApTeMH300Ha aa

Ilpa C'bs,I(aBaHeTO aa KOMn03HUHHTa, npeaaas- Tacoc, 6ea.,I(a csmecraysa aenocpeacrseaa

naxeaa sa yxpaca aa xanax aa orne.n,ano, spssxa Me>K.lJ.Y Beaepodonr H ApTeMH,I(a.

t B. H Ii K 0 JI 0 B, C. M a ill 0 D, II. 11 B a-

HOB. YHIiKaJIHO TpaKHHCKO C'bKpOBHlUe OT Por03eH. --'- MilK, 1986, KH. 1, 38-47.

II B. H Ii K 0 JI 0 B. ¢MaJiHTe OT Poroseacsoro

C'bKfJoBHlUe. -113KycTRo, 1986, KH. 6, 8-16.

3 Ilax TaM, 8-16. - CfJB. 108-Te q,U3JIH OT C'bKPOBlIIUeTO.

01 B. ¢ H .n 0 D, 11 B. B e JI K 0 B H B. M a-

K 0 B. Haarporinare MorH.nH npa JI.yBDHJIlifr. C., 1934, c. 30. 06p. 66; 11. B e H e A H K 0 B, r. rep aC HMO B. TpaKHHcKoTO H3KYCTBO. C., 1973, 91- 92, o(op. 139-140.

5 H. B e Hen Ii K 0 B. HOBOOTKPHTO rpaxa acxo MOrHJlHO norpeeeuae BbB Bpaua, -ApXeOJlO)'H5I, KIl. 1, 1966, c. 12, o6p. 8; 11. Map a 3 0 B. 24 TpaKHHcKH C'blla.-Cocl>HH, 1980, N2 4.

6 B. H H K 0 jl 0 B. UII r. C1,11., 8--16. 7 Ilax TIlM. 8-16.

8 L. Lac r 0 i X. UI! aspect rncconnu de Ia legende d'Heraclt~s sur une monnaie de Pergame. - Rev. belge de numlsmati que. T. 102, 1956. 6-7.

D Ibidem, 8-9.

10 J. C h arb 0 n 11 (> a u. Les bronzes grecs.

Paris, 1958, p. 32 sq. 11 Ibidem, p. 34. 12 Ibidem.

13 Ibidem.

14 I.. Lac r 0 i x. Op. cit.,p. Ill; J. deW i t e.

Medaillon en argent de la collection Czartoryski. .. _.In: Gazette archeologi que, 1880, 6. )J. 138, pl. 23; W. Z u e C h n e r. Griech. Klappspiegel. Berl in, 1942, S. 65, fig. 122.

16 L. Lac r 0 i x. Op. clt., p. 18; W. Z u e· c h ri e r , Op. cit., p. 64, sq.

:r8W. Z u e c h 11 e r. Op. cit., p. 64, No 30,

fig. 123.

171.. Lacroix. Op. cit., p.·17. 18 Ibidem, p. 18.

19 Ibidem, p. 17.

20 Ibidem.

21 G. P. 0 i k 0 II 0 III 0 s. Ercole ed Auge.

Specchio In bronzo della collezlone di Helene A. Stathatos. - In: Annum io della Scuola arcbeologica di Atene. 1946":""1948, vol. 24-26, p. 133 sq. pl. XV; Ide m. Deux mlroirs. - In: Coll. Helene Stathatos, vol. .III, 1963,Strasbourg, 73-89; P. A man dry. Les bijoux antiques.- In: Coll. Helene Stathatos, vol, It 1953. Strasbourg, pl. IV.

22 G. M. A. Ric h te r. The Metropolitan

Museum of Art. Handbook of the Greck Collection. 1953, New York, p. 96, pl. 77.

23 1.. 1. II C r 0 i x, OV.cit., 17-18.

201 P. A m a 11 dry. - In: Coll. H. Stathal os, vol. III, p. 89; J. C h arb 0 nne a u. Op. eu.,

54

p. 34; .1. L. Cas key. - In: Hesperia, 1960,

vel. 29. p. 168 sq.

. 26 l.. Lac r oi x. OV. cit., p. 10. 28 Ibidem, p. 10.

27 Ibidem.

28 Ibidem, 29-30; 29 Ibidem, 7-8.

30 Ibidem, p. 20, note 1.

:,1 D.A. s. v. Auge; G. Oi k o n o m o s. Op. cit., 74--75.

3~ L. L a C r 0 i x. Op. clt., p. 17; G. N en c i.

Hf'Cataei Milesii fragmenta, 1954, fro 33.

33 E uri pi de, fr. 265(ed. Nauck. Trag. gr. Iragrn., 2e ed.). 1889, p. 437; L. Lac r 0 i x. Op. cit., I). 19. 34 CpB. npHJIOll\eHHTe HJIIOCTpaUHH.

35 11. Bell I': )l. H K 0 D, r. rep II c HMO B. 11.11 T. C1>'1., N2 293.

36 J. C h arb 0 nne au. Op. cit., p. 33. 37 G. 0 i k 0 nom 0 s. Deux miruirs, p. 89;

N. V e r del is. In: 'ApX. Elp 1950 -1951, 91- 93. r. HKOHOMOC npnnacsa OrJI~f\JIOTO aa neaonoHeeKO arenae, a H. Bepaanac - aa arasecxo.

38 CpB. J. C h arb 0 nne a u. Op. cit., p. 33;

W. Z u e c h n e 1'. Op. cit. loco laud,

8D L. Lac r oi x. Op. cit., p. 17; A. Min t o. -. III: Notizie degli Scavi; 1934.p. 87, fig. 17.

40 B. Bop H COB a. XepCOHOC H 3ananHblM

I(PblM. - B: KepaMH'IeCKOe npoH3BO.'lCTBO H aHTH'IHhle KepaMHqeCKHe CTPOHTe.nLHhle MaTepHaJlbl. M., 1966, c. 26, TaGJI. 5, 11.

011 naK TaM, C. 26, N~ 54.

.u H. B e H e A H K 0 B, r. rep a C HMO B.

UHT. Cpll., o6p. 101, 103; )K. 1.1 H M 6 Y JI e B a. Jlne HOBOOTKpH.TH tSPOH30DH XII.!lPHH OT Hecerisp , - ApXeOJlOrHlI, 1962, RH. 4, 38-41.

t8 G. R 0 u X. Tegee. - In: L'art grec, Paris,

1972, p. 528.

f~ Ibidem, p. 528.

" Ibidem, fig~. 624, 625.

4,8 Creaoitacare ce npanacsar na Huxovaxoc.

P. H -. VOII B 1 a n c ken hag en. Painting in the Time of Alexander and Later. - In: Studies in History of Art, vol. to, SlrnposlumSarl es I, Mace· donia and Greece in Late Classical and Earlv Hellenistic Times. Washington, 1982, 251-260. ·PI. 5.

4? B. Bar r-S h a r r a r. Ma(:edollian Metal

Vases in Perspective: Some Observation on Context and Tradition . ...:. In: M!1cedonia and Greece in Lab Classical and Early Hellenlstic Times. Washing. ton, 1982, 123-139, fig. 19a.

48 D-A s. v. Donaria (Anathema).

49 Fr. Sal v i ate t N. Wei 11 Un plat du VIlo siecle a Thasos: Bellerophon et la Chirnere. -In: BCH. T. 84. 1960, 347-386.

50 B. H II I( 0 Jl 0 B. HH r. Chi!.

Notes sur "la phiale" du tresor de Rogozen au motif du my the d'Heracles et Auge

L. 0 G N E NOV A-M A R I NOV A

(R e sum e)

Les notes de l 'auteur concernent la forme et Ie motif de I'une des lOR phiales du tresor de Rogozen - "phiale" Inv. No 5-464 du Musee regional hlstorl qire de Vraca.

La forme lnsolite de "la phial e" est obtenue par l'encastrement d'un emblernemedaillon dont 1a circonlerence est egale it celle du fond de la coupe. Depourvue de I'omphalos et munie d'un double fond plat. la coupe it libation est translormee en ex-veto dv6:3TlllU_

L'etnblcme-medaill on au decor plastique trouve de nombreuses analogies uniquement parmi les couvercles des miroirs A botte. Done Ie motif decoratif r.e lembleme 11 ete ernprunte aux miroirs. Le sujet eroti que est propre aces derniers. On de duit que Ie motif au my the dHeracles et Auge coneu

DOfHHSlTa Me>K,llY OT POr03eHCKOTO

HBAH MAPA30B

PoroseHCKOTO C'bKPOBHm.e HH npeAOCTaBH xaoro Hs06pa1KeHHg, KOHTO xorar Aa ce pasrJlem,n,aT KaTO UgJIOCTHH MHTOJIOrHqHH TeKCTOBe. EAHH OT TSiX (aanp, Xl! 159) ca oprasaSHpaHH no npHHUHna Ha eAHHHOTO AeHcTBHe (JlOB) H TOBa aaaa B'bSM01KHOCT Aa rH nponerex CI01KeTHO, T. e. na npOCJleAHM paSBHTHeTO aa ,lJ.eHcTBHeTo. ,llpyrH 06aqe ca nOCTpoeHH spes C'bnOCTaBgHe Ha OTAeJIHH 06pasM H MOTHBH H TgXHOTO pasxaraae He M01Ke Aa C.TaHe no C'bm.Hg JlHHeeH npHHIlRIJ. ,lloKaTO B n'bpBHTe MHT'bT e paaxasaa, B'bB BTOpHre aerosara ceMaHTHKa ce paSKpHB8 e.lJ.HHCTBeHO spes H9- rp8){eIl8T8 Hs06pasBTenH8 crpyxrypa, Pas- 6Hpa ce, sa 6esnHcMeHa xyarypa, KaKBaTO e TpaKHHCKaTa, BHHarH me 6'bAe np06JIeM KOHxperaara peKOHCTpYKUHSI aa OTAeJIHHSI MHT, T. e. B'b3CTaHOBgB8HeTO aa OHaSH nscrpa noB'bPXHOCT, KOgTO C'bSJlaBa ycemaaero sa HenOBTopHMOCT Ha MHTOnOrHgTa H8 BceKH eAHH aapon. HHe raxa H HgMa Jla HayqHM KaK ca ce HapHq8JIH JlOBUHTe HJlH 60rHHHTe B PoroseHCKHTe KaHHqKH, HSiMa H ,lla ycneex ,lla npeC'bSAa,lleM KOHKPeTHHSI XO,ll Ha MHTHqHHH pasxas, Taxa xe B'bnpOC'bT, ,llanH TpaKHTe ca CH npeacraaana aemara TOIlHO KaKTO HHe ra T'bJIKYBaMe, e HSJlHWeH - saaasara HH TpSl6Ba

pour Ie decor d'uu miroir II ete adoptel:'t adapte au decor d'un ex-vote par Ie toreute compilateur. Une comparaison avec Ie miroir de I a Collection Helene Stathatos suggere que I.e motH du miroir et. de I 'ex-veto derive du msme prototype, du cercle de Scopas. Le miroir etait directement influence par-ts grande sculpture, tandis que I'ex-voto a subi lIniluence de Ia peinture. Si Ie premier serait attrfbue a un atelier attique, -Ie second proche des oeuvres des ateliers chalcidiens, proviendrait pourtant d'atelier plus etroitement lie II !a Thrace. La date proposee est Ie troisieme quart du lVo s. avo II. ere. Le choi x du motif p ourrait bien ~tre influence par l a mise en valeur des SCUlptures de Scopas creres vers Ie milieu du siecle pour 1 e temple renouvele d'Athena A!ea a Tegee.

KeHTaBpH (~Q 158 CbKpOBHme)

,lla 6'b,lle He KaKBO re ca MHCJlHJIH, a KaK ca ro MHCJIHJIH, T. e. npOHHKBaHe B saKOHOMepHOCTHTe aa caMOTO 8M MHTOJlOrHqHO MHCJIeHe, a He peKOHCTpYKUHH aa 6es6poHHHTe KaTO BapHaHTH HerOBH pesYJITaTH. KaTO OCTaBaMe aa paBHHID.e CTpYKTYpa, HHe nOJIYllaBaMe B'b3- M01KHOCTTa ,lla cpasasaaxe pa3JIH1IHH HKOHOrpacJlCKH cxexa KaTO BapHaHTH aa e,llHH H esm MHT Hno T09HH.aqHII na YCTaHOBHM H rpaaannre aa BapH8THBHOCT na H906paSHTeJIHHB e3HK na MHTOJIOTHqHOTO MHCJleHe.

npe.llMeT Ha aHaJIH3 B npe,llJIaraHaTa CTaTHB e KaHH'IKa Xl! 158 OT HOBOOTKPHTOTO csxposnme OT Porosea. KOMnosHUHSlTa B nes e nocrpoeaa no ,ll06pe n03HaTHH H aa JlPyrH TpaKHHcKH C'b,llOBe npHHUHn: ueHTpaJIHa ~Hrypa, OKOJIO KOSITO CHMeTpH'IHO ce pasnonarar OCTaHaJlHTe. T'bH KaTO TyK HMaMe ,llBa pasnoJld1KeHH e,llHH aan npyr ~HrypaJIHH ~pH3a, MaHCTOp'bT ra e HsrpJlHJI no eJlHH H • csrn nasan KaKTO sa na nOCTHrHe xynoacecraea e<lJeKT, TaKa BepOHTHO H sa ,lla nO,ll'lepTae B3aHMHaTa HM ceMaHTHqH8 apssxa. Ilopana TOBa uie ra paSrJIe1K,llaM KaTO e,llHHeH Hso6paSHTeJIeH TeKCT, qHeTO UHJIOCTHO npOIlHTaHe e,llHHCTBeHO Mome na HH ocnrypa nO-fOJISIMa crenen aa npH6JIH- 1KaBaHe ,llO opHrHHaJIHHH CMHC'bJI.

55

,UOJIHIHIT ¢P1I3 cb.iI.bpJKa qmrypa na nannan Ha KOJIeHe 61IK, Harra)l,HaT OT rro )l,Be KyqeTa OT nsere CTpaHIi. Han Hero e npencrasena KpHJIaTa 60rHH5I B )l,bJIra npexa, )l,bpJKaIll,a no enno xyse B p suere ca. OT zrsere if CTpaHIi rnsar KeHTaBplI, KOIiTO csuto HMaT KpHJIa, HO sa paanaxa OT rp-suxare ca npencraseun 6e3 pr.ue. YqaCTlieTO aa ,,¢aHTaCTlIqHII" csmeCTBa B ropnara cueua Hli y6eJK)l,aBa, qe CIOJKeTbT e qlICTO MIiTOJIOrlIqeH. Herosoro npounrane Tp5r6Ba )l,a sanouae C IIHTeprrpeTaUII5I na OT)l,eJIHIITe My eJIeMeHTII, CJIe)l, KoeTO re Tp5I6Ba )l,a 6b)l,aT BKJIlOqeHII B Hall-Bep05ITHaTa MIITOJIOrlIqHa CTpyKTypa, H36paHa Bb3 OCHOBa Ha cpaBHeHII5I OT IIH)l,oeBponellCKH5I MIiTOJIOrlIqeH xpr.r.

Hall-)l,lIarHOCTHqHII5IT 06pa3 B KaHHqKaTa 6e3cnopHo e xearaat.p-sr. Herosara ¢Hrypa . HeCbMHeHO ce e rrOJI3YBaJIa C ocotiena nonyJI5IPHOCT B TpaKII5I - TOBa ce )l,OKa3Ba OT 1I306paJKeHH5ITa liM no MOHeTHTe na opeCKIITe, KaKTO H B )l,BeTe 6POH30BlI MaTplIUH OT OKOJIHOCTTa na Pasrpan'. Tbll KaTO aexe CbM 1I3- Ka3aJI CTa.HOBHIll,eTO ca aa Cb)l,bpJKaHHeTO na T031I 06pa32, iYK me ce 3a)l,OBOJI5I caao C pestoxe na MIiTOJIOrHqHII5I CMHCbJI na xenram.pa. Ilpenn BCHqKO Tp5I6Ba )l,8 oT6eJIeJKa, qe caMOTO Ha3- naaae aa TpaKH5I e YCJIOBHO - Hlie He3HaeM KaK rpaxare ca aapanana T031I nepconaac, nopann KoeTO 1I3nO,TI3BaM HerOBOTO rpr.nxo aaaaaaae. TOBa oriase He osaauaaa, qe B TpaKlIllCKOTO 1I3KYCTBO (a II B TpaKlIllCKII5I MHTOJIOmqeH ¢OH)l,) TOll ce e n05IBIiJI non BJIII5Imre na eJIIIHCKIi 06pa3UII. Apxaaaapainaar xapaxrsp na aerosara rpaxaacxa IIKOHb'rpa¢1I5I )l,OKa3Ba, q~ npencraaara aa rrOJIYQOBeK-

·nOJIYKOH e CbIll,eCTBYBaJIa II y rpaxare. Ouie nosese, qe B rpbUKOTO H3KYCTBO ()l,0PII II npe3 apXalIQHaTa enoxa) KeHTaBbpbT HIiKora He ce H306pa35IBa 6e3 p sue (KaKTO e B. porosen-CKaTa KaHIIQKa) IIJIIi caxo BbPXY )l,Ba KOHCKII xpaxa (KaKTO e B MaTpIiUIITe). Ho raaa HKO'aorparpcxa cneUII¢IIKa caxo nOKa3Ba. tvIecTHo pa3BlITlie na T031I 061'a3; a He II csm.pnreno ztpyro 3HaQeHHe. MIiTOJIOrIIQHII5IT CMIICbJI na -KeHTaBpIiTe ornaana saauaaaa 1I3CJIe)l,oBaTeJIIiTe. Orue JK. ,UIOMe3IIJI3 1'0 1I3CJIe)l,Ba na -llllIpoKa HH)l,oeBponellcKa OCHOBa. TOll pa3KpH enaa 06IUa crpyxrypa na TO-31I 06pa3 xaxro B MIiTOJIOmQHIITe nepCOHaJKII" (rp, KeHTaBpH, HH)l,. I'aanxapsa, pax. JIynepKH, IIpaH .. I'an.napaa), raxa II B 06pe)l,HIITe nepCOHa2K1I OT 1<apHaBaJIIiTe na cbBpeMeHHIITe 'esponeacxa uaPO,zi:H (Tonsr, Typons, K061IJIa, ·KJIH6Ha II T. H.). Maxap Qe He Mora )l,a npaenapuryannara KOHuenUH5I sa np01I3XO)l,a na MIiTOJIOrHqeCKHTe -¢HryplI, K05ITO aarcpr.r 3aIll,IITaBa B T03H paHeH TPY)l" cb6paHII51T B Hero CP~lBHfITeJIeH MaTeplIaJI y6e,l(HTeJIHO )l,OKa3Ba 06IUHO·CTTa aa npencraaara y pasr.nenaaare IIH)l,Oei:lponellcKH aaponn. Hacxopo P. ,U1060a noCBeTIi napaJIeJIHO H3CJIe)l,BaHe na - MIIT0.l10rUQHIiTe rrepCOHaJKII na KeHTaBpHTe II aMa30H-

56

1

1

8 ApXeOJlOrHH, 3, 1987

• 06p. 1. KW-lU'i.KU .M 158 om P0208eHCK017!O C'7'JKpOIJUiU,e: (a-c) tbac <I iJ(Ja npotbuna. Fig. 1. Petit brae No 15S du tresor de Rogozen: (a-,:) face et deux proiil»

KHTe4. KaTO ce nOJI3Ba OT nOCTH)!{eHH5ITa na cj:JpeHCKaTa MHTOJIOrJ1lIHa lIIKOJIa na "aHaJIHCTHTe", aMepHKaHCKH5IT H3CJIe,n;oBaTeJI CTHra ,n;0 nsnona, se Te3H 06pa3H ca MHTOJIOfHqHa npoeKU:H5I na COU:HaJIHa nopxra ~u 06~e,n;HOTO csCT05IHHe na MJIa,n;e)!{HTe H ,n;eBOHKHTe no apene aa TeXHH5I npexon B npencpaxen CTaTYC. Te ca B'hnJI'bIII.eHHe na aHTHKYJITypaTa, T. e. na OTKa3a OT BCHqKH cOU:HaJIH.H HOPMH: rOCTOnpHeMcTBO, 6paK, npaBHJIa Ha 5I,n;eHe H nOBe,n;eHHe H T. H. TOBa e reHeTHqHO 3aJIO)!{eHO B T5IX, T'bH KaTO npr.a HapYlIIHTeJI aa Te3H HOpMH 6HJI 6aIII.a HM I1KCHOH5. Cauara ,n;BOHCTBeHOCT na TeXHH5I 06JIHK6 noncxasna H rpaHHqHOTO HM nOJIO)!{eHHe Me)!{,n;y nosexa H )!{HBOTHOTO, a

. nOBe,n;eHHeTO HM BO,n;H no nOCT05IHHH KOH<pJIHKTH C KyJITypHHTe repOH. Ta3H JIHMHHaJIHa n03HU:H5I ce OCMHCJI5I H B npOCTpaHCTBeHH TepMHHH: re o6HTaBaT nepnoepnara na KyJITypHH5I CB5IT (nJIaHHHH, ropn, MOPCKH5I 6p5Ir), a B'bB BepTHKaJIHH5I Mo,n;eJI na KOCMoca saeaar cpennara 30Ha, nopann KoeTO ce npe,n;CTaB5IT H KaTO B'b3- ,n;ylIIHH ,n;eMOHH, aa KoeTO cneU:HaJIHO B rpaKHHCKaTa HKOHorpacj:JH5I CBH,n;eTeJICTBYBaT KpHJIaTa. KeHTaBpHTe BHHarH ce OCMHCJI5IT KaTO rpyna H HOC5IT KOJIeKTHBHO 'Ha3BaHHe, KoeTO nOKa3Ba HMeHHO, qe ca orpasceaae B MHTOJIOrHqHOTO C'b3HaHHe na M'b)!{KHTe 06III.eCTBa, qHl:ITO qJIeHOBe ce npnm.pacar K'bM no,n;06HO oepenno aHTHCOU:HaJIHO noseneaue. JIHMHHaJIHOCTTa na Te3H MHTHqHH C'bIII.eCTBa npuexa H BpeMeBH H3MepeHH5I ~ re ,n;eHCTBaT no speae na CM5IHaTa na crapara C HOBaTa ronnna, xoraro ce B'b3pa)!{,n;aT CHJIHTe na xaoca, qHeTO OJIHu:eTBopeHHe ca re caxnre. I1MeHHo TOBa nana na )lfOMe3HJI npano ,n;a rn CpaBH5IBa C 06pe,n;HHTe nepcoaaxcr OT HOBoro,n;HlIIHHTe xapHaBaJIH. K'bM BCHqKH T5IX CJIe,n;Ba ,n;a ,n;06aBHM H MaCKHTe OT THna "KyKep", pasnpocrpaneaa na OaJIKaHHTe7. Te BHHarH npe,n;CTaBJI5IBaT CMeCBaHe na qOBelliKH H )!{HBOTHHCKH qepTH H cpen T5IX HMa pennua XHnOMopcj:JHII ~ xaMHJIa, ,n;)!{aMaJI, KOHe H T. H. OT npyra crpana, nocera He e 06p'bIII.aHO BHHMaHHe na apssxara na Te3H MacKapa,n;HH nepcouaacn C or-sua, TOJIKOBa xapaxrepaa sa BCHqKH KeHTaBpOMopcj:JHH 06pa3H8. PYM'bHCKHTe KaJI'YlIIapH,qHeTO Ha3- BaHHe e npouasonno OT ,n;YMaTa aa KOH, cs,n;'bp)!{aT peJIHKTII OT npencrasare aa KeHTaBpure y TpaKHTe KaKTO KaTO opraHH3aU:H5I ua TaHHoTo HM 06III.eCTBO, raxa H C H,n;e5ITa aa nOJIeT, HMHTHpaH OT nOCT05IHHHTe HM CKOKOBe. M. EJIHa,n;e9 npenno.noaca, qe re nonpaacanar na nOJIeTa aa BeIII.HUHTe 3HHe, C KOHTO ca T5ICHO CB'bp3aHH H KOHTO MoraT na JIeT5IT. Ho cnopen MeH B T03H oripenen MOMeHT e sanaaeaa npenCTaBaTa aa HH,n;oeBponeHCKH5I npOTOTHn na

- xenrarrspa, 06HTaBaIII. cpennara 30Ha KaTO ,n;eMOH Ha B'b3,n;yxa. T'bKMO no T03H HaqHH e

57

OCMIICJIeHa KaMIIJIaTa B 113TOlJHa TpaKII51- T51 IIMa lJeTIIpII KpIIJIa, a MOMlJeTaTa, KOIITO 51 BO,n:51T, ne51T: .Flerpe, nerpe, He xspum B'bp6e, He TpOIllII spara, He ry6II apsran."!? Ta3II apsaxa MeLK,n:y KpIIJIaTa II B51T'bpa TOlJHO OHOBap51 na 6'bp3IITe KaTO B51T'bP I'aanxapna, npenYCKaIII.II no He6eTO. I1MeHHo na Te3.II xpt.CT am II - KaMIIJIII ce ,n:aBaT IIMeHaTa Crpaunco, BeJIlJo, fOPHO, Pe3KO, spes KOIITO ce 0603HalJaBaT II BeTpOBeTe. 113CJIe,n:BalJIITe npaBIIJIHO CB'bp3BaT C npOTOTIIna Ha KeHTaB'bpa II C'bHTOanepnre B PyM'bHII511l. Te ca onIICBaHII KaTO MJIa,n:eLKII C ,n:'bJIrII crt.nana II KonIITa, C rpIIBII, nOKpIIBaHII OT nJIaIII.OBeTe IIM. OT ztpyra crpana, II xanymapnre, II csaroanepnre npIITeLKaBaT JIelJIITeJICKII cnoco6HOCTII, KoeTO OIII.e Be,n:HbLK rII C6JIHLKaBa KaKTO C rp'hI.I;KII51 xenram.p X IIPOH, TaKa II C faH,n:xapBIITe, KOHTO MIIHaBaJIH 3a npOlJyTII JIeKapII II HaCTaBHIIIJ,II na MJIa,n:HTe BOHHII. KaKTO ce BIILK,n:a, cpaBHeHII51Ta C 6aJIKaHCKII51 <pOJIKJIOP nOKa3BaT e,n:IIH 06III. <pOH,n:, - MOLKe 6II HaCJIe,n:eH OT TpaKIIHCKaTa ,n:peBHOCT, HO MOLKe 6II H IIMaIII. 06III.OIIH,n:oeBponeHCKII KopeHII H B'b3paLK,n:alIJ, ce B'bB<pOJIKOpa BceKH n'bT, KoraTO lJpe3 Ta3II npe,n:CTaBa Tp516Ba ,n:a ce 0603HalJII npexozmoro C'bCT051HIIe B 06weCTBOTO. HaTYPHIITe II KaJIeH,n:apHIITe II,n:eHTII<pIIKaIJ,IIII He ca C'bIII.HOCT aa Te3II MIITopIITyaJIHH 06pa3II, a cano e,n:IIH OT xoztoaere, 0603Ha-

. lJaBaIII. r JIaBHaTa HM <PYHKIJ,II51 zta 6eJIeLKaT n03IIIJ,II51Ta npexo,n:.

~eHTpaJIHaTa n03HIJ,H51 B rOpHH51 <pPH3 OT porosencxara KaHHlJKa ce aaeaa OT 60rHH51Ta. KpIIJIaTa ca nocra apxansen aTpII6YT, C KOHTO ce xapaxrepnsnpa T. Hap. Ilepcnacxa ApreMH,n:a12. ,UBeTe LKIIBOTHH B pt.nere H 51 xapaxTepII3IIpaT KaTO rIOTHII51 TepOH13. KaKTO ce BHLK,n:a, He3aBIICHMO OT apxanaapamara sa enoxara HKOHorpa<pII51, T03II 06pa3 HaMIIpa ,n:OCTa napaJIeJIII B H3KYCTBOTO na I'r.p IJ,II 51 . ,Upyr e ooase B'bnpOC'bT, B KaKBa crp yxrypua n03HIJ,H51 ce BKJIIOlJBa T03II 06pa3 H .n:aJIII B He51 TOH aanaasa npIIC'bIII.IITe CII ceMaHTIIlJHII CTOHHOCTII.

