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Wine & Spirits Writing

Article Writing • Yoga



^sroz 4MCP

で の

Japanes e Gramm ar
• All the essential grammatical elements • Complete explanations and sample usage • Alphabetized for quick reference

VC- レ•
^ •—鲁♦春

m ^ ^r





An easytounder stand, comp act guide to Japan ese gram mar,
this handy book alphabeti cally introduce s most essential grammati cal function words from ageru to zenzen. Each the

entry clearly


explaine d terms, and all possible usage is illustrate d helpful sample sentence s. for Japanes elanguage students at all levels, it teaches basics to the beginner and serves as an excellent referenc e d students. for advance Ideal in in layman's

Learners will benefit from studying the book on their own from cover to cover, as well by keeping it on their desk to use as a supplem ent to classroo m study. as

Masah iro Tanim ori
graduate d from Kobe Universit y in 1981 and a graduate student is currently

in Japanolo gy Osaka Universit y. He is a member of for Teaching Japanes e as a Foreign Languag e. the Society at


B o s t o n • R u t l a n d

, Ver mo nt • lok vo w w w . t u t t l c p u b l i s h i n g . c o m P r i n t e d i

n S i n g a p o r e


I S B N 0 8 0 4 8 1 9 4 0 8 _ _

9 V 8 0 8 0 4 8 1 9 4 0 4

Published by Tuiile Publishing, an imprint of Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. © 1994 by Charles H. Tuitle Co., Inc. All rights reserved. LCC Card No. 94-60444 ISBN 0-8048-1940-8 First edition, 1994 Sixih priming. 2003

Primed in Singapore DISTRIBUTION
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A sia P a c ific
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-rocsroz JAdou

Tel: (65) 6280 1330; Fax: (65) 6280 6290 Email: inquiries@pcriplus.com.sg

で 一

Introduction 7 Part One : Dictionary of Grammatical Function Words 11 Part Two : Grammatical Explanations 247 Adjectival Nouns 248 Adjectives 252 Adverbs 262 Conjunctions 265 Counters 268 Euphonic Changes 272 Intransitive and Transitive Verbs 274 Nouns 276 Polite Language 278 Prepositions 282 Pronouns 292 Verbs 293

Copyrighted Material


Language learners come with backgrounds and interests as varied as people come in shapes and sizes. To accommodate the burgeoning interest in Japanese-language study is an equal number

of books and learning aids for all levels. One resource that anyone can use , no matter what their level of Japanese, is a thorough grammar reference. This one is designed for ease of use by the non-linguist—for the non-native speaker and user of Japanese rather than the student of Japanese. Grammatical terminology is kept to a minimum, as are detailed explanations as to why words or phrases function as they do. Rather, example sentences show concretely how and where the key function words are used. It is hoped that this method will be immediately accessible (and useful) to a wide audience. Use of this reference book doesn't require extensive prior knowledge of grammatical terms, nor does it demand that the reader learn them, though of course one is not at a disadvantage for having that knowledge. To look up a word one simply need know how to say it—and be grateful that romanization of Japanese is easier than spelling in English. Part One includes grammatical function words arranged alphabetically, with entries given first in romanized form ,

their general usage , and conjugations. Each entry includes a brief grammatical description of the word or phrase. Usage is a key word throughout this book. While some of the English translations of the Japanese may seem a bit stilted , this has been done deliberately in the interest of clearly illustrating the grammatical pattern at hand. Other related or similar function words are cross-referenced at the end of each entry , and if the reference occurs in Part Two. Part Two takes a more traditional approach to grammar , examining parts of speech. a “II” in parentheses follows. and several English equivalents. The sample sentences illustrate a wide variety of everyday situations. In these sentences , the author treats the progressive (te iru) and m/-forms of verbs as dictionary forms. While Part One is for looking up specifics. Below that follow sample sentences illustrating various positions within a sentence where the entry word or phrase may be used. as the author has .followed by Japanese characters. as these can be further conjugated. As such it can be used for further detailed study of a particular part of speech or grammatical usage.

for example , a list of words and phrases in Part One that are commonly used with each of the verb forms is also provided. One will not find a listing lor “conditional forms. It is hoped で 一 . Thus if one looks up Verb Forms in Part Two. the author has not used the traditional terminology for verb forms. He has also included a detailed cross-reference with Part One.” for example , but rather the “baform” and the “/«m-form•” Once again , the user need only know how to say something in order to learn more about it. -rocsroz JAdou A further word about verb forms is in order. Consistent with the minimal use of grammatical terminology.made a concerted effort to show various nuances of particular Japanese forms.


He has made every effort to include both everyday and exceptional usage in the example sentences presented here , for in grammar. following them with example sentences illustrating how these may be expressed in Japanese. however ,one must allow time to become accustomed to it. As these two , three. and four-letter English words function very differently in Japanese. One final note in regard to the Prepositions entry in Part Two. -rocsroz"o^lJZ IJAdou Finally. 邙 . special thanks go to Julie Iezzi and the staff of the Charles E. there are no rules without exceptions.INTRODUCTION •9 that this approach will be found user-friendly. It is the author's hope that students using this book will make great progress in their study of the Japanese language. Like any systematic approach. this section alone lists English prepositions first. Tuttle Publishing Company for their hard and patient work in editing the English content. While other sections list Japanese first. the exceptional treatment of them here is not only justified but extremely helpful. followed by English equivalents.

Copyrighted Material PART ONE Dict ionary of .

Grammatica l Function Words ageru あ t デる .

give (something to a person who is either of equal or lower status). do (something for that kind of person) verb m e a n: i n g .

Yarn is very informally used instead of this verb. The 1st person cannot be the recipient.Sashia^eru is used with a person of higher status or to whom the speaker wishes to show respect. .

1. o [respectful)) 2. book. I give you this (Kono hon sashiagemasu. After / ど-form of verb . After をあげます。 noun + o この本 Kono hon o age mas u.

こ の 自 転 卓 を 貸 .

し て あ げ ま す 。 .

K o n o j .

i t e n s h a .

o k a s .

h i t e a g .

e m a s u .

. I l e n .

d y o u t .

h i s b i c .

y c l e . (Kono jitensha o kashite .

[respectful]) 彼女にネックレ スを買ってあげ ました。 Kcmojo ni nekKuresu o kcitte agemasnita.sashiagemasu. .

> See a l s o kureru9 morciu .I bought a necklace for her.

. . through , among ,while noun m f a n i: n gin 1. during.aida あいだ between.Followed by ni R1J に 立 っ て く だ さ い。 . from . between.

ageru aniari • 1 3 一 A i d a n .

i t a t t e .

k u d a s a .

P l e a .i .

s e s t a n .

a i n b e .

t w e e n . .

A ft er n o u n .2.

+ n o , f ol lo w .

e d b y ni 留 守 .

の 間 に 田 中 さ ん .

が 訪 ね て き ま し .

た 。 Rusu no aiaa ni tanakasan ga tazunete h .

mash it a. Tanaka came to see you during . Mr.

After noun + to + noun + no. followed by ni 郵便局は駅と 学校の問にあります。 . 3.your absence.

The post office is between the .YubiriKyoKu wa eki to gakKo no aida m arimasu.

4. After noun + kara + noun + made no 10 曰から 15 R までの 問休みます。 .station and the school.

I'll .Toka Kara ju go mchi made no aida yasumima su.

take holidays from the 10th through the 15th. .

5. After verb in the progressive tense. followed by ni 本を読んでいる問 に眠ってしまった。 .

H o n o y o n .

d e ir u ai d a .

n i n e m u tt .

e s h i m al ta .

I fe ll as le e p ..

w hi le I w as re .

a di n g a b o .

o k. 6. After dictionary form of adjective ,foll owed by ni 若

い問にもっと勉強しな さい。

W a k ai ai

d a ni m ot to b

e n k y o s hi

n a s ai .
S t

u d y m o r e

w h il e y o u

a r e y o u n

g .

amari あまり
adverb (used with a

negative) meaning : not

much ,not many ,not enough, not well, not very 1 . U s e d with negative verb

私はあまり食べませ ん。

Watas hi wa amari tabem asen. I
don't eat

彼のことは あまり知り ません。

Kcire no koto

wa amari snirim asen. I
don't know much

about him. 今 あまりお金 を持ってい ません。 Ima amari .

o-kane o matte imase n. I don't have .

Used with negativ . 2.much money now.

e adjecti ve 天気は あまりよく ありませ ん。 Tenki .

wa amari yoku arimas en. The weathe .

会社は家か らあまり遠 くありませ ん。 .r is not very good.

.Kaishc i wa ie kara amari toku arimas en.

The compa ny is not very far from .

are あれ DEMONSTRATIVE NOUN MEANING that. those. it : .our house.

The polite form is achirct , which also means “that person” or “that direction•” Are becomes ano .It refers to an object or objects far from both the speaker and the hearer.

" 1. it becomes asoko when expressing “that place over there.Followed by particle -rocsroz PJ^lJCCTcAdoJ .before a noun it modifies. Moreover.

.「あれは何です か。」「あれは日本 のまつりです。J "Are wa nan aesu KCL 'Are wa nihon no matsuri desu.

are arimasen • 1 5 一 "What's that?” “It ,s a Japanese festival•” あ ちらに着いたら電話 .

Please call me when .を下さい。 Achira ni tsuitara denwa o kudasai.

「あちら はどなたですか。」 「山本さんです。」 "Achira wa aonata desu ka.you get there. .

'Yamamotosan aesu.” 銀行はあの建物の隣 . Yamamoto. “Who is that person?” “She is Ms.

The です。 bank is next to the .uinko wa ano tatemono no tonari desu.

building over there. {Are becomes ano when used as an adjective.) ト .

イレはあそこにあり foire wa OSOKO m arimasu. ます。 . The restroom is over there.

sore . — S e e also kore. My はあそこです。 house is over there.(Are becomes asoko when meaning “that place over there .,,) 私の家 Watashi no ie wa asoko desu.

.arimasen ありません negative verb used for making the negative form o{ desu. aru9 and adjectives Note that the plain form is nai.

After (adjectival) n o u n + dewa これは 私のかばんではあり ません。 Kore wa watashi no kaban aewa arimasen. .1.

その問題は あまり®要ではあ りません。 Sono mondai wa amari .This is not my bag.

2. . That problem is not very important.juyo dewa arimasen.

After /:wform of adjective この機 械はど こも悪 くあり .

ませ ん。 Kono kikai wa doko mo .

Nothi ng is wrong with .wariiku arimas en.

外 は寒く ありま せんで した。 .this machi ne.

It .Soto wa samuku arimas en deshita .

wasn' t cold outsid e. — See also aru% .

nai9 musu, Verb Forms (II) .desu.

there be ,exist ,have 1• After inanimate subject .aru ある verb meaning : be.

2. After (object) noun + ga .銀行は駅の向こうに あります。 uinko wa eki no muKo ni arimasu. The bank is on the other side of the station.

arimasu. “Does the room .「部屋にはシャワー がありますか。」 「はい、ありま す。」 ^heya ni wa shawa ga arimasu ka. “A/ど//.

have a s h o w e r ?,,‘ ‘ Y e s ,i t d o e s . " -rocsroz"o^lJCCTcAdoJ 3. Af ter /“for .

m of ver b+ ko to + .

gu (us ed for ex pre ssi .

ng ex per ien ces )束 京に .

3回 行っ たこ とが あり ま す。 .

To ky o ni su n kt .

u itt a ko to ga ari .

m as u. I'v e be en .

to To ky o thr ee .

.tim es.

After 化-form of verb (used for expressing some continuing state caused by an action) .aru au 一 4.

ド ア は 閉 め て あ .

り ま す 。 D oa w .

a sh im et e ar im .

as u. T he d o or .

is sh ut (b ec a us .

e I sh ut it ). > .

Se e al so ar im as .

ir u. ko to ga .en .

na i ato de あとで .ar u.

PHRASF MEANING : AFTER ,LATER 1. After い つ も 食 事 noun + no .

の 後 で コ ー ヒ ー .

を 飲 み ま す 。 Itsu .

mo sho kuji no ato de KOHU .

I us .o no mi ma su.

ual ly dri nk cof fee aft .

2.er me als . After /(/-form of verb 仕事が終わった後で話したいことがあ ります。 Shigoto ga .

There is something I w a n t to talk to you about after I finish work.owalta ato de hanasmtai koto ga arimasu. .

3. Used as adverb • 後で宽話しましょうか。 A t o d .

e d e n w a .

s h i m a s .

h o k a . .

S h a l l I .

c a l l y .

o u l a t e .

r ? — S e e .

a l s o k .

m .a r a .

-rocsroz f3a.:llj IJAdou a e au あう 1 7 邙 .

reciprocally .verb (added to other verbs) meaning : each other.

1. A f t e r .

c o n j u n c .

t i v e f o .

r m o f v .

e r b 助 け あ .

う こ と が 大 切 で .

す 。 T a s u .

k e a u k o .

t o g a t .

a i s e t s u .

.d e s u .

I t i s i .

m p o r t a n .

t t o h e .

l p e a c h .

.o t h e r .

masu.その問題について話 しあえば解決できる と思います。 Sono mondai ni tsuite hanashiaeba kaiKetsu dekiru to omoi. .

when : . I think you can solve it. ba ば PARTICLE MEANING if.If you talk with each other about the problem.

becoming naraba. See Verb Forms and Adjective Forms (II) for details about conjugation. 1 . U s e d in / フ以-form of verb .Note that da is irregular.

Yamada. I f y o u g o over there.あそこに行けば山田さ んに会えます。 Asoko ni ikeba Yamada-san m aernasu. もっと早く来ればよ . you can see Mr.

) . it would have been better. (I should have come much earlier.かった。 Motto hayaku kureba yokatta. If I had come much earlier.

please tell me. When she comes.彼女が来れば教えて ください。 Kanojo ga kureba osniete kudasai. .

(for a future condition. \no\ nam is used instead of ba after dictionary form of verb) ba — ba …hodo •19 .

東京に行くのなら新 幹線がレ、いです よ。 Tokyo ni iku no nara shinmnsen ga u desu yo. .

you should take the shinkansen.If you,re going to Tokyo. After (adjectival) noun + nara (conditional . 2.

form of da) あした 1 雨ならば fi きません。 Ashita ame naraba ikimasen. Used in ba-form of adjective . I won't go if it is rainy tomorrow. 3.

to sureba’ . tcirciy to. please eat.よろしければどうぞ食べてください。 Yorosnikereba dozo tabete kucuisai. ► See also ncirci. If it is all right (If you reel like it).

Verb Forms (II) ba…hodo ば…ほど PHRASE MTANING : the more …the more • •. .Adjective Forms (II).

1 .It follows the stem of ba-iorm of verb/adjective. U s e d with verb . The dictionary form of the same verb/adjective is repeated before hodo.

. The more you practice. the better you can do.練習すればするほどうまくなります。 Renshu sureba suru hodo umaku narimasu.

2. the better. The sooner. . Used with adjective 早ければ早 いほどいい。 Hayakereba hayai hodo ii.

— S e e also dake .

be ready to (do). After / ど-form of verb ,followed by . just. always. about 1. have just (done).bakari ばかり particle meaning : only.

iru/imasii 彼は遊んでばかりい る。 K a re w a .

a s o ri d e b .

H .a k a ri ir u.

e is a l w a y .

s p l a yi n g. .

After dictionary form of verb ,followed by da/desu 彼はいつも食べるばかり です。 K a re .2.

w a it s u m o .

ta b er u b a k .

a ri a es u. H e .

is a l w a y s .

r e a d y t o .

e a t. 3. After 如-form of verb ,followed by da/desu 今ここに着いたばかりで す。 .

I m a k o k o .

ni ts ui ta b a k .

a ri d es u • I' .

v e j u st a r .

ri v e d h e .

r e. After noun 彼 は 勉 強 . 4.

ば か り し て い る .

。 K a re w a .

b e n k y o b .

a k a ri s hi te .

H e is a l .ir u.

w a y s st u d .

After particle 彼 女 は . 5.yi n g.

図 害 館 に ば か り .

行 き ま す 。 K .

a n oj o w a to .

s h o k a n ni .

b a k a ri ik i .

m a s u. S h e .

a l w a y s g .

o e s t o t h .

e li b r a r y. .

I'll be away り留守にします。 about a week. After noun expressing length/quantity 1 週間ばか Isshukan bakari rusu ni shimasu.6. -rocsroz"oa):lJCCTI」AdoJ .

1 か月で 2 キロばか り体重が增えまし た。 .


OUght tO (do) : 1• After dictionary form of verb 一生けんめい働くべきです。 Isshokenmei nataraku beki desu. You shouldn't buy such a thing. I gained about two kilograms in one month. もっと甲•く来るべきでした。 Motto hayaku kuru beki deshita. That's the point you should pay attention to. Used as adjective 2 -rocsroz"o^lJZ^IJAdou Sore wa chutnoku subeki ten da.bakari — beki desu Ikkugetsu de ni kiro bakari taiju gafuemashita. あなたはもっと勉強す(る)ベきです。 Anata wa motto oenkyo su(ru) beki aesu. そんなものを H うべきではない。 Sonna mono o kau beki dewa nai. (dictionary form of verb + beki directly precedes the noun and dci/desu follows) 一 See also nakereba narancii それは注目すべき点だ。 . You should study more. You should work hard. {suru + beki may be abbreviated to subeki) 2. > S e e a l s o dake beki desu べきです PREDICATIVE PHRASE MEANING should. 1 should have come much earlier.

Alter. After ta-form of verb すでに科•いた分を見せてください。 Sudeni kaita bun o misete kudasai. 残った分は取っておきます。 Nokotta bun wa totte okimasu. It becomes ja (the informal . degree 1. 2. or -ru. There is enough to eat.222 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS bun 分 noun indicating : a quantity. After possessive particle no これは私の分です。 Kore wa watashi no bun desu. Please show me the part that you've already written. 3. when -rocsroz"oa):lJCCTI」AdoJ It is used after the stem of fe-form of verbs whose dictionary form ends with -w. Please return the portion you don't need. 丁 his is my share. part ,portion. -ku,-tsu. cha ちゃ informal equivalent of te wa or tara (usually used by women) meaning : if. I'll keep the portion that is left. 如/-form of verb 要 ら な い 分 は 返 して おい て下 さい 。 Iranai bun wa kaeshite oite kudasai. 4. After dictionary form of verb 食べる分はありま す。 Taberu bun wa arimasu.

1• After the stem of /e-form of verb もう帰つちゃうんですか。 Mo kaetchau n desu ka. I ' m going to drink like crazy today. tara chau ちゃう informal f.bun — clxau • 2 3 version of dewa) after the stem of / ト form of verbs whose dictionary form ^nds with -bu,-m“,or -nu. I ' v e d o n e w r o n g t o h e r . 1 . S e e a l s o te shinum . -mu,or -nu. The past forms arc chcitta/jutta (plain) and chaimashita/jaimashita (polite). そんなことをされちゃ困ります。 ^onna koto o sarecha Komarimasu. — S e e also ikenaija. or -ru. I'll be distressed if you do that. naranai.quivalcnt of te shimau (usually used by women) meaning: be going to (do ),finish (doing)’ (do something) completely It is used after the stem of 化 -form of verbs whose dictionary form ends with -m , -ku , -tsu. Are you going to leave so soon? 今日はどんどん飲んじゃいます。 Kvd wa dondon nonjaimasu. It becomes jau (the informal version of de shimau) after the stem of r^-form of verbs whose dictionary form ends w i t h -bu,-禽 w. Kanojo ni warui kotu o shichaimashita. I t is sometimes followed by no when forming a question. A f t e r the stem of 化-form of verb そこへ行つちゃいけません。 Soko e itcha ike mas en. You must not go there.

F o l l o w e d by negative verb ちっともかまいません。 Chittomo kamaimasen. chu ni 屮に . cxactly. Please come at n i n e sharp. I've just arrived. (not) a bit 1 . zenzen chodo ちょうど adverb meaning : (have) just (done). 2. I c a n s p e a k a l i t t l e J a p a n e s e . ちょうど今着いたばかりです。 chittomo da • 2 5 一 Chodo ima tsuita bakari desu.224 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS chittomo ちっとも adverb (used w i t h a negative) meaning : (not) at all. mattaku. I don't mind at all. 一 S e e a l s o amari. U s e d with /a-form of verb ,followed by tokoro (or bakari) ちょうど仕舉を終えたところです。 Cnodo snigoto o oeta tokoro desu. I ' v e j u s t finished the work. Before number expression ちょうど 9 時に来てください。 Chodo ku ji ni kite kudasai. sukoshi. (affirmative sentences use sukoshi) Sukoshi nihon^o gu hanasemasu. precisely 1 .

I plan to go to America during the summer vacation. These goods are cheap but the quality is not good. 高いんだが買わなければならない。 Takai n daga kawanakereba naranai. After dictionary. 面白くなかったんだが® . However. — S e e also ju da だ > See desu daga だ力ぐ conjunction (usually used in written language) meaning : b u t , however 1. 2. I'll complete it within a few days. 2、3 日中 に完成します。 M san tiichiju ni kansei shimasu. Konshu chu ni yasumi o doko de su^osu ka kimemasu. ta-’ or w«/-form of verb/adjective + no/n この商品 は安いのだが品質が良くない。 Kono shohin wa yasui no daga hinshitsu ga yokunai. A f t e r noun expressing period of time 兌休み中にアメリカに行くつ もりです。 Natsu yasutm chu NI amerika ni IKU tsumori aesu.phrase (of time) meaning : during. At the beginning of sentence 戦 は終わった。だが多くの命が失われた。 争 Senso wa owatta. w i t h i n It often euphonically changes to ju ni. The war is over. Daga oku no inochi ga ushinawareta. I drooped in at his house but I wasn't able to see him. ねたのだが、会えなかった。 彼のうちを訪 Kare no uchi o tazuneta no daga’ aenakatta. 1 . 夏,11 decide within this week where to spend the vacation. It's expensive but I need to buy it. many people lost their lives.