Ilpenn BCIIlJKO Tp516Ba ,n:a nOT'bpCHM napaJIeJIH I-Ia IJ,51JIaTa KOMII03HIJ,II51 KaTO H306pa- 3IITeJIeH TeKCT. HaH-6JIII3KII51T HII ,n:aBa <pparMeHTIIpaI-IaTa KOMn03IIIJ,H51 BbPXY pHTOHa OT KeJIepMeC, ,n:aTHpaIII. OT VI B. np. H. e.14 TyK ca npe,n:cTaBeHH KpHJIaTa6orIIH51 C ,n:Ba rpIIrpona B pt.ue, xearast.p C nJI51lJKa na paxoro, 6HK, nananaar OT JI'bB, II Xepaxr.n B 6op6a C H51KaKBO LKHBOTHO. Ha npt.s nor.nen OT,n:eJIHHTe MOTIIBH He 06pa3YBaT e,n:IIHeH CIOLKeT, HO TOBa He 3HalJII, lJe He ca opraHII3IIpaHII B e,n:IIHeH TeKCT no npIIHIJ,Hna Ha C'bnOCTaBKaTa IIM. ,Upyr naMeTHIIK, KOHTO HII ztana ,n:OCTa npsxa aHaJIOrII51 na porosencxara KaHIIlJKa, e 6pOH30BaTa ,n:p'bLKKa na ornenano OT l.JYKapKa. I1B. BeHe,n:IIKOB sese nanpaaa TOBa cpasaeHIIe15. Ho Te3II napaJIeJIII Tp516Ba ,n:a HII OTBe-

• nar Ha,n: IIKOHorpa<pII51Ta, B crpepara na ceuaaTIIKaTa na II306pa3IITeJIHII51 TeKCT. KaKBII TeMII

2

3

• 06p. 2. Bpousoea sianipuua am j(y6pam. Fig. 2. Matrice en bronze de Kubrat

• 06p. 3. MOHema na opectcume C «enmaesp, om- 13AU"aU{ nusuba. Fig. 3. Monnaie des Ores/liens avec centaure, raoissant une numphe

OTKpIIBaMe B'bB BceKII e,n:HH OT Te3H naxerHIIIJ,II? rI'bPBO - IJ,eHTpaJIeH 06pa3 B T51X e rIOTHII51 TepOH. BTOpO - T51 e 3ao6IIKOJIeHa OT KeHTaBpII (Por03eH, Kenepaec) IIJIH C<pHHKCOBe (Hyxapxa). KaTO C'bIII.eCTBa, MapKHparu.H rpaHHIJ,aT'a, KeHTaBpIITe H C<pHHKCOBeTe ca H30- <PYHKIJ,IIOHaJIHH (cp. C<pHHKC'bT, na3eIII. nonCT'bnHTe K'bM Tnna)!". TpeTO - HaBC51Kb,n:e B Ta3II nOCT051HHa crpyxrypa HMaMe CIJ,eHa ira 6op6a MeLK,n:y LKHBOTHH (B ,n:p'bLKKaTa ,n:Ba JI'bBa pa3K'bCBaT OBeH). rIoBTopeHIIeTO na T03H IJ,51- JIOCTeH TeKCT He MOLKe ,n:a 6'b,n:e CJIYlJaflHO II TOBa ,n:OKa3Ba HerOBOTO CneIJ,II<pHlJHb 3HaQeHHe .

KaKTO BII,n:51XMe, KeHTaBpHTe ca 3HaIJ,H na .npaponara" KaTO OII03HIJ,II51 aa "KYJITypaTa",

4

• 06p. 4. /JP7JJlCKU IW oeneoano om [fYKapKu. Fig. 4 Manche du niiroir de Cultarlta

KaTO DOTHH5I Tepon 60rHH5ITa csmo ortieJI5I3Ba Ta3H MHTOJIOrHqHa rr03HUH5I - T5I e rrOKpOBHTeJIKa na ,l(HBH5I CBHT. CJIe,n:OBaTeJIHO rOpHH5IT ~PH3 Ha por03eHCKaTa KaHHqKa HH B'bBe)K,n:a B nepmpepuara 30Ha na KOCMoca. Ho oanaxaaa JIH TOBa, qe CIO)KeT'bT HeI1peMeHHO HMa rrpOCTpaHCTBeHa HaCOqeHOCT? Ta3H JIHMHHaJIHOCT 6H MOrJIa na I1pHeMe H BpeMeBH H3MepeHH5I - HaI1pHMep T5I 6H MOrJIa na oaaanaaa xanennapaa rpannua (Hosa ronana) HJIH 06- penna CHTyaUHH aa COUHaJIeH npexon. HaHI10CJIe, BCHqKH Te3H 3HaqeHHH 6Hxa MOrJIH ,n:a ce I10KpHBaT B pHTyaJIHaTa CHCTeMa Ha H5IKaK'bB I1pa3HHK HJIH CB'bp3aH C Hero MHT. I1MeHHo I10 Ta3H JIHHH5I rrpe,n:JIaraM XHI10TeTHqHO T'bJIKYBaHe aa Te3H H306pa)KeHH5I.

B'bB BCHqKH "KeHTaBpOMHTOBe" C'br.ueCTBYBaT H5IKOJIKO 06rn.H CTpyKTypHH MOMeHTa: Ha,n:651r-

aane (=651rCTBO HJIH npecnenaane) H OTBJIHnane na l!eBOHKa (=60rHHH, repOI:!HH). Y ,UIOMe3I:!JI e C'b6paH orpoxen MaTepI:!aJI B Ta3H HaCOKa. Taxa HpaHcKHHT ,n:eMOH I'annapen OTBJIHqa scenara na .repos I'epmacn, onie B PHrsena I'annxapnare csmo rrOCT05lHHO ca 063eTI:! OT crpacr rro )KeHH, xearanspr.r Hec ce OI1HTBa ,n:a orxpanae xcenara aa X eparcsn ,Ue5lHI:!pa, KeHTaBpI:!Te rparisar HeBeCTaTa na DepI:!TOH JIyrrepKI:!Te 6H5IT )KeHI:!Te H T. H. ,UopI:! B 06I:!: qaHHOTO mmoesponeacxo 6paqHO I1paBO I:!Ma ~opMa na 6paK, aapexeaa I'aanxapna'", KOHTO ce C'bCTOI:! B OTBJII:!qaHe HaMOMHqeTO OT npenCTaBHTeJI na soenaara KJIaCa (KllIaTpH5I) C HeHHo C'brJIaCHe, 6e3 na ce I1I:!Ta 6arn.aTa. Bepoarno T'bKMO B TaK'bB THI1 6paK BCT'bI1Ba I1KCI:!OH C ,UI:!51, 6e3 na I1JIaTH 06ern.aHI:!5I 6paqeH orxyn na 6arn.a if, KoeTO I10-K'bCHO ce rpernpa KaTO I1'bPBO HapYllIeHI:!e Ha 6paqHI:!Te HOpMH. OT ,n:pyra crpana, HH,n:IiHCKI:!Te I'aunxapsn ce CM5ITaT sa MI:!TI:!qHH ronenaua ua BC5IKO MOMHqe,orn.e npenn ro na BCT'bI1H B 3aKOHeH 6paK1S. Bep05lTHO B TOBa ce OTpa351Ba I:! pHTyaJIHaTa HHCTI:!TYUI:!51 na M'b)KKHTe ,n:OMOBe, B KOI:!TO ,n:eBOHKHTe )KHBeHT CB060,n:HO C MJIa,n:elliHTe, HO CJIe,n: narryutaaero aa T03H ,n:OM re sene He I103- HaBaT 6HBllIllTe CH naprnsopa'", 13 I'r.puns COUHaJIHaTa OCHOBa na Ta3H npencrasa OT,n:aBHa

e H3qe3HaJIa, IIopa,n:H KoeTO CTpaCTTa Ha KeHTaBpHTe K'bM :tKeHH (H TO B MOMeHTa aa CBaT- 6aTa HM) ncnysasa HeraTHBHa ouenxa I:! CTaBa MHTOJIorHqHa MOTHBHpOBKa aa KOH~JIHKT. B'bB ~OJIKOpa na eBpOI1eHCKI:!Te aaponn C'br.UO rIOCT05lHHO ce cpema Ta3I:! rena - "KeHTaB'bp'bT" OTBJIHqa "HeBeCTaTa". me ,n:aM H5IKOJIKO npnMepa OT 6aJIKaHCKI:!H ~OJIKJIOp. PYM'bHCKH5IT Tonopoaaen (17 ~eBpyapH) BKJIIOqBa e,n:I:!H TB'bp,n:e aarepecen MOMeHT - ocooeao OI1aCHO

e aa )KeHHTe (aaa-sese MJIa,n:I:!Te 6yJIKI:! I:! MOMHnerara) na He noxerar cnereua I:! ,n:a He cnasar 3a6paHI:!Te, OTHaC5Irn.H ce ,n:o "llieHCKHTe ,n:eHHOCTH", 3arn.OTO MO)Ke zta rI:! y6HHT KOHeTe na CB. Tonop HJIH TOH na rH nsnparn KaTO IIpeKpaCHH IOHOllIH, aa zta rI:! IIOXHT5IT20• Do,n:06HI:! 06HqaI:! csmecrnyaar H Y Hac: na T03H neu re CH MI:!HT r JIaBaTa H KaTO CH CIIJIHTaT KOCHTe, CJIaraT B T5IX KOHCKa I10,n:KOBa, rorana I1pa3- HYBaT ,n:eBOHKI:!TeI:! MJIa,n:I:!Te 6YJIKH, na Mer,n:aHa Hrpa5lT Xopo MOMH H MOMUH, MeC5IT ce xpasaa H aa KOHeTe, H aa 6YJIKHTe, I1eCHI:!Te, C'bI1pOBO)K,n:arn.H I10,l(rOTOBKaTa aa "KYllIHHTa", ce I1e5lT OT 6YJIKI:!Te H HMaT onpenenena CBaT- 6eHa HaCOqeHOCT21. Y Apnaynos e C'b6paHO 60raTO ,n:OCHe aa pOJIHTa aa HeBeCTaTa B xyxepCKaTa 06pe,n:HOCT - T5I e I10CTOHHeH 06eKT aa I10XHr.ueHHe KaKTO asrpe B ,n:pY)KHHaTa, raxa

H Me)K,n:y H5IKOJIKO ,n:PY)KHHH. Taxa B'bB BCHqKI:! Te3H MHTOBe H oopenn ce pasxpaaa ennaeu \ cueuapna, cnopen KOHTO KeHTaBpOMop~HHTe csmecraa BI:!HarI:! ce OI1I:!TBaT na xpanar neBOHKa, I:!JII:! I10-TOqHO nesecrara, TOKy-rn.O BCT'bI1- nama B 6paK. I1MeHHo Ta3H MHTopHTyaJIHa crpyxrypa e B'bI1JI'bTeHa I:! B rOpHH5I ~pI:!3 na

59

poroseacxara KaHHqKa C KpHJIaTHTe KeHTaBpH - OJIHIl,eTBOpeHHe na MJIa,lI.eMKHTe 06lIl,eCTBa (na COIl,HaJIHO panaaure) H aa CHJIHTe na OTB'h,lI.HOTO (na MHTOJIOrHqHO HHBO). TOBa e enna npexozna cHTyaIl,H5I, nopana KOeTO yqaCTHHIl,HTe B cuenara ca oT6eJI5I3aHH C'hC 3HaIl,HTe ua rpaaanara: KeHTaBpH H T10THHH Tepon. OT npyra crpana ooase, cavara ApTeMH,lI.a, K05lTO e H36paHa TyK KaTO OJIHIl,eTBOpeHHe na OTBJIHxanara HeBeCTa, e nOKpOBHTeJIKa HMeHHO na npeXO,lI.HHTe npenopavna pHTyaJIH22.

KeHTaBpHTe B KaHHqKaTa ca npe,lI.CTaBeHH B rrs.nen ranon, KOHTO p5l3KO KOI-ITpaCTHpa C'hC 3aCTHHaJIaTa <PPOHTaJIHa nosa na 60rHH5ITa. E,lI.Ba JIH TOBa e crryxaea MOMeHT. T10-CKOPO HHe Tp5l6Ba ,lI.a BH,lI.HM B Ta3H ,lI.HHaMHKa xapaxrepnara sa Te3H MHTOJIOrHqHH <pHrypH 6'hp3HHa. OT ,lI.pyra crpaua, na 06pe,lI.HO pasnnme T5I ce peanasnpa xpes Ha,lI.651rBaHH5ITa, KOHTO B MHTa' MOraT na npuenar H <pOpMaTa na npecnenaane H 651rCTBO. KaKTO noxasa )])0- Me3HJI, Ha,lI.rrperrYCKBaHH5ITa C 'KOJIeCHHIl,H ca OCHOBHOTO 06pe,lI.HO H3rrHTaHHe B Il,apCKH5I npasnmc Banacanes. HMeHHO I'aanxapnare BHnarn novarar npn aanparanero aa KOJIeCHHIl,HTe, a raxa cstuo H npn 06513,lI.BaHeTO aa KOH5I23. B aannpeaapnre B HapO,lI.HHTe xapnaBaJIH yqaCTBYBaT HMeHHO nepcouaxorre OT THrra KeHTaBpH. TaKa Ha TO,lI.opoB,lI.eH BceKH CTorraHHH Tp5l6Ba ,lI.a yqaCTBYBa B KYIlIH5ITa C KOH5I CH, a cnen saat.puraanero H KOH5IT notie,lI.HTeJI B'hPBH aaii-ornpea, T. e. no.nyuaaa CrreIl,HaJIHH nonecr a. T10 C'hlIl,H5I HaqHH H B PHM rro apexe na JIynepaKJIHHTe ce C'hCT05IT

• 06p. 5. Penedrsm om Bpumancxuu .'Hy3EU. Fig. 5. f. e relief du British .'>1 USPUiIl

KOHHH Ha,lI.651rBaHH5I EKYPH5I24. B T03H CMHC'hJI ca HHTepeCHH H TpaKHHCKHTe £aHHH. OT T1JIaTOH 3HaeM, qe Ha rrpa3HHKa HB BeH,lI.H,lI.a B ATHHa HaH-3a6eJIeMHTeJIHH5IT 06pe:u. 6HJIO KOHHOTO C'hCTe3aHHe, rro npexe na KoeTO esnaunre CH rrO,lI.aBaJIH <paKJIH25. 3a6eJI eMHTeJIHO e, qe T03H npasnnx ce nposeacaa T'hKMO npes JI5ITHOTO CJI'hHIl,eCToeHe, T. e. oT6eJI5I3Ba e,lI.HH BaMeH npexonen MOMeHT B rO,lI.HHaTa (MOMe 6H cavara HOBa rO,lI.HHa?). A CaMH5IT pHTyaJI C neronara orneaa CHMBOJIHKa, acounnpaaa C KOHHOTO -Ha,lI.rrperrycKBaHe, TB'hp,lI.e T5ICHO ce rrpH6JIHMaBa ,lI.0 KeHTaBpoMHTa. HaH-nOCJIe TOH ce asm.puraa B necr na 60rHH5ITa, K05ITO qeCTO ce OT'hM,lI.eCTB5IBa C ApTeMH,lI.a, a B Hero ynaCTBYBaT caxo e<pe6H, T. e. MJIa,lI.eMH, rrpennnaaaum nepnona na HHHIl,HaIl,H5I. T10 T03H HaqHH T'hJIKYBaHeTO Ha rrpa3HHKa 6H Tp5I6BaJIO ,lI.a ce H3,lI.HrHe 01' "MarH5ITa aa rrJIO,lI.0p0,lI.He" K'hM oT6eJI5I3BaHeTO na e,lI.HH KOCMHqeCKH H COIl,HaJIeH npexon. HaJIH H B HapO,lI.HHTe KapHaBaJIH 06HKHOBeHO CTPHKTHO ce pa3rrpe,lI.eJI5IT pOJIHTe cnopen COIl,HaJIHH5I CTaTYC H xeirrasporronooHHTe nepCOHaMH BHHarH ca arpann OT HeMeHeH M'hM? H Te3H npa3HHIl,H 06HKHOBeHO ct.snanar C OCHOBHHTe KaJIeH,lI.apHH npexonn. Taxa KOCMOC'hT H COIl,HyM'hT cr aaar H30MOP<pHH H 3aBHCHMH e,lI.HH OT ,lI.pyr - rrpeo,lI.OJI5IBaHeTO na xaoca aa COIl,HaJIHO paamnue ce ar.snpaeaa KaTO B'hBeM,lI.aHe na pen B xocvoca'". Oopem.r nan- 65IrBaHe H3JI'hqBa n06e,lI.HTeJI (qeCTO rro6e,lI.aTa e peacacupana, rro KoeTO BceKH pHTyaJI ce OTJIHqaBa OT nr-para) H rro Tb3H HaqHH B'h3CTaHOB5IBa HepapXH5ITa, T. e. onpenenenoro nonpezanaae aa CBeTa. HMeHHo nopann TOBa H rro spene na norpeoenae ce YCTpoHBaT rrOCT05IHHH

60

5

6

• Gop. 6. Penetb am OOt'WInO na «ome.ia Dill T!JHo ecnunrn: Fig. 6. Relief du fond du cliaudroti de Gundestrup

nannpesapu - BC5.IKa CMbpT e uapyuranane aa cO~HanHoTo H KOCMHqeCKOTO paBHoBecHe H TO TpH6Ba ,ll,a 6b,ll,e K'OMneHCHpaHO qpe3 Bb3CTaHOBHBaHe aa HepapXHqeCKaTa crpyrcrypa. B T03H pen na MHCnH HCKaM na npaaezra H H3- BeCTHHH penep OT 5pHTaHCKHH MY3eH C H30- 6paLKeHHe na WeCTBHeTO na ecpe6HTe, CbCTeaasann ce B HMeTO aa 5eH,ll,H,ll,a27. Caxar a 60rHHH rH npnena C cpHana B pt.xa. Taxa diaxTHqeCKH Ha,ll,npenycKBaHeTO nonyqaBa CMHc~n na npH06Jl.1,aBaHe KbM 60rHlIHTa, MOLKe 6H na enna no-orc.naoena cpopMa na xnepor-axnn (___.coTBnHqaHe). He OT r.nenna TOqKa na HKOnorparpaara, a OT acnexra na CTpYKTypaTa na MHTopHTyanHoTo Cb,ll,bpLKaHHe peneqrsr H CPPH3bT B poroseacxara KaHHqKa ca npH6nH- 3HTenHO TbLK,ll,eCTBeHH. KbM CbJl.l,HH ceMaHTHqeH pen TpH6Ba na npH6aBHM H MOHeTaTa na opeCKHTe, B KOHTO e npencraneu HaH-xapaKTepHHHT aa xeuranspa aKT - OTBnHqaHe aa ,ll,eBOHKa. Taxa B TpH naMeTHHKa, cm.paann aneo.aornqeCKH C TpaKHH, oTKpHBaMe enna H csnra MHTOpnrya.nua crpyxrypa _- Ha,ll,6HrSaHe H OTBnHnane aa MOMHqe HnH HeBeCTa.

E,ll,HH KOHKpeTeH ,ll,eTai'w - zrsere LKHBOTHH B pt.uere na 60rHHHTa - nasnrpa npax napa.nen B HH,ll,HHCKHTe nannn. B MHTa aa Ilypypaaac H HHMcpaTa Ypaaura ce pasxasna ezma HCTOPHH OT rnna aa MenY3HHe - 6paK MeLK,ll,y cxrspren H capi.xecrecrseuo c'siueCTB028. Ho B TeKCTa e nnrepecno, qe TH e orneneaa OT I'aanxapsure, KaTO saenao C HeH HMano ,ll,Be ManKH LKHBOTHH (B cnyuas - zrae ar-snua, KOHTO TH 06Hqana KaTO CBOH ,ll,e~a)29. Ilypypanac 51 orxpnna H TH My paaKa3Ba KaK TOH caMllHT MbLKe na CTaHe I'annxapaa, aa ,ll,a ce cb6epaT OTH'OBO. Bpaxnuar

CMHCbn na MHTa e seen - cavo cnen KaTO npeanne HH2!~Ha~llHTa, T. e. KaTO ce npncr.e,ll,HHH KbM rpyrrara na J'aanxapna, qOBeK MOLKe zta ce OLKeHll .. nOKa3aTenHO e, qe nocr-srrsr ,ll,0 TOBa TaHHO 06Jl.1,eCTBO ce ocarypaaa npea ornena pnryana, KaKBHTO ce narimonaaar II B rp suxara MHTonorrrH (cp. Axan, ,ll,bpLKaH Ha,ll, OrbHH OT Ternna) , H B rpaxnficxara 06- pe,ll,Ha Tpa,ll,H~llH (naMna,ll,0cpopllHTa no BpeMe na 5eH,ll,ll,ll,llHTe). no ouie e,ll,HH npH3HaK nanmrre sa Tpaxas ce cpeniar C 60raTllTe cseneHHH OT HH,ll,oapHHCKaTa MllTopllTyanHa npaKTlIKa.

Pasxpnrara crpyxrypa, 06e,ll,llHHBaJl.l,a 60rHHHTa II KeHTaBpllTe, MOLKe ,ll,a nponynapa H ,ll,pyrrr MllTOnOrllqHll TeKCTOBe. E,ll,llH XHH,ll,yHCTKH MllT pasxaasa sa nO,ll,06HO ct.croaane Ha npOHllKBaHe Ha CHnllTe Ha xaoca ,ll,Opll B CBeTa na 60rOBeTe30. Hsnnamena, 're cscpenoTOqaBaT CllnaTa Cll B 60rllHHTa, KOHTO ce ye,ll,HHHBa B nnanamrre, aa na ynpaacnasa acxeTll3bM - 3a,ll,bnLKllTeJIHO ycnosne sa narpynsane na MOJl.l, npenn pennrremrara 6llTKa. Ha qeTHpHTe Bbpxa, oorpaacnaum TOBa MHCTO, TH nOCTaBH no enno xyriaso MOMqe, KoeTO na 51 npenynpenu aa nOHBaTa ua qy,ll,OBllJl.l,HHH ,ll,eMOH. npOCTpaHCTBeHaTa crpyxrypa, onncana B MllTa, OTrOBapH na KOMn03llQHOHHOTO pemenne na ropHHH CPPH3 OT KaHHqKaTa: H TyK 60rllHHTa e cpe,ll, qeTHpll KeHTaBbpa, KOHTO 06HKHOBeHO ce paanonarar B rrnananare, a II HHKOH n.naHllHCKll BbpXOBe HOCHT TeXHH HMeHa (uanp .. TpaKHHCKHHT KeHTaBbp MHMac)31. TOBa TbnKYBaHe CTaBa oiue no-cnrypuo, KaTO llMaMe npe,ll,Bll,ll, llH,ll,llHCKaTa XOpll30HTanHa crpyxrypa na CBeTa, B KOHTO BCHKa OT nOC'OKllTe e no Bepena aa e,ll,llH noxanana. Cesept.r npunanneaca na Kyoepa, qHHTO Bpb3KH C I'annxapaa ernrar no nOqTH rrsnaa ll,ll,eHTllcpHKa~llH32. Taxa, aKO OCTaHeM B paMKHTe aa npOCTpaHCTBeHHH xon KOMn03ll~llHTa na xamruxara HeCbMHeHO ce CTPOH no npHH~HITa na XOpH30HTanHaTa CTpyKTypa na KOCMoca - 60rHHHTa B near-spa, a KpaH HeH nOBenHTeJII1Te na xerapnre nOCOKH.

Bp saxara na TOKY-Jl.I,O pe3lOMHpaHHH XllH-

. ,ll,YHCTKH MHT C naurara KaHHqKa MOLKe na 6b,ll,e npom.nscena. Pa60TaTa e TaM, qe neMOHbT, npOHHKHan B KynTypHllH CB5IT, HMa orinnxa na synoaamen 6HK, napesen MaxHwa. 11 ennncrneno 60rHHHTa, KOHTO anpo-reu HOCH HMe ,,'ubJl.l,epH na nnaHHHHTe", e B CbCTOHHHe na My ce npOTHBonOCTaBll. B ,ll,OnHHH CPPH3 Ha KaHHqKaTa e npe,ll,CTaBeH na,ll,Han Ha npe,ll,HllTe CH KoneHe 6llK, Hana,ll,HaT OT qeTHpll xynera. Cl>HrypaTa na 6HKa e paano.roacena TOqHO nozr xpaxara na 60rHHHTa. TOBa peurenne cnrypno HOCll onpeaenen CMHCbnna nporasonocrann 60LKecTBoTo H ,neMOHa. KaKTO nOCOqBa O'<l>naxbpTH, "B »cepraonpnnoweHHeTO na 6HK LKeHCKllHT yqaCTHHK e 6e3- CMbPTHHHT, KOHTO y6HBa CMbpTHHH eH cnbTHHK. B nsara cnynaa LKeHaTa e yonem.r, a

61

naprasopsr H HMa :>KHBOTHHCKa q,opMa"33. B nO-6JIH3Ka reorparpcxo-eraasecxa tl.0 TpaKHH cpena OTKpHBaMe C'hIII.aTa MHTHlIHa CTpYKTypa - B pnryanare aa KH6eJIa ueHTpaJIHHHT 06petl. 6HJI...,rayp060JIHyM'hTS4• C'hUI.HHT MOTHB OTKPHBaMe H B H3BeCTHHH KeJITCKH KOTeJI OT fYHtl.ecrpyn, sa KOHTO C'hBpeMeHHHTe YlleHH ca y6eneaa, lie e H3pa60TeH B Cesepoaananaa TpaKHH: na tl.'hHOTO e npencrasen nannan 6HK, Hatl. Hero aceaa C HO:lK, a KpaH Hero - aananama ro KYlleTaS5• KH6eJIa C'hIII.O e H3BeCTHa KaTO 60:lKeCTBO aa nJIaHHHHTe, a KJIOHKHTe, cpen KOHTO ce H3B'hpmBa Tayp060JIIfYM'hT 0'1' KOTeJIa, nOtl.CKa3BaT spssxara na 60rHHHTa C paCTHTeJIHOCTTa. HeC'hMHeHO B Te3H pa3HOPOtl.HH CBHtl.eTeJICTBa ce pasxpaaa enaa H C'hIII.a MHTopHTyaJIHa CTPYKTypa - :>KepTBOnpHHomeHHeTO aa 6HKa OT 60rHHH'l'a na nJIaHHHHTe (T. e. aa tl.HBaTa npnpona), nonnoaaraaa OT CBOHTe nOMOIII.HHUH-KYlleTa. TOBa y6UitCTBO aa 6HKa MO>Ke tl.a npaeae pa3JIHIIHH q,oPMH - 60p6a C naprasopa (OIII.e 0'1' HeOJIHTfl HMeHHO 6HK'hT e csnpyr na BeJIHKaTa MaRKa), 60p6a C tl.eMOHa, :>KepTBOnpHHomeHHe, ueJIHUI.O na ocarypa MHCTHlIHa HHHUHaUHH, T. e. npH06- maaaae na neorpara K'hM KYJITa aa 60:lKeCTBOTO. Maxap lie B namara KaHHlIKa caMOTO YOHHCTBO He e nOKa3aHO eKCnJIHUHTHO, TO ce C'htl.'hp>Ka B caMOTO BepTHKaJIHO aarpaaotaae na cueaara - tl.OJIY (nOtl.CHJIeHO OT "natl.HaJI") ce aaxapa 6HK'hT-aHTarOHHCT, rope (nOtl.CHJIeHO OT "H3npaBeHa") e pa3nOJIO:lKeHa 60rHHHTa. Taxa BepTHKaJIHaTa npocrpaacrseaa on03HUHH, nonxpenena OT lIHCTO CIO:lKeTHH eJIeMeHTH, nonCKa3Ba KOHq,JIHKTa Me:lKtl.y HeHHHTe nsa snena. IToKa3aTeJIHO e, lie H y Hac na HHKOH MeCTa aa Tonoposnea (T. e. na lIHCTO XHnonpa3HHK) ce snparar H BOJIOBe B KOJIaTa H ce aasspuma C'hCTe3aHHe no rerneae aa TOBap38. )KepTBonpHHOmeHHeTO aa 6HK HBHO e Heo6XOtl.HMO sa B'h3CTaHOBHB8He aa pena B CBeTa, HapyllieH OT npOHHKHaJIHTe CHJIHHaXaOca, 0'1' onara aa TaKHBa TeXHU npe.nCT8BlITeJlH K8TO xerrraapare na OTBJIeKaT 60rH'HHTa - CT'bJI6 na COUHaJIHHSI H KOCMHlIeH nOpHA'hK. MO>Ke 6H B nsara q,pHsa

1 T. H B a H 0 B, Tp axnilcxa GpOIl30B p enep. - I13KYCTBO, 1982, 3; M, K P 'b C T e Ii a, BPOH30B8 MaTPHUa OT c. A.I1HaHoBo, T'bVroBHIlI,KO. - 113KycTBo, 1983, 4.