I watched it to the end. After (adjectival) noun + na + no/n 彼は誠実なのだが能力が足りない。 Kare wa seijitsu na no daga noryoku ga tarinai. keredo(mo) dakara だ力、ら conjunction meaning : so. ga (2). and so. that's why ,therefore ,because . Although it wasn't interesting. > See also dakedo.226 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 後まで見た。 Omoshiroku nakatta n daga saigo maae nuta. H e is sincere but lacks the ability. 3.

ta-,or nai-form of verb/adjective + no/n あしたは早 「事故があったそうですね。」「ええ、だから遅れました。 く起きるんだからもう寝なさい。 ashita wa hayaku okiru n daKara mo nenasai. Because you are a student you have to study more. At the beginning of sentence J “Jiko ga atta so desu tie. . . ’,‘‘Yes ,that's why I was late•” 2. A f t e r noun あなただけを愛しています。 Anata dake o ai shite imasu. 3. I love only you. simply ,as much as’ a s ." “Ee’ aakara okuremashitu•” ‘‘I hear there was an accident. — S e e also kara dake だけ particle meaning : only. . それができるのは太郎だけです。 Sore ga dekiru no wa tard dake desu. a s 1 . After (adjectival) noun + na + no/n あなたは学生なんだからもっと勉強しなくてはいけませ ん0 Ancita wa g a k u s e i n a n a a k a r a motto benkyo shinakute wa ike ma sen. Your father has already gone so you should hurry and go too. After dictionary. Go to bed now because you have to get up early tomorrow. just. お父さんはもう行ったんだからあなたも 〒•く行きなさい。 Otosan wa mo itta n daKara anata mo ncixaku ikinasai.daga — dake • 2 7 1.

followed by da/desu 彼とはあまり話をし ないだけです。 Kare to wa amari luinashi o shinai dake desu. Amari yoku arimasen. 行 きたくないだけです。 Ikitakunai dake desu. After dictionary form of verb/adjective.228 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Taro is the only one who can do it. followed by da/desu 彼は 眠っているだけです。 Kare wa nemutte iru dake desu. I j u s t c a m e h e r e t o s e e t h i s . 5. I just don't want to go. followed by da/desu これを見に来ただけで Kore () mi ni kita dake desu. 3. After す。 如- form of verb/adjective. -rocsroz"o lJCCTIJAdoJ 6. H e i s o n l y sleeping. I want to talk just with you (alone). After adjectival noun + na 山 : . これは高いだけです。あまりよくありません。 Kore wa takai dake desu. I w a s j u s t a l i t t l e sleepy. 4. 2. That animal exists only in Okinawa. It's not so good. T h i s is just expensive. 少し眠かっただけです。 Sukosni nemukatta dake desu. I simply don't talk with him so often. After 肌//-form of verb/adjective. A f t e r p a r t i c l e あなたとだ け話したい。 Anata to dake hanashitai. ます。 その動物は沖繩にだけい SONO DOBUTSU WA OKINAWA ni dake IMASU.

Please come here again tomorrow as soon as you can. however. 9. 7. S e e a l s o bti. kagin. : still ,nevertheless 1 . . ..dake — dakedo • 2 9 彼は有名なだけで人した政治家ではありません。 Kare wa yumei-na dake de taishita seijika dewa arimasen. A t the beginning of sentence あの車がとてもほしい。だけど高すぎる。 Ano kururna ga iotemo hoshu. Danedo takasugiru. Please eat as much as you like.. and not much of a politician. U s e d i n s t e a d o f hodo i n t h e p a t t e r n …ba …hodo 努力す ればするだけうまくなります。 Doryoku sureba suru dake umaku narimasu. mo 彼女は日本語 だけでなくフランス語も話せます。 Kanojo wa nihon^o dake de naku furansugo mo hanasemasu. H e i s merely famous. shika dakedo だけど INFORMAL CONJUNCTION OR ADVHRB MEANING but.. S h e c a n s p e a k n o t o n l y Japanese but also French. though. ( a f t e r sulci-na o r hoshii) 好きなだけ食べてください。 Suki-na dake tabete kudasai. In idiomatic expressions (between dekiru and adverb) あすまたできるだけ早くここに来てください。 Asu mala dekiru dake hayaku koko ni kite kudasai. The harder you try ,the better you can do it. dake de nciku . U s e d i n t h e p a t t e r n . hodo. . 8..

商かったんだけどどうしても欲しかったのです。 Takakatta n aaaedo doshitemo hoshikatta no desu. I want to see sumo wrestling. However. but I don't know where I can buy a ticket. After (adjectival) noun 今日は雨だけど出かけますか。 Kyo wa ante dakedo dekakemasu ka.230 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS I want that car very much. I bought a word processor. it is too expensive for me. keredo(mo) dare だれ -rocsroz"DQ. M i l l . ga (2). After dictionary form of verb/adjective + no/n すもうを見たいんだけど、どこで切符を買ったらいいの か わかりません。 ^umd o mitai n dakeao aoko de kippu o kattara u no ka wakarimasen. I don't like him very much. I t w a s e x p e n s i v e ,b u t I r e a l l y w a n t e d i t . > S e e a l s o daga. 彼は親切です。だけどあまり好きではあり I wish I hadn't done such a thing ,though. 2. but it is difficult to u s e . After m-form of verb/adjective + no/n ワープロを買ったんだけど使うのがむずかしいです。 Wapuro o Katta n aakeao tsukiiu no gu muzukasnu desu. He is kind. ません。 Kare wa shinsetsu aesu. Will you go out though it is rainy today? 3. そんなことはしなければよかった。 だけど Dakeao sonna koto wa sninakereba \OKtitta. Dakeao amari suki aewa arimasen. 4.:lMcn 」>Q.ou INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN MEANING who : 一 .


D o y o u k n o w w h o b r o k e this? 2. U s e d in subjective case with ga だれが勝つと思いま すか。 Dare ga kcitsu to omoimasu ka.232 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS The subject indicator wa cannot be used after dare. Who is the person standing over there? 4. W h o a r e y o u l o o k i n g f o r ? だれに会いたいのですか。 Dare ni aitai no desu ka. Used in possessive case with no あれはだれの車です か。 Are wa d a r e n o kuruma desu ka. Used with specific particle (dare + ka: someone. 1 . Who do you want to see? 3. Who do you t h i n k will win? だれがこれを壊したのか知っていますか。 Dare ga kore o kowasnita no ka shitte imasu ka. anyone) だれかがいるみたいです。 . Used as complement that describes subject だれですか。 あそこに立っている人は Asoko ni tatte iru hito wa dare desu ka. W h o s e c a r i s t h a t ? これはだれのかばんかわかりますか。 Kore wa a a r e n o kaban ka wakarimasu ka. D o y o u k n o w w h o s e b a g t h i s is? Irou^lroz IJAdou dar 邙 5. U s e d i n o b j e c t i v e c a s e w i t h o/ni だれ をさがしているんですか。 Dare o sagashite iru ti desu ka.

A f t e r conjunctive form of verb suidashita. (do something) and take out. — S e e a l s o hajimeru dard — datte • 3 3 . nobody) だれも電話に出ません。 Daremo denwa ni demasen. 私はよく授業を 抜 け出した。 Watashi wa yoku jugyd o nukedashita. Anybody can operate this machine. 彼はたばこを吸いだした。 Kare wa tabako o このカードでこの銀行からお金を引き出すことができ ま す。 Kono kudo ae kono gmko kara o-kane o h i K i d a s u koto ga deKimcisu. (do something) and go out 1 . With this card you can withdraw money from this bank.Dareka ga iru mitai desu. {dare + demo: anybody. Someone seems to be there. I would often skip out of classes. everybody) だれでもこの機械を操作できます。 Daredemo kono kiKcu o sosa dekimasu. Nobody answers the phone. (dare + mo [used with a negative): no one. daro だろう — S e e desho dasu T こ、 verb meaning : abruptly begin (doing something). He began to smoke.

Used with interrogative pronoun (dare. and everywhere respectively) だれだってそれには怒ります。 Dare aatte sore m wa okorimasu.234 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS datte だつて informal particle or conjunction (usually used by women and children) meaning : but. “I hate such things. . too. At the beginning of sentence (in answer to a question) 「行きたくないの。」「だって疲れているんだもの。」 "Ikitakuncii noT “Datte tsukcirete iru n da motion ‘‘You don't want to go?" “Because I’m tired. everything.” “I do. Even rich people arc unhappy sometimes. because. “Datte nemuku nai n da mono. also. After noun 金持ちだって不幸な時もある。 Kanemochi datte fukd-na toki mo aru. nati and doko + datte mean everybody. "It's time you went to bed•” “But I ,m not sleepy. ki 「あんなことはいやだ。」「私だっていやだ。」 Anna Koto wa iya da." (in reply to an imperative) 「もう寝る時間ですよ。」「だって眠くないんだもの。」 “Mo neru jiKcin desu yo. even 1.” 3." 2. "Watashi datte lya da.

He is watching television in his room. 一 . 彼は部屋でテレビを見ています。 Kare wa heya de terebi o mite imasu.:lMcn 」>Q.Everybody gets angry at that- 彼はスポーツならなんだってできます。 Kare wa supotsu nara nan datte dekimasu. by. — S e e also demo de で particle meaning : a t ,i n . After noun expressing place where an event is or where an action occurs -rocsroz"DQ. on. for Be careful not to confuse this w i t h the conjunctive form de of the copula da. After noun expressing place where an action is performed (takes the particle o) 私は毎日学校で英語を勉強します。 Watashi wa mainichi gakko de eigo o benkyo shimasu. because of. There will be a party at her house. 1. with. 屋根で何か音がする。 Yane de natiika oto ga suru. I hear a sound on the roof. If it's sports. I study English at school every day. he can play everything.ou (takes the particle ga) 彼女の家でパーテイがあります。 Kcmojo no ie ae patu ga arimasu. from. 2.

3 5 一 7. 5. H e r f a t h e r d i e d o f c a n c e r . Mr. S a k e i s made from rice. After noun expressing method or means ます。 私は電車で仕事に行き Watashi wa densha de shigoto ni ikimasu. After noun expressing material or ingredients 酒は米で作られる。 Sake wa kome de tsukurareru. そのニュースはきのうの新聞で読みました。 Sono nyusu WA kind no sninoun de yornimashita. After noun expressing how an action is performed 上のスピードで走る。 新幹線は時速 200 キロ以 . あなたのおかげでうまくいきました。 Anata no okage de umaku ikimashita. Sato is absent with a cold. I go to work by train. 6. After noun expressing range for comparison が高い。 ボールはクラスで一番背 Porn wa kurasu de ichiban se ga takai. I t w e n t s m o o t h l y t h a n k s t o you. P l e a s e w r i t e y o u r name in ink. P a u l i s t h e t a l l e s t i n t h e class. After noun expressing reason or cause 佐藤さんは風で休んでい ます。 Satd-san wa Kaze ae yasunde imasu.236 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 3. 4. 名前はインクで書いてくださ い。 Namae wa inku de kaite kudasai. 彼女のお父さんはがんで亡くなりました。 Kanojo no otosan wa gan de nakunarimashita. I r e a d t h e n e w s i n y e s t e r d a y ' s n e w s p a p e r .

12. After noun expressing time taken to finish an action 1 時間 で帰ります。 lent jikan de kaerimasu. I'll be home in an hour. kara. I bought this watch for five thousand yen.After noun expressing price この時計は 5 千円で買いました。 Kono toKei wa gosen en de kaimashita. dewa (J). ni de aru である predicative f 'hrash used in written or formal language instead of da/desu to explicitly affirm the preceding statement . S e e a l s o desu. 10.Shinkxmsen wa jisoku ni hyakkiro ijo no supiido de hashiru.丨で終わります。 \asunu wa asu ae owaritnasii. A f t e r noun expressing age 私は 25 才で結婚したい。 Watashi wa niju go sai de kekkon shitai. 8. After noun expressing point in time when something terminates 休みは明 r. The vacation will be over tomorrow. 1 1 . These tomatoes cost two hundred yen for f o u r . I want to marry at the age of twenty five.After noun expressing quantity このトマトは 4 個で 200 円しました。 Kono tomato wa yon ko de ni hyciKii en shimasmta. The shinkansen runs at speeds of more than 2(X) kilometers per hour. 9.

be made , be bom. no desu dekiru できる verb meaning : can perform something. The problem w i l l be solved in this way." マイクは日本語がよくできます。 Maiku wa nihongo ga yoku dekimasu. be finished. The work is できました。 こ finished. Used as intransitive verb 仕事が Shigoto ga dekimashita. After all what he says is correct. After dictionary form of verb/adjective + no こうすれば 問題は解決されるのである。 Ko surena rnonaai wa kaiketsu sareru no ae aru. be ready. “Can you drive a car?” “Yes ,I can. > See also desu. After (object) noun + ga , be good 「車の運転ができますか。J「はい、できます。J "Kuruma no unten ga aekimasu ka. Atter (adjectival) noun 金閣寺は 14 世紀に建てられた寺である。 Kinkakuji wa jii yon seiKi ni taterareta (era de aru. . kkHaiy dekimasu.238 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS de aru — dekiru • 3 7 1. Mike is very good at Japanese. bccomc pregnant. 結局彼のいうことが正しいのであ る。 Kekkyoku kare no iii koto ga tadashii no de aru. Kinkakuji is a temple built in the fourteenth century. -rocsroz Adou 2. be formed (at ),come into existence 1. can be done. 2.

the beginning of sentence Demo mo ososugiru yo. At でももう遅すぎるよ。 . A new building has been built in front of the station. Some urgent business has come up so I have to leave.食事の ffl 意ができました。 Shokuji no ydi ga dekimashita. But it's too late now. おもしろいクラブができました。 Omoshiroi kurcibu ga dekimashita. 2. even. 彼女に子供ができた。 Kanojo ni kodomo ga dekita. (Dinner is ready. any . koto ga dekiru demo でも particle or conjunction meaning : but ,or something. (or She is going to have a baby. A unique club was set up.) 駅前に新しいビルができた。 Ekimae ni atarashu biru ga dekita. Miso is made from soybeans. Preparation for dinner is finished. After interrogative word 1.) みそは大豆からできます。 Mi so wa daizu kara dekimasu.. 急用ができたので失礼します。 Kyuyd ga aekita node shitsurei snimasu. A child was born to her. — ► S e e a l s o ga.. in spite of.

どこでも仕事に行きます。 Doko demo shigoto ni ikimasu. Any way is all right. Anybody knows such things. There are even some grown-ups who don't know that kanji. 大人でもその漢字を知らない人がいます。 Otona demo sono kanji o shiranai nito ^a imasu. Pd like to drink coffee or something. He works even on Sundays.) 食べ物は何でも食べます。 Tabemono wa nan demo tabemasu.) 3. 彼はロ曜ロでも働きます。 Kare wa nichiyobi demo hatarcikimasu.240 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS demo demo • 3 9 一 だれでもそんなことは知っています。 Dare demo sonna koto wa snitte imasu. . (Anybody knows that. 雨でも出発します。 Ante demo shuppatsu shimasu. I eat any (kind of) food. Any time will be fine. (I don't care. どうでもいいです。 Do demo ii desu. I will go anywhere to work. Fm going to leave even if it is rainy. いつでもけっこうです。 Itsu demo kekko desu. After (adjectival) noun コーヒー でも飲みたいな。 Kohu demo nomitai na.

After specific particle 束京からでも富士山が見えます。 .4.

Fuji can be s e e n . After NAI-FORM of verb/adjective -rocsroz"DQ.ou その仕事は土曜日までにできないでしょう。 bono shigoto wa doyobi made ni dekinai desnd. That man is probably Mr. The work will probably not be completed by Saturday. She is very beautiful. won't you? 彼女はとてもきれいでしよう。(with rising intonation) Kanojo wa totemo kirei desho. would (be). Tokyo wa asu ame aesho. probably 1. temo/demo desho でしよう auxiliary verb meaning : will (be). It may be rainy in Tokyo tomorrow. Paul will be probably be back by five.. Even from Tokyo Mt. isn't she? 3. shall (be). You w i l l go together.White. ikura . After noun あの人がホワイトさんでしよう。 Ano hito ga 東京はあす雨でしょう。 howaito-san desho.242 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Tokyo kara demo JUJ ト san ga miemasu. 2. あなたもいっしよに行くでしよう。(with rising intonation) Anata mo issnoni iku desho. After dictionary form of verb/adjective ポールは 5 時までに 帰 るでしょう。 Poru wa go ji made ni kaeru desho. — S e e a l s o datte. > See also desu 一 ..:lMcn 」>Q.

Paul and Mike were absent yesterday. After す。 (adjectival) noun 私の名前は佐藤健次で Watashi no namae wa sato kenji desu. someone or something is in some place or position. something is at some time 1. H e i s n o t Japanese. 2. someone or something is in some state or condition. so desu•” “ I s t h e c o n c e r t n e x t S u n d a y ?’,‘ ‘ Y e s ,i t i s .desho — desu • 4 1 desu です polite auxiliary verb (similar to “be , , in English) indicating: someone or something equals something else. someone or something has some quality. 「コンサー卜は次の日曜日ですか 0」「はい、そうです。」 ^Konsato wa tsugi no nichiyobi desu ka;. ” 彼は日本人 ではありません。 Kare wa nihonjin dewa arimasen. My name is Kenji Sato. My older brother is in Kyoto now. きのうポールとマイクが欠席でした。 Kind poru to maiku ga kesseKi desnita. I am very much satisfied with the conclusion. 山 : こ . 私はその決定にはとても 帰 足です。 Watashi wa sono kettei ni wa totemo manzoku aesu. After dictionary form of adjective -rocsroz"o lJZcn Adou {desu a t t h e e n d o f t h e s e n t e n c e m a k e s i t p o l i t e ) 彼の かいた絵はとてもすばらしいです。 Kare no kaita e wa totemo suoarashii desu. “H(ii. 兄は今京都です。 Ani wa ima kyoto desu.

desho. de aru. It is one fifteen by my watch. as for , judging from ,by Used in the same manner as de’ the addition of wa serves to stress the preceding word. 私の時計では 1 時 15 分です。 Watashi no tokei dewa ichijiju go fun desu. it doesn't seem he'll come. W e l l ,I . ja —> dewa — do • 4 3 dewa では(2) conjunction meaning : well. 数学では彼はほかのクラスメ一卜よりも優秀です。 Sugaku aewa kare wa hoka no Kurasumeto vori mo yiishu desu. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s e n t e n c e ではこれで失礼 します。 Dewa kore de shitsurei shimasu. In my opinion. if so 1. then ,so ,well then. at. あの帰子では彼は来そうもな い。 Ano yosu dewa kare wa KISO mo nai. I n Tokyo prices are too high. In mathematics he is superior to all his classmates. Judging from the looks of things. 1 . A f t e r noun 東京では物価が高すぎます。 Tokyo dewa bukka ga takasugimasu. がいいと思います。 私の意見ではこちらの方 Watashi no iken dewa kochira no ho ga u to omoimasu. no desu dewa では(1) double particle (made up of de and wa) meaning : in.244 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS The pictures he drew are very wonderful. I think this is better. See also arimasen. See also arimaseny de.

T h e n ,w h y d i d y o u d o i t ? ではもうあきらめます。 Dewa mo akirametnasu. WHAT HOW ABOUT . How shall I do it? 駅までどう行くんですか。 Eki made do iku n desu ka. do どう INTERROGATIVE ADVERB MEANING : HOW . Followed by desu (may be replaced by the more polite word ikaga) 今日は気分はどうですか。 . How can I go to the station? 2. If so ,I give up. 1• Followed by verb + no/n (may be replaced with the phrase do yatte or dono yd ni shite) それはどうするんですか。 Sore wa do suru n desu ka. ではなぜそうしたんです か。 Dewa naze so shita n desu ka.m u s t b e l e a v i n g n o w .

Tanaka now?” “ He is at school. Followed by locational particle 彼女はどこに住んでいるん 「郵便局はどこですか。」「あの銀行の向こうです。」 ですか。 doko — dokoro de(wa) nai • 4 5 Kanojo wa doko m sunde iru n desu ka. what : 1 .” “uakkd desu. How did you like your trip to Kyoto? それをやってみたらど うですか。 Sore o yatte mitara do desu ka. Used with the verb omou この絵 をどう思いますか。 Kono e o do omoimasu ka. Where is she living? “Yasunu ru wa ao/co e iku n desu ka. How would it be if you try it? (Why don't you try it?) 3. How are you feeling today? コー ヒーでも 1 杯どうですか。 Kohu aemo ippai ao desu ka. ‘Doko ni mo ikimasen.246 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Kyo wa kibun wa do desu ka. "Ano ginko no rnuko desu•” “Where is the post office?” “It ,s on the other side of that bank 「田中さんは今どこですか。」「学校です。」 “Tanaka-scin wa ima aoko desu ka. Where shall we meet? 彼女はどこから来ましたか。 . F o l l o w e d b y desu “Yubinkyo/cu wa aoko aesu Ka. “Where are you going for the vacation ?,,“I w o n ' t go anywhere/' 「休みにはどこへ行くんですか。」「どこにも行きません。」 どこで会うんですか。 Doko de cm n desu ka. How about a cup of coffee (or something)? 京都旅行はどうでしたか。 Kyoto ryoko wa do deshita ka. “Where is Mr. What do you think of this picture? — S e e also doshite doko どし INTERROGATIVE WORD MEANING where.” 2.

nani dokoro de(wa) nai どころで(は)ない phrase meaning : be out of the question , be more than 暴 . 冗談を言っているどころでない。 Jodan o itte iru dokoro de nai. ka. Kiseki desu. .Kanojo wa aoKo kara kimashita ka. . but 1. This is not an occasion for joking. After (adjectival) noun …, ncn …on the contrary . At what hotel are you staying? 4. dokoro ka どころか phrase meaning : far from , to say nothing of. It is a miracle. Followed by subject marker ga それのどこが悪いん ですか。 Sore no doko ga warui n desu ka. . はありません。奇跡です。 Un ga ii dokoro dewa arimasen. not to speak of.. not only . What's wrong with it? — S e e a l s o dore’ itsu. much less. this is not an occasion for 1 . Going on a trip is out of the question. Followed by possessive particle no どこのホテル に泊まるんですか。 Doko no hoteru ni tomaru n desu ka. Where did she come from? (Where is she from?) 3. much more.. It is more than good luck. . (not) . A f t e r dictionary form of verb/adjective 行くどころではない。 旅行に Rvoko ni iku dokoro dewa 運がいいどころで nai.

I d o n ' t e v e n e a t f i s h m u c h l e s s m e a t . す。 Kare wa nihongo dokoro ka chugokugo mo hanasemasu. 肉どころか魚も食べません。 Niku dokoro ka sakana mo tabemasen. t o s a y n o t h i n g o f G e r m a n . H e can speak not only Japanese but Chinese as well. E n g l i s h i s d i f f i c u l t f o r m e . 雨どころか雪になりそう です。 Ame dokoro ka yuki ni nari so desu.248 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS (the pattern.. After dictionary form of verb/adjective 一 . ドイ ツ語どころか英語も私にはむずかしい。 Doitsugo aokoro ka eigo mo watashi ni wa muzukasnu.. R a i n i t l o o k s more like snow. d o k o r o k a … m o emphasizes the second item in comparison with the first) 彼は日本語どころか中国語も話せま 2.