2 H. Map a 3 0 B. OJIHT aa jJeKoHcTPYKUHSl ua XHIIO,\lHTa H )l.peBH3 TpaKHSl. - H3KYCTBO, 1985, 3. 3 G. DUm e 'L i 1. Le probleme descentaures.

Paris, 1929. .

<1 P. duB 0 i s. Centaurs and Amazones. Univ. of Michigan Press, 1982.

5 BIK. M. D e tie 11 n e. Les J ardins d' Adonis.

Paris, 1972, p. 167 sq.

6 Cp. OBH.n.HH, Koiho aapaxa nOAo6HIi XHGpHilHl:I csniecrna (a ClIeUHaJIHO xearaspare) ".n.soeBi1AHH".Metam. IX. 12L

.. Cp , n. A p a a y no B. CTYAIiH B'bpXy 6bJIrapcxare oGpeJ{Ii H JIerell)lH. C., 1972; n. Il e r P 0 B. KYKepH H cyp saxapa. - HBHn, XXVIII, 1972; r. K p a e B. 06peJ{HoTo rpauecrapaue no 6bJlrap-

62

BH:lKtl.aMe crpexesc na ce npeACTaBH C'hCTeSaTeJIeH MOMeHT: UI.e n06etl.HT OHesM CHJIH, KOHTO rrspsu AOCTHrHaT ueJIT8 CH. Kyserara ca HSnpeaapaaa KeHTaBpHTe - Te Beq_e ca noaaJIHJIH 6HKa. Heycnexsr B Kpa:lK6aTa aa aeseCTaTa C'hUI.O ce OueHSIBa nOJIO>KHTeJIHO B'hB q,oJIKJIOpHHTe 06petl.H H xaoro lIeCTO ToA e nporpauapaa. 3aTOBa H lIeCTO ce npaoarsa AO q,HrypaTa sa "MHHMa HeBeCTa", T. e • .no nonMSIHaTa aa HCTHHCKaTa C HeHH Cy6CTHTYT. TaK'hB e npaxepsr aa MHTHlIHHSI 6paK Me:>K).\y HKCHOH H OOJIallHOTO nOA06He aa XepaHeq,eJIaS7• T'hKMO OT TOSH 6paK ce paaota H pacara aa KeHTaBpHTe. Taxa B TeXHHSI reaeSHC e SaJIO:>KeH aeycnexsr H~ B Kpa:>K6aT8 aa HeBeCTH H B xpaa na xpaamara re cayHHIIJ.o)KeHH HMeHHO CJIeA etl.HH TaK'hB He'y.naJI ce ormr aa CBaT6aTa aa Ileparoa.

MHTopHTyaJIHaTa nporpaMa B YKpacaTa Ha paSrJIe:lKtl.aHaTa KaHHlIKa OT PoroseHCKoTO C'hKpOBHIIJ.e HH noacxaasa H eBeHTyaJIHOTO H npeaaasaaseaae KaTO KYJITOB C'htl.. TH BePOHTHO e cJIY:>KeJIa sa B'h3JIHHHHe (HJIH xaro HarpaAa?) no BpeMe Ha OCHOBHHH KaneHtl.apeH npasaax HflTpHOaJIHTe - HOBa ronaaa.: ToA CHrypHo e BKJIlOlIBaJI UHK'hJI 06petJ.H B peAYUHpaH BHA, onacana KaTO crpyxrypa B HSO- 6pa)KeHHHTa B'hPXy sasara: Hatl.6HrBaHe C KOHe Me:lKtl.y eq,e6H, onar sa OTBJIHlIaHe aa aeseCTaTa HJIH aa HeAHaTa (na 6orHHHTa) CTaTYH88, assspureaae aa )KepTBOnpHHomeHHe, KOeTO B'h3- CTaHOBHBa pena B cOUHyMa H B KOCMoca. BC'hIII.HOCT resa B'hSJIHSIHHH 6HJIH npaeaaaa OT caxara 60rHIIH, KaKTO nOKa3Ba pe.n:$T OT BpHTaHCKHH MY3eH, H no TOSH aasaa eq,eDHTe ce npH06UI.aBaJIH K'hM COUHaJIHaTa rpyna aa BOHHHTe-M'h)Ke, T. e. OT KeHTaBpH ce npespsIII.aJIH B repoa. Y CTaHOBHBaHeTO na KOHKPeTnara cpyHKUHH aa etl.HH OT H8H-HHTepecHHTe C'hA()BeB TOBa 06p01l80 C'hKpOBHUI.e MO>Ke Aa HH CTllMyJIHpa K'hM npceae KYJlTOB8Ta HJlH aneozoraxecxa pOJIH H sa ApyrH, ocoeeao na OHHH, KOHTO HOCHT 60raTa cpHrypaJIHa yxpaca. TOBa e etl.HHCTBeHHHT n'hT sa B'hSCTaHOBSIsane aa TpaKHHCKaTa oopeana CHCTeMa, xsoro cJIa60 OCBeTeHa B nHCMeHHTe H3BOpH.

CKHTe 3eMH npcs 3IiMHI111 KaJIeHAapeH UIiK'bJI. - B; OGPeJlH I{ oripenea q,OJIKMp. C., 1981, 146-171.

8 BIK. G. Dum c z i 1. OV. cit., passim.

9 M. Eli a d e. Myths, Dreams and Mysteries.

New York, San Fr., London, 1975, 80~85. 10 n. A p Ii a Y .lI. 0 B. nIiT. csx., c. 75.

11 SIK. M. E Ii ad e. Op. cit.; M.~. C a JIM 0 HOB H 'I. PYMbIHbI. - B: KaJIeH.lI.apHble06bl'laH B crpaaax '3apy6eIKHoH Eapoua. Beceaaae npa3)1.HHKIi. M., 1977, c. 299.

III BIK. E. H H K 0 JI 0 B. KaHHTe 01' Por oseucxorn c sxponaure. - H3KYCTBO, 1986, 6.

13 R. Rei t I e r. A Theriomorphic Representation of Hecate-Artemis. - AJA, LIll, 194q; J. P rz Y 1 u s k i. La grande deesse. Paris, 1950, p. 150 sq.

H M. H. M a K C Ii MOB a. PliTOII H3. KenepMecca .. _ CA, Bun. XXV, 1956; ,11. C. P a e BC K H H. MOneJIb MHpa Ii cKH4>cKoii KYJlbType .• 1\\., 1985, c. 96 CJI.

15 I v. V en e d i I( 0 v. The Great Goddess

in R ogozen Treasure (under Press).

16 BlK . .T. -P. V ern ant. Ambiguita e r ove-sci amento. Sull a str uttura enigmatica dell "Edipa.re". _ .. In: Il Mito. Guida storica e critica. A cur a di M. Detienne. Bari, 1976, 73-103.

17 G. D u In ? Z i 1. Mariages indo-eur opeens.

Paris, 1979, p. 32, 34--35, a9-45. 18 RgV. 8. 91. 4-6; 10.85.40.

19 51. B. B a C II JIb K 0 B. I1i1HLl.liaUHOriHble

pa-ryans; B .n;peBHeH I1H.D;HH . .noK.la)( aa III IlponnOBCKHX QTeHIIlIX. JI., 1984.

20 M. 51. C a JI M 0 HOB Ii q. UIIT. COq.

21 .n. Map H II 0 a, Haponaa napa Ii penaru oana HapO.D;HH o6liqaH. - 05. HY, KH. XXVIII,_1914, C. 380 CJI.

22 ElK. L. K a h i 1. Aut our de l ' Artemis attique. -- Ant. K., 1965. Ibir'ein. L'Artemis de Brauron. - Ant. K,. 1977, 2: D. Pop 0 V. Artemis Brauro (Deesse thraco-pel asgique). - In: Interaction and Acculturation ill the Mediterranean. Amsterdam, 1980; 11. Map a 3 0 D. UIIT. C'b'1. . •.

23 G. Dum e z i 1. Le probleme ... , p. 110 sq. 2~ B}K. G. DUm e z i 1. Religion romaine archafique, Paris, 1965, 161-165; VaL Max. 2.2.9. 2t. Plato. Decivit., 327-328.

2~ BlK. C. C. A 6 paM HH. nepBoOblTllbiR IIpa3- .II.HHK H MHl~OJlOrHH. Epeaarr, 1983.

27 BlK. )J.. non 0 O. Koneuxareucxa ar penerp.

_ ApXeOJIOflill, 19, 1977, 1; Flaic TOR. Tpaicaficxara (iorliHlI BeH,I.Iw,u,a. c., 1981.

28 G. Dum e z i 1. Le pr oblerne ... , p. 143 sq. 29 Ibidem. ,

30 W. O'F 1 ~h e r t y. Hindu Myths. New

York, 1975, 238..:..249.

31 BlK. H .. 1\\ a p a 3 0 B. JJ:IIT. C'blJ. C UII 1. nur. . 32 G. Dum e z i 1. Le pr obleme ... , p. 127 sq. 38 W. O'F I a her t y. Sexual Mdavhors and

Animal Symbols. in Indian Mythology. Chicago, 1980, p. 164.

34 ?t. V e r mas ere II. Cybele and Attis.

The Myth and the Cult. It 1977, 101--107; R. D u t· hoy. The Taurobolium, Leiden, 1969.

35 B>K. O. K lin d t-J ens en. The Gun-

destrup Bowl: a Reassessment. -,Antiquity, v. XXXIII, No 131, 1959; H. Map a 3 0 B. C'bKPOBIiutero or S!KIiMOBO. c., 1979 c .nHT. i10 rrsrrpoca aa TpaKIIHcJ{oTO npOH31l0.D;CTBO ua KOTeJla.

86 n;. Map H HOB. i~HT. C'blJ., c. 382.

87 0 V. Aiet. 8.567; Pin d. Pyt.2.21 sq; A e sc h y 1. Eum. 441, 718; D i 0 d. 4.69.

:\R Cp. c OTB.~HlJaHeTO aa Hct>HreHH5I 3aeJ,(HO C Ii.D;OJla aa Ap reaana OT Opecr Ii Ilanan, CbIIOCT<lBIiMO c OTBJlIi'JaHeTO aa Eneaa OT Tesek H Flepn toa , KaKTO H C oCBo60JK.ll.aSaHt'To it or (ipaTllra ~l }In OCKypH n T. H. R. TU3H MIiTOJI0reMaIlOC.TOIIHEO OTKpn saMe CTPYKryp ara .ll.elloiiKa MeiK.'l.Y ,l.llIaMa MJlaJl.elKH, fl TO HarI'!eCTo caspsaua c xouere.

La Deesse parmi les centaures (N!: 158 du tresor vde Rogozen)

1. MARAZOV

(R e sum e)

L'auteur essaie de reconstruire l a structure mythique incarnee dans Ies deux frises figuratives de la petite cruche No 158 du tresor de Rogozen. Les centaures en tant que ref! et mythi que des societes d'initiation epbebiques et paral lel e de leur lorme rituallsee dans les personnages et Ies mises en scene des [eux de mascarade du calendrier, cssayent de ravir la deesse C'''' la j eune mariee), incarnee dans la figure de I a Deesse du ty pe de Potni a Theron, Ce moment critique pour I'existence de l'ordre cosmi que et social. est surmonte par l 'ahlation d'un taur eau representee dans la frise infericure. Les

paralleles avances de la mythologie indo-europeeune et du folklore contemporaiu des Balkans appuient cette rsconstructl on. L'auteur ernet L'hypotheso qu ' avec ce petit vase etaient fAites des libations a la deesse "s3uvee« par les vainqueurs aux courses de chevaux pendant Ies fetes pr incipales du cal endrier. La descriptlon des Bendides a Athenes ei l e relief du British Museum dont l'iconographie revel e la merne structure mythi que sont designes en ce sens. Le cone ours hippi qua merne est une mani er e de retablir r ituell ernent 1 'or dr e etabli par la creation d'une nouvelle hierarchic - figure d'ordre.

63

3a xapaxrepa na POr03eHCKOTO C_pKpOBHme

n. H J1 I( (I JI 0 B

BCHKO HOBO OTKpHTHe nOCTaBH npe~ Hayxara HOBH np06JIeMH, aa KOHTO HeBHHarH MO:>Ke aenaara ~a ce ~a~e OTrOBOp. Torasa H~Ba pea aa XHnOTe3HTe, KOHTO nocreneaao pa3HH~BaT 3ara~KHTe, YJIeCHHBaT H o60raTHBaT H3CJIe~BaHeTO.

B'bB apssxa C OTKpHTHeTO aa Por03eHCKOTO C'bKpOBH~e ce ny6JIHKYBaxa HeMaJIKO CTaTHH, B KOHTO ce $opMYJIHpaXa HHKOJIKO xanoresa'. Te 3aCSIraT xaoro B'bnpOCH, OT KOHTO aa HCKaM ~a ce cnpa aa CJIe~HHTe: 1. KaKBa e$YHKIJ;HSlTa aa C'b~1feTaTa, 2. KoA e 6HJI TeXHHHT npare-

. :>KaTeJI, 3. 1(0A rn e H3pa6oTHJI H 4. KaK ca ce OT30BaJIH KpaA c. POro3eH.

3a ~a orroaopnx aa n'bpBHSI B'bnpOC, TpH6Ba ~a o6'bpHeM BHHMaHRe Ha ~Ba $aKTa. O'bpBHHT ce'OTHaCH no $opMaTa aa C'b~1feTaTa. OOBe1feTO OT asropare npaevar, 1fe re ca H3- pa60TeHH CneIJ;HaJIHO aa napose na BHCOKOnOCTaBeHH JIH1fHOCTH, HMeHaTa aa KOHTO ca aamrcaaa B'bpXY THX2. Ho samo B TaK'bB cJIY1faii C'b~1feTaTa HMaT caxo nse $OPMH - KaHH1fKH H $HaJIH? 3a~0 Te3H napoae npnexar caxo <jJopMaTa aa Te3R ~Be C'b~'IeTa? KoA H 3aIIJ;O e perJIaMeHTHpaJI TOBa? liMa orne TOJIKOBa ~pyrH B'b3MO:>KHOCTH aa noaaacaae na napose, aanpaxep napa, B'bOp'b:>KeHHe, KOHCKH aMYHHIJ;HH, KOJIecHHIJ;H H ~p. CnOMeHaBaM caao HeTJIeHHHTe H OCTaBHM aacrpaaa npexa, POOH, :>KeHH, KOHe H T. H.

BTopHHT <paKT ce OTHaCH no THXHaTa YTHJIHrapaocr. JIHlIIaBaHeTO aa C'b~1feTaTaOT YTHJIHrapaa <PYHKIJ;HH 06e3CMHCJIH THXHaTa $opMa. Ho aKO re HMaxa YTHJIHTapHa $YHKUHSJ, TO cpen THX msxa aa ce HaMHp3T H .ltPyrH CPOPMH C'b~OBe H nO~HoCH - $DPMH, KOHTO HHe n03H3- saae OT C'bBpeMeH8llTa 8M KepaMHKa8. OCBeH TOBa, aKO K8HH1fK8Te 8 $HaJIHTe 6S1X8 H3nOJI- 3YBaHH aa naeae, TO KaHH1fKHTe 6H TpH6BaJIO za 6'b~aT 3Ha1fHTeJIHO nO-rOJIeMH OT <pHaJIHTe. A Te ca nO-MaJIKH HJIH paBHH na THX. HenpHeMJIHBO e cnopen MeH ~onYCKaHeTO, xe Te npe~CTaBJIHBaT npOCTO OTJIH1fHTeJIHH 3HaIJ;H H npenaer aa csoeoopaaao KOJIeKIJ;HOHHpaHe'.

CJIe~OBaTeJIHO C'b~1feTaTa HMaT HSlKaKBa YTHJIHTapHa'<PYHKIJ;HH. KaKBa e TSI? moe SI OTKpHeM, aKO XB'bPJIHM norie.lt B'hpxy npOHSB~eHHSlTa aa H3KYCTBOTO OT TOBa speae. B p~HIJ;a CIJ;eHH HJIH $HrypH aa 60rOBe H :>KpeUH resa C'b~1feTa ce H3nOJI3YBaT aa peJIHrH03HH H3JIHHHHH6• OOHSlKora KaHH1fKHTe ca 3aMeHeHH C pHTOHH. BHHarH 06a1fe ca np~CTaBeHH 3ae~HO B KOMnJIeKT. Ilpes PHMCKO spexe rrsx $HaJIHTe ca nOJIY1fHJIH ~p'b:>KKH H ca n03HaTH non HMeTO narepa, a KaHH1fKHTe nopana TPHJIHCTHOTO CH YCTHe ca Hape1feRH oARoxoe. Te ce HaMHpaT

64

H B rp060Be aa :>KpeUH, KoeTO e TeXHH5IT OTJIH- 1fHTeJIeH 6eJIer. Ii TYK re C'bID;O ca aaeaao, He3aBHCHMO OT KOJIH1feeTBOTO H cpoPMaTa aa npyrare rp06HH napoae". HSiMa C'bMHeHHe, 1fe H C'b~OBeTe OT Poroseacxoro csxposame ca H3n'bJIHHBaJIH C'bID;aTa <PYHKUHSI. 06CTOHTeJICTBOTO, 1fe 6pOSIT na <pHaJIHTe He orrosaps aa 6poSl H8 K8HH1fKHTe, nOKa3Ba, 1fe re ca. pasKOMnJIeKTiBaHH OT xopa, KOHTO H~. ca CH CJIY:>KHJIH C THX. a ca ra TpeTHpaJIH npocro KaTO MeTaJI.

AKo ~eiicTQHTeJIHO C'b~1feTaTa ca ynorpetiaBaHH B penaraosaa paryana.: TO re He MoraT aa npHHa.ltJIeJKaT HHTO aa nape, HHTO H8 apaCTOKpaTH1feCKH <paMHJIHH. Te npHHa.lJ;JIe>KaT aa HHCTHTYIJ;HH, B KOHToce H3B'bpIIIBaT PeJIHrH03HH pHTyaJIH, T. e. aa xpaxose H CBeTHJIHID;a. KOJIKO H KaKBH ca 6HJIH CBeTHJIHID;aTa, OT KOHTO ca orpa6eHH Te3H C'b~OBe, 6H MOrJIO na ce onpeneaa no H306pa:>KeHHSlTa aspxy C'b~1feTaTa, K'b.lJ;eTO ca. rrpencraseaa cuena OT MHTa na C'bOTBeTHO rJJ8.BHO 6o>KecTBo. Y6e.lJ;eH C'bM o6aQe, 1fe re He ca OT e~HO H C'bID;O CBeTHJIHID;e. Taspne MHoro MH ce BH~aT aa e~HOe~HHCTBeHO CBeTHJIHme. TpY~HO MH e ~a npaexa H xanoresara aa ,ll. Feprosa, 1fe aaXO.lJ;KaTa npe.lJ;CTaBJIHBa peJIHrH03HO CBeTHJIHme aa xanepoopeare", ,llon'bJIHHTeJIHO aaxepeHHHT C'b~ (HJIH QaCT OT Hero) napyuraaa MaTeMaTH1feeKOTO C'bOTHOllIeHHe Me1K~y ~BeTe $oPMH C'b~1feTa. Cnopea MeH Te npOCTO ca 6HJIH paaKOMnJIeKTYBaHH H TeXHHTe nanaaaa ca OTHIIIJIH B .npyrH psue. Bee nax S8CJIY:>KaBa ~a ce aanpasa OORT SaKOMtIJIeKTYAA~O Ret 1:I;l~pel;lllTe c'bAqe"I'a DO.H3Q6paJKeHBH'" 4lOPMa Ii :oBI:I~MeHT, K8KTO H no reXHOJIOrHQHH .lJ;a~eHOCTH. MO:>Ke 6H ace nax 1faCT OT TSIX me 6'b~aT KOMnJIeKTYBaHH. A TOBa e xnoro Ba1KHO, sa ~a M01Ke Aa ce Onpe~eJIH Koii H Kora e H3pa60THJI C'b~- 1feTaTa H 3a JIOKaJIH3HpaHe Ha caMHTe CBeTHJIHma.

AKo nsx C'b~1feTaTa ca npHHa~JIe1KaJIH na CBeTHJIHma, TO rorasa HMeHaTa, H3nHcaHH B'bpXy TSlX, He ca aa TeXHHTe co6CTBeHHUH, a na .ltaPHTeJIH. Ta3H npaxraxa, KaKTO e H3- secrao, C'bmeCTBYBa OT ~'bJI60Ka ApeBHOCT H ~O ~Hee. 113BecTHO e csmo TaKa, se ocaea npnre:>KaTeJIH8Ta $oPM8 aa po,a;BTeJIHHH na~e~, C'bID;ecTBYBa H T. Hap. reHeTHBYC cy6eKTHBYC, npa KOH'To C'bOTBeTHOTO ~eiiCTBHe ce npesesora C npeanora OT, a He C HA. CJIe~OBaTeJIHO HMeHaTa B'bpXy C'b~1feTaTa He ca HHTO aa MaiiCTopHTe (Bnp01feM HMeTO aa e~HH OT MaAcTOpare e H3pmIH0 oT6eJIH3aH c rJIarOJIa noaeo) , KaKTO TB'bp~H Cn. MaIIIOB8, HHTO aa uapere KOTHC, Kepceoaerrr HJIH npyra, KaKTo B CJIy-

lIaH, KoraTO C~~lIeTaTa ca OHnH nO~apeHH Ha nero, HnH xoraro ToA ra e noaapaaaa CBOH nonHTHlIeCKH KOHTpareHTH. Ho samo He BCHlIKH C~~OBe ca aannacaaa, aKO TOBa ca napcxa peranHH? B xpaea cnYlIaA re MoraT ~a o~~aT aa nape, KOHTO ca npaaana aapea C ~pyrH naparena napose aa CBeTHnHm.aTa. Ho samo B TaK~B cnYlIaH KOTHC ~HH n~T e OT Apracxe, ~pyr n~T OT Anpo, TpeTH rrsr OT reHCTOH H OT Beo? H S8IIJ.O HHTO Be~H~}!{ TOH He e cnoxeHaT C~C CBOHTa napcxa THTna? H5IMa C~MHeHHe, lie TOBa ca pa3nHlIHH miua H OT pa3nHlIHH naceneHH MeCTa. Te, pasoapa ce, npaaaanescar aa apHCTOKpaUH5ITa, K05lTO e JKHB5IJIa B cnoxeaaTHTe HaCMeHH MeCTa. A resa naceneaaaecra ca OHnH ~OCTaT~lIHO HSBeeTHH, sa na e HMaJIO HYJK~a OT ~on~nHHTMHH oOHCHeHH5I. He e OHJIO Heooxo~HMO csmo TaKa ~a ce 005lCH5IBa, KOMY e npaseao napeaaero. C~~lIeTaTa ca OCTaBaJIH Belle COOCTBeHOCT aa CBeTHnHm.aTa, na KOHTO ca noaapeas.

CnOMeHSTHTe aacenean MeCTa (cnopen MeH rpa~OBe) ca ce HaMHpanH TB~p~e ~anell e~Ho OT npyro, KaKTO TB~p~51T H npyrn asropa (01' opera aa MpaMopHO Mope ~O .llYHaBa). TOBa e orne e~HH apryaear, lie poroseacxare c~,nlleTa ca npHHa~neJKanH aa paanasaa CBeTHJIHm.a. Ho nO-BaJKHO e dOCT05lTenCTBOTO, lie rpanosere ca OHnH H3BeCTHH B TaK~B II1HpOK reorpadicxa apean, Te3H rpazoae Des BC5IKO C~MHeHHe ca TpaKHHcKH rpaaone, H TO B~B B'bTpeIIlHoc'rTa aa crpaaara. T03H <paK'l' e MHoro saacea sa HSSlCHSIBaHe aa COUHanHO-HKOHOMHlIeCKaTa xapTHHa Ha TpaKHHcKoTO oom.ecTBo ~anell npe,nH PHMCKOTO Bna~HlIeCTBO.

KaK ca ce OT30BanH BCHlIKHTe TeSH 165 c~,na na enao M5ICTO KpaH c. Porosea> no Moe MHeHHe Te ca orpaoean OT CBeTHJIHm.aTa, aa KOHTO ca OHnH noaapeaa. Karo nJIHlIKa (MeTaJI, a He C~~OBe) re ca npeneceaa ,no C. POrOSeH, K~,neTO HOBHHT npareacarea HJIH npHTeJKaTeJIH (sa ,nBeTe KynuHH) rH e sapoaaa HHUH~eHTHO npena HaKaKlW CpalKeHHe •. 3apriBeRH ca aa MaJIKa ~M60llHHa CSes HHKaKBa H8,l(HK8UHSI aa nOB~pXHOCTTa. Orono MaC'l'OTO, K~,l(ero ca aaxepeaa, H5IMa HHKaKBH CJIe~H OT ceaame HJIH KaKBaTO H ,na e nOCTpOHKa (,nBOpeU HJIH CBeTHnHm.e). E~HH eBeHTyaJIeH BJIa,neTen ensa nH OH SaXB~PJIHn no TOSH aasan csxposmuero CH. Be3 C~MHeHHe TOBa MaCDBO q:~aOHTeJICTBO e H3B~pIIleHOOT opraaaaapaaa B~OV~'JKeHa CHJIa. nOXHTHTeJIHTe aa resa Xp'aMOBH C~KpOBHm.a HJIH ca saraaana, HnH n~K nporoaean, Des ~a xorar nOBTopHO ,na ce ~ooepaT ~o T5IX. Taxa TSlXHOTO n030pHo ~MO e C raaaao npaxaaa ,nHec na

1 Te 6Hxa H3JiOlKeHlI B p 113JIH'IHII BecTHIIUH H CIIHcaHHH. nO-BalKHH or TliX ca: a) B 0 r ~ a H H HK 0 Ji 0 B, C II a c M a ill 0 B, n.1I a M e H H HK 0 Ji 0 B. YHHKaJlHO rpaxnacxo C'hKpoBIIll(e OT Por03eH. - MY3eH H n aMeTtiHUH na Ky.1fYVa'fa, 1986, 1, c. 38.; 6) en, I-!3KYCfBO, 1986, KII. 6 H IlO'KOHxp erno: A JI. <fl 0.1. nOJlIHHKU H xy.nryp a B np es na TpaKHH npea V --IV B. up. H. e." c. 2; Il JI. H H K 0-

9 ApXeOJIOrHH, 3, 1987

npHTeJKaaaMe_HaH-rOJIHMaTa KOJIeKUHH OT TpaKHlkKH cpeospaa csnose.