Daijobu desu ka:. こ . somehow ,just 1. Far from laughing." ‘Tm leaving now•” “Good-bye•” Used to express thanks 「お先にどうぞ。」「これは、どうも。」 “O-saki ni dozoT “Kore wa aomo •” “Please go ahead. 3. N o t o n l y d o e s h e n o t h e l p ,b u t h e c o m p l a i n s . “ Domo. very (much). 「痛い。」「あ、どうも。大丈夫ですか。」 “Itai:,“ん domo. domo とつも informal word meaning : hello ,good-bye ,thank you ,sorry.) 「これで失礼し ます。」「どうも。」 “Kore de shitsurei smtnasu. 彼は賢いどころか天才だ。 Kare wa kashikoi dokoro ka tensai da.dokoro ka domo • 4 7 一 彼は笑うどころか怒ってしまった。 Kare wa warau dokoro ka okotte shimatta. Used in greetings 「ゃあ。」「ゃあ、どぅ も。」 4iYd." (After you. He is not only clever but a genius. how are you?” (Glad to see you. After nai-form of verb 彼は手伝わないどころか文句を言っている。 Kare wa tetsudawanai dokoro ka monku o itte iru.n uYaf domor “Hi. 3.) “Oh ,thanks•” Used to express apology -rocsroz PJa):lJZcn Adou 2. he got totally angry. .” “Hi.

Used with negative あなたの言うことがどうもわかりません。 Anata no in koto ga aomo wakarimasen. How many stamps have you 2. で 山 : 邙 . I ,m very sorry to be late.250 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 4. how much ,how long’ how far ,how tall ,how often 1. Thank you very much for your kindness. 5.” “Oh ,sorry. B e f o r e noun どのくらい切手を集めましたか。 Dono Kurai tatte O atsumemashita KU. i just can't understand what you say. ご親切どうもありがとうございます。 uo-shinsetsu domo arigato gozaimasu. “Ouch. collected? Used as adverb -rocsroz 1£ IJAdou ここから駅までどのくらいかかりますか。 Koko kara eki made dono kurai kakarimasu ka. Are you all right ?,, (sumimasen [ I ' m sorry] is dropped after domo) Used as adverb 遅れてどうもすみません。 Okurete domo sumimasen. Somehow I don't like that man. どうもあの人は気に入らない。 Domo ANO HITO WA KI NI iranai. — S e e also doshitemo dono kurai どのくらい interrogative phrase meaning : how many.

W h i c h i s t h e c h e a p e s t o f t h e m ? 2.dono kurai dore • 4 9 一 How long does it take from here to the station? 車はどのくらいかかりま すか。 Kuruma wa dono kurai kakarimasu ka. W h i c h b o o k i s i n t e r e s t i n g ? 山 : 邙 こ . Which do you choose of these three? 3. Before noun (changes to dono) -rocsroz"o lJZ Adou どの本がおもしろいですか。 Dono hon gci omoshiroi desu ka. It becomes doko when expressing ‘‘where •,’ 1 . Used as object どれがいちばん好きですか。 Dore ga ichiban suki desu ka. Which do you like best? この 3 つのうちどれを選びますか。 Kono mittsu no uchi dore o erabimasu ka. How much does a car cost?/How long does it take by car? -> See also kurai dore どれ INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN MEANING which : The polite form is dochira,w h i c h also means “who” or ‘‘where•” Dore becomes dono before a n o u n i t modifies. U s e d as subject このうちどれがいちばん安いですか。 Kono uchi dore ga ichiban yasui desu ka.

HOW , 1 . H o w d o y o u w r i t e t h i s c h a r a c t e r ? — S e e a l s o dd.A s k i n g a reason どうして遅れたんですか。 Doshite okureta n desu ka. naze . Why were you late? 2. Can you spare me any of these? (dore + demo: whichever. Used with specific particle (dore + ka: any) この内どれか頂戴できますか。 Kono uchi aore KU chudai dekimasu ka. anything) どれでもいいから好きなのをお選び下さい。 Dore demo u kara suki-na no o o-erabi kudasai. Asking a method この字はどうして書くんですか。 Kono ji wa doshite kaku n desu ka.252 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 4. {dore + mo: all. Any one is fine. 一► See also doko doshite どうして INTTRROGATIVE ADVERB MEANING : WHY IN WHAT WAY . any) この本はどれも子供には難しすぎる。 Kono Hon wa dore mo kodomo ni wa muzukashi-sugiru A n y of these books is too difficult for a child. so please pick the one you like.

sure ,here it is 1 . by any means. 丄 j u s t c a n ' t m e m o r i z e i t . — S e e also domo dozo どうぞ -rocsroz"o lJZcn Adou adverb meaning : please. Used with negative どうしてもそれを覚えられません。 Doshitemo sore o oboeraremasen. U s e d in imperative 山 : sentence こ . I 2. . どうしても明日までに終えなければなりません。 Doshitemo ashita made m oenakereoa tiarimasen. I need it at any cost. I must finish it by tomorrow no matter what. I s i m p l y d o n ' t want to go. can't help (doing something). . simply (not) 1. ( n o t ) . at any cost. can't help thinking of her.doshite — dozo • 51 doshitemo どつしても adverb meaning : no matter w h a t . Used with affirmative どうしてもそれが’必要です。 Doshitemo sore ga nitsuyd desu. どうして も行きたくありません。 Doshitemo ikitaku arimasen. certainly. どうしても彼女のことを考えてしまいます。 Doshitemo kanojo no koto o kangaete shimaimasu.

254 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS どうぞ鹿ってください。 Dozo suwatte kudasai. ぞ 。 こちらへどう Kochira e dozo.^ ‘‘Would you lend me your pen for a while?” ‘‘Sure•” (Here it is.) へ particle indicating : a destination or direction 1 .:llj IJAdou ちょっとトイレへ行ってきます。 Chotto toire e itte kimasu. aozo. A f t e r noun 2 -rocsroz"oa. you'll find a bus stop. arimasen. Fm going to the 「京都へ行ったことがありますか。」「いえ、ありません。J rest room for a moment. “Hai. Please sit down. ni 邙 . — S e e also made. “Can 1 use your telephone?” “Yes. Used in reply to a request 「電話を貸してくれませんか。」「はい、どうぞ。J “Denwa o mshite kuremasen ka.^ ‘‘Have you been to Kyoto ?,,‘‘No ,I haven't. “Kydto e itta koto ga arimasu Ka•” “ie. certainly•” 「ちょっとペンを貸してくれませんか。」「どうぞ。J “Chotto pen o kashite kuremasen ka•” "Ddzo. This way , please.” 角を右へ曲がるとバス停があります。 Kado o migi e magaru to hasutei ga arimasu. If you turn to the right at the corner.

After subject just introduced/recognized この人が鈴木さんです。彼は高校の先生です。 Kono hito ga suzuki-san desu.e — ga • 5 3 ga か⑴ particle indicating : the subject or object for specific verb or adjective If the subject is contrasted with other things ,or 11 only partial information about the subject is given. After subject in a relative clause 私が買つたカメラは日本製です。 Watashi ga katta karnera wa nihon sei desu. There's a gas station on the other side of the traffic signal. W h a t i s s o f u n n y ? 4. It smells very delicious. After subject in a subordinate clause こ . wa replaces ga. The camera I bought is Japanesemade./ I should do it. I’ll do it. Kare wa koko no sensei desu. Suzuki. This is Mr. とてもおいしいにおいがします。 Totemo oishii nioi ga shimasu. He is a high school teacher. 1. 2. After interrogative 何がそんなにおもしろいのですか。 Nani ga sonna ni omoshiroi no desu ka.) 3. 信号の向こうにガソリンスタンドがあります。 Shingd no mukd tu gasorin sutanao ga arimasu. A f t e r stressed s u b j e c t 私がそれをし ま す 。 Watashi ga sore o shimasu. -rocsroz Adou 5. ( Let me do it.

256 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 洋子が来たら教えてください。 YOKO ga kitara oshiete kudasai. please tell me. I want to know the truth. 日本の食べ物の中ではすしがいちばん好きです。 Nihon no tabemono no naka dewa sushi ga ichiban suki desu O f J a p a n e s e f o o d s I l i k e s u s h i b e s t . 本当のことが知りたい。 Honto no koto ga shiritai. > S e e a l s o hoshu. After object of verb/adjective expressing possession ,exist ence. I have no money now. If it rains. B e t w e e n two : , contrastive or opposing clauses . wa ga が(2) CONJUNCTION MEANING but and 1 . 日本語ができますか。 Nihongo ga dekimasu ka. I want much more free time. I ' l l give up going. or sensation 今お金がぜんぜんありません。 Ima o-kane ga zenzen arimasen. necessity. When Yoko comes. no. desire. Can you speak Japanese? もっと自由時間がほしい。 Motto jiyu jikan ga hoshii. emotion. 雨が降れば行くのをやめます。 Ame ga fureba iku no o yamemasu. 6. ability.

がんばりましたが、だめでした。 Ganbarimashita ga dame deshita. Ima totemo isogashu n desu ga … I ,m very busy now … (so I can't help you). To simply connect two clauses 田中と申しますが、社長にお会いできますか。 fanaka to mosmmasu ga,shacho m o-ai aekimasu ka. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 」AdoJ 1 . Would it be possible to see the boss? その映画を見ましたが、とてもおもしろかったですよ。 ^ono eiga o mimashita ga totemo omoshirokatta aesu yo. 2. My name is Tanaka. no ni garu 力《る suffix verb (added to the stem of certain adjectives to give a more subjective feeling. I saw that movie. A f t e r the stem of adjective expressing emotion 一 ..ga garu • 5 5 一 私はお酒は飲みますが、タバコは吸いません。 Watashi wa o-sake wa nomimasu ga taoaKo wa suimasen. I tried hard but I failed. and it was very interesting. 3. or to tai-form of verb) meaning : (someone) wants/feels (something) Garu usually takes a 3rd person subject in the progressive form when the subject is specific. I drink alcohol but don't smoke cigarettes. At the end of sentence (states condition and leaves conclusion to the hearer) 今とても忙しいん ですが.. keredo(mo). dakedo. nugara. — S e e also daga.

258 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 彼はもっといい审•を欲しがっています。 Kare wa motto ii kuruma o fioshigatte imasu. H e w a n t s a better car. She is eager to visit Europe. A f t e r specified point in time . After the stem of adjective expressing sensation あの けが人はひどく痛がっています。 Ano kega run wa mdoku itagatte imasu. around 1 . — S e e also tai. The guitarist wants to sing a song. (the particle ga cannot be used after the direct object with guru) 子 供はすぐおばけの話をこわがる。 Kodomo wa sugu obake no hanashi o kowagaru. 2. も寒がっています。 彼は外でとて Kare wa soto de totemo samugaHe imasu. 3. After conjunctive form of verb + ta {tai + garu becomes tagaru) 彼女はヨ一ロッパに行きたがっています。 Kanojo wa yoroppa ni ikitagatte imasu. hoshii goro ‘ ろ suffix (of time) meaning : about. Children are easily scared by ghost stories. ギターの 人は歌を歌いたがる。 Kjitd no nito wa uta o utaitagaru. He is very sensitive to cold outside. That injured person looks to be in terrible pain.

About when will that bridge be completed? 何時ごろ(に)伺いましょう 力、。 Nan I I 2oro (ni) ukcigcumasho ka. 五月からピアノを習い始めます。 Go gatsu kara piano o naraihajimemasu. After itsu/ncin ji その橋はいつごろ出来上がりますか。 bono hashi wa itsu goro dekiagarimasu ka. IrolJ lroIAI"oQJpJZcn 」AdoJ My friend began to study Japanese last year.fforo hajimeru • 5 7 一 私とキャロラインは今朝は 7 時ごろ(に)起きました。 Watashi to kyarorain wa kesa wa shichi ji goro (ni) oki. Caroline and I got up about seven o'clock this morning. At about what time shall I call on you? gurai く らレ、 S e e kurai hajimeru 始める verb meaning : begin. start (doing) 1 . A f t e r conjunctive form of verb 私の友達は去年日本語を勉強し始めました。 Watashi no tomodachi wa kyonen nihongo o benkyo shihajimemashita.mashita. > Sec also dasu 山 : 一 . 2. I w i l l start learning piano from May.

He is supposed to arrive here soon.260 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS hazu desu はずです phrase meaning : be supposed/expected to (do). 3. -rocsroz 1£ IJAdou 3. 彼女は病気のはずです。 Kcmojo wa byoKi no hazu desu. After . After «^/-form of verb/adjective 彼女はそんなことをしないはずだ。 KANOJO WA SONNA KOTO O shinai hazu da. I don't expect that she is going to do such a thing. ought to (do) 1• After dictionary form of verb/adjective 彼はもう着くはずです。 Kare wa mo tsuku hazu desu. I'm sure I told you that. このカメラはもっと安 いはずです。 Kono kamera wa motto yasui nazu desu. This place ought to be safe.«-form of verb/adjective そう言ったはずだ。 So itta hazu da. See also hazu ga nai で 山 : 邙 . This camera ought to be much cheaper. 2. I ,m sure she is sick. After (adjectival) noun + na/no ここは安全なはずです。 Koko wa anzen-na hazu desu. be sure to (do).

It is impossible that one would make so much money. 一 . 2. 3. It is improbable that she has not arrived yet. H i s s t o r y c a n n o t b e f a l s e . After dictionary form of verb/adjective そんなにお 金が儲かるはずがない。 Sonna ni o-kane ga mokaru hazu ga nai. (She should have already arrived. — S e e a l s o hazu desu ho ほう IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn noun indicating : one of two sides being compared with the other It is always followed by the particle ga. After / 以-form of verb/adjective 彼がミスをしたはずがない。 Kare ga misu o shita hazu ga nai.hazu desu ho • 5 9 一 hazu ga nai はず力《ない phrase meaning : cannot (do ),it is impossible t h a t . After adjectival noun + na/no 彼の話がうそのはずがない。 Kare no hanashi ga uso no hazu ga nai. He cannot have made a mistake. . .) 4. 1. A f t e r nai-form o f v e r b / a d j e c t i v e 彼女がまだ 来ていないはずがない。 Kanojo ga mada kite inai hazu ga nai.

It will be more convenient to go by bus. I am busier on rnday (than on other days of the week). ano この方 Kono ho ga benri desu. After wfl/-form of verb そんな映 W は見ない方がましです。 ^onna eiga wa minai ho ga mas hi desu. カメラは 軽 い方が便利ですよ。 Kamera wa karui ho ga benri desu yo. A f t e r n o u n + no 金曜日の方が忙しいです。 Kinyobi no ho ga isogashii desu. After dictionary form of verb/adjective バスで行く方が便利でしょう。 夏 Basu de IKU ho ga benn desho. After / 以-form of verb Irou lrozF^plj^lJACLou 歩いて行った方が速かったですね。Aruite itta ho gci hayakatta desu ne. 2. like rice better than bread. 4. (mashi da/desu is often used w i t h ho) 5. 家で休む方がいい。 le de yasumu ho ga u. パンよりごはんの方が好きです。 Pan yori gohan no ho ga suki desu. T h i s i s m o r e u s e f u l . It is better for me not to see such a movie. I would rather take a rest at home.262 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 1. 山 : . After が便利です。 the demonstrative adjectives kono,sono. A lighter camera is handier. {yori often indicates the other side of a comparison) 3.

時間ほど貴道なものはない。 Eigo wa nihongo hodo muzuKashiku arimasen. Kyoto Station is about one kilometer from here. I ' l l take 英語は日本語ほどむずかしくありません。 about one kilogram of that coffee. Please そのコーヒーを 1 キロほど SONO KONU O ICHI kiro hoao KUDASAI. 2. yori hodo ほど particle meaning : about. . After dictionary form of verb/adjective 海外旅行ができるほどお金がたまりました。 Kaigai ryoko ga aekiru hodo o-kane ga tamarimashita. the m o r e . . 1. • • •, to the extent of. . (not) clS . • . or so. . す。 この本は子供でも読めるほどやさしいで 一 . After noun expressing length/quantity 京都駅はここから 1 キロほどです。 Kyoto eki wa Koko kara ichi Kiro hodo desu. After noun ,followed by a negative difficult as Japanese. enough to (do ),the m o r e . IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 」AdoJ 3. See also ho ga ii. ください。 10 分ほどここで待ってください。 Juppun hodo koko de matte kudasai. w a i t here ten minutes or so. English is not as Jikan hodo kicho-ria mono wa nai. I saved enough money to be able to travel abroad. There is nothing as precious as time.ho hodo • 61 一 It would have been faster to go on foot.

5.264 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Kono hon wa kodomo demo yomeru h o d o yasashii desu. The more I talk with him. After nai-form of verb 私はもう歩けないほど疲れました。Watashi wa mo arukenai nodo tsukaremashita. the more I like him. After /a-form of verb で 山 : 邙 . I a m s o t i r e d t h a t I c a n ' t w a l k a n y m o r e . S e e a l s o ba …hodo. bakari. It is better to apologize to her. 4. This book is so easy that even a child can read it. After dictionary form of verb (more direct than when following ra-form) 彼女に謝る方がいい。 Kanojo ni ayamaru ho ga u. After /a-form of verb この中古の車は思ったほど高くはなかった。 Kono chuko no kuruma wa ornolta hodo takaku wa nakatta. This used car was not as expensive as I had expected. 彼とは話すほど好きになる。 Kare to wa hanasu hodo suki ni naru. 1. kurai ho ga ii ほう力《いい phrase (expressing a suggestion or advice) meaning : it would be better to (do)’ you had better (do) When speaking to a person of higher status or in an indirect manner , it is better to add to omoimasu (I think) to the end of the phrase. -rocsroz 1£ IJAdo:} 2.


as well as. Some other day is better. ほかの人に頼みま ほかの日がいいです。 Hoka no hito ni tanornimasu. After mi/-form of verb そこへは行かないほうがいいですよ。 Soko e wa ikanai ho ga n desu yo. in addition to.266 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS ho ga ii~ hoka • 6 3 今日は傘を持って行ったほうがいい 0 Kyo wa kasa o motte itta ho ga ii. I'll ask す。 somebody else for it. ♦ See also ho hoka ほか noun whose meaning is determined by the particle which follows Followed by no: another ,(the) other(s ),some other. besides. else Followed by de: somewhere/anywhere else Followed by ni: some/any other ,else Preceded by no and followed by ni/wa: apart from. After noun + no. I think it would be better for you to give it up. before noun it modifies Hoka no hi ga ii desu. but 1. Followed by no. except (for). It really would be better for you not to go there. 3. You had better take along an umbrella today. followed by ni/wa 山 : こ . もうやめたほうがいいと思います。 Mo yameta ho ga u to omoimasu. -rocsroz"o lJZcn Adou 2.

I can do nothing but give up. followed by no ほ Hoka no o misete kudasai. いりません。 ビールのほかは何も buru no hoka wa nani mo irimasen. You can get a cheaper one somewhere else. ほかにだれ力^f くのですか。 Hoka ni dare ga iku no desu ka. . 3. 4. Who else is going? —See also igai hoka nai ほ 力 、 な い phrase meaning : can do nothing but (do ),cannot help (doing) something 1 . Used as adverb. A f t e r dictionary form of verb あきらめるほかありません。 Akirarneru hoka arimasen. I have no 彼女のほかに知り合いはいません。 acquaintances besides her. Used as noun. I don't need anything other than beer. Please show かのを見せてください。 me another.Kanojo no hoka ni smriai wa imasen. followed by ni/de ほかでもっと安いの が T •に人ります。 hoka ae motto yasui no ga te ni hairimasu.

W h a t d o y o u w a n t ? After / ぞ-form of verb ちよっと手伝ってほしいのですが。 chotto tetsuaatte hoshu no desu ga. After object noun + ga 私はとてもビデ才力メラがほしいです。 Watashi wa totemo bideo kamera ga hosnu desu. 2. 1. I want you to help me for a while. 何がほしいのですか。 Nani ga hosnu no desu ka. and the 2nd person in questions. I w a n t you to buy me a computer as p r e s e n t . morau a birthday hotondo ほとんど IrolJQJproz"o adverb meaning : almost ,hardly ,scarcely ,little ,few 山 : . when hoshii is followed by the 3rd person subject must be used. would like (someone) to The subject is usually the 1st person in declarative sentences. I w a n t a v i d e o c a m e r a v e r y m u c h .268 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS hoka nai hotondo • 6 5 一 hoshii ほしい adjective meaning : want ,want (someone) to. garu. S e e a l s o ga (J). However. 誕生日プレゼン卜にコンピューターを買ってほしいので す。 fanjoni purezento ni konpyuta o katte nosnu no desu.

H a r d l y a n y b o d y b u y s i t . 新聞以外はあまり何も読みません。 Shinbun igai wa amari nani mo yomimasen. I w o r k e v e r y d a y e x c e p t W e d n e s d a y .:llj IJAdo:} 水曜 N 以外は W ロ働いています。 Suiyooi igai wa mainichi hataraite imasu.1 . in addition to. O t h e r t h a n t h e n e w s p a p e r I r e a d a l m o s t n o t h i n g . The work is almost finished. amari igai 以外 noun meaning : except (for). 1 . 2. I n affirmative sentence 仕事はほとんど終わりました。 dhigoto wa hotondo owarimashita. I h a v e h a r d l y s t u d i e d J a p a n e s e t h i s w e e k . (those) other than It is often followed by the particle ni or wa. ’ S e e a l s o metta ni. In negative sentence 今週はほとんど日本語を勉強しませんでした。 Konshu wa hotondo nihongo o oenk\o sh una sen desmta. apart from. b u t ,besides. ほとんどだれ もそれを買いません。 Hotondo dare mo sore o kaimasen. A f t e r noun -rocsroz"oa. 邙 . 私はあなた 以外に日本人の友人がいません。 Watashi wa anata igai ni nihonjin no yujin ga imasen.

Used as adverb IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn 以後気をつけてください。 Igo ki o tsukete kudasai. from (now) on 1. After dictionary form of verb 逃げる以外に方法がな い。 Nigeru igai ni hoho ga nai. There is no other way except to run away. — S e e also hoka igo 以後 noun (used of time) meaning : after. Please call me after 7 p. 2. 次の月曜日以後は大阪にいます。 Tsugi no getsuyobi igo wa Osaka ni imasu. — S e e also ikd. After noun expressing time (usually followed by a particle) 午後 7 時以後に電話してください。 uogo shichi ji igo ni aenwa shite kudasai. kara .m. irai. n i b e i n Osaka from next Monday on.270 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS igai — igo • 6 7 2. since. I know nothing except that he is a teacher. 3. I have no Japanese friends apart from you. A f t e r r e p o r t e d s t a t e m e n t e n d i n g w i t h to iu koto 私は彼 が先生だということ以外は何も知りません。 Watashi wa kare ga sensei da to iu koto igai wa nani mo shirimaseti. Please be more careful from now on.