Crropen asropare aa noceramaare nYOJIHKaUHH C~~lIeTaTa narnpar OT xpaa aa V no nOCJIe,nHaTa lIeTB~PT aa IV B. np. H. e.9 TOBa me pese, lie re ca nspaoorsaaa B paSJIHq'HH speaeaa (a H aa pasJrHllHH MeCTa), HO ca oHTYBami saenao ~o MOMeHTa na rpatieaca. TOBa oOSlcHSIBa pa3JIHqHHSI CTHn H 0pHaMeHTH. lIacT OT TSiX. MOJKe ,na ca paooTeHH B~H OT Tpat<HHCKHTe seMH; a npyra B cnenaaansapaaa aTMHeTa K~M cauare CBeTHJIHm.a. Ho TYK He e BaJKeH <paKTOp'~T npOHsBO~HTen. noBa}KeH e <paKTop~T HHBeCTHTOp. TOH ooe~HHSiBa c~,nqeTaTa no xapaxrep. B TSiX e BJIOJKeH enaa H c~m. BKYC H cseroycemaae. KaKTO ce BH}K~a H OT Ha,nnHCHTe, BCHlIKH ,napHTeJIH ca TpaKHAUH. ETo samo BCHlIKH C~~OBe, neaasaCHMO OT rp~UKHTe TeKCTOBe, HOCSIT TpaKHHCKH xapaxrep. H Te ca C~OHpaHH OT BCHqKH rpaKHHCKH aeua, npes KOHTO e MHHaJI spar-srrpaOHTM. E~HHCTBOTO aa MeTaJIa B aaxonxara ce ,n~JI}KH aa npaanana na pasnpeaeneaaero aa nnsxxara. Ha BHCIIIHTe KOMaH,nHpH ca ce n~aJIH HaH-CK~nHTe aema (MO}Ke OH SJI8TOTO), a aa cpe~HHSI o¢HuepCKH Ka~~p - Cpe6POTO, aa BOHHHllHTe - nO-HesHa'lHTMHH nema,

HSiKonKO ~YMH H sa caxare rpatiarena, nOM~PJKa ce. CT8HOBHIIJ.eTO, lie C~KpOBHm.eTO e saparo nopaaa HaXJIYBaHeTO aa <l>HJIHn MaKe~OHCKH HnH n~K Ha HerOBH5I CHH AJIeKCaH~~p. Crropen MeH TOBa e C~MHHTenHO, ThH KaTO SHaeM OT ~peBHHTe asropa, 'Ie AJIeKCaH~'bp ce OTHaC5IJI C YBaJKeHHe K~M MeCTHHTe xyarose. TOH rrOCeTHJI TpaKHlicKOTO CBeTHJIHIlI.e B Pononnre, aa KoeTO nO,nHeC~JI ,napeHHSI. Brrposea TOBa e eCTeCTBeHO, S8IIJ.OTO KYJITOBeTe aa TpaKH H MaKe,nOHUH ca OHJIH C'bBCeM OnHsKH. nO-BepOSITHO e rpaOHTeJIHTe ,na ca OHJIH KMTHTe, KOHTO HaXJIYJIH B TpaKHSI npes nspsara 'IeTB~PT aa III B. np. H. e. HSBecTHo e, 'Ie re ce OnHTaJIH ~a orpaosr rp~UKOTO CBeTHJIHIlI.e B .lleJI<pH, HO OHJIH pasoHTH H nporoaeaa'", Torasa Te ce B~pHanH npes TpaKHSI aa cesep H ,nOCTHrHanH 3eMHTe aa TpHoaJIllTe, ~~eTO seposrao npa CT'LnKHOBeHHe C THX e oHno saposeao Poroseacxoro csxposmne. HSBecTH<? e, se KYJITOBeTe na KMTHTe ca C~BceM paSJIH'IHH OT resa aa TpaKHTe.

B TaK~B cnYlIaH H ~onHaTa rpaaaua aa naraposxara aa c~,n'leTaTa M01Ke na caese K~M resa C~OHTHSI. Pa30Hpa ce, B aaxoaxara MOJKe na ca nonanaaaa no-crapa c~~qeTa, HO ace nax S8IIJ.O re ~a He ce npOHSBeJK~aT H B rrspBHTe ~eCeTHJIeTHSI na III B. np. H. e.?

JI 0 B. Orxpuaaaero ua TpaKHiicKOTO C1>KPOBHll(e OT Poroaea, c. 5; B. H H K 0 JI 0 B. <flnaJ1HTe OT Poro- 3eHCKOTO csxpoaame, c. 8; C'h ur H H T: l(aHIi'lKHTC OT POl'03t'IICKOTO C1>KPOBHll(t', c. 17; C 'b IU H H T: 4awH're OT Poroseacxoro C'bKpOBIIIUe, c. 37; CIT. M aW 0 B. Ha~ITHCHTe B1>PXY C'hAOBeTe or Porosencxoro csxpoaamc, c. 41; B) A JI. <fl 0 JI. OJlPHCKH Ii TPH- 6aJlCKH nape OT Por03eHCKHI'e Ha),(ITHCH. -- Bsxose,

65

1986, c. 5; r) n. rep r o u a. Cpe6po sa oor-osere. - OTe4eCTBo, 19R6, 20, c. 28.

2 A Jl. <I> 0 JI. Onpncxure II TpH6aJlCKHTe uap e ... ,~ D .. U 0 H li e B. CIIBaTa rp axa ncx a x ep axrn x a B

bb'lrapHll. - rIlJlHlv\, 1959, c. 93. -

4 A ,1. <I> 0 JI. I~HT. CD'!.

5 S. Rei n a c h. Repertoire de l a statuaire

grecque et romaine. Paris, t. 1, 1906, pI. 768-h; t. II, 1908, 493-496; t. Y, 1924, pl. XLI f. 2, 3,7. Cbuiara cueua e npcxcraacna H BbPXY KaHH'!Kara OT Por03elICKOTO ct.xp ouuure, Koe'IO llBHO e orxp anuaro or CBeTHJlHllle, nOCBC1eHO aa lLHOHHc. Ilopanu TUBa TO e 11()-XOMOreHHO or Por03CHCKOTO. (B)K. nHMHTbp I1JI.

HB8tIOIl. TpaKH}ICKOTO cp erit.puo ci.xp onnurc 0'1' ceao bOjJOBO. ' __ I13BE'CTHll aa MY3eHTe OT Cesep ua bbJIrapH5!, YIII, 1982, c. 29.)

6 D .. HHKOJIOG, Xp. RYloK.1HeB, HOBH

TpaKlIlkl(i1 MOrHJIHH n orp eceun n OT Lf8raJIKJ, Crapo:lar-0pcKo.-ApxeOJfOrIl5I, 1967, 3, c. 10,

7 n. rep rOB 8. LI,I1T. Cb,!.

R C n. M 3 ill 0 n, LLl!T. Cb,!.

,: 5. H II K O,P, 0 H. LLilT. Cb,!.

In M. D, a M 8 P a n ,~ K u . KeJlTl1Te ua Ba.ncanCI<I111 nOjIYo-:TPOH. C., 1884 II n ocouenara TaM .IIIITE'p a ryp a.

Sur lc caractere du tresor de Rogozen D. N I K 0 LOY

(R e s u rn e)

En sp hasant sur des rr-pr esent at i ons PI des tr ouvai ll es de vases sembl abl es, l'alltetJr r elevc que l es petits br ocs de RogoLen serva icnt ~galement a des rites r el igicux et par consequent app ar t enai ent a des sauct uair es et templ os t11r3c(,3. De lit i!c sOl11 der obes r-ornm e hu ti n de g uerr e et eniouis it l a hat e par l es ravisseur s pres du village de Rog ozcn, D'apres l'uutcur ceci a ete cornrnis par les Ccl t es au debut du IIIe s. avo 11. ere,

Les petits brocs etaient r arnasses de t out es 1 es terres thr acos it travers l e quel lcs ont p asse l es pi l-

66

lar ds. Us e tai ent d onnes comm e presents a ux sanetuaires par des ar ist ocrates thrac.es (non par des r ois) pr ovenant de di ilercntes villes.

l ls sont tr avail les p ar riifferents maiir es (pas t ous des Thraces) et a di ilerentes ep oq ues - du ye [usquau IIIe S. avo n. ere, cc it qu oi s ont dues l cs par ticul ar i tcs et l es differences st yl isti ques entre eu x. Ce q ui Ips unit cc sont l es gal1ts et l es conceptions de ceux qui en Iaisai ent l a commande et qui les donnaiont comme ca deau x. Ce fait preciseruent determine leur car ac ter e lhr ac e.

M. CP. r Y P M H. ,nPEBHEE )I<EJIE30 BEJIOPYCCKOrO nO,nHEnpOBb5l. MHHCK, HaYKa H TeXHHKa, 1982. 121 c., 108 pHC., 18 TaCiJIHJJ.H

C HSYlIaBaHeTo aa ApeBHoTo MeTanoo6paCiofl>aHe aa reparopa ara na CCCP ce SaHHMaBaT pe.AHJJ.a HSBeeTHH C'bBeTCKH YlIeHH. Cpea MHoroCipoAHHTe HayuH ny6JIHKaJJ.ItH, nOCBeTeHH na TOSH IIpoCSneM. npes nocneanare rO,llHHH see nosexe ce OTKpoHBaT HSCJle.A· BaHIBITa na KaHJJ.HAaTaHaHcTopHlIecKHTe HayKH MHxaH.I CPe.AOPOBH'I l'YPHlI, crapum aayxea C'blpYA!iHK IS MHcTHry'ra no HCTOpHH npa AH aa BeCp B rpaa MauCK.

ABTop1J", e nyMHKYBaJI. pe.AHJJ.a CTaTHH KaKIO B C'bIle-rcK8Ta, 'TaKa H B qY)K}J.aTa HaY'lHa .1H rep arypa, KOHTO ce O1'nH'IaBaT C'bC \;BOHT8 OpHrHUaJIHOC,T Ii npeuasaocr B HSCJIt:)lBaHHHTa. B TOSH CMHC'bJI nOHBaTa aa ~lOHorpacjJHHTa aa M. CP. I'ypaa He e H3HeHaA8 sa Cll!!IJ,HaJIHCTHTe, 3aHHMaBa~H ce C Ilp06JIeMHTe na MeTaJIo06pa60TBaHero. B Hell e uanpasea CIIOJIY'IJIHB OIIHT aa 6a3a1'a aa Me1'aJlOrpacjJcKHTe H3CJIell.l:laHHH Aa ce orrpenean HIIBOTO ua pasaarae na MeTa.'1yprH'lHaTa H KOBallIKa TeXHOJIOrHH, KaQeCIBaTa IIa IlOJIY'leIIHH MeTa.'1 H H3rOTBHiIaTaOT Hero npo.n.YKlJ,HH IIa TepHTOpaara aa BeJIOPYCKOTO Ilonaenposae npes I XHJIJI.lI.OJIeTHe OT HOBaTa epa. TPY.lI.'bT e uarpaaen B'bpXY OCHOsara na MlioroCipolhiH MeTaJIOrpacjJcKH H cnexrp anaa aHaJlH3H, HanpaBeHH JlHlIHO OT aBTopa.

B YBO.ll.HaTa lIaCT ca paaraeaana B'bnpOCIITe, CB'bpSaHK C aKTyaJIHOCITa aa resrara, XpOHOJlOrH' xecxare paMKK aa MOHorpacjJHSl1a, K8KTO Ii aanaxare aa H3l'Jle,lJ.Bp.heTO. nOCO'leHH ca aaxparxo 11 nHCMeHIiTe H3rO'lHHllH, KoHTO ocseraaaar pa3JIII'lHH crp aaa ua M€TaJIo06pa60TaalieTO na repuropas ra tla Beaopycas. CpaBHHTeJIHO .lI.o6pe e npocneaena H acropaorparpa ara, KaTO OCHuBliO BHHMIlHHe e OTAe,leHO sa C'bBeTCKaT3.

OCilll.OHSBecTHo e, 'Ie sa nayxa ra ea Ba1KHK Ill:' caao pesyararare or rrposeaeaare H3CJle.ilBaIlHH, HO H ME:TO.ll.Wre, c nOMOlJJ.ra sa KOKTO ca rroaysena Te3H pesyarara. ETO 3a~0 raaaa nspaa e nOCBeTeHa aa MeTOAHTe sa IISCJle.D,BaHe II sa xapaxrepacraaara IIa H':IIIOJ19YBaHaTa auaparypa. Benaara TpH6sa aa oroeJie1KHM, se OCH08HaTa 'Maca or 1KeJIe3HHTe H3.D.eJIH!I, nOllJlO1KeHH aa MeTaJlOrpacjJcKH IlHaJIH3, ca UOJIY'leHH nplf aenocpeactaeaoro Y'IaCTHe aa asropa UpH repenaare apXeOJIOrH'IeCKH npOY'lB8HHSI. Haxoaxare 3a HJCJle.ll.SZHe ca nO.ll.!iHpaHK TaKa, lie na MoraT ilaH' ns.nxc .n.a 01'pa311T TE'pHTOpKaJIHO npoY'IBaHHH paaon. OCHoBHHHr MeTO.ll. na H3CJIe.ll.BaHe, H:!110Jl3YBaH B MOHorpa¢HHTa, e ME:Tar.orpacjJcKHlIT H cnexrpanen aHaJlHS.

MeTaJlOrpacjJcKHTe ua6J110.ll.eHHlI ca upoeeaeaa aa OnTH'IecKH MHKpocKon MI1M-7, MHM-8 H Mep·2 Ha cjJHpMaTa "PaHxepT", KaKTO H aa eJleKTpOHeH MHKpOcxorr "MHHlI-ceM" (MO.n.eJl J\lSM-2) npa yseaasenue .110 20 XHJlHJ~H rrsra. MHKPOTB'bp.n.ocTTa rrpa BCH1J.KH 06pasJJ.H e usxepena aa npaeopa nMT-3 R MHKpOTB'bPAoMep na cjJHpMaTa "AKacK" (Mo.n.eJI MVK-D). TBLp.ll.OCTTa e OTlIeTeHa aa npaoopa Tn-2. CnexrpanHH re aH8.i!HSIl ca H3MepeHH sa cnexrorparp MCn-30 H cnexrpoporoaersp "nepKHH-3J1Mep" (MO,ileJI 403) H np, Ca~!OTo Hs6poHBaHe aa TaSH pasaooepasaa no BH.lI. H B'b3M01KHOCTH anaparypa caanereacrayaa sa cepaosuocrra, C KOHTO aaropur nO.ll.X01K.lI.a K'bM R3- c.1eJl.BaHeTO na np06J1eMa H sa npeJJ.HsHOCTTa na aanpaBeHiITe npoY'IBaHIiH.

Kpumutca U peuessuu

B YBo.ll.HaTa sacr e OT.lI.eJIeHO MSICTO H sa npose.lI.eHaTa eKCl1epHMeHraJIHa paeora, C KOHTO aeropar HSlicHSlBa peaaua B'hnpOCH aa KPHqHo-pY,IlIIHH npouec it KOBaWKaTa oCipa60TKa aa 1K<!JiSiSOTO. TOSH Mero.n. aa excnepaaearaana IISCJle.D,BaHHH e OT ocoeeao Ba1KHO saaseaae, T'bH RaTO .lI.aBa peaaaa npencraaa aa TeXHO'

< JlOrH'IeeKHTe npollecH Ha npeaaoro lip OH3BO.l{CTIl0.

I'aasa sropa e UOCBeTeHa aa xeraaypra ara sa 1KeJIH30TO. Orne B caMOTO naxaao aBTOp'bT ce cnapa na BH.n.OBeTe CypOBHHHH HST01J.HHIJ,H, KaTO OT.lleJIlI ocooeno SHHMaHHe IIa CiJiaTIIHTe PY.lI.lI, 'IHHTO XHMHlIecKH C'bCTa~ M01Ke .n.a 6'b.ll.e H306pa3eH C cjJ0pMYJlara Pf'.08' nH.O. Onapaaxa ce aa MHor06poHHH H3TO'lHHl.(H, 1\\. CP. fYPKII crara ao H3BOJla, 'Ie Te3H PY.ll.H ca 6H.1H pa311pOCTpaHeHH nonceaecmo no IJ,SlJlaT8 reparopa a Hi! Be,nOPYCKOTO Ilonuenposae. Ilpaseneaara Ta6JIHlI.a Ha XHMIi'leCKHJI cscras aa 6J1aTIIHTe PY.lI.Il ::BH,l(ereJlnBYBa aa CIH!BHHTeJIHO BKCOKHH npouenr C'b,ll'bp1Ka· HRe na 1KeJiHSO (C. 22, TaM. 2).

MaKap H naxparao, aurop'sr ce cna pa aa TOnJlHH' HI;lI H3'fO'lHHK, 1i3nOJl3YBaH npn MeTaJlyprHSl18 aa 1KeJI1I30TO. TOH C np ano Or6eJISl3b8, 'Ie noayxaaaaero aa .n.'bJlBeHH BbrJIH~a c 60raro c'b.ll.1>p1KaHlie aa B'bTJlOpoa H C 1I0'lTH MHHHMaJIHO C'b.ll.bp1KaHKe aa cspa H cjJoccjJop (semecraa, HaMaJISlBa~H MeXaIlH'IIIHTe CBOHCTBa aa ldeTaJla) e 6lfJlo TPY J].eH nponec, HSKCKBalll YMeHK(' H npoaaaoacraen OnHT. HSlMa C'bMHeHHemillie aBTOp1>T,- 'Ie MecTHHTe Maii:cTO!>H ca n03HaB8JIH BCM'IKH r1>HKOCTH na TOBa npOH3BO.ll.CTBO, sa KOeTO CBH,LI.eTeJICTBYBa I1OJIY'leHaTa MeTaJlyprHQHa UP0.ll.YKUUSI. Or ocodeao Ba1KHO saaseaae aa xasecraoro aa rona I1POH3110J\CTIi0 06a'le ca 6HJIH MeTaJlyprH'IHHTe neum H npora aatuare B THX npoaecu. OTKpHTHTe H np oyseaa nema aa TepHTOpIiH1'a 118 Be.l0PYCHSI npenCTaBJIHBaT rjIHH06KTHH CbOp'b1KeHHH C no.1Yl'.cjJepHQH8 cjJopMa, aarpanean nanpano B'bpXY UOB'bPXHOCTTa, TYK M, CP. fYPHH o6p1-~a CnelJ,HaJlUO BHHMaHlie rra KOHCTPYKTHBHHTe ocoCieHOCTH aa neurare, 011H· paHKH ce aa excnepaxearanrrare OnHTl! na P. TIJleHnep II M. Paaaau.

B KpaSllla r naea aropa UBTOP'bT ce cnapa na peayararare OT MeTaJlOrpacjJCKOTO H cnexrpanao H3- caeasaae aa KPHJJ.H, KOHKpeUHH H maaxa (c. 27- 39), na OCHOllaTa na KOHTO TOR upasa Ba1KHIl HSBO.ItH OTHOCHO MeTanyprH'IHHlI nponec II xasecrsorc aa I10JlY'IeHHH MaTepHaJI.

Ocoeen aarepec rrpeacraanaaa rpera raasa, oaaraaaeaa "KOBallIKa 06pa60TKa ua lKeJIH30TO". TYK aBTOp1>T e C'bYMHJI .lI.a CHCTeMaTIISHpa peayararare OT OrpOMeH 6pOH MeTaJlOrpacjJcKH HSCJle.ll.BaHHSI aa pa3J1H'lHa 110 BIi.ll. KOBallIK3 np0.ll.YKUHH. )laHIIHTe sa reOI'pacjJCKOIO pasnpocrpaaeaae If XPOHOJlOfH'leCKKTe rpaaaua aa onpeneaeaare sa Hs('.7Je.ll.BaHe 1KeJIe3HH H3AeJIHI!, KaKTO H opHeHTHpOB'b'lHOTO HM pasnpeneaeHHe no apxeonoraxecxa xynrypa ca nOCO'leHH B cueJJ.HaJlHH rat'iJlHJJ.ll H KapTH (pHC. 15, raM. 6 H 7). ,no6po snexaraeane rrpaasr Ii Ta6J1HUH'fe C p e3Y JITaTI! re OT MeTaJlOrpacjJcKHTe H cnexrp aana aaannsa, KaKTO H resa, c'b.ll.'bp1Ka~H rexaoaornsecxure cxean ua K3- rOTBHHaTa KOBallIKa np0.ll.YKlI.HH. ,n06pa oneaxa aaCJlY1KaBar H MHoro6poHHHTe cjJOTOCHHMKH sa MHKpO- H MaKpocTPYKTYPll aa pa'3J1HlIHH 1KeJIe3HH H3AMHSI.

B'bB tPYHKIJ,HOHaJiHO OTHOllIeIlHe H3CJle.ll.BaHHTe MaTepHaJIH (a pasnpeneaeaa OT anropa B xerapu rpyna: OP'b.ll.HSI aa TpYAa (24 HaHMeHOllaHHSI), npe)l.MeTH aa 6HTa H e1Ke.AHeBHero (11 liaHMeHoBaHHSI), npen-

67

~'iE'TH Hi] KOliCKOTO CH81HDKeHlle (5 li3I1MeHOB8HH5I), f1pe,!I,ivleTI1 H8 B'bOpbME'HHeTO (6 H<',HMeHOB8HH5I). Tas a KJJaclHjJIlKaU1I5I, CbCT30eI-ia MHoro npeun auo 01' 8BTOp8, He,ll,BYCMHCJleHO nOKa3B3, 'le OCHOoHaTa KOllaWK8 npO,'l.YKUI151 np ea I Xl1J1. na I-I. e. ca CbCTaBJI5l11aJUl Opb,ll,1l5lTa H8 TpYI\a, CBl11\eTPJlCTBYEalUl1 sa MI-lorooTp3cdOBl151 xapaxrep WI CTOIlaHCKara ;1i'tiHOCT na MeCTHOTO H3CeJleHHe.

I-13nOJ13YBaHI(ll IWMIIJleKCHIl5I MeTaJlOBC'A'!eCKH aH8- JI113, Iv\" CiJ. fYPI1H e )J,OC1!-trHaJl ,Tl,O BaMI-ll! l!3BOl\1l OTHOCHO xaxecnsoro I-l8 :?KeJl5l~OTO H CTOM8HaTa, cnoCOOllTe Ha T5lXHaT3 06P860TK3, MeX8HlHHHTe CBOllCTB3 sa roroaa ra npOI(YKl\H5I, KHKTO h rexuonoru ara aa T5IXHOTO H3rUrBSlHe. Toil IlpaBHJiHO oT6eJl5l3Ba, ue npH oueHK3Ta Ha HHBOTO aa KosaWK3Ta Onpa6oTKH Tp5I6B8 I\a ce C:-bu6pa351Baivie C qJaKTH, 'le rrp es I XH.n. or H. e. B Llerrrp anua Espona c surec ray aa np onnuUl1ajiHO-p11MCK8 UHllHJl1l3ClU1HI C BHCOKa KOBaWKa re xHHKa, KG5ITO B enua I1JIH np y r a crerreu e oxaaana BJll151- HHe BbPXY MeTaJI006paOOTBaHeTO II 5eJlOPYCKOTO Ilonnen p onn e. Ilporp ecanna re aa TOBa BpelvIE' CIIoco6H f!a 06pil60TK3 na MeJlH30TO n03BOJlHjlH I;a ce 1l0BHlIlH KH'J(,CTllOTO ua Opb'!(HSlTa ua '[PYI\a H BbOPb)!(CHHeTO, n op aua l(QeTO e non aren crp euczo.r na MeCTHHTe KOB<1'l1l KbM TlIXHOTO OBJlaAHlJaHe. OCBeI-I TOBa TjJ5I6Ba na ce HMa rqJel\BH1\, 'Ie 6eJlOpYCKl-iTe Mai\CTopH He c axio ca 113110Jl3YBaJlH rOTOBaTa TeXHO,10rHH, BI,311pHfTa H np enaaana 0'1' noxoneua e aa rrOKOJleHHe, 1-10 II (,3~lH 'reCTO lI'b'll1 611J1l1 H3CJleAOB3TeJll1 I1 eKCnepl1ME'HHlTOPH, L e. C8Ml1 Cb3A3B<lJll1 11 1131IH1BaJli1 l-JOBH TeXI-IOJ!OrHqeCKH CXeMI1 n pu H3pa60Tl<3T3 s a CHOHT3 MIWf06poi1J-!a H P331-1006pa:HJa KOB<lWKa np0,ll,YKUH5I.

B pe3YJlTaT na n poaexenat e 113CJleAB3HlHJ ua rOJlm-ro KOJIHQeCTBO MaCOB apxeOJ10rH'leCKH Marepl1 a.n .M. CiJ. fYP!-IH CT!-Ira 1\0 H3BOAa, L[e KOB3WKH5IT 33H351T B neJlOPYCKOTO TIO.QHeIlpOBHe rrp ea pa3fJleMI\aH!-I5I rrep a on ce xap axrepa supa C jJa3Ho06pa3Ha H CJlOMJ-i3 TeXHOJ10rHH, .nor-ri.uua cauo aa llpocjJe(:1101-H1JIl-lCTII. TIoTpe6HOCTwre ua MeCTl-IOTO uacen enue OT MeJle3HH 0pbJl,l15i aa TjJYll,a ce 06C3Iie'laHiiJlO ocnoauo 0'1' MeC'ma CYPOIlUH8, 06pH60TsaHa OT MfCTHH MHiicTOpH. PH3HO- 06p3311eTO IlIJI1 H3110,13YB3HP.TO n a TeXHOJIGrHH npu eJl,HOTI1 llJ-l!-I }KCJle3HH 113,il,eJ!H 5i CBI1}ICTeJlCTBYBa aa 06- lUHHHH5I xap axrep n a kona unor s 3<1H3}1T. C np aso 8BTOPbT orocn \l3Ba, 'le UlOLKHHTe n p oueca , KO!l TO Cbi1bTCTBY BilJIl1 n p ex ona na T03H 38Ha5lT 0'1' 06W,H HI-W C!lOP;\I3 Kbi'vl pil'lBHTOTO 33Hal!T'IHllcTI'0 I-Ia qleO,ll,3J!HOTO OOUleCTB{J, e ;\ORCJlO Jl,0 H3!1lel-IelifleTo KaKTO na oriureCIEClmTe cjJYHKU!-IH aa ;\,len1Jl006jJa60TBaw,OTO rrp onaBO,QCT\>0, raxa H Hi! COuH3J!HOrO nOJ!OM'~HHe na xoaaua,

68

npeBjJblUaflKH ro 01' 06w,HHeH 3<1lla5lT'lH51 B CTOKOn p OH 3 B onaren.

I'nasa QeTIlbjJTCI e 1l0CBeTeHa- n a erann re ua PH3- nu rn e aa MeTaJlyprl151T3 H KOBHWI(;lTa 06pa60TKa aa JKeJi5l30TO up es I X!IJl. na H. e. n a TepHTOpH5Ila na 5eJlopYCKOTO Ilonuenpoaa e.

ABTOPbl H TYKa oure Be,ll,HbM oT6eJi5l3B8. 'Ie OCHeH lvIerTHIiTe TP<ll\HUfiH sa pa3B11THeTO ua MeTaJIOo6pa6oTS<1HE'TO 01' fOJlHMO 3H:lt[ell.HC e 611J10 BJ!H5IHHeTO I-Ia CbCe,ll,!-illTe 1-.I3POJl,l1. TIo 'uHel1bp, rr.nexieuara OT nCJlOpYCKOTO TIO,ll,HelIpOBHe c a MOUlI! ,ll,a H3i1HTBaT 6J1arOTBOpHOTO BmlHHHe HH rp suxnre rp anone 01' CPBepHOTO TIPH 4epllOMupll e, KbJI.eT_O MeTa.ryo06pa60Teaue ro e ).(ocTHrHaJIO 3aHl-!I\Ha aa TOBa BpeME'. BHCOTa. JJ:OCTaTb'lHO e nanpnu ep ,n:a CnOMeHE'M, L[e TIaHTHKalIefl e 6HJI xpyuen MeJJe300opa6oTBalU ueur-sp na DOC- 1l0pCKi1Ta I\bpMaBa. TIc p. TIPHIl5l'l' HJlH LJpe3 rrocp eaHH'IeCTBOTO ua np, lIJleMeHa ce e ocr.mccrnana,n KOHTaKT c Ke.~TCKH.5I CB5I'!', KbACTCI ca H3BeCTHH rOJleMH MeTaJ!YIJrH'II-iH UeHTpOBe C BHCOKO P<l3BHTO KOn<lWKO njJOH.'lBO,ll,CTBO.

OT'lH TaJ'1KH KaKTO TeXIlOJl0rH'IeCKHTe IljJH 3HauH, r axa H _TllIlOJlOrH'leCKHre H crp a rurparpcxn re ,Tl,aHHH. .M. cP. fYPHH pH31\(\~5I pa3BHTHeTO ua TOBa llPOH3- BO,ll,CTBO HC! ,u.Ra rOJlel,IH erarra: OT I-lH'laJ!OTO HH uaurara ep a ino n ep a ona H3 "Be.~HKOTO np ecen eua e ua uapo.uwre" (I-V B.) H pauuocpennoecxoncu eT8Il (VIX B.). fIpH .. 'lbP)!(ClHKH ce KbM XPOHOJlO!'l1L[eCKHTe rpaHY! UI1 na M OHorpacpH5ITD, asrop s r nacouna CBoeTO Bl-HlM<lHHe H1l(51JIO KbM IIbpBHH eran OT pa3BHTHeTO na MeTaJloo6pa6oTBaHcro. ¥l TYK, KaKTU II n pu UCl3- iH1JlW['(' fJl[:BH, '1'011 npauu CBOWle aax.moucun n rJ1aBHO I-l8 6a3aTa HD MCTaJlOrp8<jJCK!!le H3C,lel\Il<lHHll. Ha repec B TOR a o ruourenae Ilpel\CTaBJl5lBH Ta6J1HUa 19 (c. 102), II K05!TO ca lIpHBeAeHH BeHlJK .. nOJIY'IeHH TeXHOJlOfH'leCKH cxeMH na KOBaWKa npO;WKUH5I 01' np oyuaann a paaou, cpaBHeI1H C aHaJ10fH'lHH Ilpel\Mem 0'1 np yrn apXeoJ10rH'leCKH I,YJlTYPH.

B KjJ851 ua HaW!-ITe 6eJleMKH Tp5l6Ba onpeaeaeuo na K8}KeM, L[(' MOI-rorpacpH5ITa ua 1\1. ct>. fYPHI-l C'b,ll,bpMa npeuu qI-lH MeTaJlOrpacplKH H cn exrp aaun ClHaJlH31I, opHrHH3,lHH H3BOl\H H cnOJlYL[JiHBa HHTepIlpeTClUHH na cpaKTi-lTe, KOHTO 51 npaB5IT Ile06xo,ll,HMO rrocorin e aa BCPKH 3aI-lHMaBaUI c e C np06JleMHTe HCl MeTano06pa- 60TB3H(,TO. Karo no.xenauu c MOMeM I\ct KHMeM, ue e 611JIO ,ll,06pe ~IOI-Iorpa(llH5ITa Aa e caarineua c p es.ouera I-Ia lIYLKI\ C3HK, s a na ce IloJl3YBa OT IlO' IliHpOK xp sr cneun aJlH CTII H 'lH ra re.na ,

CTOllH BI1TJ1l1HOB

:-. \ <,t·,~ .~ ~.' ,.

)l{HBOT H TBOplleCTBO, nOCBereHH Ha HCTOpHlleCKaTa HaYKa

(70-rO)],HlllHHHaTa na axan. D,HMHTbP AHreJIOB, qJIeH na DbJIrapCKaTa aKa)],eMH5I na HaYKHTe)

nHMIITbp CHMeoHoB AHreJIOB e poaen aa 2. II. 1917 r. B COcpHlI. 3aBbpmHJI e COCPHMCKHlI yHHBepCIlTeT "KJIIIMeHT 0 XPU,lI.CKH" CbC cneQllaJIHOCT IICTOPlIll II KJIaCHLJeCKa CPIlJIOJIOfllll. TIpe3 1940-1943 r. e cneQllaJIII311paJI B I1HcTIITYTa aa BIl3aHTIIMcKa IICTOPlIll B MIOHxeH,

Kb,ll.eTO aaurmuaaa ,lI.OKTOpCKa ,lI.1Iceprauaa aa r en a "BOrOMIIJICTBOTO BbB BII3aHTllll". TIpe3 1944 r. TOM e 1136paH sa aCIICTeHT B'COCPHMCKIIH YHHBepclITeT no IlCTOPlIlI n a BH- 3aHT1I1I. B 1946 r. e 1l36p'aH aa ,lI.OQeHT, a npes 1949 r. - aa nporpecop. Orpopaaaero My KaTO YLJeH e CBbp3aHO C MapKCHCTKOJIeHIIHCKOTO npeYCTpOMCTBO aa 6bJIrapcxara llCTOplILJeCKa HaYKa. B Hero TOM B3eMa ,lI.eM'Ho YLJaCTlle II 1l3paCTBa KaTO e,ll.IIH 01' HaM-BH,lI.HIITe ,6bJIrapCKil YLJeHII llCTOPllQII. TOM ce 1l311BlIBa KaTO YLJeH, ne,ll.aror II opr aaaaarop B 06JIaCTTa n a HaYKaTa. HerOBIlTe JIeKQlllI no IICTOpllll Ha BII3aHTII1I ca OLJaKBaHIl C mrrepec Il rOJIlIMO ?KeJIaI,me 01' CTY,lI.eHTHTe. OCBeH JIeKQHIl no llCTOpna n a BH3aHTHlI n. AHreJIOB

LJeTe JIeKQllH npea 1951-1953 r. no HCTOPHlI n a 6'bJIrapCKaTa ,lI.bpxcaaa H npano B IOpH,lI.HLJeCKHlI cpaKYJITeT, KaTO e HanHCaJI 06lI1, KYPC s a cTY,lI.eHTH npea 1952 r. -Iere JIeKQHH no IlCTOPHlI ua roroCJIaBlIHCKHTe HapO,ll.H, no HCTOPllll n a cpeanonexoaaa Enpona II DO IlCTOPHlI aa PYMbHHlI. Hcroaar a npenoztanare.ncxa p aoor a B YHHaepca'rera Cb,ll.eHCTBYBa aa nonroTOBKaTa na XllJlll,ll.1l 6bJIrapCKH HCTOPHQH - YLJHTeJIll, 06lI1,eCTBeHHQu H

HaYLJHH pa60THHQH. '

nllMHTbp AHreJIOB e 3aeMaJI P'bKOBO,ll.HIl ,lI.JIb)KHOCTH B rn.pnoro II I'IalI-rOJIlIMO ancure YLJe6HO saae,lI.eI-IHe B BbJIrapHlI - COCPHMCKHlI YHHBepcHTeT. TIpe3 1952/1953 r. H npes 1960/1961 r. e 6uJI 3aM.,lI.eKaH n a <PHJIOCOCPCKO-UCTOpHLJeCKHlI cpaKYJlTeT, a npes 1961/1963 r. e 6HJI ,lI.eKaH aa CblIl,HlI cpaKYJITeT. TIpe3 nepaona '!963/1965 r. e pexrop n a I1HcTHTYTa aa LJY)K,lI.ecTpaHHH cTY,lI.eHTH B COcpHlI. 01' 1965,l1.0 1970 r. OTHOBO e ,lI.eKaH na <PllJIOCOCPCKO-HCTOpHLJeCKHlI cjJaKYJITeT. 01' 1971 r. ,lI.Ocera e ,lI.Hpexrop na Apxeo.roruuecxus HHCTHTYT II MY3eM npn BbJIrapCKaTa aKa,ll.eMHlI' n a HaYKIlTe. Orne 01' 1953 r. pa60TH KaTO C'bTPY,lI.HHK B I1CTopllLJeCKHlI llHCTllTYT npn BAH. TIbpBOHaLJaJIHO e PbKOBO,lI.HTeJI ua CeKQHlITa no BH3aHTOJIOrHlI H opHeHTaJIHCTIlKa, a 01' 1965 r. - na Cexnnara no cpennoBeKoBH3 6bJIrapCKa HCTOpHlI. TIpe3 nepnona 1965/1972 r. e 6HJI p sxoBO,ll.IlTeJI na Karenpara no HCTOplllI na BbJIrapHlI B COcjJHMCKHlI YHHnepcnrer. 3a npnuocn B HaYLJHO- 1l3CJIe,ll.OBaTeJICKaTa CH pa60Ta npes 1975 r. e 1136paH sa LJJIeH-KOpecnOH,lI.eHT n a BAH, npcs 1976 r. aa LJJIeH-KOpeCnOH,lI.eHT na CaxcoaCKaTa aKa,ll.eMHlI ua HaYKIlTe, a 01' 1980 r. e LJJIeH iia BbJIrapCKaTa aKa,ll.eMHlI na HaYKIlTe. 01' 1986 r. e ,lI.upeKTop na Llenr-sp a no 6bJIrapncrnxa. 3a 3a6eJIe)KHTeJIHOTO CH HaYLJHO TBOpLJeCTBO B 06JIaCTTa n a acropasecxara HaYKa n. AHreJIOB e ,lI.Ba nbTI! .naypear na nHMUTpOBc~a Harpa,ll.a. TIpH3HaHHe Ha BH,lI.HIlTe 3aCJIYru 1Ia HMeHHTHlI YLJeH

3a pa3BllTHeTo Ha 6bJIrapCKaTa HCTOpllLJeCKa HaYKa ca ,lI.bp)!(aBHHTe

. OTJIHLJHlI - op,ll.eH "KI!PHJI II MeTO,ll.HM" I crcncn , ,,4epBeHo 3HaMe n a TPY,lI.a"., 3BaHHeTO .Haponen ,lI.ellTeJI aa HaYKaTa" H ,lI.p.

MHOrOJII!Ka e ,lI.eMI-IOCTTa n a

n. AHreJIOB. TOM e npcncenaren ua HaQHOHaJIHllll KOMIlTeT n a BH3aHTHHHCTHTe B BbJIrapllll, aax.vnpcncenaren a a Me)K,lI.YHap0,ll.HaTa acoQHaQHlI na BIT3aHTIIHHCTIlTe, cute 01' 1961 r. e 3aM.-Dpe,ll.ce,ll.aTeJI a a HaQlloHaJIHHlI KOMIITeT na IICTOPUQIlTe. LIJIeH e na Me)K,lI.YHapO,ll.HaTa YHUlI no CJIaBlIHCKa ap xeoaoru a (MYCA). rJIaBeH pcnatcrop e n a CD. "ApxeoJIorUlI" U ua err. "Bu- 3aHTIlH06YJlrapUKa", LJJleH ua pe,lI.3KJ(UOHHaTa xo.rernu ua BbJIrapCKO ncrcpuuecxo cnacaune H LJJIeH na rJIaBHaTa penaxuaa n a MHoroTOMHaTa "I1CTOPllll aa BbJlrapulI". YLJaCTBYBaJI e B MHoro Me)K,lI.YHaPO,ll.HH xonrpeca, KOHcpepeHQHH Il CHMD03UYMH - BH3aHTOJIO)KKH, apXeOJIOrIlLJeCKU, 06lI1,OHCTOpHLJeCKU, 6aJIKaHHCTHLJHI! Il CJIaBIlCTHLJHH. H3- HaClIJI e JIeICQHH B MocKBa, Bopoaexc, PllM, JIaMnQHr, neJIXH, HIOMOPK, TOKllO, Bynauema, BepJIUH H ,lI.p. B n aiuar a crpan a TO}I e OLJaKBaH H )KeJIaH JleKTOp BbPXY np06JIeMHTe ua 6bJIrapCKOTO MHHaJIO 01' cpenaonexoanero. HaBClIKb,ll.e n. AHreJIOB ,lI.OCTOMHO e npeaCTaBlIJI 6bJIrapCKaTa HCTOplltIeCKa HaYKa.

Pa3Ho06pa3HO H 60raTO no CBOeTO Cb,ll.'bp)KaHHe H HaYLJHH npHHOCH e HCTOplltIeCKOTO TBOpLJeCTBO Ha n. AHreJIOB. HaY'IHOH3CJIe,ll.OBaTeJICKHTe My 3aHilMaHIl1l 06XBaIlJ,aT HlIKOJIKO 06J1aCTH' Ha 6bJIrapCKaTa Cpe,ll.HOBeKOBHa HCTOpHlI.

Ha rn.pno MlICTO ca rtpoyrmaHllllTa BbPXY COQllaJIHO-HKOHOMHtIeCKaTa HCTOPHlI ua BbJIraplHI npes nepnona VII-XIV B. B Te3H H3CJIe,ll.BaHllll BHHMaHl!eTO e a acoLJeHO ICbM npoaaxo aa, xapaxrep a , oc06eHOCTl!Te l! paaaaruero aa rpeo,lI.aJIHl!Te OTHOmeHl!lI H n pcncraaJIlIBaT npanocnn pa3pa60TKH KbM BbnpOCHTe ua cjJeoAaJIHaTa peura, nOJIO)KeHHe-ro na 3aBl!CHMOTO CeJICKO uaceneuue, xarerop mrre 3aBHCHMH

69

CeJ,IHHH, CTaTYTa aa .' q,eO.n;aJlHaTa xnaca, q,eO.n;a.fIHHTe HMYHHTeTH H np.!

Oc06eHO MHCTO B Ta3H 06J1aCT saeaar pa3pa60TKHTe sa pa3BHTHeTO aa npOH3BO.n;HTeJlHHTe CHJlH B 6'bJlrapCKOTO 06meCTBO, sa xapaxTepa na CeJlCKOTO CTonaHCTBO, aaHaHTHTe H T'bprOBHHTa. Ta3H rpyna H3CJle.n;BaHHH ca npHHOC B HCTOpHHTa aa HKOHOMHKaTa aa cpennoBeKOBHa B'bJirapHH, enaa 06J1aCT C'bBCeM OTK'bCJleqHO paspatioraaaa OT yseaare AO COf(HaJIHCTHqeCKaTa peBOJIIOf(HH. OCHOBeH TPY.n; TYK e enao CHCTeMHO H3J10.lKeHHe B'bpXY HKOHOMHqeCKOTO pa3BHTHe aa TI'bPnara H Bropara 6'bJlrapCKa .n;'bp.lKaBa, crrrevaraa npes 1969 r.2 Cnenuaaao H3CJle,l(BaHe e aanpaBeHO Ha Cpe,l(HOBeKOBHHH rpa,l(, K'b,l(eTO 3a np'bB n'bT ca nOCTaBeHH penaua np06J1eMH aa rpana KaTO COf(HaJiHO-HKOHOMH'leCKa xareroPHHS• C Hero e nonpaaeceao sa H3yqaBaHe HKOHOMHqeCKOTO pa3BHTHe H COf(HaJiHaTa crpyxrypa na B'bJIrapHH npes XIII-XIV B. A HHKOH B'bnpOCH na HKOHOMH'leCKOTO pa3BHTHe ca ny6J1HKYBaHH B Ha'laJlOTO Ha HaY'lHaTa ,l(eHHOcT Ha .It AHreJlOB4•

.llpyra rpyna B'bnpOCH, CB'bP- 3aHH c ' ,l('bJl6oKHTe o6mecTBeHoHKOHOMH'leCKH H nOJlHTH'leCKH rrponecn H8 6'bJlrapcKoTo cpenaoseKOBHO oemecrso, KOHTO aenpexscHaTO ca 3aHHMaBaJIH yqeHHH, ca B'bnpOCHTe na KJIaCOBaTa 60p6a. Te ca 6HJIH npe.n;MeT aa penaua Hay'lHH H HaY'lHOnonYJIHpHH ny6- JIHKaf(HJf5• fOJIHMO BHHMaHHe e OT,l(eJIeHO 3a npoy'lBaHe KJIaCOBaTa 60p6a B HeHHaTa H,l(eOJIOrH'leCKa q,opMa. I'aasea TPY,l(, nOCBeTeH aa Te3H H3CJIe,l(BaHHH, e "BoroMHJICTBOTO B B'bJirapHH"6, eaaa KHHra, ,l(OHeCJIa CBeTOBHa H3BeCTHOCT aa 6'bJIrapCKHH ysea. B HeH ca npoCJIe,l(eHH nO,l(p06HO HaH-Harrpe.n; H3- BOpJlTe aa 60rOMHJICTBOTO, CJIe,l( TOBa e nanpaaea aHaJIH3 aa B'bTpeWHHTe. COf(HaJIHO-HK6aOMH'leCKH H nOJlHTH'leCKH npennocraaaa, C'b3- ,l(aJiH YCJIOBHH sa nOHBaTa aa 60- rOMHJlCTBOTO. Paaraeacaa ce 06- CTOHHO H,l(eOJIOrHHTa, opraHH3af(HHTa H HCTopHHTa Ha TOBa Y'leHHe H .llBH.lKeHHe B. B'bJirapHR H 6'bJIrapcxare 3eMH rrpea X-XIV B. Hanpasen e 06cToeH nperaen ua BJIHlIHHeTO aa 60rOMHJICKOTO ysenae B BaJIKaHCKHlI rrOJIyocTPOB H npyrare crpaaa, Ha 60roMHJICTBOTO .ll. AHreJIOB e nOCBeTHJI rOJIHMa 'laCT OT BpeMeTO H CHJlHTe CH. TOH ce 3aHHMaBa C Te3H B1>npOCH ome OT 1939 r. Bspxy pa3- JlH'lHH CTpaHH na ,l(BH.lKeHHeTO aa 60rOMHJIHTe ca 06Hapo,l(BaHH penaua CTY,l(HH H cTaTHH7• BHHMaHHeTO My aa y'leH C anrepec H OTHoweHHe K'bM no-rrsaao ooxaamaae H.lleOJIOrH'lHHTe 60p6H B ToraB8WHOTO 6'bJIrapcxo o6mecTBo e npHBJIe'leHO H OT .llPyrH COf(HaJiHO-peJIHrH03HH .llBH.lKeHHlI B B'bJirapHlI npea cpenaoaeKOBHaTa enoxa - HCHXa3'bM, BapJlaaMHTCTBO, a,l(aMHTCTBO H np.8

70

.llpyr Kp'br OT B1>rrpOCH, KOHTO 3aHHMaBaT .ll. AHreJlOB, ce OTHaCHT ,l(0 C'b3,l(aBaHeTO H pa3BHTHeTo na cpe.n;HOBeKOBHaTa 6'bJlrapCKa ,l('bp.lKaBa, aa xapaxrepa aa HeHHHTe nOJIHTHqeCKH, npaBHH H COnHaJlHH HHCTHTYTH. fJIaBeH Tpy.ll B'bB BP'b3- xa C THX e "YlCTOPHH na 6'bJIrapCKaTa .n;'bp.lKaBa H rrpano", KORTO no csmaaara CH e rrspaara MapKCH'leCKa HCTOPHH Y Hac no T03H B'brrpoc9. TIO-K'bCHO B C'baBTOpCTBO ca pa3pa60TeHH B'bnpOCHTe na q,eo.n;aJlHOTO npaso-".

He oresraa OT i3HHM8HHeTO aa .ll. AHreJJoB H TaK'bB 3Ha'lHM npoeJ1eM, KaK'bBTO e HapOJJ;HOCTTa. CJie.n; HHKOJIKO rrpenaaparenna CTaTHH B'bpXy 06pa3YBaHeTo H xapaKTepa aa 6'bJIrapCKaTa napoaaocr B pe- 3YJITaT aa rrpo.n;'bJl.lKHTeJlHH H3CJle,l(BaHHH e 06HapO,l(BaHa HHTepecHaTa H C rOJleMH Hay'lHH npHHOCH MOHOrpaq,HII, nOCBeTeHa aa 06pa3YBaHeTO aa 6'bJIrapCKaTa HapO}lHOCTll• HaH-C'bmeCTBeHOTO B T03H Tpy.n; e, ne HapO,l(HOCTTa e H3CJIe,l(BaHa rrpa H3rrOJI3YBaHeTO aa pasaopo,l(eH MaTepHaJi - nHCMeHH H3BeCTHlI, ,l(aHHH aa apXeOJIOrHIITa, aa JlHHrBHCTHKaTa, TorroHHMHIITa, eraorpadiaara, aHTpOrrOJIOrHlITa. .Teoperasecxa nHJIOCTHO e H3HCHeHa HapO,l(HOCTTa KaTO onpeaenes BH,l( HCTOpH'leCKa xareropaa C'bC CBOH Cnef(Hq,H'lHH 6eJIe3H (06m: e3HK, orrpeaeaeaa MaTepHaJIHa H ,l(YXOBHa KyJlTypa, HapO.llHOCTHO CaMOC'b3- HaHHe). B pa3BHTHe e npocaeaeaa naponooepaayaaurara crpyxrypa, KaTO nO.llp06HO ca rrOKa3aHH ,l(BeTe H3HBHJIH ce CTpaHH B T03H npouec Y Hac - aCHMHJIaf(HOHeH H 06e,l(HHHTeJJeH. TIoCO'leHH ca OCHOBHHTe q,aKTopH, KOHTO ca C'b,l(eHCTBYBaJiH 3a 06pa3YBaHe H pa3BHTHe . Ha 6'bJlrapCKaTa HapO,l(HOCT. Ilpeueaen e OTHOCHTeJIHHHT ,l(HJI na TpHTe rJIaBHH eTHH'leCKH C1tCTaBKH - cmiBHHH,. rrpa6'bJIrapH H TpaKH --:- H ca H3HCHeHH TepHTOpHaJIHHTe paMKH, B KOHTO ce q,opMHpa B xpas sa IX H HaqaJIOTO aa X BeK 6'bJIrapCKaTa aapoaaocr (B 06J1aCTHTe MH3HH, TpaKHH H MaKe,l(oHHH). Ilonxepraaa e 3Ha'lHTeJIHaTa YCTOHqHBOCT aa "HapO,l(aocrra", KOHTO MO.lKe na ce pa3BHBa H C1tm:ecTBYBa ,l(OpH npa aancara na cB060.llHa ,l('bp.lKaBa, KaKTO noKa3Ba HCTopHHTa aa 6'bJIrapCKHH HapO,l( rro BpeMe Ha BH3aHTHHcKOTO BJIa,l(H'leCTBO H ocoeeao no spexe aa OCMaHCKOTO aro. Pasraeaaa e B'bnpOC'bT sa HapO,l(HOCTHOTO HMe' ,,6'bJIrapH" H aa ceoeoepasaara eBOJllOnHlI, KOHTO TO e rrperspnsao npes nepaona VII-X B.

B'bHWHOnOJIHTH'leCKHTe C'b6H-

THH B cpe,l(HOBeKOBHa B'bJIrapHH ca 6HJIH rrpezxer aa HaY'lHOH3CJle,l(OBaTeJICKaTa paeora na .ll. AHreJlOB. TOH npaaa npoyssaana, sacsr ama 6'bJIrapO-BH3aHTHHCKHTe OTHOweHHH npes nepaona 1331- 1341 r.12 TIo C'bmeCTBO TOBa ca noaese nO.llp06HOCTH aa ace onre MaJiKO n03HaTH crpaaa OT nsumaara nonaraxa aa BTOPOTO 6'bJIrapCKO

napCTBO. OnHpaHKH ce aa HOBH H3BOPOBH QHCMeHH ,l(aHHH, npe.llHMHO OT BH3aHTHHCKH H 3ana,l(eH npOH3XO,l(, pasraescta ynoparara C'bnpOTHBa aa ~aUIHH aapon nporas HaUIeCTBHeTO HaOCMaHCKHTe TYPf(H, KaKTO H Te.lKKHTe nOCJIe,l(Hf(H OT OCMaHCKOTO zro npes XIV-XV B.13 B3aHMooTHoUIeHHHTa Ha cpe,l(HoBeKOBHa B'bJirapHH C'bC C'bCe.n;HHTe crpaaa - BH3aHTHH, C'bp6HH H PYM'bHHH, C B3aHMHHTe BJlHlIHHH B 06JIaCTTa aa KYJITypaTa, aa nOJIHTH'leCKHTe H COnHaJlHH HHcTHTynHH ca npeaxer aa penaua npoyqBaHHH14•

KHpHJIO-MeTO,l(HeBCKaTa rexa B HaY'lHO-HCTOpHqeCKOTO TBOp'leCTBO aa .ll. AHreJIOB saexa TB'bp,l(e Ba.lKHO MHCTO. K'bM Ta3H np06J1eMaTHKa ce OTHaCHT B'bnpOCHTe Ha nOKp'bCTBaHeTO aa 6'bJirapHTe, ,l(eJIOTO aa KHPHJI H MeTO.llHH H B'baescnaaero aa CJIaBlIHCKaTa nHCMeHOCT H KYJlTypHOTO pa3BHTHe. THx TOB pa3rJIe.lK.lla B THCHa apsaxa C 06mecTBeHo-HKOHOMH'leCKOTO H nOJIHTH'leCKO pa3BHTHe na B'bJIraPHlI npea aropara nOJIOBHHa aa IX B., KaKTO H B1tB ap saxa C npouecare na q,OPMHEaHeTO aa 6'bJirapCKaTa HapO,l(HOCT 5.

BH,l(eH Cnef(HaJlHCT BH3aHTOJIOr, Ii, AHreJIOB e aarop aa enaa TpHTOMHa HCTOPHH aa BH3aHTHHcKaTa nxnepaa (313-1453)16. TlI npenCTaBJIlIBa CHCTeMHO H f(HJIOCTHO H3JIO.lKeHHe H8 COf(HaJIHO-HKOHOMH'leCKOTO, nOJIHTH'leCKOTO H KYJlTypHO pa3BHTHe aa BH3aHTHlI. Onpeaeaea npaaocea xapaxrep B 06JIaCTTa Ha BH3aHTOJIOrHHTa HMaT penana TpY,l(oBe aa .ll. AHreJJoB17•

Yl3KJIIO'lHTeJJHO np0,l(yKTHBeH

ysea, n. AHreJIOB npes nOCJIe,l(HO apeae ce HaCO'lH K'bM paspaeoraane na np06JIeMH aa 'lOBeKa, onmeCTBOTO, 06m:ecTBeHaTa MHC"bJI H np., OC'LmecTBeHH B neHHH "Tpy.llOBe. . MOHorpaq,UlITa My ,,06m:eCTBO H Q611lecTBeH8 MHC'bJI B. cpe,l(HOBeKOBHa B"bJIrapHII (X-XIV B.)" e ,l('bJI60KO BHHKBaHe II .llYUIeBHocTTa, MHpOrJIe,l(a H H.lleOJIOrHlITa na 6'bJirapHHa B cpenaare BeKoBeI8• B npyra MOHorpaq,HH - "B'bJlraPHH'bT B cpe,l(HOBeKOBHeTo (CBeTOr JIe,l(, H.lleOJlOrHH, ,l(yweBHOCT)"I9, npoq,. AHreJIOB C 60raTa H3BopoBa onopa npH OCHOBHHTe nOCTaHOBKH H MHorocTpaHHa 060cHoBKa pasKpHBa qOBeKa B 6'bJIrapCKOTO cpennoBeKOBHO oenrecrso. BH.lK.n;aMe eaaa UIHpoKa KapTHHa aa npeacraaare MY sa BCeJIeHaTa, sa caMHH 'lOBeK, sa BJIaCTTa H nO,l('lHHeHHeTO, 60- raTCTBOTO H6e,l(HOCTTa, xYMaHH3Ma, naTpHOTH3Ma if np, Te3H MOHOrpaq,HH ca npe,l(WeCTBYBaHH OT 06- HapO,l(BaHH CTaTHH H CTY,l(HH B cnacaaus H C60PHHf(H20.

n. AHreJIOB e Y'laCTBYBaJI ,l(eIiHO KaTO aarop H penaxrop B xoaexTIIB~H rpynoae II C60PHIlf(II. B MHorOTOMHa "YlCTOPHlI aa B'bJlrapaa", TOM II II TOM III e p3pa60THJI: ,,06pa3YBaHe aa 6'bnrapCKaTa naP0,l(HOCT", "ct>opMllpaHe II pa3BHTHe aa q,eo,l(aJIHHTe OTHoweHIIH rrpes IX-XI H XIII-XIV B.", "YlKO-

HOMHqeCKOTO pa3BHTHe npea IXXI H XIII-XIV B." ,JhplKaBHO H a.ll.MHHHCTpaTHBHO YCTPOHCTBO na D'bJIrapHSl npes IX-X B.", "DOrOMHJlCTBOTO npes X B.", ;,.IlYXOBaa KYJITypa. aa rrspsara 6'bJIrapCKa .lI.'bplKaBa (IX-XI B.)", ".IlYXOBHa xyarypa no apexe aa BH3aHTHHCKOTO BJI8JJ.HqeCTBO (XI...:-XII B.)", "D'bJIrapHSl no spexe aa IIIHwMaHOBUH H aaananaaanero it OT OCMaHUHTe", "I1.l1.eeH lKHBOT B 6'bJIrapCKOTO 06IUeCTBO npes X I 11- X IV B." B "HCTOPHIl aa BeJIHKO T'bpHOsO", TOM I aa rzasa qeTB'bpTa ,,06IUeCTBeHa H.lI.eOJIOrHSl H. COUHaJIHO-peJIHrH03HH .lI,BHlKeHHII". B C60pHHKa "BeJIHKO T'bPHOBO npea aexosere" e aBTOp aa CTaTHIITa "B'bCTaHHeTo na I1saHJlO"; B c60PHHK8 "BeJJH-

TpY~OBe no npo6neMH

1 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il, Arpapaare OTHoweHHSl B Ceaepaaia : Cpeaaa MaKe.ll,OHHSl rrpea XIV 11. C., 1958. 256 C.; C'bIUHIIT: clIeo.ll,aJIH3M'bT a D'bJIrapHSI. -HCTOPHqecKH nperJIe.ll.. III, 1946/1947, 2, 217...:-232; C'bIUHSlT: B1.npOCH aa !jJeO.ll.aJIH3Ma a 61.JIrapCKHTe 3eMH npes X II IX IV B. - I1cTOpHqeCKH nperaen, XVI, 1960, 6, 61-90; csumar: npHHOC K'bM n03eMJleHHTe H aaponHOCTHH OTHoweHHSl B MaKe.ll.oHHII (EnHpcKH necnorar) npea rrspsara seraspr aa X II I B. - 113BecTHII aa Kaxapara na aapoaaara KYJITypa, IV, 3, C., 1947, c. 6 H CJI.; C'bIUHIIT: 3a 3aBHCHMOTO HaCeJIeHHe B MaKe.ll.OHHSl rrpea X IV B.. - I1cTOpHqeCKH nperaen, XIII, 1957, 1, 30-66; C'bIUHIIT: POCT H CTPYKrypa xpynaoro MOHaCTblpcKOro 3eMeBJIa.ll.eHHSI B CeBepHOHH Cpeaaea MaKe.ll,OHHH B X IV B. - BH3aHTHiicKHH BpeMeHHHK. T. 11. M., 1956, 135-162; C'blliHIIT: K'bM B'bnpoca 3a n03eMJIeHHTe OTHoweHHH B cpenaoaexoaaara 6aJlKaHCKa asplKaBa. - I1cTOpHqeCKH nperaen I, 1945, 4, 285-298.