. This tunnel is more 以上の理山でこれは中止. since ,as long as 且 • After noun expressing length/quantity/price す。 そこまで行くのに 1 時間以上かかりま Soko maae iku no ni ichi jiKan ijo kakarimasu. This was cancelled for the reasons mentioned above. It will take このトンネルは 2 キロ メー トル以上あります。 more than one hour to get there. At the end of a clause それをやると決めた以上努力しなければなりません。 ^ore o yarn to Kimeta ijo dor\oku shinakereba narimasen. sore. . . (not) a n y longer. Followed by no + noun Kono tonneru wa ni Kirometoru ijo arimasu. Any more than that is impossible. After the demonstrative pronouns kore. . than two kilometers long. over ,mentioned above. 2. are これ以上ここで待てません。 Kore ijo koko de matemasen. . Now that you've decided to do it ,you must work hard. . I can't wait here any longer. now t h a t . (no) more.になりました。 Ijo no riyu de kore wa chushi ni narimashita. 3. 4. それ以上 は無理です。 Sore ijo wa tnuri desu. o n c e .ijo 以上 noun meaning : more t h a n . 18 才以上の人しか入れません。 Jiihassai ijo no hito shika hairemasen. Only people who are eighteen and over are allowed to enter. .

Used with predicate of emotion 私はビ一ルがいちばん好きです Watashi wa biiru ga ichiban suki desu. Q IrolJ lroIAI 私は今いちばんイギリスへ行きたい。 Watashi wa ima ichiban isirisu e iKitai.” 2. Before adjective/(adjectival) noun/adverh どのカメラがし、ちばん安いで すか。 Dono kcunera ga ichiban \asui desu ka. ichiban いちはん adverb indicating : the superlative degree of an adjective/adverb It is originally a noun meaning “the first ,,,‘‘number one’” or “the first place•” 1. I like beer best. As long as we've come this far.272 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS ijd ichiban • 6 9 一 {kara niwa c a n r e p l a c e ijo) ここまでやった以上完成しよう。 Koko made yatta ijd K a n s e i s h i y o . I w a n t t o g o t o E n g l a n d m o s t n o w . "Maiku desu” ‘‘Who speaks Japanese the best ?’,‘‘Mike does. > S e e a l s o mottomo 山 : . let's complete it. Which camera is the cheapest? 「だれがいちばんじょうずに曰本語を話します か。j「マイ クです。J “Dare ga icniban idzu ni nihongo o hanashimasu ka.

in case . Used as adjective それのどこがいけないのですか。 Sore no doko ga ikenai no desu ka. wrong 1. It's better to take an umbrella with you because it'll be bad if k rains. 2. W h a t ' s w r o n g w i t h i t ? > S e e a l s o naranai . have to’ ought to. (You had better take an umbrella in case it rains. After the stem of nat-form of verb + nakereba もう行かなければいけません。 Mo ikanakereba ikemasen.) 4. (ikemasen m a y b e r e p l a c e d b y narimasen) 3. . Y o u m u s t n o t s m o k e h e r e . I h a v e t o g o n o w . .ikenai いけない adjective meaning : must not. After dictionary form of verb + to,followed by kara 雨が降るといけないから傘を持って行ったほうがいいで す よ o KCISCI Ame gcijuru to iKetiai kara o motte itta ho ga N desu \o. Y o u m u s t n ' t drink too much. . After 化-form of verb + wa ここでたばこを吸ってはいけません。 Koko de tabako o suite wa ikemasen. あまりお酒を飲んでは いけないよ。 Amari o-sake o noride wa ikenai yo. bad.

at the . • . Please call me after nine tonight. . 1 . temo/demo • 7 1 一 ik6 以降 noun meaning : f r o m . 今晩 9 時以降に電話してください。 Konban ku ji iko ni aenwa shite kudasai. est.. kara ikura . on. Used with noun IrolJQJproz"o lJZcn いくら天才でもその問題は解けない。 山 : . temo/demo いく ら•••ても/でも phrase meaning : no matter how (much/hard). it doesn't go well.. Used with ku-form of adjective いくら迩くても 5 時までに若きたい。 Ikura osokutemo go ji made ni tsimtai. after 1 . I want to arrive there by five at the latest. A f t e r noun expressing point in time ,followed by particle 来週以降はと ても忙しいです。 Raisnii iko wa totemo isogasnu desu.. even .. 2. 3. U s e d with the stein of / ト form of verb い く ら が ん ば っ て も よ く な ら な い 。 Ikura ganbattemo yoku naranai.. r i l be very busy from next week on.. . No matter how hard 1 try. irai. ► See also igo.274 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS ikenai ikura .

A f t e r noun expressing a past point in time 先月以来雨が降つていません。 aengetsu irai ame ga jutte imasen. It has not rained since last month. not more than 1 . temo inai 以内 noun meaning : within. A f t e r noun expressing length/quantity/price (followed by ni) 10 分以内に 戻 ります。 Juppun inai ni modorimasu. . irai 以来 CONJUNCTION MEANING siflCC : 1 . (followed by da/desu) 旅行の費用は 5 万円以内です。 Ryoko no hiyd wa go man en inai desu.Ikura tensai demo sono mondai wa tokenai. E v e n a g e n i u s c a n n o t s o l v e t h a t p r o b l e m . The station is w i t h i n twenty minutes' walk from here. The expense for the trip will be less than fifty thousand yen (followed by no) 駅はここから 歩 いて20 分以内の所です。 Eki wa koko kara aruite ni juppun inai no tokoro desu. less than. — S e e a l s o demo. I'll be back within ten minutes.

After /e-form of verb 私 は教 師に なっ て以 来5 年に なり ま す。 Wat ashi wa kyos hi ni natt e irai go nen ni nari mas u. I t is five yea rs sin IrolJQJprozfD^lJZ^JAd .276 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS inai iru • 7 3 一 2.

U s e d for animate subject 姉は今 大阪にいます。 Arte wa ima Osaka m imasu. . ing ,have (done). be (done). . . ing 1 . have b e e n . iKo’ kara iru レ、る verb meaning : be ,there be ,exist.ce I bec am e a tea che r. have. stay. . ► See als o igo. be . .

278 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS M y old er sis ter is no w sta yin g (or liv ing ) in Os ak a. この 動物 園に は珍 しい 動物 がい ま す。 Ko no do bu tsu .

2. Th ere are uni qu e ani ma ls in thi s zo o. Used for animate object + ga 私は兄弟が 3 人いま す。 .en ni wa me zu ra sm i do bu tsu ga im as u.

280 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS W a t a s h i w a k y o d a i g a s a n n i n i m a s u .

. 3. After / ト form of verb 私 は 今 友 人 を 待 っ . I h a v e t h r e e b r o t h e r s .

282 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS て い ま す 。 W a t a s h i w a i m a y u j i n o m a t t e .

I a m w a i t i n g f o r a f r i e n d .i m a s u .

車 の 窓 が 開 い て い ま す よ 。 K u r u m a n .284 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS o f m i n e n o w .

Y o u r c a r .o m a d o g u a i t e i m a s u y o .

私 は 英 字 新 問 を 読 ん で い ま す 。 .286 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS w i n d o w i s o p e n .

.Watashi wa eiji shinbun o yonde imasu • I am reading an English language newspaper. [habitual action]) その店はも う閉まって います。 Sono rmse wci mo shimatte imasu • That store is closed already. {or I read an English language newspaper. It has been raining since yesterday. きのうから ずっと雨が 降っていま す。 Kino kara zutto ame ga futte imasu.

288 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 何をすべき か考えてま す。 Nani o subeki ka kangaetemasu. You look very tired. I am thinking what to do. 「この言葉を知ってい ますか。」「いいえ、 知りません。」 "Kono . (informal spoken language often uses the abbreviated ru/rnasu instead of irii/imasu after / ビ-form of verbs when expressing a continuing action or state) あなたはと ても疲れて るみたい だ。 Anata wa totemo tsukareteru mitai da.

However ,the negative of shitte iru [shitteru] is the nonprogressive form shiranai. ‘‘Do you know this word ?,,‘‘No , I don,t know it•” (English verbs expressing a condition or state are usually translated into the progressive form in Japanese. ‘lie.kotoba o snitte imasu ka. oru,masu. shir imasen. temasu isshoni いっしよ に adverb meaning : with .) — S e e also aru.

290 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS (someone ),togeth er ,at the same time .

” 2. ’ “Tomodac hi to desu. Atter noun + 「だれと いっしょ にそこへ 行ったの です か。J「友 達とで す。J “Dare to isshoni soko e itta no desu ka. “Who did you go there with?” “With a friend.isshoni itadaku • 一 to 1. Used as adverb 今からいっしょに 食事をしません Ima kara isshoni か。 .

receive. get. Yamamoto and Mr. Mr. Yamada arrived at the same time. eat ,have . Shall we have dinner together now? 山本さん と山 m さんが いっしょに着きま した。 Yamamoto -san to yamadasan ga isshoni tsukimashi ta.292 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS shokuji o shimasen ka. — S e e also to itadaku いただ く respectful verb meaning : be given.

After object noun + o IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn 学校の先生 から手紙を いただきま した。 Gakko no sensei kara tegami o itadakimas hita. 2.) I'll be given food. 1• As set phrase said before meals ただきます。 い Itadakimasu. (Lit.(something) done It is used to express respect to the giver. これをいた だきたいの ですが。 . I g o t a letter from a teacher at my school.

I , d .294 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS K o r e o i t a d a k i t a i n o d e s u g a .

3 . A f t e r r e f o .l i k e t o h a v e t h i s .

296 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS r m o f v e r b そ う し て い た だ き ま す 。 S o s h i t e i t .

) ちょっとこれを持っていた だきたいのですが。 Chot to kore o motte itadakitai no desu ga. ni have you do so. I ,d like you to hold this for a while.a d a k i m a s u . Would you すか。 look through this manuscript (for me)? すみません が、駅に行く道を教えていただけ Sum imasen ga. eki ni iku michi o oshiete itadakemasen ません力、。 . この原稿を見ていただけま Kono genko o mite itadakemasu ka. (I hope you' l l kindly do so.

but could you tell me the way to the station? —See also morau itsu いつ interrogative word meaning : WHEN TIME ,WHAT 1. U s e d i n a q u e s t i o n い つ .298 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS ka Excuse me.

こ こ へ 来 た ん で す か 。 I t s u k o k o e k i t a n d e s u .

300 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS k a . W h e n d i d y o u c o m e h e r e ? い つ で き る .

の か た ず ね ま し た か 。 I t s u d e K i r u n o k a t a z u n .

302 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS e m a s h i t a k a . D i d y o u a s k w h e n i t w .

i l l b e f i n i s h e d ? ( r e p o r t e d s p e e c h ) .

With specific particle in a question .304 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 2.

4. When will be convenient for you? JA じゃ dewa informal particle that is a euphonic change of 1. This is not my bag. Followed by the subject marker ga いつがよろしいですか。 Itsu ga yoroshu desu ka.After (adjectival) noun (used for making the negative form of da/desu) これ は私のかばんじゃありません。 Kore wa watasnt no kaban la arimasen. (indicates a condition when followed by negative form of a potential verb) この天気じゃ出かけられない。 Kono tenKi ja dekakerarenai. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn このコンピュー夕一じやそれはできません。 . Until when (how long) are you in Japan? 3.itsu ja • 7 7 一 彼女はいつから病気なのですか。 Kanojo wa itsu kara bydKi-na no desu ka. S i n c e w h e n h a s s h e b e e n s i c k ? いつまで日本にいるん ですか。 Itsu made ninon ni iru n desu ka. W e c a n ' t go out in this weather. Used in noun clause in a declarative sentence いつ始まる のかわかりません。 Itsu hajimaru no ka wakarimasen. I d o n ' t know when it begins.

You must not play here. tewa ju 中 noun meaning : throughout. I think I’d like to travel all over Japan. I was skiing throughout the winter vacation. After noun expressing place n 本中を旅行したいと思います。 Nihon ju o ryoko shitai to omoimasu. I w a s watching TV all day long. After noun expressing period of time. 2. Please complete it within this week. After していました。 noun expressing period oi time 私は冬休み中スキ一を Watasni wa juyu yasumi ju sukii o shite imashita. and followed by ikenai ここで遊ん じやいけません。 Koko de asonja ikemasen. 3. It can't be done with this computer. within. — S e e also chu ni . — S e e also cha,dewa,ikenai.306 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Kono konpyuta ja sore wa dekimasen. After the stem of /e-form of verb whose dictionary form ends with buy guy mUy or nu. 2. followed by ni 今週 中に仕上げてください。 Konshu ju ni sniagete kudasai. all over 1. 1 日中テレビを見ていました。 Ichi mchi ju tereni o mite imashita.

1. After each of two or more verbs in dictionary form 大学に行くか就職するか Daigaku ni iku ka shushoku suru ka kimenakereba naranai. or make requests. これが本物なのかどうかわかりません。 Kore ga honmono na no ka doka wakarimasen. extend invitations. I have to decide either to go to university or get a job.ju — ka • 7 9 ka カゝ particle meaning : (either)…or …, whether It is also used to form questions. I don't know whether or not this is the real thing. 遊園地に行くか映画を見に行くかしましょう。 Yuenchi ni iku ka eiga o mi ni iku ka shimashd. この字はどうやって書くのか教えてください。 Kono ji wa do yatte kaku no ka oshiete kudasai. 3. You can go to the university by either bus or subway. 2. B e t w e e n t w o o r m o r e n o u n s 大学へはバ スか地下鉄で行けます。 Daigaku e wa basu Ka chikatetsu de ike masu. Please teach me how to write this character. After noun clause + no 何が起ったのかわかりません。 Nam ga okotta no ka wakarimasen. 決めなければならない。 Let's either go to an amusement park or go to see a movie. I don't know what happened. (if preceding clause has no question words ,doka [or not] may IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZ^J .

308 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS be put after ka) .

After interrogative word 先生はだれかとどこかへ行きました。 Sensei wa dare Ka to aoko ka e ikimashita. At the end of sentence 「これはあなたのかばんですか。」「はい、そうで す。」 “Kore wa anata no Kaoan desu ka: “Hat. IKU no ka tazunemasnita ga. After / ど-form of verb + kuremasen (to make a request) 自転車を貸してくれませんか。 Jitensha o kashite kuremasen ka. tabemasu•” “Do you eat sashimi?" “Yes. "Is this your bag?" "Yes ,it i s . kotaemasen I asked her where she was going. I do•” 彼のことをどう思いますか。 Kare no koto o do omoimasu ka.4. After masen (to make an invitation) いっしょにコンサー卜に行きませんか。 Isshoni konsato ni ikimasen k a . What do you think of him? 6. . The teacher went somewhere with somebody. 5. Would you like to go to the concert with me? 7. so desu. “ 「さしみは食べますか。J「はい、食べます。」 “Sashimi wa tabemasu ka” “Hai. At the end of question in indirect speech 彼女にどこへ行くのかたずねましたが、答えませんで し た。 Kanojo ni doko e desnita. but she didn't answer. Would you please lend me your bicycle? 8.

3. followed by adverb できる限り早く出かけたいと思います。 Dekiru kagiri hayaku dekaketai to omoimasu. After noun expressing time l i m i t 申し込みは明 R 限りです。 Moshikomi wa asu kagiri desu. d o n ' t y o u ? S e e a l s o kureru.310 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 何か飲むものが欲しいですね。 Nam ka noma mono ga hoshii desu ne. — S e e a l s o dake . After dictionary form of verb/adjective 私の知る限り、彼はうそをついたことがない。 Watashi no s h i r u kagiri k a r e w a uso o tsuita koto g a nai. 2. W e m u s t k e e p q u i e t a s l o n g a s w e s t a y h e r e . unless. Applications must be made no later than tomorrow. as possible. 5. masen kagiri 限り conjunction meaning : as long as … , as far a s . A s f a r a s I k n o w h e h a s n e v e r t o l d a l i e . . . . F d l i k e t o l e a v e a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e . . is concerned a s . After specific noun + ni 今回に限り罰は与えません。 Konkai ni kagiri batsu wa at ae masen. ここにいる限り静かにし なければならない。 Koko ni iru kagiri shizuka ni shinakereba naranai. not later than Just 1. 4. After dekiru. I t w i l l b e h e l d a s scheduled unless it rains. After ««/-form of verb 雨が降らない限り予定通り行われます。 Ame gafuranai kagiri \otei dori okonawaremasu. This time only I won't punish you. I w a n t s o m e t h i n g t o d r i n k .

She may have already gone. 3.kamosnirenai 力、もしれない adjective meaning : may ,might. その方が良かったのかもしれません。 4. After (adjectival) noun 日本語はあなたには簡単かもしれません。 . 彼の 言うことが正しいのかもしれません。 Kare no iu koto ga taaashu no Kamoshiremasen P o s s i b l y w h a t h e s a y s i s r i g h t . It might have been better. After nai-form of verb 彼はいっしょに行かないのかもしれない。 Kare wa isshoni ikanai no kamosnirenai. After れない。 dictionary form of verb/adjective あすは雪が降るかもし Asu wa yuki gu furu Kamoshirenai. I t m a y s n o w t o m o r r o w . H e m a y n o t g o t o g e t h e r ( w i t h u s ) . After 如-form of verb/adjective Sono no ga yokatta no Kamoshiremasen. 2. もう帰ったのかもしれない。 Mo kaetta no kamoshirenai. possibly 1.

1. > See also desho kana かな INFORMAL MEANING … : PARTICLE I WOnder if It can be replaced with kashira (used mostly by women).312 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS kamoshirenai — kana • 8 3 Nihongo wa anata ni wa kantan kamoshiremasen • Japanese language might be easy for you. At t h e e n d o f .

s e n t e n c e 電 車 に 間 に 合 う か な 。 D e n s h a n i .

I wonder if this is all right. After (adject ival) noun (+ na no) これ はだれのか ばん(なの) . これでいいかな。 Kore de u K a n a . 2. too. I wonder if she will come. I wonder if I will be in time for the train. 彼女も来るかな。 Kanojo mo kuru k a n a .314 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS m a n i a n k a n a .

かな。 Kore wa dare no kaban (na no) kana. I wonde r whose bag this is. After conjun ctive form of verb + temo ii 窓を開 けてもいい かな。 IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn Mado o aketemo ii kana. {na no after the adjectival noun is often dropped) 3. I wonder if it's okay to open the window? .

or replaced by itsumo. 先生が必ずしも正し いとは限りません。 sensei ga Kanarazushimo tadashii to wa kagirimasen. (not) necessarily. (not) all It can be shortened to kanarazu. Money is not always necessary. wa kcigiranai Sore ga kanarazushimo umaku iku to wa kagiranai. .316 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS kanarazushimo 必ずしも adverb (used with a negative) meaning : (not) always. Used negative with O-kane wa kanarazusnimo hitsuyo dewa nai. 1. Used with dictionary form of verb/adjective + to 2. The teacher is not always right. I t w i l l not necessarily go well.

at , through. since.kara i)、ら particle meaning : from. after. That is , the reason or cause may be subjective or emotional. because When used to mean “because ,” it is the speaker's opinion that the statement expressed before kara is the reason or cause for the action expressed in the main clause. unlike node. A f t e r noun expressing point in time when something begins Natsu yasumi wa snichi gatsu hatsuka kara desu. 1 . out of. .

きのうから風邪をひ いています。 Kind kara kcize o hiite imasu.m. I ,ve had a cold since yesterday.m . to 6 p. Aft er nou n exp ress . 2. That store is open from 10 a. School begins at eight thirty. 学校は 8 時半から始 まります。 uakko wa hachi ji han kara hajimaritnasu. (kara may be replaced with ni) あの店は午前丨 0 時 から午後 6 時まで開 いています。 Ano mise wa gozeti ju ji Kara gogo roku ji made cute inuisu.318 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS kanarazushimo kara • 8 5 一 The summer vacation is from J u l y twentieth.

ing plac e 東 京から 京都ま で新幹 線で来 まし た。 Tokyo Kara kyoto maae shinkansen de kimashita. 彼女は 怒って部屎から出て行った。 Kanojo wa okotte heya Kara dete itta. Aft er nou n exp ress ing mat eria l/in gre . 3. She got angry and went out of the room. I came from Tokyo to Kyoto by shinkansen.

Jap ane se sak e is mad e fro m rice . IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn .320 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS dien ts 日 本酒は 米から 作られ ます。 Nih ons hu wa ko me kar a tsu kur are ma su.

4. A f t e r W o r m o f v e r b テ レ ビ を 見 て か ら 勉 強 し ま す .

322 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 。 T e r e o i o m i t e k a r a b e n k y o s n i m .

a s u . I ' l l s t u d y a f t e r w a t c h i n g T .

こ こ で 休 ん で か ら 帰 り ま す 。 K o k o d e y a s u n d e .324 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS V .

I ' l l g o h o m e a .k a r a k a e r i m a s u .

326 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS f t e r t a k i n g a r e s t h e r e . n 本 に 来 て か ら .

6 ヶ 月 に な り ま す 。 .

It is six mo nth s sin ce I ca me to Jap an. (he re .328 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Ni ho n ni kit e kar a rok ka ^et su ni nar im asu .

kar a ma y be dro ppe d) 5. A f t er di cti on ar y for m of ve rb/ ad jec tiv e 雨 が 降 る か ら 傘 を .

330 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 持 っ て 行 っ た 方 が い い 。 Am e ga fur u kar a kas ao mo tte itta ho ga ii. I t ' s better to take an umbrella with you because it's going to rain. 私が しま .

高 いか .すか ら休 んで くだ さ い。 Wa tas hi ga shi ma su kar a yas un de ku das ai. so ple ase tak ea rest . I'll do it.

332 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS らそ れは 買い ませ ん。 Ta kai kar a sor e wa kai ma sen . After nai-form of verb だ れ に も . 6.I don 't buy it bec aus e it is exp ens ive.

I wo n't tel l an yb .言 わ な い か ら 教 え て 下 さ い 。 Da re ni mo iwa nai kar a osh iete kud asa i.

7. 8.334 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS od y so ple as e tel l me . After (adjectival) noun + dci/desu あすは休みですからどこ かへ遊びに行きましょ Asu wa yasumi desu kara doKo ka e asobi ni ikimasho. Let's う 。 go somewhere to have fun since tomorrow is a holiday. After /a-form of verb/adjective 私が休ん だのは風 邪をひい たからで す。 Watasni .

. —See also dakara. I t is because I caught cold that I was absent.ga vasunaa no wa kaze o huta kara desu. 1 didn't go because I didn't want to. de. iko. 行きたく なかった から行き ませんで した。 IkitaKu nakatta kara ikimasen desnita.

ni. irai.336 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS igo. to . node.

(the ooject of the verb kaku [kana] must be indicated by no’ since the object of the main verb oshieru [kakikata] is already indicated by o) 丨 I 本語 の勉強の 仕方がわ .kara kawari ni • 一 87 kata ノブ suffix meaning : how to (do ),way/method of (doing) 1. Please teach me how to write kana.After conjunctiv e form of verb かなの書 き方を教えてくだ さい。 Kana no kakikata o oshiete kudasai.