2 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il. I1KoHoMHKa aa D'bJIrapHSl Ao COUHaJlHcTHqeCKaTa peBOJIIOIlHH. T. 1. C., 1969, 47-148.

3 A H r e JI 0 a, .Il. K'bM B'bnpoca aa cpe.ll.HOBeKOBHHII 6'bJIrapcxa rp8JJ.. - Apxeoaoras, II, 1960, 3, 9-22.

4 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il, npHXO)!'H na Cpe.ll,HOBeKOBHaTa 6'bJIrapCKa .lI,'bplKaBa. - I1CTOPHqecKH nperaen II, 1945/1946, 4-5, 385-411; C'bIUHIIT: Ilcasnpoca sa CTonaHCKHSl 06JIHK na 6'hJIrapCKHTe 3eMH npes XI-XIV B. - I1cTOpHqeCKH nperJIe.ll" VII, 1950/1951, KH. 4-5, 426-442.

& A H r e JI 0 B, .Il. I1BaHJIO.

C., 1954. 72 C.; C'hIUHIIT: npe3- BHTep K03Ma H 6ece,n:aTa My npOTHB 60rOMHJIHTe.C., 1948. 72 C.; csIUHIIT: AnoKpH!jJHaTa KHHlKHHHa KaTO orpaaceaae aa !jJeO.ll,aJIHaTa .lI,eiiCTBHTeJlHOCT H CBeTOrJIe)!,a aa eKCnJIOaTHpaHaTa KJIaCa B Cpe)lHOBeKOBHa D1.JIrapHII. - I1cToPHqeCKH nperaea VII, 1949/1950, KH. 4-5, 493-518; C'hIUHIIT: CBe-

qHeTO na T'hpHOBrpa.ii." e aarop aa MaTepHaJIHTe.: "B'bCTaHHeTo aa AceHOBUH n oCB060lK.lI,aBaHeTQ aa D'bJIrapas OT BH3aHTHHcKO BJI8JJ.HQe:

CTBO" , .. MeMOpHaJIHaTa Tpa)lHUHII B DOPHJIOBHIICHHO)!,HK", .. OTeqeCTBO" - CMHC'bJI .H c~)!,'bplKaHHe B Cpe.ll,HOBeKOBHaTa 6'bJIrapCKa KHHlKHHHa" H )!,p.

C aarepec H osaxaaae ca CJIyuranu HerOBHTe ny6JIHqHH JIe~II.HH H 6ece)!,H C HayqeH H HayqHOnonYJISlpeH xapaKTep OT yqeHH, yqHTeJIH, 'yqalUH H rpalK.ll.aHH OT uanara crpaaa.

HayqHoH3cJIe)!,oBaTeJICKaTaa pa- 60Ta aa .Il, AHreJIOB ce OTJlHqaBa C MHorocTpaHeH II urapoxooexaaTeH norJIe)!, K'bM H3yqaBaHHTe HCTOpHqeCKH C'b6HTHII H npoueca. To

TOrJle.ll,'bT aa rocnoncrnyaamara xnaca B cpe)!,HOBeKOBHa D'hJlrapHlI, OTpa3eH B lKHTHHHaTa JlHTepaTypa. - 113BecTHSl Ha I1HcTHTYTa no 6'bJlrapCKa HCTOPHlI, 1964, 4, 263-294; C'hlliHIIT: AHTH!jJeo)!,aJIHH )!,BHlKeHHlI B TpaKHII H MaKe.ll,OHHlI npea cpenara aa X IV B. - I1CTOpHqeCKH nperaea VIII,1951, KH. 4 -5, 439-456.

6 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il. DOrOMHJI-

CTBOTO B B'hJlrapHII. I H3)!,aHHe. C., 1947, npeseneaa aa pycxa e3HK npes 1954; I I H3.l1,aHHe (OCHOBHO npepaeoreao). C., 1961. 318 c.; II I H3.l1,8HHe. C., 1969. 528 C.; IV H3.l1,aHHe. 1980. 477 c.

7 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il. BJlHlIHHe

aa qylK.lI,H epeCH asp xy 60rOMHJICTBOTO. - 113BecTHli Ha ceMHHapHTe npa HCTOPHKO-!jJHJloJlOrHqeCKHSl !jJaKYJlTeT na YHHBepCHTeTa "KJIHMeHT OXPH.lI,CKH". C., 1, 1942, 145-180; csuiaar: cI>HJlOCo!jJCKHTe B'b3rJIe)lH aa 60rOMHJIHTe. - 113- BeCTHH aa I1HcTHTYTa aa 6'birapCKa HCTOpHH. T. 3-4, 1951, 113- 134; csumar: npOH3XO.ll, H C'bIUHOCT Ha 60rOMHJICTBOTO. - ¥qHJlHlUeH nperaea 1945, KH. 3-4, 201- 226; csmaar: 06llieqeJlOBeqeCKHe H COUH8J1liHble 3J1eMeHTbI a 60roMHJlbCKOM yqeHHH. C., 1946; csIUIUIT: Nouvelles donnees sur le bogomilisme dans Ie .Synodlkon de I'orthodoxie''. - Byzantinobulgarica, 1969, III, 9-21; C'blliHIIT: Der Bogomilismus auf dem Gebiete des byzantinisches Reichen-Ursprung, Wesen und Geschichte. - fO)!,HWHHK na Co-

!jJHHCKHII YHHBepcHTeT, XLIV,

1947/1948, c. 172, XLVI, 1949/

1950, I-57; C'bIUHlIT: L'influence du bogomilisme sur 1es Cathares d'Italie et de France. - Etudes historiques, IV, 1968, 175- 190; C'blliHHT. Der Bogomilismus in Bulgarien. - Bulgarian Historical .Review, III, 1975, 2, 39-54.

8 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il. K'hM HCTOpHHTa na peJIHrH03Ho-!jJHJIOco!jJcKara MHC'bJI B Cpe.ll,HOBeKOBHa B'bJIrapHII - HCHXa3'bM H BapJlaaMHTCTBO. - 113BecTHII aa D'hJIrapCKOTo HCTOpHqeCKO npyacecrso, 1967,

e pe3YJlTaT aa' roasxara My epy - )lHII.HlI H YMeHHeTO My )!,a H3nOJlsyaa pa3Ho06pa3HH H3BOpOBH .lI,aHHH - HCTopHqeCKH, apXeOJIOfHqeCKH, JlHHrBHCTHqHH, H8p0.ll,onCHXOJlOrHqHH H np, Hapea C TOBa TOH BHHKBa B )!,'bJI60KaTa csumaa aa HCTOpHqeCKOTO P83BHTHe. HHTepecysa ro He caMO HCTopHHTa, HO H TeopHIITa. TBOpqeCTBOTO My C BcenpH3HaTHTe H8yqHH npHHOCH aaeMaBH)!,HO MliCTO B poaaara HCTOpasecxa aayxa. 06eMHCTaTa My llayqHa np0.ll.YKUHlI xpacaopesaso nOK83Ba KOJIKO e nJlO.ll.OBHT HaWHlIT 6eJIelKHT 6'hJlrapCKH yqeH .IlHMHTOp AHreJIOB. Hexa TPY)!,OJII06HeTO My H rOJIeMHSlT naysen TaJiaHT C'b3- narar ome HOBH TBOp6H B nOJleTO na HCTqpHqeCKaTa HaYKa.

XXV, 73-92; C'bIUHlIT: HCTOPHli ua <j)HJIOco<j)cKaTa MHC'bJi B D'bJIrapHII.

T. 1. C., 1970, 75-91.

9 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il. HCTOPHII ua 6'bJIrapCKaTa .lI,'bplKaBa H npaso. C., 1951. 212 c.

10 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il. H M. A H.lI. pee B. HCTOPHH na 6'bJlrapCKaTa <j)eO.ll,aJIHa .lI.'bplKaBa H npaso, rrspao H3)!,aHHe, 1955, BTOpO H3.l1,aHHe 1959, npeaeneao na PYCKH e3HK npea 1962, TpeTO H3.l1.aHHe 1968 H xeTB'bWO, 1972.

1 A H r e JI 0 a, .Il. OdpasyBaHeTO aa 6'hJIrapCKaTa aapoaaocr. c., 1971. 416 c. MOHorpa<j)HHTa e npenurecrayaaaa OT npeasapureaaa ny6J1HKaUHH: La formation de la nationallte bulgare. - Etudes balkaniques, 1969, 4, 14'--37; C'hIUHIIT: B'b3HHKBaHe H YTB'bplKnaaaae aa 6'hJlfapCKaTa aaponaocr. - HCTOpHqeCKH nperaea, XXVII, 1971, KH. 2, 35-63; cJle.[t MOHOrpa!jJHlITa ca ny6JIHKYBaHH CTaTHH.Te: "Quelques problemes de la nationalite bulgare au IXe-Xc s. La langue et la conscience." - Byzantinobulgarica, 1973, IV, 9-20, H "Formation and Development of the Bulgarian N ationality", - Bulgarian Historical Review, 1973, I, 49-64.

12 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il. D'bJirapoBH3aHTHiicKH OTHoweHHSl npes nepHo)!,a 1331--1341 OT uapYBaHeTo aa HBaH AJIeKCaH.lI.'bp. - BoeanoHCTOpHqeCKH C60PHHK, 1973,KH. 1, 34-53.

13 A H re JI 0 B, .Il. Bopeara ua 6'bJIrapCKHSl aapon npOTHB OCMaHCKaTa BJIaCT npea nspsara nOJI'OBHHa aa XV B. H nOXO.ll.HTe aa BJIa.ll.HCJIaB BapHeHqHK. - C60PHHK .Bapaa", 1967. 45 C.; C'blUHIIT: TypCKOTO aaaoesaaae H 60p6aTa aa 6aJlKaHCKHTe napona nporas aaweCTBeHHUHTe. - HCTOpHqeCKH nperaen, I X, 1953, KH. 4, 374- 398; csuraar: Certains' aspects de l a conquete des peuples balkaniques par les Turcs. - Byzantinoslavica XVII, 1956. 45 p.

14 A H r e JI 0 B, .Il, BH3aHTHHCKH BJlHIIHHlI B'bpXy Cpe.ll,HOBeKOBHa D'bJlrapHli. - HCTOpHqeCKH nperrJl e.ll , IV, 1948, KH. 4-5, 401-

71

416, V, 1949, KH. 4-5, 587- 601; C'bIUHHT: Die gegenseitigen Beziehungen und Einflusse zwischer Byzans und dem Mittelalterlichen Bulgsrien. - Byzantinosiavica, XX, I, 1959, 40- 49; C'bIUHHT Mero~bl BH3aHTHHCKOB ~HnJlOMaTHH B OTHomeHHHX· BOJIrapHH no .lIaHHbIM nHCeM KOHCTaHTHHOnOJIbCKOrO narpaapxa HHKOJIaH MHCTHKa. - Bonpoca HCTOpHH C1IaBHH. T. 1. BOpOHe.lK, 1963, 60-68; C'bIUHHT: Par allele in der sozialwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung Bulgariens und Serbiens im Mittelalter. - Etudes histori~ues, VI, Sofia, 1973, 29-36.

1 A H r e JI 0 B, )1,. no HllKOH B'brrpOCH OKOJIO nOKp'bCTBaHeTO Ha 6'bJIrapHTe. - HCTOPH'IecKH nperJIe.ll, XXI, 1965, 6, 38-57; C'bIUHHT: KHPHJI H MeTO.llHli H BH- 3aHTHAcKaTa KyJITypa H rrOJIHTHKa. - C60PHHK XHJIH.lIa H CTO rO~HHH CJIaBHHCKa rrHCMeHOCT. C., 1963, 51-69; C'bIUHHT: KHPHJI H Mem.lIHA B Cpe,lUIOBeKOBHaTa 6'bJIrapCKa KHH.lKHHHa. - Apxeoaorns, V, 1963, KH. 3, 13-22; C'bIUHHT: )1,eJIOTO Ha CJIaBllHCKHTe npocBeTHTeJIH. - C60pHHK B'bJIrapHH H 6'bJIrapHH'bT. C., 1968, c. 23 CJI.; C'bIUHHT: B'bJIrapCK8Ta HapO.llHOCT H .lIeJIOTO Ha KJIHMeHT OXPH.ll:CKH. - C60pHHK KJIHMeHT OXPH.lICKH. C., 1966, 7-24; C'bIUHHT: B'bJIrapcKaTa .lI'bp.lKaBa H CJIaBHHCKaTa nHCMeHOCT H KyJITypa. - C60PHHK KOHcTaHTHH-KHPHJI 4>HJIOCrnp, no CJIy'HiA 11 00 rO.ll:HHH OT CM'bpTTa MY. C., 1969, 5-15.

16 A H r e JI 0 B, )1,. HCTOPHH aa BH3aHTHH, rrspaa '1aCT (393-867). C., 1963, 1976, nrecro naaaaae, sropa '1aCT (867-1204), 1974, '1eTB'bPTO Ha.llaHHe H TpeTa 'IaCT (1204-1453), 1976, nero asnanae.

17 A H r e JI 0 B, )1,. K'bM BD-

rrpoca sa aaponaocraare H rroaexJIeHH OTHomeHHH B MaKe.llOHHH rrpes rrspaara '1eTB'bpT sa X II B. C., 1948; C'bIUHHT 4>eo~aJIHaM'bT B'bB BH3aHTHH. - HCTOpH'IeCKH nperrJIe.ll:, III, 1946/1947. 2, 217- 232; C'bIUHllT: npHHOC K'bM n03eMJIeHHTe OTHomeHHH B'bB BH3aHTHH npes XIII B. - fO.ll:HmHHK aa crnpHlicKHH YHHBepcHTeT, 4>HJIOCrnpCKO-HCTOpH'IeCKH cJ>aKYJITeT, II, 1952, c. 19 CJI.; C'bIUHHT: K BOnpocy 0 npaBHTeJIHX cJ>eM B 3nHpCKOM .lIecrrOTaTe H HHKei!:cKoli HMnepan. - Byzantinoslavica, XII, 1951, c. 61 CJI.; C'bIUHHT: POJISITa aa BH3'3HTHicKHllHMnepaTOp B npaeopaaaaaaaero. -: fOC.ll:HmHHK aa CotJmiiCKHSI YHHBepcHTeT, HeroPHKO-cJ>HJIOJIOrH'IeCKH cJ>aKYJITyeT, XLIf, 1945-1946, 1-84; C'bIUHSlT:

La byzantologie en Bulgarie et ses recentes acquisitions .. - Byzantinobulgarica, I, 1962, 3- 29; C'bIUHHT: K aorrpocy 0 nOJIHTHKe BH3aHTHH H .lIpyrHx 6aJIKaHCKHX rocynapcrs HaKaHYHe rypeuxoro aaBoeBaHHSI (TPY.ll:bl )1,Ba.ll:n;aTb nxroro Me.lK.lIYHap0.llHOrO KOHrpecca BOcTOKOBe.ll:oB). M., 1962,

T. I, c. 451 CJI.; C'bIUH1IT: K BOnpocy 0 ct>oPMHpoBaHHH cJ>eO.ll:aJIbHbIX oraonreaaf B BHaaHTHH. - BH3aHTHlicKHi!: BpeMeHHHK, T. 37, •

1975; C'bIUHHT: Zur Frage des Feudalismus auf dem Balkan im XIII. bis zum XIV. Jahrhundert. - Etudes historiques, 1960, Sofia, 107-131; C'bIUHHT: Byzance et I'El;Irope occidentale. - Etudes historlques, II, 1965, 47-61; C'bI.l{HHT: C'bCTaB H .lIBH.lKeHHe aa HaCeJIeHHeTO B'bB RHaaHTHll npes X 1- X II B. (.lIOKJla.ll: aa Koarpeca na BHsaHTHHHCTHTe B AT1JHa rrpea 1976 r.).

18 A H r e JI 0 B, )1,. 06IUecTBO H ooIUecTBeH8 MHC'bJI B cpeaaoaeKOBHa B'bJIrapHH (X-XI B.). C., 1'979. 306 C.

19 A H r e :n 0 B, )1,. B'bJIrapHH'bT a' Cpe.ll:HOBeKOBHem (CBeTorJIe.ll:, H.lIeoJIOrHH, aynresaocr). Bapaa, 1985. 335 c.

20 An gel 0 v, D. Patrio-

tism in Mediaeval Bulgaria (9th- 14th Centuries). - Bulgarian Historical Review, 1976, 2, 22-45; C'bmHllT: B'bCTaHHem aa MBaHJIo. - B: BeJIHKO T'bPHOBO npea BeKOsere. C., 1982, 72-88; C'bIUHSlT:

B'bCTaHHeTO aa Aceaoaua H OCBO- 60.lK.llaBaHeTo aa B'bJIrapHSI OT BHaaaraacxo BJIa.llH'IeCTBO. - B: BeJIH'IHeTO aa T'bpHOBrp8JI. C., 1985, 35-49; C'bIUHHT: MeM0pHaJIHara Tpa.llHn;HH B BOPHJIOBHH CHHO.ll:HK. - B: BeJIH'IHeTO aa T'bPHOBrp a.ll: , 158-164; C'bIUHHT: "OTe'IecTBO" - CMHC'bJI H c'b.ll'bp.lKaHHe B Cpe.llHOBeKOBHaTa 6'bJIrapCKa KHH.lKHHHa. - B: BeJIH'IHeTO aa T'spnoarpaa, 296-303.

IATAHAC nonoBI

Ilporpecop Feopra HJI. Feopraea H8 70 rO,llHHH

BcenpH3HaTHHT .ll:OaiieH Ha 6~rapcxare npaHCTOpHlJ,H npo4>ecop I'eopra HJI. I'eopraes aaaspnra 70 rO.ll:HHH. Poaea e aa 4 MapT 1917 r. B CeJIO faHTaHeBo, COcJ>HHCKHOKp'br, B 6e.llHO CeJICKO ceMeiiCTBO. BaIUa My sarasa B Il spaara CBeTOBHa Boil:Ha H ToA npexapaa rr'bpBHTe CH Y'leHH'IeCKH rO.llHHH B naHCHOHH 3a cHpan;H OT Boil:HHTe. CPe.ll:HOTO CH 06pa30BaHHe aas'spursa B Flspea M'b.lKKa rHMHa3HH - COcJ>HSI (1935), a BHcmeTO - B Coq>HHCKHlI .lI'bpJK8BeH YflHBepCHTeT ~ HCTOPHH C aropa cneuaaaHOCT reorpaeas (1940). Cne'leJIB8 KOHKypc aa .lI'bp.lKaBHa CTHneH.llHSI, KOHTO My .lIaBa B'b3MO.lKHOCT .lIa Cnen;HaJIH3Hpa npaacropasecxa apxeoaoras B'bB BHeHCXHSI yaaaepCHTeT (1941-1944). TaM rrO.llrOTBSI H3aIUHIUaBa rrpes 1944 r. ~OKTOpCKa .llHcepTan;HSI aa TeMa "M3CJIe.ll.BaHHH3a XpOHOJIOrHSlTa Ha HOBOKaMeHHaTa erroxa B B'bJIrapHsr", sa KOHTO npes 1956 r. My e npacs-

72

.lIell8 HaY'lHaT8 crenes "KaH.lIH.ll:aT aa HcropH'IeCKHTe HayKH".

Ilpes 1945 r. f. MJI. I'eopraea e H83Ha'leH B ApxeoJIOrH'IeCKHH MY3eA - COcJ>HSI (no-K'bCHO ApxeoJIOrH'IeCKH HHCTHTYT C MY3eil: npa BAH). B Hero pa60TH xaro aCHCTeHT (1945-1950), aayseu csTpy.n;HHK (1950-1961) H crapma HaY'IeH C'bTPY.llHHK (1961-1974). n pea 1972 r. e H36paH aa zonear B Coct>HlicKHSI YHHBepCHTeT, a rrpea 1974 r. sa npoeecop no npascropaas AMM (rr'bpBHHT npocJ>ecop no TaSH .lIHCn;HIlJIHH8 B Burapxs). ITpe3 nepaona 1961-1966r. f. HJI. I'eopraes e naysen cexpeTap aa ApxeoJIOrH'IeCKHH HHCTHTyT C MY3eil:, a OT 1965 .llO 1982 r. e P'bKOBO.llHTeJI na CeKUHSlTa aa rrpaacropaa, 4eJI e JIeKn;HH no npaHcTopHll Ha 6'bJIrapCKHTe 3eMH B COcJ>HHCKHll, BeJIHKOT'bPHOBCKHSI H 3aJIu,6yprcKHSI (ABCTpHH) YHHBepCHTeT. OT~eJIHH JIeKn;HH sere B MHoro esponeacxa rpancse,

Me.lK.lIY KOHTO MocKBa, JIeHHHrp8.ll:, KHeB, TCiHJIHCH, Bearpan, 5Im, BepJIHH, XaJIe, )1,pe3.ll:eH, Bepn, Ba3eJI, I..(IOPHX H BHeHa. IlonaCTOHIUeM e XOHopYBaH npopecop B CocJ>HiicKHH YHHBepcHTeT. Ilpeaceaarea e aa Han;uoHaJIHHH KOMHTeT no npaacropas H e 'IJIeH aa nOCTOHHHHSI C'bBeT aa Me.lI<.lIYHapO~HHSI C'bIOa no npancropas H rrpOTOHCTOpHH. Ilpea 1976 r. e H36paH aa '1JIeH aa HTaJIHaHCKHH HHCTHTYT rro npa- H npoTOHcTOPHSI (~JIOpeHn;HJI).

npo!Jt_ Feopraea e Y'lacTBYBaJI B patiorara aa HHKOJIKO peaaxnaOHHH KOJIerHH aa HaY'lHH H3.n;aHHSI. BHJI e 'IJIeH H ceKpeTap Ha pe.ll:KOJIerHllTa aa "I13BecTHSI aa ApxeoJlOrH'IeCKHSI HHCTHTYT"( 1962-1981), 'IJIeH na pe~KOJIerHSlTa aa cn. "Ap" XeOJIOrHR" (1974-1983), 'IJIeH H8 penxoaeraara na ToM: I 0'1' "HcmpHR aa B'bJIrapKSI", raasea peaaxTOp aa 6'bJIrapO-C'bBeTCXaTa" aayuna nopeaaua .. Studia praehisto-

rica" (1978-1986). PbKOBO,Z<HJI e 6 aCIIHpaHTH (Me)K,Z<Y KOHTO H e,Z<HH OT CP BHeTHaM), KOHTO ca 3a~HTHJIH ycneumo KaH,Z<H,Z<aTCKH ,Z<Hcepraumr. BHJI e PbKoBo,Z<HTeJI H n a CbBMeCTHa reua Me)K,Z<Y BAH H r AH aa orrpenensue aa a6coJIIOTHaTa ar.apacr na np ancropnlJeCKHTe KYJITYPH B BbJIrapHH no pa,Z<HoBbrJIepo,Z<HHH MeTO,Z<. OCb~eCTBHJI e HaYlJHOTO PbKOBO,Z<CTBO na HHKOJIKO H3JIO)K6H C rrpaacro pnlJeCKH MaTepHaJIH, opr-anaanp ana OT KOMHTeTa sa KYJITypa H npenHa3HalJeHH aa lJY)K6HHa - CUP, 5InoHHH H cI>pr.

r. HJI. reoprHeB e PbKOBO,Z<HJI apXeOJIOrHlJeCKH p asxonxa na penana npaHCTopHlJeCKH 06eKTH: c. KoJIeHa, Crapoaaropcxn oxp sr (1946),

c. KaJIHHO, IIIYMeHcKH oxpt.r

(1947), c. 3aropUH, CJIHBeHCKH

oxpr.r (1947), c. Kap anono, CJIHBeHCKH oxpt.r (1947-1957), Pyce (1948-1953), c. Ma,Z<apa, IIIYMeHCKH oxpr.r (1954), c. KpeMHKoBUH, CO¢HHCKH oxpt.r (1958-1959), nemepara MopoBHua, J10BewKH OKpr.r (1955), A3MawKa MOrHJIa KpaH CT. 3aropa (H3UHJIO pasxonaaa 1960-1963), c. Esepo, CJIilBeHCKH

oxpsr (6bJIrapO-CbBeTcKa excne-

,Z<HUHH, 1961-1971 r.), Ka3aH-

JIbK (H3UHJIO pasxorrana CeJIH~Ha MOrHJIa, 1967-1971 r.), c. 4aBnap, CO¢HHCKH oxpr.r (H3UHJIO pas-

xorrano CeJIH~e, 1967-1980 r.),

Canapesa 6aHH (1977-1985), H

OTHOBO B c. Kap anoao (6bJIrapOascrpaacxa eKcne,Z<HUHH OT 1984 r.). Orne C rrspaare CH p asxonxn I'eoprnen e H3pa60J'HJI H npHJIO)KHJI nonxonsrua MeTO,Z<HKa aa npoysaaae na MHOrOCJIOl1HH npancropnlJeCKH 06eKTH H ocotieno aa p aaKpHBaHe aa OCTaHKH OT )KHJIH~a. Ilopana rOJIeMHH narepec na cnel{HaJIHCTHTe KbM Ta3H MeTO,Z<HKa TOH e 6HJI KaHeH KaTO KOHCYJITaHT na npaHCTOpHlJeCKH 06eKTH H B lJY)K6HHa - IOrOCJIaBHH, I'r.pnns , H C'bBeTCKHH Cb103. 4Y)K,Z<H apxeo-

10 Ap XeOJIOfHH, 3, 1987

JI03H ca rocTYBaJIH na HerOBH p asKonKH B BbJIrapHH.