I don't know how to study Japanes e. the conjunctive form of suru + kata.338 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS かりませ ん。 Nihongo no benkyo no s hi kata ga wciKarima sen. Please teach mc how to operate the computer. is always preceded by noun + no) (the dictionary form of verb + hoho also expresses “how to [do ]”; object of the verb before hoho must be indicated by o) コンピューターを操作する方法 を教えてください。 Konpyuta o sosa suru hoho o oshiete kudasai. (shikata. kawari ni 代わりに .

in exchange for. .instead of , for , as. to make up for phrase meaning : 1 . A f t e r noun + no 彼が私の代わりにそ の会に出てくれまし た。 Kare ga watashi no kawari m sono kai ni aete kuremashitci. in return (for). -TOCSroz He attended the meeting instead of me.

Will んか。 you lend me money in return for my helping you? 3. Please teach てください。 me Japanese in exchange for teaching you English.340 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS カメラはメモの代わりにな Kamera wa memo no kawari ni naru. 手伝う代わりにお金を貸してくれませ Tetsudau kawari ni o-kane o kashite kuremasen ka. . 2. A camera る。 will do for (taking) notes. After dictionary form of verb 英語を教える代わりに H 本語を教え Eigo o oshieru kawari ni nihongo o oshiete kudasai. After m-form of verb 彼はお金を無駄にし た代わりに一生懸命 働いている。 Kare wa o-kane o muda ni shita kawari ni isshokenmei hataraite iru.

After nai-form of verb 何も食べない代わりにたくさんジュー Nam mo tabenai Kawari ni takusan tusu o nonda. スを飲んだ。 I didn't eat anything but instead drank a lot of juice. Used as adverb 代 わ り に こ の ペ ン ダ ン ト を あ げ ま す 。 K a . 4. 5.He is working hard to make up for having wasted money.

342 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS w a r i r t i k o n o p e n d a n t o o a g e m a s .

u . I w i l l g i v e y o u t h i s p e n d a n t .

A t the beginning of sentence 私は彼に来るように何 度も頼んだ。けれども 来 な か っ た 。 Watasm wa K a r e ni kuru yd ni nando mo tanonda. . keredo(mo) 一 keredo(mo) • 89 1. but ,however. although. and ,I wish The final mo is often dropped in more informal speech. keredomo konakatta. keredo(mo)けれど(も) conjunction meaning : though.344 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS i n r e t u r n .

fter dictionary form of verb/adjective 太郎とはよく話すけれども A i aro to wa yoku hanasu Kereaomo totemo ii hito desu. 3. Fm a little too busy now (so I can't help you). I often とてもいい人です。 talk with Taro. 2. B u t he didn't.1 repeatedly asked him to come. A t the end of sentence 今ちょっと忙 しいんですけ れども。 Ima chotto isogashi i n desu keredo mo. and I think he is a nice person. .

A fter 如-form of verb/adjective その店 に行っ たけれ ども閉 まって いまし た 。 Sono mise ni itta keredo . Though I want to go on a trip ,I have no time. 5.346 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 4. fter r«/-form of verb 旅行に行きた いけれどもひ まがありませ ん。 A Ryoko ni ikitai Kereao mo hima ga arimase n.

6.mo smmatte imcisnit a. . I went to the store , but it was closed . A fter nai-form of verb 彼はあまり勉 強しないけれ ども成镄がい い。 Kare wa amari benkyo shinai Keredomo seiseki gu ii. そんなものは欲しく なかったけれども 買ってしまいまし た。 Sonna mono wa hoshiku nakatta keredomo katte shirmuma.snita. Though I d i d n ' t w a n t such a t h i n g . I bought it in spite of myself.

dakedo. After (adjectiva l) noun + dci/desu Kare wa majime da keredomo omoshiroku arimasen. —See also daga. but not interesting. ga (2)f no ni kesshite 決して advhrb (used with a negative) mhaning : never. 7. H e i s earnest. by no means ,(not) at all ,on no account .348 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS He doesn t study hard. but he gets good marks.

1 . U s e d with negative あなたのことは決して 忘れません。 Anata no koto wa kesshite wcisuremase n. この問題は決し てむずかしくはありま Kono mondai wa kesshite muzukashiKU wa arinuisen. 彼は決 せん。 してそんなことをする Kare wa kesshite sonna koto o sum hito dewa nai. > See also mattaku,zenz en . He 人ではない。 is the last person to do such a thing. I shall never forget you. This problem is by no means difficult.

THESE .350 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS kore しれ demonstrative pronoun meaning THIS . IT : -rocsroz"oa):lJZcn It refers to an object or objects close to both the speaker and the hearer. The polite form is kochira’ which also means “this person” こ .

Tnis is the camera that I bought yesterday.kesshite kore • 9 1 一 or “this direction•” Kore becomes kono before nouns it modifies. Have you ever seen this? これからがんばりま す。 Kore kara ganbarimasu. Moreover , it becomes koko when expressing “this place ,,or “here. particle Followed by これがきのう買った カメラです。 Kore ga kino katta kamera desu. I ' l l work hard from now on. .” 1. これを見たことがあ りますか。 Kore o mita koto ga arimasu ka. こちらが山本さんで す。 Kochira ga ycimamotoscm desu. This is Ms. Yamamoto.

This is my house. 「今日の新聞は どこですか。」 「ここにありま す。」 "Kyo no shinbun wa doko desu ku•” “Kolco ni arimasu^ “Where is today's newspaper?” “Here it i s . . Is this the platform for the train to Kobe? Before noun - 3., , Followed by da/desu 神戸行きのプラットホーム はここですか。 2.352 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS ここが私の家です。 Koko ga watasm no ie desu. Kobe \uki no purattohomu wa koko desu ka. この靴をくださ い。 Kono kutsu o kudasai.

Give me these shoes. 1 . (Til take these shoes. A f t e r noun こ れ こ そ 私 の ほ し い 本 で .) —See also are,sore koso こそ particle stressing something that is worth mentioning It essentially takes the place of the particle ga or wa after the subject.

354 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS す 。 K o r e k o s o w a t a s h i n o h o s h u H o n .

.d e s u . T h i s i s t h e v e r y b o o k t h a t I w a n t .

356 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Watashi koso orei o iwanake rebu tuirimas en. the nominalized phrase expresses a fact which is already accomplished or which the speaker supposes will be accomplished. I (not you) should be expres sing thanks . • • • ing. (the When used to nominalize the preceding clause. koto こと noun and nominalizer meaning : thing fact) that (in the abstract sense). Kotu tends to be taken as an object by verbs of m e n t a l . to (do).

activity such as knowing. understanding , hoping. learning. A f t e r noun + no . etc. 1 . recognizing.

A ft er d ic ti o n ar y f o r m o f v er b /a d . (I know her well.358 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS koso koto • 9 3 一 彼女のことはよぐ知っ ています。 Kanoio no Koto wa \O K U shitte imasu.) 2. I know things of her well.

je ct i v e 今 H は す る こ と が た く さ ん あ り ま す 。 K y o w a s u r u k .

360 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS o t o g a t a k u s a n a ri m a s u . I h a v e a l o t o f t h .

.i n g s t o d o t o d a y. 見 る こ と は 信 じ る こ と で す 。 Miru koto wa shinjiru koto desu. Seeing is believing.

It is necessary (for you) to get enough rest. さち子さんがヨーロッパに行ったこと SachikoSan ga yoroppa ni itta Koto o smtte imasu を知っていますか。 . Please tell him what I've said. That prices are high in Japan is well known. 3. After ta-form of verb/adjective 私が言った ことを彼に 伝えてくだ さい。 Watashi ga itta k o t o o kare ni tsutciete kudasai.362 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS よく休むことが必要 です。 Yoku yasumu koto ga hitsuyo desu. 日本は物価が高いこ とはよく知られてい る。 Nihon wa bukm ga takai K o t o wa yoku shirarete iru.

ka. koto ga deKiru. After declarative statement (used as a command form in written notices) 敷地内に入らないこ と。 Shikicm nai ni nairanai koto. koto ni natte iru. koto ni naru. koto ni snite iru9 koto ni suru9 mono. Did you know that Sachiko has gone to Europe? 4. - See also koto ga aru. to iu . to. no. Don't enter the premises.

A f t e r d i c t i o n a r y f o r m o f v e r b あの 人と話すことがあり ますか。 Ano hito to hanasu koto ga arimasu kci. 3. After 如-form of verb 「北海道へ行った ことがあります か。J「いいえ、あ りませ ん。」 "Hokkaido e itta koto ga arimasu ka. I h a v e n ' t ever skiied. “lie. After nai-form of verb . Do you have occasion to talk with that person? 2. arimasen.364 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS koto ga aru こと力《ある predicative phrase meaning : there are occasions when. have (done). " まだ スキーをしたことが ありません。 Mada sukii o shita koto ga arimasen. “ H a v e you ever been to H o k k a i d o ?, , N o “ ,I h a v e n ' t . had an experience that 1.

たまに食事をしないことがあります。 Tama ni shokuji o sninai koto ga arimasu. A f t e r dictionary form of verb 3 時までに来ることがで San ji made ni kuru koto ga dekimasu ka. I cannot write many Chinese characters. — S e e also koto koto ga dekiru ことができ る predicative phrase meaning : ( DO ),BE CAN ABLE TO (DO ) 1 . . Are you きますか。 able to come by three o'clock? koto ga aru koto ni natte iru • 一 95 私はあまり漢字を書 くことができませ ん。 Watashi wa amari kanji o kaku koto ga aekimasen. There are occasions when I don't eat a meal.

C a n you keep (from letting out) a secret? —See also dekiru. It is decided t h a t V \ \ be transferred to t h e Tokyo office shortly. A f t e r dictionary form of verb 今度東京に転勤する ことになりました。 Kondo t d K y o ru tenkin suru koto m narimashita. After nai- form of verb 秘密を洩らさないこ とができますか。 himitsu o morasanai koto ga deKimasu ka. I was able to make a plane reservation. 2. koto koto ni naru ことになる predicative phrase meaning : it is decided/arranged that 1 . koto ni natte iru ことに なっている .366 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Hikoki no yoyaku o toru koto ga dekimashita.

PREDICATIVE PHRASE MEANING be scheduled : to (do). koto ni shite iru ことにし ている predicative phrase meaning : make a practice of (doing). be expected to (do) 1 . We are to meet at the library. He is due to arrive here at nine. make it a rule to (do) 1. A f t e r dictionary form of verb 彼は 9 時にここに着 くことになっていま す。 Kare wa ku ji ni koko ni tsuku koto ni natte imasu. verb After dictionary form of . Watashi tachi wa toshokan de au koto ni natte imasu.

make it a rule to read (a book) before going to bed.368 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 寝る前に本を読むことに Neru mae ni Hon o yomu koto ni shite imasu. After nai4orm of verb 夜 ふ か し し な い こ と に し て い ま す 。 Y o f u k . I しています。 2.

a s h i s h i n a i k o t o i u s h i t e i m a s u . .

370 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS I m a k e i t a r u l e n o t t o s t a y u p .

koto ni suru ことレダる predicative phrase meaning : decide to (do).l a t e . I’ve made up my mind to give up smoking. After m^form of verb 且 . 2. make up one's mind to (do) • After dictionary form of verb タバコをやめることにしまし た。 fabako o yameru koto ni shimashita.

372 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS koto ni shite iru — kudasai • 97 無 駄 遣 い は し な い こ と に し ま し た 。 ^liid a zuk ai wa shin ai koto ni sm mas .

I'v e dec ide d not to was te mo ney .hita . please do something (for me) I t i s u s u a l l y used for expressing a request on t h e speaker's part. kudasai ください polite command form meaning : please give • • • to me. 1. After 8 時 に 電 話 noun + o .

374 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS を く だ さ い 。 H a c h i j i n i d e n w a o k u d a s .

a i . P l e a s e g i v e m e a c a l l a t e i g .

376 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS h t .(IM1 . Please give me this jacket and these slacks. こ の ジ ャ ケ ッ ト と ズ ボ ン を く だ さ い 。 Kon ojak etto to zuo on o Kud asai .

Plea se teac h me how to writ e .) After /e-form of verb -TOCSroz この漢 字の書 き方を 教えて くださ い。 Kon o kan ji no kak ikat a () oshi ete kud asai . take this jacket and these slacks.2.

378 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS this kanj i. — See . Plea se don' t leav e yet. 3Afte r naifor m of verb + de まだ行 かない でくだ さい。 Ma da ika nai de kud asai .

Poli te Lan gua ge (II) .also kur eru.

彼女は才 一ストラリアに 3 ヶ月くらいいまし Kanojo wa osutoraria tu san kagetsu kurai imasmta. as …as …,to the extent o f . I bought about ten Japanese language books. at least. After noun expressing quantity/length 10 冊くらい 日本語の本を買いました。 Jussatsu kurai nihongo no hon o Kaimashita. approximately. •,only. 毎日 時問くらい 1 は勉強しなければ ならない。 Mainichi ichi jikan kurai wa benkyo . .380 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS kurai くらい particle meaning : about. She was in た。 Australia for about three months. 1. enough … to (do) Gurai can be used in place of kurai.

{kurai + wa means “at l e a s t ,,) 2. Y o u a r e the only one who can do it. Even I ります。 can understand that much. . After noun だれもあなたくら い上手にテニスが できません。 Dare mo anata kurai jozu ni tenisu ga dekimasen. Nobody can play tennis as well as you. After demonstrative pronoun それくらい私でもわか ^ore kurai watasni demo wakarimasu.shinakereba naranai. O n e must study at least one hour every day. そ れができるのはあ なたくらいです。 、ore ga dekiru no wa anata kurai desu. 3.

こ .382 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS -rocsroz PJa):lJZcn これくらいいい辞 書は買ったほうが いい。 Kore kurai n jisho wa katta ho gci ii.

H o w long does it take to t h e s t a t i o n ? 1 週問 にどのくらい喫茶店に 行きますか。 Isshukan ni dono kurai kissaten ni ikimasu ka. H o w o f t e n do you go to a coffee shop in a week? 5. After dono これはどのくらいしま すか。 Kore wa dono kurai snimasu ka. This す。 book is easy enough for a child to read. .kurai — kureru • 9 9 It's better to buy a dictionary as good as this one. H o w much does trus c o s t ? 駅までどのくら いかかりますか。 Eki made dono kurai kakarimasu ka. After dictionary form of verb この本は子供が読めるくらいやさしいで Kono hon wa Kodomo ga yomeru kurai yasashu desu. 4.

) も う 歩 け な い く ら い 疲 れ た 。 M o a r u . (It is colder than I can endure today. After nai-form potential verb of 今日はとても我慢で きないくらい寒いで す。 Kyo wa totemo gaman d e K i t i a i K u r a i samm desu.384 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 6. It is so cold today that I c a n ' t endure it.

) See also dono kurai. (I am too tired to walk a n y more. hodo kureru くれる .k e n a i k u r a i t s u k a r e t a . I am tired to the extent that I can't walk a n y more.

do (something) for , do a favor by doing (something). She gave me a nice present for my birthday. Kudcisaru may be substitued with persons of higher status or to whom the speaker wishes to show respect. let (me) be satisfied with doing (something) Kureru is used to express the “giving , , of something to t h e speaker or to his/her family member.386 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS give (something). The first person is never the subject. (the recipient can be 2nd person with a past tense verb or in a simple question) . After object noun + o 彼女は私の诞生日にす てきなプレゼン卜をく れました。 Kanojo wa watashi no tarn dm ni suteh-na purezento o kuremashita. verb meaning : 1.

だれが 手伝ってくれ ましたか。 Dare ga tetsudatte kuremashita ka. W h o helped y o u ? ペンを 貸してくれま せんか。 Pen o kashite kuremasen ka.彼は電話をくれまし たか。 Kare wa denwa kuremashita ka. 2. She prepared a delicious dish for m e . W o u l d you kindly . Did he give you a call? After /e-form of verb 彼女がおいし い料理を作っ てくれまし た。 Kanojo o ga oisnu ryori o tsukutte kuremasnita.

The teacher teaches me Japanese respectfull y . {kudasaru shows respect toward the teacher) — See also ageru.388 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS lend me your pen? 先生がていね いに n 本語を 教えてくださ います。 Sensei ga teinei ni nihongo o oshiete kudasaimasu. morau . kudasai.

He is still す。 sleeping. Do you still reme mber . 私の言っ たことを まだ覚え ています か。 Wata shi no itta koto o mada oboet e imas u ka. yet 1 .kureru — made mada また ADVKRB MEANING: Still. I n affirmative statement or question 彼はまだ眠っていま Kare wa mada nemutte imasu.

390 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS what I said? お父さん はまだお 若いです か。 Otos an wa mada owaka i desu ka. In negati ve sente nce 彼女はま だここに 来ていま せん。 Kano jo wa . Is your father still youn g? 2.

mada koko nt kite imas en. 「もうで きました か。 「 まだでき ませ ん。 J J “Aid deKi mash ita ka. She has not arrive d here yet. “Ma da deki mcise n•” “Hav e you finish .

に行きます。 . . (from .392 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS ed yet?” “No , not yet. as far as.” — See also mo made まで particle meaning : until. A f t e r noun expressing temporal/spatial/quantitat ive limit 火曜日から土曜日まで旅行 Kayobi kara doyobi maae ryoko ni ikimasu. before 1 1 . . to. up to.) through.

After dictionary form of verb 雨がやむまで喫茶店で休みましょう。 Ame ga yamu made . This car can hold 乘れます。 up to five persons. Give me two 2 枚ください。 tickets for Kyoto. please. でください。 Please read up to page twenty five. 25 ページまで読ん Niju go peji made yonde kudasai. す。 I ,m going as far as Tokyo on the shinkansen. 事務所は来週の水曜日 Jimusho wa raishu no suiyobi made shimatte imasu. 2. 京都までの切符を Kyoto maae no Kippu o ni mat kudasai.I ' l l be traveling from Tuesday through Saturday. まで閉まっています。 The office is closed through next Wednesday. この車は 5 人まで Kono kuruma wa go run made no re masu. 東京まで新幹線で行きま Tokyo made shinkansen de ikimasu.

made ni made ni までに particle meaning : by (the time w h e n . •), before 1 . > See also karci.394 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Kissaten de yasunnmasho. A f t e r noun expressing time (limit) . Let's take a rest in the coffee shop until it stops raining 次の電車が来るまで 15 分ある。 Tsugi no densha ga kuru made ju go fun aru. There are fifteen minutes until the next train comes. .

2. ► S e e a l s o made. I came to Japan half a year ago. ago ,previous ,prior. -TOCSrozT5 私は 2 ヶ月前からここで働いています。 山 : . 2. Mike went home five minutes before Paul came. I have to finish this work by the end of this week. r i l be back here before one. After dictionary form of verb 彼女が来るまでに用意しておきましよう。 Kanojo ga kuru made ni yoi shite okimasho. last’ former ,in front of. mae mae 前 noun (of space or time) meaning : before. マイクはポールが来る 5 分前に 帰 りました。 Maiku wa Poru ga kuru go jun mae m kaerunashita. L e t ' s be prepared by the time she comes. 1 時前にここに 戻 ります。 Ichi ji mae ni koko ni modorimasu. U s e d for telling time 今 3 時 5 分前です。 Ima san ji go fun mae desu. forward 1 .made ni mae • 1 0 3 一 今週の終わりまでにこの仕事を終えなければなりません。 Konshu no owari made ni Kono shigoto o oenaKereba narimasen. It is five minutes to three o'clock. After noun expressing length/duration of or point in time 日本に来ました。 私は半年前に Watashi wa hantoshi mae ni nihon ni Kimasnita.

H a v e n ' t w e m e t s o m e w h e r e b e f o r e ? 前 に歩いてください。 Mae ni aruite kudasai. Who was the former Prime Minister? 鈴木さんの前の先生はだれでしたか。 Suzuki-scin no mae no sensei wa dare desmta ka. Who was t h e teacher prior to Mr. Let's stop talking about it in front of her. After dictionary form of verb. Used as adverb ,followed by ni 前にどこかで会ったことがありませんか。 Mae ni dokoka de a t t a koto ga arimasen ka. 彼女の前でその話はやめよう。 kanojo no mae de sono hanashi wa yameyd. 5.396 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Watashi wa ni kagetsu mae kara koko de hataraite imasu I ,v e b e e n working here since two months ago. 私たちが着く前に電中:が出た。 I usually drink some cocoa before I go to bed. Suzuki? . 3. There is a nice hotel in front of the lake. before we arrived. Followed by no + noun 前の総理大臣はだれでしたか。 Mae no son daijin wa dare aeshita ka. W a l k i n f r o n t ,p l e a s e . followed by ni いつも寝る前に ココアを飲みます。 Itsumo neru mae ni kokoa o nomimasu. 6. The train had left Mizuumi no mae ni suteki-na hoteru ga arimasu. 4. After noun (positional)+ no 湖の前にすてきなホテルがあります。 Watashi tachi ga tsuku mae ni densha ga deta.

2. Used with mitai まるであなたがそれをしたみたいだ。 Marude anata ga sore o shita mitai da. That matter is written about on the previous page. It sounds as though 3. The restroom is in the front car (of the train). uchi ni marude まるで conjunction or adverb meaning : ENTIRELY ,(NOT) AT ALL When used together w i t h yo or milau marude means ‘‘as ir or “as though•” 1. そのことは前のページに 宵いてあります。 ^ono koto wa mae no peji ni Kaite arimasu. He talks as if he knows nothing at all. — S e e also ato de. Used as adverb -rocsroz JAdou ここに書いてあることはまるで話にならない。 Koko ni kaite aru koto wa marude hanashi ni naranai. Used with yd (yd usually follows a clause + ka no) 彼はまるで何も知らないかのように話す。 Kare wa maruae nam mo shiranai ka no yd ni hanasu. you had done it yourself. 一 . de、ni’ 前の土曜 no. I went swimming last Saturday.mae marude • 1 0 5 一 bl に泳ぎに行って来ました。 Mae no doyobi ni oyogi ni itte kimashita. トイレは前の車両にあ ります。 Toire wa mae no snar\d ni arimasu.

zenzen masen ません S e e masu m a s h o ましよつ ♦ S e e masu masu ます auxiliary vkrb expressing politeness A verb that ends a sentence is usually followed by this auxiliary. > See also mattaku. the speaker's intentions ,present habitual actions. or potential actions. 意味がまるでわかりません。 その文の Sono bun no inn ga maruae wciKarimasen. Masu follows the conjunctive form of verbs. I don't understand the meaning of the sentence at all. while a verb that ends a relative or noun clause is not. The progressive form with masu expresses continuing actions or states. mitai. yd9 yo desu.398 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS What is written here is not at all worthy of discussion. lroIJ 4fozfD^lljcnIJAdou The masu-form usually expresses definite future actions or events. Masu has the following forms: Non-past negative form: masen Past affirmative form: mashita Past negative form: masen deshita Volitional form: masho 山 .

閉会式は 10 時より行われます。 Heikaishiki wa ju ji yori okonawaremasu. She is now reading a あそこで新間を読んでいます。 newspaper over there. Expressing speaker's intention ます。 あとで電話し Ato de denwa shimasu. 彼 女はいつしよに旅行には行きません。 Kanojo wa isshoni ryoko ni wa iKimasen. Expressing habitual action 私は 毎 朝ごはんとみそ汁を食べます。 Watashi wa mai asci gohcin to miso shiru o tabemasu. hungrv. Expressing future action/event 線で京都に行きます。 私は明日新幹 Watashi wa ashita shinkansen de kvoto t u iKimasu. 4. 私はとてもおなかがすいています。 Watashi wci totemo oncika ga suite imasu. T h e c l o s i n g ceremony will be held from ten. S h e i s n o t g o i n g w i t h m e o n t h e t r i p . 3. I a m v e r y 彼はもうその会社では働いていません。 .masen _ masu 1. I don't smoke much. 私はあまりタバコを吸いません。 Watashi wa amari tabako o suimasen. Expressing continuing action or state of being 彼女は今 Kanojo wa ima asoko de shinbun o yonde imasu. I eat rice and miso soup every morning. 2. I ' l l c a l l y o u l a t e r . I will go to Kyoto by shinkansen tomorrow.

6. Verb Forms お茶でもいっしょに飲みませんか。 -rocsroz"oa):lJZcn (ID こ . 8. もうその本は読みましたか。 Mo sono non wa yotnimashita ka. Let's eat some good food together. I met Mike in the library yesterday. Expressing suggestion しょうか。 窓を閉めま Mado o snimemasho ka. Expressing present condkion このホテルは景色がよく見えます。 Kono hoteru wa keshiki ga yoku miemasu. Have you read that book yet? 1• Expressing volition いっしょにおいしい料理を食べましょう。 Isshotu oislui ryori o tabemasho. temasu’ Polite Language (II). 5. W e h a v e a g o o d view from this hotel. Expressing invitation Ocha demo isshoni notnimasen ka. He is not working at that company any more. Expressing past/perfect action 私はきのう図書館でマイクに会いました。 Watashi wa kino toshokan de maiku ni aimasnita.400 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Kare wa mo sono kaishci dewa hataraite imasen. Would you have tea (or something) w i t h mc? ► See also arimasen. Shall I shut the window? 9.

In negative sentence 彼はまったく信用できません。 Kare wa mattaku shin 9yd dekimasen. completely. (not) very often 1 . I d o n ' t h a v e the faintest idea what it is. I was really surprised. まったくそのとおりです O Mattaku sono tori desu. I n negative sentence 私はめったに飲みに行きません . H e i s n o t a t a l l t r u s t w o r t h y . rarely. それが何か まったくわかりません。 Sore ga nani ka mattaku wakarimasen. You're quite right. really ,indeed ,(not) at a l l , (not) in the least 1 . — S e e a l s o marude. 2. zenzen metta ni めったに adverb (used with a negative) meaning : seldom.masu — metta ni • 1 0 9 mattaku まったく adverb meaning : quite. I n affirmative sentence まったぐ驚きました。 Mattaku odorokimashita.

f don't see her very often.402 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Watashi wa rnetta N I nomi ni I K I masen. hotondo mitai みたい(1) ADJECTIVE MKANING WOllld like : inclined to (do) 1 . mitai is followed by da/ desu or nci/tii. A f t e r / ど-form of verb Itsuka gaikoku ni itte mitai. Kanojo to wa metta ni ai masen. S e e a l s o amari. I r a r e l y g o o u t f o r a drink. — S e e also tai いつか外国に行ってみたい。 mitai みたい(2) noun mhaning : l i k e . After こ . I feel like a swim in the sea. . Fd like to travel abroad some 海でひと泳ぎしてみたい。 Urtii de hito oyogi shite mitai. feel l (adjectival) noun -rocsroz"oa):lJZcn I. • ’ seem to ,look like In the same manner as adjectival nouns. to (do).

彼は先生みたいです。 Kare wa sensei mitai desu. パーティーは 楽 しかっ たみたいです。 Patii wa tanoshikatta mitai desu. —► See also ma rude. After / 以-form of verb/adjective す。 彼は試験に合格したみたいで Kare wa shiken ni gokaku shita mitai desu. • ’ as well as , n e i t h e r . . After dictionary or •-form of verb/adjective 彼女は疲 れているみたいだ。 Kanojo wa tsukcirete iru mitai da. even ,even if ,a n y . She seems to be tired. a n d . n o r . . . rashii. 3. 彼は芸術家 みたいな格好をしている。 Kare wa geijutsuka mitaina kakko o shite iru. I c a n ' t s p e a k J a p a n e s e l i k e y o u . 彼女はすもうに興味がないみたいです。 Kanojo wa sumo ni kydtrii ga nai mitai desu. . H e l o o k s l i k e a t e a c h e r . no less than. . H e s e e m s t o h a v e p a s s e d t h e e x a m . so desu (2)f yo mo particle meaning : too. also , (not) either , as many/much/long as. b o t h . .mitai — m o • 1 1 1 あなたみたいに日本語が話せません。 Anata mitai ni nihongo ga hanasemasen. H e i s d r e s s e d j u s t l i k e a n artist. 2. I t seems that the party was fun. . It looks l i k e she is not interested in sumo wrestling. •, (not) . .

I l e a r n e d b o t h h i r a g a n a a n d katakana. After each of two nouns 私はひらがなもカタカナも党えました。 Watashi wa hiragana mo katakana mo oboemashita. きのうは 3 時間も日本語を勉強しました。 こ . too." "Watashi mo desu•” “ I d o n ' t l i k e f e r m e n t e d s o y b e a n s •,’ “ N e i t h e r do I. This jacket cost as much as twenty thousand yen. I don't know even simple kanji. 3. -rocsroz PJa):lJZcn 4. 字は読めません。 either. 私は簡単な漢字もわかりません。 Watashi wa kantan-na kanji mo wakarimasen. I can't read kanji. I l i k e sumo. 「とてもおなかがすきました。」「私もです。」 “Totemo onakci ga sukimashita. “ I a m v e r y h u n g r y • ” “ S o a m I • ” 「納豆は好きではありません。」 「私もです。」 “Nutto wa suki dewa arimasen. w i t h negative verb 私も漢 Watashi mo kanji wa yortiemasen. “Watashi mo desu. After noun. This simply means “too” or “also•” 1. After noun 私も相撲が好きです。 Watashi mo sumo ga suki desu." 2. After noun expressing length/quantity/cost トは 2 万円もしました。 このジャケッ Kono jaketto wa ni man en mo shitnashita.404 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Mala is sometimes added after mo.

After interrogative word (+ particle) だれもここに来ませんでした。 Dare mo koko ni kimasen deshita. I won't go anywhere tomorrow." もうできたんですか。 Mo dekita n desu ka. “lie. Have you finished it already? 2. Nobody came here. I studied Japanese as long as three hours yesterday. soon. mo もう adverb meaning : already ,yet. I have already finished the work. 5. あ したはどこにも行きません。 Ashita wa doko tu mo ikimasen. I c a n ' t wait any more. (not) any more. another. more -rocsroz JAdou 1• Used with past form of verb もう仕琪を終えました。 Mo shigoto o oemashita. “Has she come yet?” “No ,not yet. by now. In negative sentence もう待てません。 Mo matemasen.mo — mo • 1 1 3 Kind wa san jikan mo nihongo o benkyo shimashita. mada desu. で 一 . 「彼女はもう来ましたか。」「いい え、まだです。」 “Kanojo wa mo kimashita ka. have already begun to (do).

My father w i l l be back in another two or three days. There is nothing more to eat in the rerrigerator. Before number + counter 父はもう 2、3 日で帰ります。 -rocsroz"o lJZ Adou Chichi wa mo ni san nichi de kaer imasu. (m-form of verb may replace the progressive form) Yamada-san wa mo eki ni tsuita desho. Mike has already arrived. I t w i l l s o o n b e m i d n i g h t . Used with progressive form す。 マイクはもう到着していま Maiku wa mo tochaku shite imasu. 7. Used with progressive form + desho (expressing assumptions about present actions) 山田さんはもう駅に着いているで しょう。 Yamadci'San wa mo eki ni tsuite iru desnd. Yamada has probably arrived at the station by now. Mr.406 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 冷蔵 庫にはもう何も食べるものがありません。 Reizoko ni wa mo nam mo taberu mono ga arimasen. used with ni naru 日本に来てもう 3 年 になります。 Ninon ni K i t e mo san nen ni n a r u n a s u . 3. It has already been three years since I came to Japan. Expressing length of time. もう夜中になりま す。 Mo yonaka ni nar imasu. 6. 5. もう 1 度見に行きたいですね。 山 : 邙 こ . 4. S h e w i l l b e r e a d y s o o n . In future sentence 彼女はもう準備ができるでしょう。 Kanojo wci mo junbi ga d e k i r u desho.

. (My name is Ito. it's “fie. • , person.) (using mono to refer to oneselr is humble) 2. > See also mada mono もの(物、者) noun meaning : thing/one which . indeed Unlike koto. I w a n t to go and see it again. •,generally tend to (do). もう 1 杯コーヒーを飲みたいです。 Mo ippai kohii o nomitai desu. . w h a t . Please handle the things more carefully. . jon no mono John's. .mo mono • 1 1 5 一 Mo icnido mi ni iKitai desu ne. (one's) belongings. I am a person called Ito. desu:、 -TOCSroz え、ジョンのもの “Is this umbrella yours?” “No. 私は伊藤という者です。 Watasni wa ho to iu mono desu. U s e d as noun 物をもっと大切にしてください。 Mono o motto taisetsu ni snite kudasai. After pronoun/name + no 「この傘はあなたのものです か。」「いい です。J ^Kono kasa wci a n a t a n o m o n o desu ka. 1 . •,would often. I,d like to have another cup of coffee. it is common t h a t . the object expressed by mono must be a concrete inanimate object.

m o n t h v a c a t i o n i f p o s s i b l e . no -rocsroz"oa):lJZcn こ . 楽 しい時間の たつのは早いものです。 Tanoshu jikan no tatsu no wa hayai mono desu. I ' d l i k e t o t a k e a o n e . 休暇を 1 ヶ月取ってみたいものです。 Kyuka o ikka^etsu totte mitai mono desu. The things she buys are all top-brand articles. 私は よくうちでパーテイ一を開いたものです。 Watasm wa yoku uchi de pciiu o hiraita mono desu.408 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS {mono may be dropped after the possessive no) 3. After な/-form of verb/adjective あなたのテープレコーダーは私が買った物よりいいで す ね。 Anata no tepu rekoda wa watasni ga katta mono yori ii desu ne. — S e e a l s o koto. isn't it? 5. だれでも新しい物に興味を持つものです。 Dare demo atarashu mono ni Kyotni o motsu mono desu. 私が今欲しい物はビデ才カメラです。 Watasm ga ima hoshu mono wa hideo Kamera aesu. P l e a s a n t t i m e p a s s e s q u i c k l y i n d e e d . What I want now is a video camera. Followed by da/desu. A n y b o d y tends to take an interest in new things. Your tape recorder is better than the one I bought. I w o u l d o f t e n h a v e p a r l i e s a t m y h o u s e . 4. After dictionary form of verb/adjective のばかりだ。 彼女が買う物はブランドも Kcmojo ga kau mono wa ourancio mono oakan da.

The respectful form. 友人からお金を貸してもらいました。 \ujin kara o-kcuie o Kasnite moraunashita. みんなに教室を报除してもらいます。 Minna ni kyushitsu o soji shite moraimasu. . 彼に手伝ってもらった。 Kare ni tetsudatte moratta. 先生に作文を見ていただきました。 densei ni sakubun o mite itaaakimashita. is often used in questions. but can also be the 2nd person in questions. (kara m a y b e r e p l a c e d b y ni) 「このカタログを もらえますか。」「どうぞ。」 “Kono katarogu o moraemasu ka. 1. get (somebody) to (do something). The potential form.mono morau • 1 1 7 一 morau もらつ verb meaning : get , be given. get benefit (from somebody doing sometning) The subject is usually the 1st person or his/her family members. receive , have something (done). itadaku 、 or its potential form , itaclakeru. I had my composition looked through by the teacher. I got a letter from my friend in America. “ C o u l d I g e t t h i s catalog?" “Sure•” After M-form of verb 2. After object noun + o アメリカにいる友人から手紙をもらいました。 Amerika ni iru yujin kara tegami o moraunashita.” "Dozo. I was lent some money by a friend. moraeru. I w i l l g e t y o u a l l t o c l e a n t h e c l a s s r o o m . is used instead of morau when receiving something from someone of higher status or to whom the speaker wishes to show respect.

Can I get you to show me the book? (compare the above 1st person subject with the following 2nd person suoject:) Sono hon o misete kuremasu ka. Moshi + mo is even more emphatic. kureru moshi もし adverb meaning : if ,in case. (He Kindly helped me. . Will you show me the book? (the subject “you ,,does t h e favor for object “me ,,) 3. Used with た"-form 彼にそれをしてもらいたいと思います。 Kcire ni sore o shite moraitai to omoimasu.) その本を見せてもらえますか。 Sono hon o misete moraemasu ka. unreal. improbable. A t the beginning of conditional clause もし雨なら中止です。 Moshi ame nara chustu desu. itadaku. when It is used to stress the subjunctive when the action or state in the conditional clause is probable. 1 . > S e e a l s o ageru. I t h i n k I w a n t t o g e t h i m t o d o t h a t . or d i d n ' t happen.410 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS I got benefit from his helping me.

Before adjective これは今まで読んだうちでもっともおもしろい本です。 Kore wa ima made vonda uchi ae mottomo omoshiroi hon desu. it w i l l be called off. If I had more money. tara mottomo もっとも adverb forming the superlative of adjective or adverb It may be replaced w i t h i t s informal equivalent ichiban (lit. ‘‘number one ,,). This is the most interesting book that I have ever read. 2. に。 もしもっとお金があればそれを買うの iViosm motto o-kane ga areba sore o kau no m. > See also ba. Before adverb だれがもっとも上手に H 本語が話せますか。 Dare ga mottomo jozu in nihongo ga hanasemasu ka. I would buy it. もしあなたの助けがなかったらうまく行かなかっただろ 9o Mtoshi anata no tasuKe ga nakattara umaku ikanciKatta dard.moshi ——mottomo • 1 1 9 In case of rain. If it had not been for your help. it probably would not have gone well. で 一 . Used with verb/adjective of emotion この 帰 がもっとも好きです。 私は mottomo SUKI Watashi wa kono e ga desu. 1. W h o c a n s p e a k J a p a n e s e the best? -rocsroz JAdou 3. nara.

2. When used with yokumo it means “how dare . That's George's car. ► See also ichiban na な particle meaning : never (do). or making rude affirmative commands.. After the plain copula da (used only in informal speech) あれはジョージの車だな。 Are wa joji no kuruma da na. After dictionary form of verb そんなばかな事はするな。 Sonna bcika-na koto wa suru na.412 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS I like this painting best. How dare you say such a thing? 3. with yokumo よくもそんなことが言えたな。 Yokumo sonna koto ga ieta na. Don't do such stupid things. •” 1. don't (do ),how I wish It also has the following functions: seeking agreement to the preceding statement , making exclamatory sentences. After /a-form of verb. isn't it? IrolJQJproz"o lJZCT 4. however. After conjunctive form of verb (rude affirmative command form) 山 : . putting yo after na makes it more rnendly) Sonna baka-na koto wa suru na yo. (the negative command with na is not polite.

. After conditional clause (the final na is prolonged) もっとお金があればなあ。 Motto o-kane ga areba na. After dictionary form of verb/adjective (informal and uses a prolonged na) これは高いなあ。 Kore wa takai na. ( n o t ) . etc M and the like. . 1 . or something like that ,things such as …,the likes o f . A f t e r noun 1 . cakes ,and so on at the convenience store. I often buy bread. Hurry up and get over here! 5. H o w e x p e n s i v e t h i s i s ! よく食べるな あ。 Yoku taberu na. How I wish I had more money! 6. 私はよく景色などを描きます。 一 .na — nado 早く来な。 Hayaku kina. Y o u e a t a l o t ! — S e e a l s o kudasai’ nasai nado など particle meaning : and so on.r o c s r o z 」A d o u 私はよくコンビニでパンやケーキなどを買います。 Watashi wa yoku konbini de pan ya keki nado o kaitnasu. absolutely Ya is usually used in place of to between nouns before nado.

Followed by no + noun すしやさしみなどのなま物は食べられますか。 Susni ya sashimi nado no namamono wa taberaremasu ka. I don't play things like pachinko. 山 : こ . 私などには無理です。 Watashi nado ni wa muri desu. sashimi. Do you play golf or a n y t h i n g like that? 2. ゴルフなどはしますか。 Gorufu nado wa shimasu ka. although ,in spite of It is used to express the occurence of two simultaneous or contrastive actions.414 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Watashi wa yoku keshiki nado o e^akimasu. nagara なか b particle meaning : while ,as. A f t e r conjunctive form of verb -rocsroz"o lJZcn Adou いつもラジオを丨«きながら眠ります。 Itsumo rajio o kikinagara nemurimasu. 1 . both having the same subject. I n n e g a t i v e s e n t e n c e パチンコなどはしま せん。 Pachinko nado wa sh imasen. I u s u a l l y f a l l a s l e e p w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r a d i o . I often paint scenery and the like. It is impossible for the likes of me. 喫茶店でコーヒーを飲みながら話 しましょう。 Kissaten de kohu o nominagara hanashirmisho. and the like? 3. Can you eat raw foods such as sushi.

After adjectival noun 彼は病気ながらやってきました。 Kare wa b y o K i n a g a r a yatte kimashita.nagara nai • 1 2 3 一 Let's talk over a cup of coffee in a coffee shop. After dictionary form of adjective このコンビューターは小さいながらたくさん機能を持っ て いる。 Kono konpyuta wa chuscu nagara takusan Kind o motte iru. U s e d as negative of aru ここに歷いてあったかばんがない。 Koko ni oite atta kaban ga nai.r o c s r o z 」A d o u sitting here is missing. 遊ぶ時問がなくて不 満 だ。 で 一 . りません。 彼女は約束をしながらあまり守 Kanojo wa yaKusoku o shinagara amari tnamorimasen. H e c a m e u p i n s p i t e o f i l l n e s s . this computer has many functions. 7V/-form: nakatta (pVdin)/nakatta desu (polite) reform: naide ( a f t e r werb)/nakute ( a f t e r adjective or a f t e r verb when expressing a cause for some emotion) 1 . The bag I left . 3. Although she makes promises ,she seldom keeps them. 2. — S e e a l s o ga (2),keredo(mo),no ni nai なレ、 adjective used as the negative of the verb aru/da , or for making the negative form of verb or adjective It conjugates as an adjective. Though it is small.

You w o n ' t succeed without making efforts. Tnis is not a Japanese-made car. It is a pity that she cannot come.416 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Asobu jikan ga nakute fuman da. I don't have my passport now. Used to make nai-form of verb (added to the stem of verb) 今パスポートをもっていない。 Ima pasupoto o motte inai. He went home without expressing thanks. It's already too late to make the train. I want you not to smoke here. After ^w-form of adjective -rocsroz PJa):lJZcn このカメラは思ったほど高くはなかった。 こ . (I don't want you to smoke here. Used in / ト form ここでタバコは吸わないでほしい。 Koko de tabako wa suwanaiae hoshu. もう電車に問に合わない。 Mo densha ni ma ni awanai. (dewa must be used between [adjectival] noun and nai) 2. 彼女が来られなくて残念です。 Kanojo ga korarenakute zanneti desu. 4. 彼はお礼も言わないで 帰 ってしまった。 Kare wa o-rei mo iwanaide kciette shimatta. I am discontented because I have no t i m e to play.) 努力しないで成功はしません。 Doryoku sninaiae seiko wa sn imasen. Used as negative of da これは日本製の車 ではない。 Kore wa nihonsei no kuruma dewa nai. 3. 1.


1. -rocsroz JAdou で 一 . 一 S e e a l s o mae ni. desu. nai to. arimasen.After the stem of nai-form of verb , but Kuraku naranai uchi ni Kaerimasho. masu. zu ni,Verb Forms (II) nai uchi ni なし、つち t こ phrase meaning : before (an undesirable thing occurs) Note that this phrase includes a negative form in Japanese becomes an affirmative expression in English translation. I ' l l c a l l h e r b e f o r e 1 f o r g e t . or the informal nakya.418 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS nai 一 nakereba ikenai •125 Kono kamera wa omotta hodo takaku wa nakatta. Let's go home before it gets dark. uchi ni nakereba ikenai なけれ(if いけない predicative phrase (expressing obligation imposed by the speaker) meaning : (you) must Nakereba is the ba-iovm of the negative adjective nai. It may be replaced with nakutewa. Wasurenai uchi ni kanojo ni denwa shite oko. This camera was not as expensive as I had expected. (wa or mo used between /:w-form and nai adds emphasis) )See also aru.

1.After the stem of nui-forrn of verb .

もっと単語を覚えなければなりません。 fviotto tango o oboenakereoa narimasen. y o u d o n ' t n e e d t o • ” 2. t o o ?,,“ N o . Y o u must be kind to old people. After (adjectival) noun + de 老人にしんせつでなければいけません。 Rojin ni shinsetsu de nakereba ikemasen. it needs to be lighter. After 众 z ト form of adjective もっと軽くなければ いけません。 Motto karuku nakereba ikemasen. 3. I h a v e to go to the company by nine o'clock. ょ、らない predicative phrase (expressing obligation/necessity of the speaker) meaning : have to Nakereba may be replaced with nakutewa or the informal ticikya. You must study harder. 1.After the stem of nai-form of verb IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn 9 時までに会社に行かなければなりません。 Ku ji maae ni kaisha ni iKanakereba narimasen.、le、kekko desu' “ D o I h a v e t o g o .420 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS もっと勉強しなければいけません。 Motto benkyo shinakereba ikemasen. 一 . 「私も行かなければいけませんか。」「いえ、結構です。 J "Watashi mo ikanakereba inemasen ka. —See a l s o nakereba ncmmai,nakutemo yoi nakereba naranai なけれ( f .