Il porp. r. HJI. I'eopraea e y-racTBYBaJI B 25 Me)K,Z<YHapo.nHH KOHrpeca H cHMn03HYMH no npaucropHH, na KOHTO e H3HaCHJI ,Z<OKJIa,Z<H. BCb~HOCT n'bTHT My B rOJIHMaTa HaYKa 3anOlJBa Ha CHMn03HYMa no np06JIeMHTe na HeOJIHTa B Enpona, npOBe,Z<eH B TIpara - J1H6HueBbPHO npes 1959 r. Ha Hero TOll npencrana CTaHaJIHH BnOCJIe.nCTBHe lllHPOKOH3BeCTeH .nOKJIa.n, nOCBeTeH na KYJITypHHTe rpynn npes HeOJIHTa H XaJIKOJIHTa B ,Z<HeWHa IO)KHa BbJIrapHH. CJIe,Z<Ba VII K'OHrpec no npaacrcpna H npOTOHCTOpHH (f1para, 1966), I xonr-pec no 6aJIKaHHCTHKa (CO¢HH, 1966), cHMn03HYM no np06JIeMHTe aa KYJIrypara J1eHrHeJI (HHTpa, 1967), cHMn03HYM no np06JIeMHTe Ha MOnepuara MY3eOJIOrHH (BaHMap, 1967), CHMn03HYM no reopns H MeTO,Z<OJIOrHH na apXeOJIOrHlJeCKaTa HHTepnpeTaUHH (cI>JIarCTa¢, CAm, 1968), cHMn03HYM aa eTHoreHe3Hca Ha ,Z<peBHHTe 6aJIKaHCKH naponn (f1JIOB.nHB, 1969), cHMn03HYM aa nponaxona H XpOHOJIOrHHTa n a 6a,Z<eHcKaTa xynrypa (HHTpa, 1969), II KOJIOKBHYM no er eacxa npaucropns (ATHHa,

1971), VIII xonrpec no npa-

HCTOPHS! H npoToHcTOPHS! (BeJI-

r pan, 1971), I xonrpec no rpaKOJIOrHH (CO¢HH, 1972), CHMn03HYM no npaHCTOpHlJeCKO CKaJIHO H3KYCTBO (Xanxso, 1972), IX xonrpec no npancropas H rrporoHCTOPHH (HHJ'(a, 1976), I II KOJIOKBHYM no ereacxa npancropaa (lIIe¢HJI,Z<, 1977), IV xoar pec no 6aJIKaHHCTHKa (Anxapa, 1979), IV KOJIOKBHYM no erencxa npaacropHS! (lIIe¢HJI,Z<, 1980), III KOil-

rpec no TpaKOJIOrHH (BHeHa,

1980), cHMn03HYM aa r'b PJ'(HH npes XII-IX B. np. H. e. (IlseTbJI, 1980), cHMn03HYM no npo- 6JIeMHTe na KbCH06poH30BaTa enoxa B IOrOH3TOlJHa H Llearpaaaa Espona (TYTUHHr, 1980), XIV xourpec na HCTopHJ'(HTe (BYKYpent, 1980), cHMno3HYM aa nponaxona na HeOJIHTa B IOrOH3TOlJHa Espona (KbOJIH, 1981), CHMno- 3HyM aa npexozia Me)K,Z<y KbCHHS! XaJIKOJIHT H 6poH30BaTa enoxa B IOrOH3TOlJHa Enpona (KcaHTH, 1981), cHMn03HYM aa ,Z<H¢Y3HHTe H MHrpaJ'(HHTe B npaHCTOpHlJeCKaTa enoxa (KcaHTH, 1983), CHMno- 3HyM aa ernoca H neroaara KYJIrypa B npaacropnara (KcaHTH, 1984). Ha BCHlJKH Te3H HaYlJHH cpeum nporp, I'eopr-aes npe,Z<CTaBS! H aI-IaJIH3Hpa Hall-HOBHTe OTKpHTHS! na 6bJIrapCKHTe npancropumr. C TOBa nonpnaacs raspne MHoro sa YTBbp)K,Z<aBaHe na Me)K,Z<YHapo,Z<HHH aBTopHTeT ua 6bJIrapCKaTa apxeoJIOrHlJeCKa HaYKa.

Ilpoo. r. HJI. I'eoprues e aBTOp I-Ia rrosese OT 100 HaYlJHH H HaYlJHOnonYJIHpHH ny6JIHKaJ'(HH B peHoMHpaan 6bJIrapCKH H lJY)K.necTpaHHH crmcanaa, a Cb~O H B aKTHTe na

nOCOlJeHHTe no-rope cHMn03HYMH H KOHrpeCH. B THX TOll pasrneacna BCHlJKH Ba)KHH np06JIeMH Ha npaHCTopHS!Ta n a 6bJIrapCKHTe 3eMH npes VI-II XHJI. rtp. H. e. IlpenCTaBeHOTO nO-Ha,Z<OJIY o606~eHHe B'bpXY HaYlJHHTe My npHHOCH TpH- 6Ba ,Z<a ce pasrvreacna caxo KaTO ornrr B Ta3H HaCOKa.

Ilporp, r. HJI. I'eopr-nes e ,Z<OnpHHeC'bJI H3BbHpe,Z<HO MHoro aa YCbBbpllleHCTBYBaHe aa MeTO,Z<HKaTa sa pasxonaaaue aa CeJIH~HH MOrHJIH, B pe3YJITaT aa KoeTO ca nOJIYlJeHH CHrypHH ,Z<aHHH 3a pa3- BHTHeTO na npaHCTOpHlJeCKaTa MaTepHaJIHa KYJITypa B 6bJIrapCKHTe 3eMH. Oc06eHO l{eHHH ca HerOBHTe pasxomor aa CeJIH~HaTa MOrHJIa B C. KapaHOBO, CJIHBeHCKH oxp'sr , Bb3 OCHOBa na KOHTO TOll e H3- rpa,Z<HJI npes 1959 r. T. Hap. KapaHOBCKa XpOHOJIOrHlJeCKa CHCTeMa. TH 06XBa~a HeOJIHTa, xanKOJIHTa H paHHaTa 6pOH30Ba enoxa B TpaKHH. Ta3H CHCTeMa e 3HalJHTeJIHO nOCTH)KeHHe aa 6bJIrapCKaTa H 6aJIKaHCKaTa npaacropas. ,Uopa3BHTa H norrsnuena. TH e WHPOKO H3nOJI3YBaHa OT 6bJIrapCKH H lJY)K,Z<H cneJ'(HaJIHCTH KaTO eTaJIOH aa H3- TOlJHaTa lJaCT na BaJIKaHCKHH no.'lYOCTpOB. Ilporp. I'eopraea e pasrpaHHlJHJI HeOJIHTHaTa OT XaJIKOJIHTHaTa enoxa B 6bJIrapCKHTe 3eMH, HO Cb~eBpeMeHHO e YCTaHOBHJI npneMCTBeHOCTTa B pa3BHTHeTO na THXHaTa MaTepHaJIHa KYJITypa. Kopar apan e CXBa~aHeTO, lJe npes HeOJIHTa, XaJIKOJIHTa H paanara 6pOH30Ba enoxa 6bJIrapCKHTe 3eMH ca HMaJIH nO-HHCKO pa3BHTa KYJITypa B cpaBHeHHe C KYJITypaTa Ha EreHcKo-AHaToJIHllcKHH apea,n. H3CJIe,Z<BaJI e pa3JIHlJHH crp ann OT )KHBOTaH KYJITypaTa Ha HallCTapHTe 3eMe,Z<eJICKO-CKOTOBb.nHH nnexeaa B H3TOlJHaTa lJaCT aa BaJIKaHCKHH nOJIyocTpOB. Llennu ca npOYlJBaHHHTa My BbPXY )KHJIH~eTO, KepaMHlJHHTe Cb,Z<OBe H rrnaCTHKaTa OT npaHCTOpHlJeCKaTa enoxa.

KilTO PbKOBO,Z<HTeJI aa CeKUHHTa 3a npaHCTopHH npo¢. reoprHeB cneneme OT6JIH30 H ce mrrepecynaure B ,Z<eTallJIH OT pe3YJITaTHTe na npOBe)!(,Z<aHHTe B J'(HJIaTa crpaaa p aaxonxa na npaHCTOpHlJeCKH 06eKTH. TOll nonaspacaure TeCHH KOHTaKTH C BCHlJKH apeXeOJI03H npaHCTOPHUH OT r-pancxnre H OKPb)KHHTe MY3eH, noceiuaaaure p aaxonKHTe HM, aarn.rcrayaaure rH C yxa- 3aHHH BbPXY MeTo.nHKaTa, OCBeTJIHBalile rn no HOBHTe ny6JIHKaUHH B lJY)K6HHa. E,Z<Ba JIH HMa HHKOll cneJ'(HaJIHCT no npaacropna B BbJIrapHH, KOllTO ,Z<a He e nOJIYlJaBaJI aa nOJI3YBaHe pe,Z<KH lJY)K,Z<H KHHrH OT 60raTaTa JIHlJHa 6H6JIHOTeKa Ha nporp. I'eoprnea. EAHOBpeMeHHo C TOBa TOH 6ewe B3HCKaTeJIeH KbM pa60TaTa Ha CBOHTe KOJIerH H CbTpYAHHJ'(H, nacrcaaaure TeXHHTe ny6JIHKaJ'(HH Aa 6'b.naT oCB060AeHH OT H3JIHWHa ceH3aJ'(HOHHOCT, BHHMaTeJIHO penaxrap aure CTaTHH, CTYAeHTCKH .nHnJIOMHH pa60TH H .nH-

73

ceprauaa, De3CnOpeH epynnr no npaacropaara aa IOrOH3TO'lHa EBpona, npo<p. Teopraea HMa 3acayrara aa HaY'lHOTO aspacraaae Ha pe)l.Hu:a6bJlrapCKH apXeOJl03H npaHCTopHU:H, 'IHHTO pa3pa60TKH ca nOJlY'lHJlH Be'le Me*)l.YHapOAHa H3BeCTHOCT .

. . ITpe342-rO)l.HIlIHaTa cil Hay'lHa il 061lleCTBeHa )l.eHHOCT rtporp. r. MJI. I'eopraes e rroaysaaan aannt H 'IY*)l.eCTpaHHH uarpaaa H OTJlH'IHH, Me*AY KOHTO opnea "KHpHJI H MeTO)l.HH" - II crenea (1967) H I crenea (1977), ro6HJleeH MeAaJl ,,25 rO)l.HHH aapoaaa BJlaCT" (1969), ro6HJleeH Me)l.aJl ,,100 roAHHH DAH,I, rOJIllM 3J1aTeH Me)l.aJl sa 3 acayra KbM ABCTPHlI (1978). 06l1BeH e aa rroueren rpascaaaaa na HOBa 3aropa H My e Bpb'leHa 3J1aTHaTa 3Ha'lKa Ha T03H rpa,ll.

(1976).

ITo noson neroaara 70-ro)l.HIlIHHHa H B O'laKBaHe Ha HOBH 3Ha'IHTeJIHH ny6J1HKaU:HH BCH'IKH6bJlrapcxa npaacropnua nO*eJIaBaT na npoo. f. lb. Feopraes snpase, 60,nPOCT H TBOp'leCKH CHJlH.

1. EHeOJlHTHO ceaaure no c. Koaeaa, Crapoaaropcxo. - PIT,

I, 1948. .

2. Pa3KonKH aa ceaaumara MOraaa ,ll.0 Pyce npes 1948- 1949 r. - MAM, XVIII, 1952 (cbBMecTHo C H. AHreJlOB).

3. MpaMopHa craryerxa OT Baaroeao, Pasrpaacxo. - MAM, XIX, 1955 (c6. f. Kauapoa, II).

4. Pa3KonKH aa CeJlHIUHaTa MOrHJla ,ll.0 Pyce npes 1950- 1953 r. - MAM, XXI, 1957 (csaxecrao C H. AHreJlOB).

5. M3 *HBOTaH xyarypara aa rrspsare 3eMe,neJICKO-CKOTOBb,!{HH nJleMeHa B DbJlrapHlI. - B: ApxeoJlOrH'IeCKH OTKPHTHlI B DbJlrapHlI. C., 1957 ..

6.3a HlIKOH OPb,!{HlI aa npoasBO,!{CTBO OT HeoJlHTa H eHeOJlHTa B DbJlrapHlI. - M3CJle,nBaHHlI B 'IeCT ua axaz. ,U. ,Ue'leB. C., 1958.

7. OTHOCHO AaTYBaHeTo aa rrspso- 6HTHOTO cemnne npa Ma'!{apa, Konapoarpancxo, - MAM, XXII, 1959.

8; OCTaHKH OT nbpB06HTHO ce-

JlHllle B uearspa na C0<pHH. - MAM, XXII, 1959.

9.fJlaBHH nepHo,!{H B pa3BHTHeTo Ha KYJlTypaTa npe3HeOJlHTa H Me,!{HaTa enoxa B D'bJirapHH B CBeTJlHHaTa Ha HaH-HoBHTe apXeOJlOrH'IeCKH npoY'IBaHHH.Swiatowit, XXIII, 1960.

10. Asxaurxara CeJIHIllHa MOrHJla KpaH Crapa 3aropa. - ApxeoJlOrHH, IV, 1962, KH .. 1.

II. fJlaBHH pe3YJlTaTH OT pasxonKHTe aa Aaxamxara CeJIHIllHa MOrHJla npes 1961 f. - MAM, XXVI, 1963.

74

12. ITpoY'lBaHHH aa KYJlTypaTa

aa CeJIHIllHHTe MOrHJlH B DbJlrapHH. - ApXeOJlOrHH, VI, 1964, KH.3.

13.Pa3KonKH aa 'uHncH3KaTa ceJlHlIlHa MOfHJla npa c. Esepo npes 1964 H 1965 r. - ApxeoJlOfHH, VIII, 1966, KH. 3.

14. Pacxonxa MHOrOCJlOHHOrO noCeJIeHHlI y CeJIa 33epo 6J1H3 r. HOBa 3aropa B 1963 rony, - MAM, XXVIII, 1965 (C'bBMeCTHO C H. 51. Mepnepr),

15. MHOrOCJlOHHOe nOCeJIeHHe "A3- xamxa MOrHJla" 6J1H3 Crapoa 3aropu, - KCMA, 106, 1966.

16. Haanacsr BbPXY KPbfJlHH ne'IaT OT KapaHOBO - HaH-)l.peBaara nHCMeHOCT B Enpona (2. ,UaTHpoBKa H cpasueaae C ,!{pyfH no,!{06HH nesara). - ApxeoJlOrHlI, XI, 1969, KH. I.

17. Ilpoysaaae aa crapara aeoJlRTHa KyJlTypa B ITHPJl.0ncKo- 3J1aTHIlIKOTO IIOJle. - flbpBH xosrpec aa DM,U. T. 1, 1972.

18. IToCeJIeHHe 33epo Hero MeCTO cpena naMlITHHKOB 6POH30Boro nexa IOroBocTO'lHOH Eaponsr. - Symposium iiber die Entstehung und Chronologie der Badener Kultur. Bratislava, 1973 (csaxecrrro C H. 51. Meprrepr),

19. Crpararparpaa H nepaonaaaUHH aa HeOJlHTa H XaJlKOJlHTa B ,ll.HeIllHHTe 6'bJlrapCKH 3eMH. - ApXeOJlOrHH, XVI, 1974, KH. 4.

20. Crpararparpas H xapaxrep aa KYJlTypaTa na HeOJlHTHOTO ceJlHllle B c. KpeMHKoBU:H, Cocj>HHCKO. - ApXeOJlOfHlI, XVII, 1975, KH. 2.

21. Eaepo. PaHHo6poH30BOTO ceJlHllle. C., 1979 (C'bBMeCTHo C H. 5L MepnepT, P. KaTHHsapoa),

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Bsarapas B CBeTa OT ,npeBHOCTTa ,!{o HaIllH~HH. T. I. C., 1979.

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AH~eA08, J(uMum.."p. 40 rOJ\HHH o'hJlrapCKa apXeOJlOrHH. - B: 40 rOJ\HHH COUHaJlHCTHlleCKO MY3eHHo J\eJIO B HP B'hJlrapHH. (HaYII. ceCHH - 15 HoeMBpH 1984 r.). C., 1985, 49-62.

AH~eAo8a, Cmeduca. Ilporpecop Araaac MHJltieB na 70 rOJ\HHH. - ApXeOJlOrHH, 1986, J\"g 3, 70-71.

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Ilpes npaHCTOpH'IeCKaTa H aaTH'IHaTa enoxa,

J(UMumpo8a, Ilopa, SIM60JIcKaTa KpenocT - pe3YJlTaTH OT apxeoJlOrHlleCKOTO npoYIIBaHe. . - B:

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Pa3rJle}K}la Kapaaoao H Eaepo.

A Hzeo408, A sacmac. MOrHJlHa

rpoena HaXOJlKa OT MapUHaHOnQJI. - HHMB, 22,.1986, 63-67.

BaAa6QH.()(J, Ilemep, Fpaaose B zpesaa TpaKHlI npena nOXOJlHTe aa 4>HJlHn II. - B: Iloceaamea }KHBOT B TpaKHlI. BTOpH CHMII. OKT. 1986 r., rp. 5!M60Jl. 5!M(iOJl, 1986,

41-59. .

B(Jo4OHOO, rpe:.UKC. Boroae, rnraHTH H KpHJlaTH KOHe y ,,'IepHOMopcKHTe napaapn''. - H3KYCTBO, 1986, ~9 8, 9-13.

Haxonxx 01'· Cesepea KaBKa8 OT"CKHTCKO" apexe, nOKa8BamH 6J1H80CT C TpaKHiicKH IIaMeTHlIUH.

BOHeB, AileKCaHa'TJp r. U reapeu A o4eKCaHapOB. Pa3KolIKH B M. Bar asaaa KpaH c. CTaJlHHCKa Maxaaa, MHXaHJlOBrpaJlCKH oxp'sr (npeaaapareaao C'bo(ill{eHHe).Apxeoaoras., 1986, M 3, 49-56.

MaTepHaJlH OT IIpeJlpHMCKaTa TpaKHHcKa enoxa.

BYIOKlueB, Xpucmo, KOJlJleKUHlI aHTH'IHOii 6pOH3~ B CTapo3aropcxox OKPY}KHOM HCTOpH'IeCKOM My8ee. - B: HCTOPHKO-KYJlb-

76

rypnue CB1I3H TPYJlllll{HXClI Craposaropcxoro oxpyra H Kyii(iHllIeBCKOit 06J1aCTH. Kyit6HllIeB, 1985, 114-120 -,

BYIOKo4ueB, Xpucmo, TpaKHit-

CKH MOrHJleH HeKpOnOJl IIpH 4aTaJIKa, Crapoaaropcxa oxpsr. c., BAH, 1986. 150 c. C HJI. (Pa3KonKH H npoyxaaaaa, 16).

BaCUAeBa, Iiadiuna. I'poeaa-

uaTa IIpH C. Caemapa - IIpOeKTHparre H KOHCTPYKUHlI. - Texa. MHC'bJl, 1986, .N'g 2, 85-89.

Bessoe, Besusap, Pa3KolIKH H npoyxaanas B Ka6HJle ·1982-1986r. - B: OOCeJIHll{eH }KHBOT B TpaKHlI. BTOPH CHMII., OKT. 1986 r. rp. 5!M- 6oJl. 5!M60JI, 1986, 1-14.

BeHeaUICOS, HBaH. KOH e norpedaa

B Kaaana'surxara rp06HHua.-

H3KYCTBO, 1986, ~2 8, 2-8.

Fepeoea, Iluaua. OOCTH)KeHHlI H npo6JIeMH B npcyxaaaero aa paaao}KeJI1I3HaTa enoxa B TpaKHlI. - Apxeoaoras, 1986, .Nil 3; 11-26,

Tepeoea, Iluana. Cpe6po aa

6oroBeTe. HOBa XHnOTe8a aa C'bKpOBHmeTO OT Poroaen, caspaaaa C JlpeBHoTpaKHHcKHlI npa3HHK KoTHTHH. - OTe'leCTBO, 1986, NQ 20, 28-29.

Fopoe, Fopo, AHTH'IHO ceaauie IIpH MaJlKO T'bPHOBO. - BeKOBe, 1986, ~g 5, 67-70.

I'oueea, 304amo3apa. I'paaosere B TpaKHlI H KOJIOHH8aUHlITa na 4>HJlHII II. - B: OOCeJIHll{eH }KHBOT B TpaxHlI.BTOpH CHMII., OKT. 1986 r. rp, 5!M6oJl. 5!M60Jl, 1986, 60-74.

/{aH08, Xp, M. Koarpec B ABCTpaJlHlI IIO HCTOPHII aa apesaorp'bUKaTa KOJlOHH3aUHlI. - ApxeoJlOrHlI, 1986,· ~Q 2, 58-59.

Ilanoe, Xpucmo M. CTapHTe r-spun H 4epHO Mope. - HYMH3- MaTH'IHa HHq,QPMaUHH, 10, 1985, 19-20.

Cnensa.

Ilesee, Ilemep, PaancrpaxnsCKH riorpe6aJlHH 06H'IaH H BflpBaHHII. ABTOp~epa'l' .HaAHc.: .• "KaHJI .: aa HCTOP. H." C,., 1986. 29 c.

H8aHa8, PYMeH. AHTH'IHHHT

rpan HHKolIOJlHC a,ll HCTPYM. - Bexone, 1986, .N'2 6, 37-41.

/(a6aK'tue8a, Fepeana AHU-

o4OBa. 4epBeHonaKoBaTa TpalIe8Ha xepaaaxa 1- IV BeK. Aeropepepar na ,llHC .... "KaHJI. aa HCTOp. H." C., 1986. 19 c.

/(ooa'te8a,· Teooopa. ACKJlenHA H XHrHH OT TIJIeBeHCKO. - MTIK, 1986, ~2 3, 42-44.

rpH MpaMopliH cKyJlIITypH OT cpoH)i,a. na OHM - OJIeBeH.

/(Oa~8a, /(U1:Ul. DOCeJIHII\HOTO pa8BHTHe na .LlOJlHa MH3HlI IIpe3 K'bcIiaTa aHTH'IilOC'l'. - B: IloceJlHu(eH lKHBOT B TpaKHH. BTOpH CHM"., OKT. 1986 r, rp. 5!M6on. 5!M60JI, 1986, 149-157.

/(Y.3MaH08, Feopeu u HBaH B'TJ'teapoe. KOJleKIl,HlITa OT aHTH'IHH JlaMnH B CHJlHCTpeHcKHlI My3eA. - HHMB, 22, 1986, 43-62. .

MUH~8, AAeKCaHa'6p. PaH·

HOTO XPHCTHlIHCTBO B Onecoc H

OKOJlHOCTHTe My. - HHMB, 22, 1986, 31-42.

00 IIHCMeHH H apxeoJlOrH'IeCKH JlaHHH.

MAaaeHosa, 'AHa. MHoroBe-

KOBHO eJlHHCTBO \ia IIpHpOJla Hapxarexrypa, - MOK, 1986, ~2 3, 31-34.

AHTH'IHH rpanoae IIO 4epHoMOPCKOTO Kpaii6pe)KHe.

Haaoeuoea, B'bp6UHKa. PHM-

CKa BHJla B c. Kpaaes JlOJl, IlepHHllIKH oxpsr. C., BAH, 1985. 152 c. C HJI. (Pa3KonKH H npoyxBaHHlI, 14).

Peu.: KOHcTaHTHH Illanraaoa. - ApXeOJlOrHlI, 1986, .N'g 3, 65- 67.

H atlaeHosa, B 'bp6UHlCa. CKaJlnare caeraamna B TpaKHH. - B:

TIoCeJIHmeH }KHBOT B TpaKHfI. BTOPH CHMII., OKT. 1986 r. rp. 5!M- 60J1 •. 5!M60JI, 1986, 15-29.

HUK00408, /{uMUm'bp. BpoH30Ba Ba3a C nOJlBH3HTe aa XepaK'bJl. - Bexose, 1986, ~2 5, 47-51.

OTKpHTa IIpe3 1960 r.' cesepao OT Crapa 3aropa.

Opasee, Amauac. feTHTe.-

TYPHCT, 1986, ~2 7, 18-19.

H3BO,llH OT KOMIIJleKCI;IH HCTOpH'IecKo-KYJlTypHH H3CJ1·e,llBaHHlI BopXY TepHTopHHTa aa CeseponaTO'lHa B'bJlrapHlI H .Llo6pY,ll}Ka.

Iledsoe, A. Kpenocrra aa npeeHOTpaKHHcKHlI rp3JI EBMOJlIIHlI~ - B: Iloceamnea )KHBOT B TpaKHlI. BTOPH CHMII., OKT. 1986 r. rp. 5!M- 60Jl. 5!M6oJl, 1986, 30-40.

Ilemsoe, HBaH.. TI'IeJIapqBoTo y TpaKHTe. - )l(HBOTHOB'bJl. HayKH, 1986, Ng 3, 58-63.

Ilonoe, !l.uMUm'bp. 0pOY'lB8-

HHII BoPXY TpaKHiicKaTa peJlHrHlI. I: 06e3CM'bpTlIBaHeTo. - Fon. CY. I1CTOp. q,aK., 75, 1986, 13-47.

Il OpOJICaHOO, /(. TpeTH MeJKJIYnaponea CHMII08HYM .. TpaKHlI TIOHTHKa." - Apxeosoras, 1986, JI& 2, 61-62.

Ha TeNa ·"TpalOl;-:e H rp1>IlKHTe KOJlOHHH VII-V B. IIp. H. e."

P a6aaJICue8, K. OHcmaHmUH.

KYJlT'bT aa XepaK'bJl B Ka6HJle. (Op06J1eMH Ha IIpoHHKBaHeTo B TpaKHlI). - B: OOCeJIH!UeH )KHBOT B TpaKHlI. BTOpH CHMn., OKT. 1986 r. rp. 5!M60Jl. 5!M6oJl, 1986, 114-122.

Putiapoe, Feopeu. 06eJlHlIBaHe q,aYHaTa na 603aiiHHnHTe B oxoaHOCTHTe na Ka6HJle (I XHJI. II~:

H. e. - VI BeK OT H. e.). - • TIoCeJlHmeH}KHBOT B Tpaxxa, BTOPH caxn., OKT •. 1986 r, rp, 5!MGOJl. 5!M60JI, 1986) 177-185.

Cm0e8.:' .A.MKCeil. . CJleJlH OT

npeaaocrra. - TYPHCT, 1986, N9 II, 14-15.

ACTpaJlHH PHCYHKH OT nemepaas KOMIIJleKC npa c. Ilapeseu, BpatiaHcKH oxpsr H OT TpaKHHcKoTO CBeTHJlHll{e . npa c. BaiiJlOBO, Coq,HikKH oxp-sr,

Cmosnoe, TomKO. 3a KYJlTa na ApTeMHJla B Ka6Hne IIpe3 IV- I B. IIp. H. e. - B: TIoCeJIHmeH )KHBOT B TpaKHSI. BTOpH cnxn., OKT.

1986 r. rp, 51M6oJl. 51 M60Jl , 1986, 90-113.

CU'bA06, J(UMutn'bp. OrpasceHHH aa aCTpOHOMH'IeCKH n03HaHHH B TpaKHiicKoTO CBeTHJlHme

,,,3aii'lH BP'bX". - B: nOCeJIHmeH lKHBOT B TpaKHH. BTOPH CHMn., OKT. 1986 r. rp, 51.woJl, 51M60Jl, 1986, 186-192.

Touesa, Mapzapuma., npHQHHH sa HKOHOMH'IeCKaTa H nOJl1'lTH'IeeKa KpH3a B.LJ:peBHa TpaKHH np es III B. np. H. e. - fOA. CY. fICTOp. ~aK., 75, 1986, ~12.

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'Rufl1Cf1tl;·Bultmop. BH3aHTRicKH CTpaHHIJ.II· OTHCTOPH'HT8 aa H3KYCTB03HaHue1'O. - H3XyctBO, 1986,

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[Jon06, Am. 800 rO,!J;HHH OT B'bCTaHHeTO aa Acea H ITeT'bP H B'b3CTaHOBHBaHeTO aa O'bJIrapCKaTa .n;'bplK8Ba. - ApXeOJlOrHH, 1986, Hi 2, 57-58.

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OT xpaa aa VII - Ha'laJlOTO na VIII B.