3. これは 書かなくてもよいですか。 Kore wa kakanakutemo yoi desu ka. > S e e a l s o nakereba ikenai’ nakutemo yoi. neba naranai nakutemo yoi なくてもよい predicative phrash (expressing absence of obligation/necessity) meaning : need not.nakereba naranai 一 nakutemo yoi •127 I have to learn more words. The speech needs to be logical. Is it all right if I don't write this? -rocsroz JAdou 2. After A:M-fonn of adjective で 一 . After (adjectival) noun + de 話は論理的でなければならない。 Hanashi wa ronriteki de nakereba naranai. 2. (not) have to Yoi may be replaced by ii. After /:w-form of adjective アパー卜は駅にもっと近くなければならない。 Apdto wa eki ni motto c hi kaku nakereba naranai. You need not do it so hastily. 1. 電話をしてくれればわざわざ来なくてもよかったですよ。 Denwa o shite Kurereba wazawaza konaKUtemo yokatta desu yo^ If you had given me a call you need not have come all this way. After the stem of nai-form of verb そんなに急いでやらなくてもいいです。 Sonna tu isoide yaranakutemo ii desu. The apartment house needs to be much closer to the station.

“How many minutes will it take to finish it?” “Half an hour. As long as the car moves it needn't be new. a m こ 1. it just has to run.) 3. temo -rocsroz"oa):lJZcn nan なん INTHRROGATIVH ADJKCTIVH MHANING : FEW . T h e a n s w e r d o e s n o t n e e d t o b e g i v e n t o d a y . “ 外国に何回行ったことがありますか。 . is a how euphonically changed modify a noun. “han jikan desu.422 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 車は動けば新しくなくてもよいです。 Kurunia wa ugokeba atarasniku nakutemo yoi desu. After (adjectival) noun + de 返氓は今日でなくてもいいです。 Henji wa kyo de nakutemo n desu.Followed by counter 「今何時ですか。」「2 時 15 分です。」 “mm nan ji aesu na. 一 See a l s o nakereba ikenai’ nakereba naranai,neba naranai. (The car needn't be new.i ju go jun desu.” 「終わるまで何分かかりますか。J「节時問です。」 "Owaru made nan pun kakarimasu Ka. The explanation does not need to be perfect. MANY nani Nan what. 説 明は完全でなくてもよい。 Setsumei wa kanzen de nakutemo yoi. “Ni . “What time is it now?” “It’s two fifteen.

Gaikoku ni nan kai itta koto ga arimasu ka. Followed by (number +) counter + mo 私は何十冊も本を買いまし た。 Watasni wa nan jussatsu mo hon o kaimashita. 外国語を 帰 えるのに何年もかかります。uaiKokugo o oboeru no ni nan nen mo kakarimasu. ジェーンには 何日か前に会いました。 Jen ni wa nan mchi ka mae ni aimasnita. Some people have finally come. 3. I saw Jane a few days ago. I b o u g h t d o z e n s o f b o o k s . I t t a k e s m a n y y e a r s to master a foreign language. 4. Followed by counter + ka やっと何人か来ました。 Yatto nan nin ka kimasnita.Used as subject -rocsroz JAdou n 1 この袋には何が入っていますか。 Kono jukuro ni wa nam ga hciitte imasu ka. W h a t i s i n t h i s b a g ? 一 . H o w m a n y times have you been abroad? 2. What (kind of) music do you like? — S e e also nani nani 例 INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN MEANING : what 1. Followed by no + noun 何の音楽が好きですか。 Nan no ongaku ga suki desu ka.

we will postpone it. What are you talking about? 3. What do you want most now? 何を話しているんですか。 Nani o hanashite iru n desu ka. •,as for lroIJ 4foIAI"oa):lJZcn 1. If he is ill ,there is nothing we can do about it.After (adjectival) noun in conditional clause 明日雨ならば延期します。 Ashita ame naraba enki smtnasu.. supposing . What do you want to be in the future? — S e e also nan nara なら particle meaning : if.on condition that. If it is rainy tomorrow. Used as object デバー卜で何を買うんですか。 Depato de nam o kau n desu ka. 遊_地ならデイズニーランドがいい 0 山 こ . {tiara derives from the conditional form of the copula da and may be followed by the conditional particle ba) 彼が病気ならば仕 方がありません。 Kare ga byoki naraba shikata ga arimasen.. What are you going to buy in the department store? V 、ま何がレ、ちばん欲しいですか。 Ima nam ga ichiban hoshii desu ka.424 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 2. Used for describing suoject 将来何になりたいのですか。 ^norai nam tu naritai no desu ka.

5. I will be able to complete it by next week (if you let me do it). 英語なら話せます。 iugo nara hanasemasu. On condition that you return it to me without fail ,I will lend it to you. If it were me. I can speak it. 2. As for amusement parks.nara nara 一 •131 Yiienchi nara dizuniircmdo ga ii. 4.r o c s r o z 」A d o u そんなに安いんなら買います。 一 . Disneyland is nice. If it's money (you're offering). If it's English (you need). After sore それならなぜやめないんですか。 Sore nara naze yametiai n desu ka. After particle 来週までならでき上がります。 Rcushu made nara deKiaganmasu. why don't you stop? 3. 彼女なら喜んでしてくれるでしょう。 Kanojo nara yorokoncle shite kureru desho. . After subject 私ならそんなものは買いません。 Watashi nara sonna mono wa kaimasen. A f t e r o b j e c t お金な ら要りません。 O- kane nara irimasen. 6. Certainly she'd be happy to do it for you. I don't neea it. If that's the case. A f t e r d i c t i o n a r y f o r m o f v e r b / a d j e c t i v e + no/n ちゃんと返してくれるのなら贷してあげましょ う。 Chanto kaeshite kureru no nara kashite agemasho. I would not buy such a thing.

I’ll buy it. tara. My Dig brother became a high school teacher. to sureba naru なる verb meaning : become. 1. IrolJ lrozfDQJpJZcn 実際に見れば相撲が好きになりますよ。 山 : . If it is so cheap. I want to be a designer. to. S l e e p w e l l — i f you don't you'll become sick. 私は デザイナ一になりたいです。 Watashi wa dezaina ni naritai desu. よく休みな さ い 、 そ う し な い と病 気 に な り ま す よ 。 Yoku yasumi tutsai.After (adjectival) noun + ni 兄は•高校教師になりました。 Am wa koko Kvosm ni narimasnita. If you wanted it ,you should have toia me. 8. 一 See also ba. A f t e r な/-f o r m o f v e r b / a d j e c t i v e + no/n 欲しかったのな ら言ってくれればよかったのに。 hoshikatta no nara itte kurerebci \oKatta no ni. I will do it for you. If you cannot do it. come (grow) to ,learn to Naru is used with a word that describes the subject. After naiAorm of verb/adjective + no/n あなたができないのなら私がしましよう。 Anata ga aekinai no nara watashi ga shimasho. so shinai to byoki ni narimasu yo.426 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Sonna ni yasui n nara kaimasu. 7. get. turn.


一 nasai •133

Jissai ni mireba sumo ga suki ni narimasu yo. If you
actually watch sumo, you ,11 grow to like it. 2. After ku-form of adjective 外はもう暗くなり

Soto wa mo kuraku narimashita. It has already grown

dark outside.


Kanojo wa sore o mite aoku natta.
She saw it and turned pale. いつから彼女と会わなくなったのですか。 Itsu kara kanoio to awanaku natta no desu ka. S i n c e when did you stop meeting her? 3. After dictionary form of verb + yd ni 私は日本語がわかるように

Watashi wa nihongo ga wakaru yd m narimashita. I have come to understand the Japanese



Saikin yoku sake o nom" yd ni natta. I ,v e c o m e t o d r i n k a l o t r e c e n t l y . ギターが 弾 けるようにな りました。 uita ga hikeru yd ni narimashita.
I came to be able to play the guitar. (I learned to play the guitar.)

) S e e also yd nif Polite Language (II)

nasai なさい


auxiliary verb used for making a strong, emphatic ,or rude command


The standard negative command form is made by adding na to the dictionary form of the verb. It is safer to use nasai only toward children. Adding yo after nascii will soften the tone ,however.

1.After conjunctive form of verb


Kotae o kami ni kakinasai.

Write your answers on the paper. 早 くしなさい。 Hayaku shinasai. Hurry up and do it. See also kudasai, na
-rocsroz"oa):lJZ Adou

naze なぜ


1 . I n a question 「なぜ休んだのですか。」「かぜをひいたからで す。」 “Naze yasunda no desu ka:,"Kaze o huta kara desu•” ‘ ‘ W h y w e r e y o u a b s e n t ?,,‘ ‘ B e c a u s e I c a u g h t a c o l d • ” なぜ彼は来たのですか。 Naze kare wa kitci no desu ka. W h y d i d h e c o m e ? 彼になぜ約束を破ったのかたずねましたか。 Kare ni naze yakusoku o yabutta no ka tazunemasnita ka. D i d y o u a s k m m w h y h e b r o k e h i s p r o m i s e ? — S e e a l s o doshite, ka

邙 こ


naze — ne • 1 3 5

nazenaraba ... kara なぜなら{え…力、ら conjunction
mraning : (why?)... because

Desu may be put after kara to end a sentence more politely , and the ba after nazenara may be dropped. The reason for the action is stated in the clause between nazenaraba and kara.
1 . W i t h sentence inserted in the middle

Kare wa konai aeshi Nazenaraba ikitaku nai to itteta kara desu.
He may not come. (The reason why is) because he said he didn't want to come. — S e e also kara

ne ね
colloquial particle used for requesting agreement or confirmation from the

hearer ,or for softening the tone of a statement It may function as an English tag question or may be used after any
word in a sentence in order to call the listener's attention to it.

1• At the end of declarative sentence
-rocsroz JAdou

“Kyd wa tenki ga totemo ii desu ne. “Sd desu ne. “The
weather is very nice today, isn't it ?’,“Yes ,it is•”


Honda-san mo ikimasu ne.
You're going too ,Mr. Honda ,aren't you? 2. A f t e r nasai/kudasai

Zem patii ni kite kudasai ne.
By all means please come to our party, OK? 3. After any elements of sentence

Dakara ne, motto ne ganbatte

hoshu n desu yo. That's why, you know, I want you to work/study harder. — S e e also yo

neba naranai ねは,よらない
predicative phrase (expressing obligation) meaning : have to, must

I. After the stem of naiA'orm of verb narimasen. I have to leave now.


Mo ikaneba
-rocsroz"oa):lJZ Adou

Wakai uchi wa motto shigoto seneba

narimasen. You must work harder while you are young, (this uses the antiquated form se[neba] instead of the more common stem shi) ~> See also nakereba naranai

邙 こ

neba naranai

一 ni •137

particle meaning : at, in , on,

for , from, to , toward, per, in order to (do), and It also indicates the object of specific verbs ,the indirect object, the agent in passive voice , the person who is caused to do something, a result describing the subject or object, or regret. Moreover, it makes adjectival nouns into adverbs (used only in modifying verbs). 1. After expressing time noun

「何時に電話をくれ ましたか。 J 「 6 時にし ました。J
‘‘Nan ji ni denwa o Kuremashita k“:, "Roku ji ni shimashita•”


“(At) what time did you give me a call ? , , “ I called at six.”

来週の日曜日に京都 へ行きます。
Rcusnu no mcniyooi ni kyoto e ikimasu.
I'll go to Kyoto (on) next Sunday

夏休みに外国へ行こ うかと考えています。
Natsu yasumi gaikoku e iko ka kangaete imasu. ni to


I , m thinking of going abroad for summer vacation. After noun expressing location/existence/state (usually used with iru/aru except when expressing ocurrence of an event)

「彼女は今ど こにいます か。」「あそ こにいま す。」

“Kanojo wci ima dotco m imasu ka.' “Asoko ni imasu.
‘‘Where is she now?" ‘‘She is over there•” 加 藤さんは広島 に住んでいま す。 Kato-san

wa hiroshima ni sunde imasu.


Mr. Kato lives in Hiroshima. 郵便局は図書館

YiibinkvoKu wa toshokan no hiaari gawa ni arimasu.
The post office is to the left of the library. After noun expressing direction/destination


Karera wci kesa hikoki de bankoKu m mukaimashita. They

left for Bangkok by plane this morning.

私の別 荘 は海に面し ています。
Watashi no besso wa urni ni menshite imasu.
My cottage faces the sea.

壁に 変 な虫がいる。
Kobe ni hen-na mushi ga iru.
A strange insect is on the wall.

荷物は棚に置いてく ださい。
Nimotsu wa tana ni oite kudasai.
Please put your baggage on the shelf. After noun expressing purpose 彼女はデパートへ H


Kanojo wa depato e kaimono m iKimasnita. She went

to the department store to shop. 彼は香港へ旅

Kare wa honkon e ryoko ni itta. H e
has gone on a trip to Hong K o n g . あなたは遊 びにお金を使いすぎ ます。 Anata wa

asobi ni o-kane o tsukaisugimasu. Y o u
spend too much money on play. Between two nouns


私の好きな食べ物は 魚に野菜です。
-rocsroz Adou


Watashi no suki-na tabemono wa sakana ni yasai desu.

ni ni


My favorite foods are fish and vegetables. 6. After conjunctive form of verb (usually used with iku or kuru) 「映画を見に行きません か。J 「いいですね。J “Eiga o mi ni iKimcisen ka” “// aesu ne." "Wouldn't you (like to) go and see a movie ?,,‘‘That would be nice .,’ カメラを買いに来たんですが。 Kamera o kai ni kita n desu ga. I came to buy a camera ,but …(will you help me?) 7. After object of verb さっき本屋でトムに会いました。 ^akKi hon 9 ya de tomu til aimashita. I m e t T o m a t a b o o k s t o r e a w h i l e a g o . この質問に答え てください。 Kono shitsumon ni kotaete kudasai. P l e a s e a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n . 彼女にもう電話しましたか。 Kanojo ni mo denwa shimashita ka. H a v e y o u c a l l e d h e r y e t ? この作品は独創力に欠ける。 Kono sakuhin wa dokusoryoku ni kakeru. T h i s w o r k lacks originality. 8. After indirect object expressing a recipient 私

Watashi wa kare ni ano hon o agemashita. I gave him that book.

-rocsroz JAdou

毎 週フランクに日本語を教えています。 Maishu furanku ni nihongo o oshiete imasu. I teach Frank Japanese every week.

で 一


9. After agent in passive sentence


Inn ga kuruma ni hanerareta. A dog was hit by a
car. 10. A f t e r n o u n e x p r e s s i n g g i v e r ,f o l l o w e d b y morau この絵はがきは神田さんにもらいまし た。 Kono ehagaki wa kanda-san ni moraimashita. I got this picture postcard from Ms. Kanda. 11. After the agent in the pattern te-momu その仕事は彼に手

Sono shigoto wa kare ni tetsudatte

moratta. I got him to help me with the work.
12. After noun expressing person who is let/made to do something in a causative sentence 私にそれを 説 明させて下さい。Watashi ni sore o setsumei sasete kudasai. P l e a s e l e t me explain it. 13. After (adjectival) noun describing the subject 彼は働き

Kare wa hatarakisugite bydKi tu natta. H e o v e r w o r k e d a n d b e c a m e i l l . 私は建築 家になりたいです。 Watashi wa ketichikuka ni naritai desu. I w a n t t o b e a n
architect. 14. After noun describing the object of verb
の小麦粉はクッキーにします。 こ

Kono komugiko wa

kukku ni shimasu. I ,ll make this flour
into cookies.

このお金をドルに換えてください。 Kono okane o doru ni kaete kudasai.

ni ni


Please change this money into dollars. 15. After noun expressing opportunity/occasion


Kodotno no tanjooi nifamikon o

katte yattci.
I bought my child a computer video game for her birthday. 16. After noun expressing length/quantity ミーテイングは年に 3 回開 かれる。 JViiiringu wa nen ni san kai hirakcireru. The meeting is held three times per year. 3 人に一人が試験に合格し

San nin ni mtori ga shiken ni gdkeiku shita. One person out of
three passed the examination. 17. After noun expressing a field of interest/ability
シック音 楽 に興味があります。 私はクラ

Watashi wa kurashikKii ongatat m kvomi ga arimasu. I h a v e a n
interest in classical music. 18. After noun expressing reason/cause for a mental state
飽きてしまいました。 彼の話には

Kare no hanasm ni wa akite shimaimashita. I c o m p l e t e l y t i r e d
of his talk. 19. After noun expressing criterion for comparison/judgment
日本人はよぐ働くと言われる。 外国に比べると

gaikoku tu kuraoeru to nihonjin wa yoKu hatarciku to iwareru.
It is said that the Japanese work hard compared with (people of) foreign countries.

この N 本語の本は一年生にはむずかしすぎる。
Kono nihongo no hon wa ichinensei ni wa muzukcishi sugiru.
This Japanese book is too difficult for first year students.
-rocsroz JAdou

20. After dard/desho to express regret

で 一


443 • GRAMMATICAl. FUNCTION WORDS Akiramenakereba umaku iku あきらめなければうまく行くでしように。

desho ni. If you don't give up, it will go well. 21.Used as
suffix to change adjectival noun into adverbial 彼ならそれは楽にで きます。 Kare nara sore wa raku ni dekimasu. He can do it easily (I assure you). 彼女は積極的に手伝つてくれます。 Kanojo wa sekkyoKU teki ni tetsudatte kuremasu. She will enthusiastically help us. — S e e also de’ e,tame, to,to ka} Adjectival Nouns (II)

ni chigai nai にち力〜、ない
predicative phrase (indicating definite deduction) meaning : must, must

have (done) It conjugates as an adjective. 1. After

dictionary form of verb/adjective


Kanojo wa kono hen ni sunde iru ni chigai nai. She surely

must be living around here. 鈴木さんはもう来ているにちがいありません。 Suzukisan wa mo Kite iru til chigai arimasen. M r . S u z u k i m u s t h a v e a l r e a d y a r r i v e d . お母さんは悲しいにちがいあ りません。 Okdsan wa kanashu ni chigai arimasen. Y o u r mother must be sad.
-rocsroz Adou

2. After naiAovm of verb/adjective

邙 こ


ni chigai nai — ni kakete


彼女は二度と手伝ってくれないにちがいない。 Kanojo wa ni ao to tetsuaatte kurenai ru chigai nai. I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t s h e will not help us again. 3. After /a-form of verb/adjective 彼はあきらめたにちがいありません。 Kare wa akirameta ni chigai arimasen. H e m u s t h a v e g i v e n u p . あの車は高かった にちがいない。 Ano kuruma wa takakatta ni cnigai nai. T h a t car must have been expensive. 4. After (adjectival) noun このかばんはトムのかばんにちがいない。 Kono kaban wa tomu no kaban ni cnigai nai. T h i s b a g m u s t b e T o m ' s . テイ ムは病気にちがいありません。 hrnu wa o\oki m chigai arimasen. T i m i s d e f i n i t e l y s i c k .

ni kakete にかけて
adverbial phrase meaning : (extending) to/over ,in t h e . . . district

1• After noun

Natsu kara aki tu kakete taifu ga \oku kimasu.
Typhoons often come (in the period) from summer to autumn.

Shiimatsu ni KaKete tenki ga yoku naru desho.
The weather will probably be good over the weekend.
- r o c s r o z 」A d o u


Hokuriku kara kansai ni kakete ame ga furu desho. It
will be rainy (in the area) from Hokuriku to Kansai.

ni kansuru に閲する
adjectival phrase meaning : about, concerning, regarding, pertaining to

It is used in this form before a noun it modifies, and becomes ni

kanshite when modifying a verb.

彼女の離‘に関す l いろいろな噂がある。 Kanojo no rikon ni Kansuru iroiro-na uwasa ga aru. T h e r e a r e various rumors concerning her divorce.

Shukyo ni kansuru hon o sagashite imasu. I
am looking for books on religion. 2. Used as adverbial phrase そのことに関して何か言うことがありますか。 、ono

koto ni kanshite nanika iu koto ga arimasu Ka.
Regarding that matter, do you have anything to say?

Kono ten ni kanshite iken o nobete kudasai. P l e a s e e x p r e s s y o u r
opinion on this point.

nikui t こく レ、
-rocsroz PJa):lJZcn adjective meaning : hard/difficult (to do), can not (do) easily


ni kansuru

一 ni mo kakawarazu •145

1 . A f t e r conjunctive form of verb


Hashi wa tsukainikui desu ne.

Chopsticks are hard to use, aren't they?

Kanojo to wa hanashinikui
覚 えにくい漢字がたくさんありま

desu. She is difficult to talk with, (follows
the subject it describes)

Oboerukui kanji ga tcmisan arimasu.
-rocsroz JAdou

There are a lot ot Chinese characters that are difficult to learn, (precedes the object it modifies) See also yasui

ni mo kakawarazu に も 力 、 力 、 わ ら ず
although, for a l l . . ” after a l l • • ” in defiance of, nevertheless 1. After noun

adverbial phrase (generally used in formal language) mfaning : in spite of,

Hidoi ame ni mo Kakawarazu karera wa soto de yakyu o shita.
They played baseball outside in spite of heavy rain. 2. After dictionary form of verb/adjective 疲れているにもかかわらず彼は手伝つてくれました。 Tsukarete iru ni mo kakawarazu Kare wa tetsudatte kuremashita. Although he was tired ,he helped me.

彼女はお金があるにもかかわらず質素に暮らしている。 Kanojo wa o-Kane ga aru tu mo kaKawarazu shisso ru kura- shite iru. Although she has a lot of money, she lives simply. とても安いにもかかわらず彼 はそれを買わなかった。 Totemo yasui ni mo kakawarazu kare wa sore o kawanakatta. Although it was very cheap, he didn't buy it. 3. After 細-form of verb/adjective だれも行かないにもかかわらず彼は 1 人で行った。 Dure mo ikanai ni mo kaKawarazu kare wa hitori de itta. N o b o d y w o u l d go, so he went alone nevertheless. 4. After m-form of verb/adjective 忠告したにもかかわらず彼はまた同じミスをした。 Chukoku shita m mo kaKawarazu kare wa rnata onaji misu o shita. Although I advised him ,he made the same mistake again. 天気がよかったに もかかわらず私は家にいました。 Tenki ga yokatta ni mo kakawarazu watashi wa ie ru imashita. Though the weather was good, I stayed at home. 5. At the beginning of sentence

それはほとんど不可能です。にもかかわらずアレキサン ダーはあきらめません。
Sore wa hotondo jukano desu. Ni mo Kakawarazu arekisatida wa akiramemasen.

It is almost impossible. Nevertheless, Alexander doesn't give up.

— S e e a l s o keredo(tno)


ni mo kakawarazu — ni sotte

ni oite において
adverbial fhrase (generally used in formal language) meaning : in , at, on, as

for It is used in this form when modifying a verb and becomes ni okeru before a noun it modifies. 1. After noun expressing location

7 階の広間において 歓 迎会を行います。

Nana kai no mroma ni oite kangeikai o

okonaimasu. We will give a reception in the hall on the seventh floor. 日本における技術革新はめまぐるしかった。 Nihon tti okeru gijutsu Kaku shin wa 'memagurushikatta. The technological revolution in Japan has
happened very rapidly. 2. After noun expressing criterion/domain

Noryoku ni oite kare wa hoka no gakusei m masarimasu. A s f o r a b i l i t y ,h e s u r p a s s e s t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s . その 品物は品質において問題がある。 Sono shinamono wa hinshitsu ni oite rnonaai ga aru. A s f o r q u a l i t y , t h e r e a r e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e s e g o o d s . — S e e a l s o de, ni

ni sotte に沿って

-rocsroz JAdou adverbial phrase meaning : along ,parallel to, in accordance with

で 一

1 . A f t e r noun

Tori ni sotte takusan tnise ga arimasu.
There are a lot of stores along the street.