CmOJlH06a, MaeOaAeHa. HH-

KOJIKO lKHTHHHH HKOHH aa 110aH K.P'bCTHTeJI OT XVII/XVIII BeK. THnOJIOrH'IHH oc06eHocTH.ITpoOJl. H3KyCTBOTO, 1986,. Ne 2, 31-37.

Tomeo, Koncmanmu«. PeJIe-

~Ha HKOHa OT c • .IJ.paraHoBo, BeJIHKOT'bPHOBCKO. HaY'IHO csoemeHHe. - ITpoOJl. H3KYCTBOTO, 1986, He 2, 55-58.

.IJ.aTHpaHa B XIV B.

Tomeo, Tomto, Ilpecaascxoro csxposame, - I1HMB, 22, 1986, 81-107.

Tomeea, Ilempana U Heau Ilempoe. 3ara,!J;KHTe aa nemepara .Bexrara lI.'bpKBa". - TpaKHH, 1986, Ne 3, 103-107.

Cpeaaosexoaaa nemepaa trspKBa C'bC CJle,!J;H OT CTeHonHCH OT XI-XII B., aaxapama ce npa

C. YCTpeM B CaKapCKHH KpaA.

XapaAQM6ueoa, AltHa. JIyJlH

aa '!HOYllH OT I'paacxaa MY3eH B Ilpoaaaaa. - I1HMB, 22, 1986, 141-'--147.

OT XVII-XIX B.

Beranooa, Magdalena. Die Archiiologie fiber die Pflanzenproduktion bei den Hunnen, Awaren und Protobulgaren, - Pamatky archeologicke, 1986, No I, 81-103.

3eMe,!J;eJICKH cesasa OT Ilspaara

O'bJIrapCKa .n;'bplKaBa (ApraTOBO,

ITnHcKa, ITpeCJIaB).

Byzanzund der Westen. Studien zur Kunst der europaischen MiHe1alter. Hrsg. I. Hutter. Mit Vorw. v. H. Hunger. 1984. 221 p.

Mihajlou, Stamen. Nouvelle

interpretation de certaines inscriptions du tresor d'orfevrerie de Nagy-Szent-MikI6s. - Bulg. histor, rev., 1986, No 3, 56-69.

Tomoo, E. Bulgarischen Ikonen Holzschnitte und Metallstiche. Ober. und deutsche Bearb. von H.-J. Hiirtel. Ramerding, 1982. 154 p.

Rez.: S. Franken. - Het Christel. Oosten, 36, 1984, 142-143'

Werner, Joachim. Der Grab-

fund von Malaja Perscepina und Kuvrat, Kagan der Bu1garen. Mfinchen, ~erl. der Bayerische Akad. d. Wiss., 1984. 47 p. ill.

Pen.: .IJ.HMHT'bp OB'IapoB.-

ApXeOJIorHlI, 1986, He_3, 67-68.

HYMH3MaTHKa

A AaOJN:OO, )/(UOKO. HOB THn BH- 3aHTHHcKH MOJIHB,!J;OBYJI OT BeJIHKH ITpeCJIaB. - HYMH3MaTHKa, 1986, He 4, 38-39.

EOJN:KOOa, Bucmpa. MOHeTeH

nesar-aarpana na HMnepaTop 110- BHaH. - B: HYMH3MaTHKa. C6. .n;OKJI. no np06J1eMHTe aa aHTH'IHaTa H cpe,!J;HoBeKoBHa HYMH3MaTHKa H Me,!J;anHCTHKa. I I. C., 1986, 8-10.

EOJN:KOOCKU, M. BH3aHTHHcKH

nevar 110BaHa K.oMHHHa, ayxca CKOnJIja. _,_ 300PHHK pa.n;OBa BH- 3aHTOJlOWKOl' HHCTHTyra, 22, 1983, 31~41.

EOHeo, Cmouso, OJIOBHa MOHeTOBH.n;Ha HaXO,!J;Ka OT ITpeCJlaB. - HYMH3MaTHKa, 1986,.N'e 4, .31-34.

Boneea, Heiisa. PaHHoBHsaH-

THHCKH MOHeTH no HaWHTe 3eMH. - HYMH3MaTH'IHa HH~opMallHlI, I (9), 1984, 1~16.

E7J'lOap06, Hean, TeXHOJIOI'H'IHa xapaxrepacraxa aa cKH~aTHoTo MO'HeTHo npoH3Bo.n;CTBO XII-XIV BeK. - B: HYMH3MaTHKa. C6. )J;OKR. no np06J1eMH Ha aHTHqHaTa H cpeaaoaexosua HYMH3MaTHKa H Me.n;aJlHCTHKa. II. C., 1986,39-44.

Baoussun, Heas, Tescecr H OKaxaaxa sa xanrap OT HOC IIIa6JIa. - HHMB, 22, 1986,67-69.

BAaaUMup06a-AAaOJN:06a, 40ft«a. .IJ.Be MOHeTHH C'bKPOBHrua ua K'bCHOPHMCKH MOHeTH OT IIIYMeHcKH oxp sr. - HyMH3MaTHKa, 1986, Nt 4, 14-22.

BAaouMup06a-AAaOJN:OOa, Ilocxa. MOHeTHaTa uapxyaauaa B IIIYMeHcKa xpenocr npea V BeK. - B: HYMH3M8THKa. CO . .n;OKJI. no np06J1eMH Ha aHTH'IHaTa H cpe~HoBeKOBHa HYMH3MaTHKa u: Me.n;aJIHCTHKa. II. C., 1986, 19-25.

BllaauMup06acAAaOJN:06a, /l.O'l-

sa. IIIYMeHcKH OKp'Lr - HauaoHanHa HYMH3MaTH'lHa KOH~epeHUHlI - IIIYMeH'86. - HYMH3MaTHKa, 1986, He 4, 46-47.

B7Jp6aHOO, PYMelt. IT'bPBHTe

MOHeTH na Tperara 6'bJIl'apCKa .n;'LPlKaBa. - HYMH3MaTH'lHa HH~OPMall.HlI, 1 (9), 1984, 9-13 ..

FepacuM06a-TOM06a, B. fJlH.HeHa nRot.l:6a u: OJlOBHa MaTpHua OT c15H'pKaTa aa Oxp'sscea HCTOPH'IeCKH MY3eH 51M60R. - B: FloceJlHrueH lKHBOT B TpaKHlI. BTOPH CHMn., OKT. 1986 1'. rp. 51M6oJI. 51 M60JI , 1986, 140-149.

. !l.epMeHOJN:ueo, Xpucmo [J. ITP06HH 06pa311H aa BoeHHHH opnea .. 3a xpaepocr", Hel'OBHlIT 3HaK H Me.n;aJIa .. 3a 3aCJIYl'a" B'bB Bp'L3Ka C YTB'bp,!J;eHHTe .n;on'bJIHHTeJIHH OTJlH'IHII K'bM THX, C'bI'JlaCHO HOBOYTB'bPAeHH H npaBHJlHHK 3aHarpa)K)J;a

saae npea 1917 r. - B: HYMH3- MaTHKa. C6. ,D.OKJI. no np06J1eMH aa aHTHqHaTa H Cpe,D.HOBeKOBHa ayMH3MaTHKa H Me,D.aJlHCTHKa. II. C., 1986, 45-51.

/I,:JICUn08, Jllo60.Mup. E,D.HH HeH3- BeCTeH neqaT ~T. npe,D.ocB060~eHCKOTO HH peBOJlIOUHOHHO MHHaJlO. - 113B. MY3eHTe Ceaeposan. D'bJlr apaa, 11, 1986, 127-140.

/I,U.MUmp08, KaMeH. Cpe6'bpHH MOHeTHH csxpoaama OT IV B. np. H. e. OT OI1M -- B. T'spaoso. - Bexose, 1986, oM 6, 52-56.

/I,U.MUmp08a, . Paiisa. C'b3,D.8-

Te..1HT aa CTOnil'lHHH rep6 [CmpHH]. - Co4>HH, 1986, N99, 16-17.

/I,pazt:J.H08, /I,U.Mum'bp. MOHe-

THTe H8 Ka6Hne KaTO HCTOpHqeCKH H3BOp. - B: HYMH3M8THKa. C6. ,D.OKJI. no npo6neMH H8 8HTHqH8Ta H cpe,D.HoBeKoBHa HYMH3M8THKa H Me,D.aJlHCTHKa. II. C., 1986, 2-7.

Ilpaeauoe, Iluuummp, MOHe-

THTe H8 TP8KHHCKHH rpan Ka6HJle. - HYMH3MaTHqHa HH<p0pMaUHH, 1 (9), 1984, 13-15.

/I,pa2aH08, /I,uMUm'bp. XPOHO-

JlOrHH H8 8BTOHOMHOTO MOHeTO-

ceneue aa Ka6HJle. - B: IloceJlHm.eH }KHBOT B TpaKHH. BTOPH CHMn., OKT. 1986 r. rp • .sIM60Jl. .sIM60Jl, 1986, 75-89.

/I,ypoe, B. A. Op,D.eHHTe H8 C'bBeTCKa PyCHH~ - HYMH3MaTHqHa HH<p0pMaUHH, 10, 1985, 14- 18.

Hopoanoe, Mean. MOHeTH H

MOHeTHO oepsureuae B cpeaaoseKOBHa D'bJlr8pHH 1081-1261. C., HaYKa. H H3KYCTBO, 1984. 240 c., XXXIX Ta6Jl.

Rez.: Konstantin Docev. Im-

portante contribution '8 l'etude

de 18 nurnlsmatique medievale. - Etud. balk., 1986, No 3, 122- 125.

Bopoanoe, Mean. HOBOOTKPHTH MOJlHB,D.OBYJlH aa DOPHc H CHMeoH. - HYMH3M8THK8, 1986, Nv 4, 26- 31.

f1opoaH08, Mean. Orne. Be,D.H'b}K aa 3naTHHTe MOHeTH aa CepMOH CTpaTHn8T. - B; HYMH3M8'l'HKa. C6. ,D.OKJI. no np06neMH aa aHTHq,HaTa H Cpe,D.HoBeKOBHa HYMH3MaTHK8 H Me,D.aJIHCTHK8. I I. C., 1986, 37-39.

K08atteea, Teooopa. Koaes-,

THBHH MOHeTHH HaXO,D.KH OT nepHo,D.a Ha OCMaHCKOTO BJla,D.HqeCTBO B Ilaeaeacxo, - 113B. MY3eHTe CeBep038n. Bsarapaa, 11, 1986, 43-67.

Kodxee, Amanac, Bototo Aa-

sanoe U Bacus Myma¢oe. KOJleKTHBHa HaXO,D.Ka OT Cpe6'bpHH BeHeUH8HCKH MOHeTH (XIII-XIV B.) OT C. KOCTaH,D.OBO, na3ap,D.}KHIlIKH oxpsr. - HYMH3MaTHK8, 1986, Nv 3, 31-41.

KouIle6a, Kuna. PaHHoBH38HTHHCKH MepKH 38 TerJlO. - HyMH3M8THKa, 1986, N9 4, 22-26.

MUHIle6, AAeKCanO'bp. Bpoa-

30Ba Te}KeCT - cT8TyeTK8 aa KOHCT8HTHH BeJlHKH OT c. . PY,D.HHK. B8pHeHcKH OKp'br. - ApxeoaorHH, ,1986, Nv 2, 29-31.

Onaseasemo na .MOHemHOmo 60- eamcmeo, MeTo,D. •. nocoeae aaJ:lYMH3MaTa. COOpHHK. C., D'bJlr. HYMH3M. ,D.-BO, 1986. 48 c.

Ilenuee,' B.caoU.Mup. KOJleK:.

THB'Ha HaXO,D.Ka OT Me,D.HH MOHeTH (XIII-XIV B.) OT BH,D.HH. - HYMH3MaTHK8, 1986, N2 3,.21-30.

J/eH'Ie6, BAaOU.MUp. KOJleK-

THBHa HaXO,D.K8 OT Me,D.HH. BH3aHTHRCKH MOHeTH (XIII B.) OT C. l.Jepeana, llIYMeHcKH OKp'br. - HyMH3M8THK8, .1986, Nv 4, 40-46.

Ilensee, BAaouMup. KOJleK-

THBH8 H8XO,D.Ka OT Me,D.HH MOHeTH (X I II B.) 01' CHJlHCTpa. - B:

HYMH3MaTHK8. C6. ,D.OKJI. no npoliJleMH aa 8HTHqH8Ta II: cpenaoseKOBHa HYMH3MaTHK8 H Me,D.8J1HCTHKa II. C., 1986, 31-36.

Ilemxoe, Ilemso, .LJ.YPOCTOPYM npes PHMcK8Ta enoxa. _:_ HYMH3- MaTHqHa HH<p0pMaUHlI, 1 (9), 1984, 16-18.

no HYMH3M8THqHH ,D.aHHH.

Ilonoe, Xpucmo. Cpeospea

np'bCTeH-neqaT. - BeKoBe, 1986, Nv 5, 84-86.

C HeH3BeCTHO npOH3XO}K,D.eHHe, C KHPHJlCKH Ha,D.nHC, ,D.aTHpaH B XIII-XIV B.

[J poxonoe, MAR. P a3nHJllIHO

C'bKpOBHm.e OT rerpanpaxaa aa KBecTOp E3HJlac. - B: HYMH3MaTHKa. C6. ,D.OKJI. no np06J1eMH ua aHTHqHaTa H cpe,D.HOBeKOBHa HYMH3- MaTHKa H Me,D.aJlHCTHKa. I I. C.,

1986, 11-15. '

Ilposonoe, MAR .. lJ,HpKYJlaUHlITa aa 6POH30BHTe MOHeTH H8 <l>HJlHn V H Tlepcea B IOr03an8,D.Ha. D'bJlrapHH. - HYMH3M8THK8, 1986, Nv 3, 5-20.

P06e6, HUKoAa. HOB ,D.OKYMeHT aa napasaa perpopua OT 1845 r. [B TYPcKaT8 HMnepHlI]. - HyMH3MaTHKa, 1986, N2 3, 42-47.

Pyceea, Bopnua U Kpacuuup KOB6. PaHHoeJlHHHCTHqeCKO MOHeTHO csxposame OT TYTp8KaH (lGCH 839). - HYMH3MaTHKa, )986, N2 4, 3-13.

Tonmanoe; /I, uuum »p 'u. Apa Map2oc. MOJlHB,D.oBYJl OT cpeaaoaeKOBH8Ta xpenocr Kpacea npa Ilaaanopmue, - HYMH3M8THKa, 1986, oM 4, 34-37.

Xpucmoea, 30paeKa. np06J1eMH na Cpe6'bpHOTO BH3aHTHHcKO MOueroceseae (IV---"XI B.). -: B:

HYMH3MaTHKa. C6. ,D.OKJI. no npo- 6J1eMH aa aHTHqHaTa H Cpe,D.HOBeKOBH8 HYMH3M8THK8 H Me,D.8J1HCTHK8. II. C., 1986, 25-30 .

f/nee, f/HIlO. BapBapH3HpaHH

nO,D.pa}KaHHH aa Me,D.HH PHMCKH MOHeTH OT IV BeK. - B: HYMH3MaTHKa. C6. ,D.OKJI. no np06J1eMH aa aHTHqHaTa H Cpe,D.HOBeKoBHa HYMH3MaTHKa H Me,D.aJlHCTHKa. I I. C., 1986, 15-19.

f/Hee, f/HIlO. TpaKHRCKa MOHeTaa HMHTaUHH, aa rerpaapaxaa ua <l>HJlHn II MaKe,D.oHCKH C asospa}KeHHe, Hano)lo611Bam.0 Ke<paJl. HYMH3M8THqHa HH<popMaUHH, 10, 1985, 12-13.

Betueesues, Becesu«. 1.JeTeHe H T'bJlKYBaHe aa aannaca ua rp'bUKH e3HK OT B'bHIlIHHlI rp an aa nJlHCKa. - ApXeOJlOrHH, 1986, Nv 2, 38- 39.

Betueesuee, Becesun, Miscellanea protobulgarica. - I1HMB, 22, 1986, 17-29.

BeAK08, Besusap . HOBH ,D.aHHH sa reparopaara aa HHKOnOJlHC an HCTPYM H sa cesepnara rpaaaua na npoBHHUHH TpaKHH npea II B. - Apxeoaorns, 1986, M 2, 24-28.

Ha,D.nHC aa craporpsuxa e3HK OT Cexcaraara Ilpncra.

Fepacuuoea-Toxoea, Bacus-

sa. AHTHqHOTO cenaure npa c. 06HoBa, Ilaeseacxo. - ApxeoJlOrHlI, 1986, Nv 3, 26-33.

ny6J1HKYBa 4 enarpaocxa naMeTHHKa.

Ilotipee, Hean, 3a aaanaca aa .Caxar rene" B nJlOB,D.HB. - BeKOBe, 1986, N2 6, 41-44.

OCMaHo-TYPCKH HaAnHC OT

1812 r.

Heauoe, PYMen Teotpusoe. PHMCKaTa BORCKa B ,D.HeUlHa Cesepua D'bJIrapHli (I-III B.). CTPYKTypa H <PYHKUHH na BoeHHHTe qHHOBe. Asroperpepar aa AHC ..• "KaH.!I.. sa HCTOp. H." C., 1986. 29 c.

Mapaoc, Apa. 3a xereaero aa naanaca aa HBO I'paxarinc. - ApXeOJlOrHlI, 1986, Nv 2, 39-44.

Oecapoe, Iluuum-sp, Aaero-

PHqHH H306pa}KeHHH H HaAnHCH OT Ilpecaaa. - CTap06'bJlrapHCTHKa, 1986, N2 3, 68--72.

Pauiee, Paiuo, PaHHOCpe,D.HoBeKOBeH HaAnHC Ha rp'bUKH e3HK OT B'bHIlIHHlI rpaA Ha nJlHCKa. - . ApXeOJlOrHlI, 1986, N2 2, 36-38.

C.MRaOeCKu, Cmedxuc. EnH-

rpa<pcK,o-TeKCTOJlOrHqHH ,D.06aBK~

B'bpXY om.e,D.Ba 6'bJlrapCKH Ha,D.nnca. -- ApXeOJlOrHlI, 1986, Ng 2,

44-47.' ..

f.' A ntue epigraphique, Annee

1983. Red. par A. Chast agnol,

M. Leglay et P. Le Roux.

Hannaca OT D'bJlrapHH ua C. 248 -249.

BeSevliev, V. Zur Deutung der Protobulgarlschen Inschrift von Vassiltka, Chalkidike. - J ahrbuchd. Osterr. . Byzantinistik, 35, 1985, 143-149.

Sarnowski, Tadeusz et Jan Trqnkowski. Legto I ItaJica- Liburna -Danuvius. - In: Studien zu den Militiirgrenzen Roms. III. 13. Internat. Limeskongress, Aalen 1983. Vortriige. Stuttgart, 1986, 536-541. (Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor-und Friihgeschichte

in Baden-Wiirttemberg, 20).

no enarparpcxa ,D.aHHH.

MY3eHHO )l;eJIO

H KOHcepBa~HSI

/I,a.MRIt08, Cuueo«, HaUHoHaJl-

HHHT HCTOpHqeCKH MY3eu B CHCTe· M8Ta na 6'bJlrapCKOTO MY3eHHo ,D.eJIO. - B: 40 rOAHHH COUHaJlHCTHqeCKO MY3eHHo ,D.eJlo B HP D'bJlrapHH.

79

(Hays. CeCHH - 15 HO!)MBPH

1984 r.). C., 1985, 31-37.

Ilpaee, Hea«. POJlSlTa na C1>BeTCKOTO Mysee3'H8HMe sa j}asBHTHeTO Ha MY3eAHOTOAe.lIO B HP B1iJll'apHH. - B: 40 I'O~HHH COIl.HaJlHcTHqecKO MyaeiHo ~e.no B HP B1>JlrapHH. (Hays. ceCHH - 15 HoeMB(>H 1984 r.). C, 1985, 24-30.

HAue8, Kocma. BKn H KYJlTYPHO-HCTOpHqeCKOTO HaCJle.l(CTBO. - B: 40 rO.l(HHH COIl.HaJlHCTi!qeCKO MyaeAHo ,neJlo B HP B'IlJlrapHH. (Hays. ceCHH - 15 HoeMBpH 1984 r.). C., 1985, 3-18.

!(UCb08, Hea«. MyaeiiHaTa Mpe2Ka B Hapoaaa penytiaaxa B1>Jlrapas - nOCTH2KeHHH H np06J1eMH. - B: 40 rO.l(HHH COIl.HaJlHCTH'leCKO MyseAHO ,IleRO B HP B1>J1rapHH. (Hays. ceCHH ~ 15 HoeMBpH 1984 r.). C., 1985, 19-23.

/(pumee, Tobop, KYJlTYPHO-

HCTOpJIlIeCKO H8CJle.l(CTBO H COU;HaJiH' -C1'H'IecKO o6mecTBO. - B: 40 rO.l(HHH cou.HaJlHCTH'leCKO MyseAHO .l(eJlO B HP B'bJirapHli. (Hays. ceCHII - 15 HoeMB1lH 1984 r.). C., 1985, 38-41.

HaYMOBa, Husa. Heo6xo,llHMJIH e HanHOHaJIeH MOPCKH MY3eii.MnK, 1986, Nt 3, 38-41.

Pasroaop C npoq,. BMH3ap Bea-

KOB H CT. H. C. MHxaHJI Jlaaapoa.

Ilempqtuee, JlIo6_oMup. My-

3yiiHaTa c6HpKa :II Axronoa, - MnK, 1986, N! 3, 36-37.

Pexo, M. HaJlo2K6a sa eTPYcKaTa xyJlTypa B HTaJlHH. - Apxeoaorax, 1986, M 3, 71-72.

Cmameea, MazoaAulta. n1>p-

BOKJlaCHH neaaocra. -Coq,HH, 1986, Nt 10, 2-3.

EKCn03HIl.HlITa aa HaU;HoHaJlHHll HCTOpH'leCKiH Myseii.

Iiasoe, EMJtA. 06mecTBeHoTo

Ha'laJlO B .neAHOCTTa Ha61>JltapCKHTe MyaeH. - B: 40,ro.l(HHH COIl.HalIHCTH'leCKO My3eiiHO;~eJlo B HP B1>JI. rapHli. (Hays. CeCHll - 15 HoeMBpH 1984 r.). C., 1985, 42-48.

Das Erste Gold der Menschheit:

Die iilteste Zivili$ation in Europa. Ausstellung des Museums fiir Urund Friihgeschichte, Frelburg 13. Dezember 1985 -5. Februar 1986. Freiburg, Mils. filr Ur-und Friihgeschichte, 1986. 540 p.

BapHeHcKHIIT eHeOJlHTeH aexponon, KaTaJlOr1>T c1>,Il1>p2Ka BCH'lKH ny6J1HKaU;HH B npecara B f$P sa HaXO,llKHTe B nexponoaa.

CTO~HKA nET POBA

PEaAl(~HOHHA l(OJIErHfl

AlCao. aHMHT'bP AHrEJIOB (UfJ8eH peiJtUanOp). npofjJ. BEJIH3AP BEJIl(atJ, .(BaM. ;U •. ~p). em. H. c. AJIEl(CAH~PA MHJI'lEBA (cetepemap), iJOJ,f. IlIOP.MHIl rETOB, em. x: e. PYMEH KATIIH. 'lAPOB, em. H. e. HBAH MAPAS{)B, em. H. c. P.HNlHT'bP QB'lA'P(JB, npot/J.OET'bP llETPOB. em. H. c. I em. XEHPHETA TOP.OPOBA, em. H. e. MAPHfl 'lH'lHl(OBA, em. H. c. ROPP.AHI(A IOPYI(OBA

A.-pee Ha PfAaKIlHJlTa

Apxeo.nornecKH HHCTHTYT H MyseA npa BAH. 1000 CocJIRlI. 6y.n ... CTaM60JIRAcKH" 2. Ten. 88-24·05 H 88-24·06

A.l(pee H8 a.-IIRHHcTpaIUUlTa

HS,AaTeJrCTBO Ha BAH. 1113 CocJIHlI. y.n. "AKu. r. BOH'leB". Ten. 71·31

TeXlfH'feC"H JleAaKTOp .ll. K 0 C T 9 8 • KOpeKTOP . H. K 0 e 8 a

_ .llSAeHa 38 a_60p Ha 1. V. 1987 r. nO.-rIHca ... 38 ne'laT Ha 12. VIII. 1987 r, ne'laTIIH KOJIH 10 J.iS,IIaTeJlCICH KD.UI 9,33

4>DJIM.IT HII uPT!tara 6Ox84/8 Ha... H .... exc 11304 THpalK_I580 nQJrIo'IX. 266, Or,lleJIHa "HHlICK. 1,80 .liB. rO,-HWeR a601QllleHT 1,20 JIB.

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Cb,llbP)I(AHHE

AAeKCaHa'Op CPO!I - OURT sa .1 OXaJlHgalUUI Ha CeJ11HI~aTa or Por03eHCKHle HaAnHCH 1 /l. ,WHa Fepeoea - 3a CaKpaJlHHII xapanep ua

uaxonxara 01' Porosea ....•• 4

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KHHCKaTa TOpt'BTHKa ••••••• 13

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C'bKPOBHIIlC •••••• _ _ • • • 26

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"Qm ana ra- OT Poro?eHCK01'O csxpoenuie C'MOTHB or MHIa aa XepaK'bJI H Asre 47 hean Mapa.1oo - BOfHHHTa Me)K,lI,Y KelITaBpH

(N! 158 01' Poroaeacxoro C'bKpOBHIUe) 55 Ilu sume» HUlC(),10(J -- 3a xapaxrepa aa Poro-

3eUCKOlO CbKPOBHIIlC ••••••• 65

KPHTHKA H PEUEH3HH

CmO,'1H BUI11J!.'1iWB - M, <fl. I' y P JI H. ,llp~BHee )KCJle30 BeJIUpyCtKOro Iloanenpoasx. .MIIH(,K. HaVKa H TeXHHKU, 1982. 121 C.,

108 pHC., -18 Ta6JIHUH • • • • • •• 67

TIPEfJIE,ll

lAm. nonool -. )l\8B01' H raopxec I'BO, nocuerena

H:! IiC1'OpH'IeCKaTa HaYJ{a ..••• 69

B. HIlJ<OJlOI.1 _. Ilpooecop I'eopra l1.il. I'eoprn eu

na 70 rona IIH 72

KHH rOIlH C • • . • • • . • • • • • • • 75

TAB L E DES MAT IE RES

AlexQnddr Pol - Essal d", localisation des topo-

nymes des inscriptions de Rogozen 3

. Diana Gergova -- Sur l e caracter e sacral de la trcuvaill e de R ogozen . . . . . . . 12 Vasil P. \'asile1.J - l.a trouvai1le de Rogozen - elements traditionnels et nouveaux dans la toi euti que thrace . . . . . 26 Georgi MihailotJ - Les i nscr ip tions du tresor de

. Rogozcn ....•....... 35

!Vladimir 1. Georgiev 1- Notes au sujet des inscriptions sur les vases de Rogozen 36

MATERIAUX ET COMMUNICATIONS

Bogdan Nik0[OV -- La grande tasse du tresor de

Rogozen 47

Ljub« Ognmova-Marifwl,a - Notes sur "la phial e"

d u tresor de R ogozen au motif du my the

d'Heracles et d'Auge 55

Ivan Marazou - La Deesse parmi 1 es cent aures

(No 158 du trcsor de Rogozen) 63

Dimitiir Nikoloo - Sur l e caract ere du tr(.sor

de Rogozen 66

CRITIQUE ET OUVRAGES RECENSES

Stojan Yitliano» - M. <fl. fYPHIl. ,llpelllIee xce.lJe30 Benopyccxoro Ilonuenponae . MHHCK, Hayxa H rexuaxa, 1982. 121 c.,

108 pHC. 18 Ta6JI. • • . • • • • 67

REVUE

I At. Povoo I - Vie et oeuvre consacrees a la sci-

ence histor ique . . . . . 69

V. Nikoloc - Professeur Georgi 11. Georgiev

it 70 ans 72

Blbli ographie . . . . . . • 75

1 SSN-0324~1203'

I 20203 I

l

I

QEHA 1,80 JIB.

)

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