Kono senro wa kokudd ni sotte hashitte iru.
This railroad runs parallel to the national highway.

Kare wa joshi no hoshin ni sotte sore o jikko shita.
He carried it out in accordance with his boss's policy. (ni shitagatte m a y r e p l a c e ni sotte h e r e )

ni taishite に対して
adverbial fhrase meaning : toward, to (in connection with), against ,in

regard to ,whereas ,in contrast to It becomes ni taisuru when used as an adjectival phrase. 1 . A f t e r noun

この問題に 対 して質問がありますか。Kono mondai ni taishite shitsumon ga arimasu ka. D o y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o t h i s p r o b l e m ? 生徒たちは先 生に 対 してすなおな態度をとります。 ^eito tachi wa sensei tu taisnite sunao-na taido o tor imasu. T h e s t u d e n t s t a k e


a n o b e d i e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e t e a c h e r s . 私は彼 女に対 して好意を持っています。 Watashi wa kanojo ni taishite koi o motte imasu. I f e e l a f f e c t i o n t o w a r d h e r .

ni kansuru で 一 . I have no interest in other people's private matters. 4. whereas he is cool toward the strong. 5 人に対して 1 台コンピュータ_があります。 uo mil m taishite ichi dcu Konpyuta ga arimasu. In contrast to the blue sky was the red mountain. After (adjectival) noun + na + no 彼は弱い者には親切なのに対して強い者には冷たい。Kare wa yowai mono ni wa shinsetsu-tia no ni taishite tsuyoi mono ni wa tsumetai. 2. T h i s i s t h e a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n . He seems to have a grudge against me. Used as adjectival phrase -rocsroz JAdou これが質問に対する答です。 Kore ga shitsumon ni taisuru kotae desu. There is one computer to every five persons. He is kind toward the weak. After dictionary or /^-form of verb/adjective + no 空が青 いのに対して山は赤だった。 Sora ga aoi no ni taishite yama wa aka datta.ni taishite 一 ni taishite • 1 4 9 私は他人のプライバシーに対して関心を持たない。Watashi wa tan in no puraibashii ni taishite kanshin o motanai. 3. — S e e a l s o ni. 恨みを持っているようです。 彼は私に対して Kare wa watasni ni taishite urami o motte iru yd desu. The ruling party supported it ,whereas the opposition parties were against it. 与党がそれに賛成したのに対して野党は反対した。 Yoto ga sore ni sansei shita no ni taishite yato wa hantai shita.

1• After noun IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn だれのことについて話しているんですか。 Dare no koto ni tsuite hanashite iru n desu ka. A f t e r personal pronoun/noun それは私にとって問題ではありません。 Sore wa watashi m totte mondai dewa arimasen. . 日本語教育にっいてたくさん問題がある。 Ninon^o kyoiku m tsuite takusan mondai ga aru. Is it difficult for you to learn Japanese? それは彼女にとって不都合なのですか。 Sore wa kanojo ni totte futsugo-na no desu ka. As far as Tm concerned that is not a problem. Is it inconvenient for her? ni tsuite について adverbial phrase meaning : about’ concerning. I q u i t e a g r e e w i t h y o u c o n c e r n i n g t h a t m a t t e r . for 1 . as to/ for ,of It becomes ni tsuite no when modirying a noun.452 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS ni totte にとって phrase meaning : to ,as far as …concerned. あなたにとって日本語を覚えることはむずかしいですか。 Anata m totte nihongo o oooeru koto wa muzukcishu desu ka. W h o a r e y o u t a l k i n g a b o u t ? その件にっいてまったく賛成です。 ^ono ken til tsuite rnattaKu sansei aesu. in regard to.

ni totte ni yoreba 一 •151 There are many problems with Japanese language education. A f t e r dictionary form of verb Kare wa toshi o toru ni tsurete onko ni natta. As he grew older. T h e r e w a s n o d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e a t e r . ni yoreba によれ(ず ADVERBIAL PHRASE MEANING : ACCORDING TO FROM , . A f t e r noun 一 . What do you think of Japanese politics? 2. 1 . As the years go by ,my life has become (more a n d more) comfortable. Nihon no seiji ni tsuite do omoimasu ka. 年がたつにつれて生活は楽になって来ました。 Toshi ga tatsu m tsurete seikcitsu wa rciku ni natte kimashita. he became gentler. Used as adjectival phrase Engeki ni tsuite no shiryo wa arimasen deshita.r o c s r o z 」A d o u It can be replaced with ni yoru to. ni taishite ni tsurete につれて conjunction meaning : as (in consequence of some change) 1 . y S e e a l s o ni kansuru.

it seems there was a big eruption at Mt. Aso. because of. ni yotte によって adverbial phrase meaning : by (an agent). 職場での喫煙は規則によって禁止されています。 Shokuba de no kitsuen wa kisoku ni yotte kinshi sarete imasu. According to the weather forecast. From what I've heard. The novel was written by Soseki Natsume. I r o l J l r o z f D ^ l J Z c n 」A d o J 試合は人•雨によって中止された。 山 : 一 . A f t e r noun その小説は夏目漱石によって書かれた。 Sono shosetsu wa natsume soseki ni yotte kcikcireta. and becomes ni yoru (which does not take a passive verb) before a noun it modifies. It can be replaced with the more formal ni yori. due to. Smoking at the office is prohibited by regulation. by means of. it w i l l be rainy tomorrow. 1 .454 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS テレビのニュースによれば阿蘇山で大きな 喷 火があったら しい。 Terebi no nyusu ni yoreba aso-zcin de oki-na funka ga atta rashii. she is going to get married. According to the television news. 聞くところによれば彼女は結婚するそうです。 kiKii tokoro ni yoreba Kanojo wa kekkon suru so desu. according to Note that it takes a passive verb. 天気予報にょれば明日は雨です。 Term yoho ni yoreba ashita wa ame desu.

-rocsroz JAdou 外同を旅行するにはたくさんお金がかかる。 ucukokii o ryoko suru ni wa takusan o-kane ga kakaru. After dictionary form of verb 出かけるにはまだ早すぎます。 Dekakeru ni wa mada hayasugimasu. で 一 . A f t e r noun この服は子供には大きすぎます。 Konofuku wa kodomo ni wa okisugimasu. o toshite. etc. デモは武力によつて鎮圧された。 Demo wa buryoKU ni \otte chin atsu sareta.ni yotte 一 ni wa • \ 53 ^niai wa dame ni yotte chushi sareta. It is still too early to go out. In order to travel abroad it takes a great deal of money. evaluation. tame ni ni wa には double particle meaning : for (in regard to). 1 . The game was called off due to a heavy rain. in order to It is usually used before a predicate that expresses state ,degree , quality. 2. Talk from h i m is hard to believe. (What he says is difficult to believe.) > See also de. The demonstration was quelled by means 01 rorce. T h i s d r e s s is too big for my child. Used in adjectival phrase 彼による話は信じがたい。 Kare ni yoru hanasm wa shinjigatai. 2.

日曜日の祭 Nichiyom no matsuri wa enki sciremashita. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 1. for. in ,on. りは延期されました。 . wa no の PARTICLE MEANING: of ,at. from ,by. nominalizes verbs and adjectives. Tokyo is the capital of Japan. 一 See a l s o no ni,tame ni. one's It also makes adjectivals , indicates apposition. These are Frank's bag and umbrella. T h i s personal computer is very handy to carry. Telephone cards are sold at a vending machine at the stand. テレホンカードは売店の自動販売機で売っています。 Terenon kado wa batten no jiao hanbaiki de utte imasu. to. and indicates the subject or object in a relative clause. I will miss my afternoon classes. これはフランクのかばんと傘です。 Kore wa juranku no kaban to kasa desu.456 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS このパソコンは持ち運ぶにはたいへん便利です。 Kono pasokon wa mochihakobu ni wa taihen benri desu. 午後の授業は休みます。 uogo no jugyd wa yasumimasu. The festival on Sunday was postponed. Note that it comes only before nouns.After (adjectival) noun 東京は日本の首都です。 Tokyo wa nihon no shuto desu. makes possessive adjectives or pronouns.

2. 別の靴を見せてください。 Betsu no kutsu o misete kudasai. and made are adverbial particles used before verbs. W h o s e i s t h e b a g o n t h e d e s k ? 食事の後のデザ 一卜は何にしますか。 Shokuji no ato no dezcito wa nam ni shimasu ka. When a phrase using one of them is used to modify a n o u n ,no must be p u t before the noun to l i n k i t w i t h the preceding phrase. After adverDial particle (£ , kara. After specific noun expressing position/space/time (often a noun + no + noun + no pattern) ポケツ卜の中のさいふを盗まれました。 Poketto no nana no scuju o nusumaremash it a. Have you ever read a novel by Ryunosuke Akutagawa? 事故で丨 6 歳の少年が死にました。 J iko de ju roku sai no shonen ga shinimashita. de.no — no •155 芥川龍之介の小 説 を読んたことがありますか。Akutagawa ryunosuke no shosetsu o yonda koto ga arimasu ka. こちらが友人の旧中です。(APPOSITION ) Kochira ga \unn no tanaka aesu. I h a d t h e w a l l e t i n m y p o c k e t s t o l e n . A sixteen-year-old boy was killed in the accident. W h a t w i l l y o u h a v e f o r d e s s e r t a f t e r t h e m e a l ? 3. rhis is my friend Tanaka. Please show me another pair of shoes.) -rocsroz JAdou 広岛までの往復切符を 1 枚ください。 で 一 . 机の上のかばんはだれのですか。 Tsukue no ue no kaban wa dare no desu ka.

) その件についてのあなたの意見は椟端です。 Sono ken ni tsuite no anata no iken wa kyokutun desu. What is a good present for her? 4. Y o u r o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h a t m a t t e r i s e x t r e m e .” 「あれ は何の木ですか。J 「さくらの木です。J "Are wa nan no ki aesu k(i•” “Sakuru no ki desu•” “What (kind of) trees are they?” “They are cherry trees.458 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Hiroshima made no dfuku kippu o ichi mai kudasai. 彼らのための 援助は全く不要です。 Karera no tame no enjo wa mattaku fuyd desu. 5. However. Please give me a round-trip ticket to Hiroshima. 彼女へのプレゼン卜は何がいいですか。 Kanojo e no purezento wa nani ga u desu ka. when the phrase ends in nl like no tame ni. After interrogative pronoun (makes it an interrogative adjective) IrolJQJproz"o “Kore wa dare no baiKu aesu ka. "'Watashi no desu. T h e a i d f o r t h e m i s q u i t e u n n e c e s s a r y . when an adverbial phrase is used to modify a noun.” 「これはだれのバイクですか。」「私のです。」 山 : . “Whose motorbike is this?’’ “It’s mine. the ni is replaced w i t h no. After personal pronoun/name (makes it possessive) 「これはあなたのかばんですか。」「いいえ、マイクの で す。」 “Kore wa anata no kaban desu ka•” “lie,maiku no desu•” “ I s t h i s y o u r b a g ? ” “ N o ,i t i s M i k e ' s . " 6. no m u s t be used to l i n k the phrase with the noun. After adverbial phrase (Like adverbial particles.

タバコを吸うのをやめたいと思い ます。 Tabako o su no o yametcii to omoimasu. Which bank do I need to go to? 7. or to change preceding clause into a noun clause -rocsroz JAdou (after dictionary. Motto \asia no wa arimasen ka. I forgot to bring the papers.no 一 no • l b 7 どこの銀行に行けばいいですか。 Doko no ginko ni ikeba ii desu ka. Tnis camera is too expensive. Tnis is a compact disc. ます。もっと安いのはありませんか。 このカメラは高すぎ Kono kamera wa takasugimasu. Used as indefinite pronoun (after dictionary or /a-form of verb/adjective) これが CD で、私が持っているのがレ一ザ一ディスクで す。 Kore ga shuaii de. Do you have any cheaper ones? この方が私 が買つたのよりいい。 Kono ho ga watashi ga katta no vori u. 8. 一 Memorizing Chinese characters is very difficult. 害類を持ってくるのを忘れました。 Shorui o motte kuru no o wasuremashitci. 蒸し暑いのはいやですね。 . and the one I have is a laser disc. Used to make a nominal. This is better than the one I bought. l ,d like to stop smoking. watashi ga motte iru no ga rezci aisuku desu. tu、or / 似/-form of verb/adjective) かしレ、です。 漢字を党えるのはとてもむず Kanji o onoeru no wa totemo muziikcishii desu.

Humidity is unpleasant. After subject in a relative clause (may be replaced by gu) 彼女の作った料理はとてもおいしいです。 Kanoio no tsukutta ryori wa totemo oishu desu. since IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn The statement preceding node should be objective. D o n ' t y o u w a n t t o g o t o g e t h e r ? づ S e e a l s o ga (1),koto. isn't it? 彼が 事故で亡くなったのは事実です。 Kare ga jiko de nakunatta no wa jijitsu desu. 1 1 . whereas . It is strange that he can't do that. 10. A t the end of sentence (with rising intonation) (usually used by women and children) いっしょに行 i たくないの。 Isshoni ikitaku nai no. Those who want coffee speak up ,please. After object in a relative clause コーヒーの欲しい人は言ってください。 Kohu no hoshu hito wa itte kudasai. 彼にそれができないのはおかしい。 Kare ni sore ga dekinai no wa okashii. mono. ni tsuite,no desu,tokoro node ので particle meaning : because (of ),on account of. It is true that he was killed in an accident. The food she cooks is very delicious. 9. as.460 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Mushiatsui no wa iya desu ne.

この本はおもしろいので勧め ます。 Kono hon wa omoshiroi node susutnemasu. I recommend this book to you because it is interesting. A f t e r o f verb/adjective 彼女が行かないので私も行きません。 Kanojo ga ikatiai noae watashi mo ikimasen.r o c s r o z 」A d o u 雨が降っていたのでゴルフはやめました。 で 一 . 4. (adjectival) noun + na 今日は雨なので映画を見よう。 Kyo wa ame_na node eiga o miyd. 彼女 は病気なので来られません。 Kanojo wa oydKi-na noae koraremasen.node — node •159 kara is used to indicate the speaker's subjective judgement or insistence. I ,11 be leaving now. After aru node mo shitsurei shimasu. I'll see a movie today since it is rainy. It's not very long. so it won't take too long to read. 2.rimasen. Since I have an engagement. I won't go either. After dictionary form of verb/adjective 用事があるのでもう失礼します。 Ydji get 1. そんなに長くないので読むには余り時間がかかりません。 Sonna ni nagciKunai noae yomu ni wa amari jikan ga kaka. After た/-form of verb/adjective . She is unable to come because she is sick. iince she's not going. Ur kara replaced node’ the reason would be “because I think the book is interesting ,,) 3 .

After /a-form of verb/adjective さっき彼女に電話したのですが、出ませんでした。 Sakki kanojo ni denwa shita no aesu ga. demasen deshita. あのカメラは高かったので買いませんでした。 Ano kamera wa takakatta node kaimasen deshita. but she didn't answer. We stopped playing golf because it was raining. . ( c a n you help me ?) 今とても忙しいんです。 Ima totemo isogashii n desu. > See also kara no desu のです predicative phrase which stresses the preceding statement or softens the tone of a suggestion. .462 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Ame ga futte ita node gorufu wa yamemashita. I telephoned her a little while ago. I am very busy now (so I can't help you). b u t . 2. (if preceded by a past-tense sentence ,a contrary statement usually follows) あの fi 転中:は安かったのですが、お金が足りませんでし -rocsroz"oa):lJZcn た。 こ . request ,or demand No desu is often abbreviated to n desu in colloquial speech. I didn't buy that camera because it was expensive. I have a small question that I want to ask you. After が。 dictionary form of verb/adjective ちょっとたずねたいことがあるんです Chotto tazunetai koto ga aru n desu ga. 1.


Used in question (A question using this phrase is usually asking for some explanation. 5. W o n ' t y o u g o a n y w h e r e d u r i n g t h e next vacation? 4. すが、うちにいました。 きのうはひまだったんで Kino wa mma datta n aesu ga. After . meaning “Will you play tennis ?”) -rocsroz JAdou お酒は飲まないんですか。 O-sake wa nomanai n desu ka.no desu no desu 一 •161 That bicycle was cheap ,but I didn't have enough money. When interrogative words are used in questions. Why (or how) did you come here? テニスはするんですか。 Tenisu wa suru n desu ka. I was free yesterday. Do you play tennis? (compare w i t h Tenisu o shimsu ka. A f t e r ( a d j e c t i v a l ) n o u n + na/datta 今日はとてもひまなんです。 Ano jitensha wa yasukcirta no desu gaf o-kane ga tarimasen deshita. w h i l e a question without it may indicate a request or invitation. で 一 . uchi ni imasmta. Kyo wa totemo hima_na n desu. 3. no desu ka usually comes at the end of the question to clearly indicate that some information is being asked for. I am very free today (and am wondering what to do). but I stayed at home.) どうしてここへ来たんですか。 Doshite koko e kita n desu ka.za/-form of verb/adjective 次の休暇はどこにも行かないのですか。 Tsugi no kyuka wa doko ni mo ikanai no aesu ka.

だったのに今は貧乏です。 あの人は金持ち Ano hito wa kanemocni datta no ni ima wa binbo desu. . Even though that person was rich ,he is poor now.復切符を買えば焱かったのに。 Ofuku kippu o kaeba yokatta no ni. He is making a lot of money though he is still a student. > See also ga (2). I wish you would come with me …(but you won't). You should have bought a round-trip ticket. Though he is healthy ,he often skips out of work. Are you going fishing today in spite of the rain? 彼はまだ学生なのにたくさんお金を稼いでいます。 Kare wa mada gakusei na no ni takusan o-kane o kaseide imasu.4. a place where something or somebody is passing (through/along/in/across/over) 山 : こ . 今日は雨なのにつりに行くんですか。 Kyo wa ame_na no ni tsuri ni iku n desu ka. After (adjectival) noun + ncudatta 彼は元気なのによく仕事をさぼります。 Kare wa genki_na no ni yoku snigoto o saborimasu. keredo(mo) f tame ni O を -rocsroz"o lJZcn Adou particle expressing : the direct object of a verb. 5. After ba/tara-form of verb/adjective + ii/yokatta あなたもいっしょに来ればいいのに。 Anata mo issho ni kureba ii no ni. the starling point of an action , a point of separation (from).

She calls me Tanaka-/:MW. 夏休みを旅行して過ごしました。 Natsu yasumi o ryoko shite sugoshimashita.esa wa hachi ji ni ie o demashita. I had my wallet stolen somewhere. . 2. After noun expressing place 今 朝は 8 時に家を出ました。 is.164 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 1. S h e w e n t o u t o f t h e r o o m a s h o r t w h i l e a g o . 彼女はさっき部屋を出て行きました。 i^anojo wa sakki heya o dete ikimashita. 新幹線はもう京都を通過 しました。 Shinkansen wa mo Kvoto o tsukci snimashita. みんなを驚かせよう。 Minna o odorokaseyd. I spent my summer vacation traveling. I'll surprise everybody. どこかで財布を取られました。 Dokoka de saiju o toraremasnita. I l e f t h o m e a t e i g h t t h i s m o r n i n g . After direct object of verb 「何を買ったんですか。」「珍しい切手を買いまし た。」 “Nam o katta n aesu ka•” “MezMrashii Kitte o kaimashita. 彼女は私を田中君と呼びます。 Kanojo wa watashi o tanuka-kim to yob imasu.,’ ‘‘What did you buy ?,,‘‘I bought some unique stamps•” 私は 毎 回トムに日本語を教えています。 週1 Watashi wa mciishu ikkai tomu ni nihongo o osmete imasu I teach Japanese to Tom once a week.

ni. この通りをまっすぐに行って下 さい。 Kono tori o massugu ni itte kudasai. Kare no noryoku o motte shitemo fukano desho. I ' l l i n f o r m y o u o f t h e r e s u l t b y letter.The shinkansen already passed through Kyoto. — S e e a l s o de. Please turn right at the second corner. >• See also ga ⑴ ’ kara. E v e n w i t h h i s a b i l i t y i t w i l l b e i m p o s s i b l e . 2 っめの角を右に曲がって下さい。 Futatsume no kado o migi ni magatte kudasai. ni yotte o toshite を通して FORMAL ADVERBIAL PHRASE MEANING : through (some method) IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 私たちの調査を通していろいろなことがわかって来た。 . to,wa o motte をもって FORMAL ADVERBIAL MEANING : BY (MEANS OF ). WITH 1 . Please go straight along this street. A f t e r noun 結果は書面をもって通知いたします。 Kekka wa shomen o motte tsiicni itashimasu.

various facts came to be known. I drink (alcohol) at home every other day. この用紙には 1 行おきに書いて下さい。 Kono yoshi ni wa ichi gyd oki ni kaite kudasai. Trees are planted along that road at intervals of five meters- oru お formal verb that can be substituted for iru The polite form. or imasu,is used to show humbleness on the .166 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS o motte oru 一 •167 Watashi tacni no chosa o toshite iroiro-na koto ga wcikatte kita. -rocsroz JAdou で 一 この駅では普通電車は 15 分おきに出ます。 Kono eki de wa jut su densha wa ju go fun OKI ni aemasu. Please write on every other line of this paper. Through our investigation. あの道路には 5 メー トルおきに木が植えてあります。 Ano doro ni wa go metoru oki ni ki ga uete arimasu. Local trains leave every fifteen minutes from this station. See also ni yotte oki ni おきに phrase meaning : at intervals ol" 1 . A f t e r number + counter 私はうちで 1 日おきにお酒を飲みます。 Watashi wa uchi de icm mem oki ni o-sake o tiomimasu.

I'll be waiting for you at two o'clock at the entrance. Yamada at home ?,,“No ,he is out now.speaker s part.,“lie、ima orimasen gar “Is Mr. (speaking to another about one's own boss) 2 時に入口で待っております。 / V / ji ni iriguchi de matte orimasu. After /e-form of verb 社長は今出かけております。 Snacho wa ima dekakete orimasu. is used to show respect to another." (the question shows respect. A f t e r ( a d j e c t i v a l ) n o u n 彼女は風邪らしいです。 Kanojo wa kaze rasnti desu. The supposition expressed by rashii is based on w h a t t h e speaker has heard. l i k e . seem to. . oraremasu. . 1 . w h i l e the respectful form. be likely to. The boss is out now. and the response humbleness) 2. IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZ^J 1 . . U s e d for expressing existence 「山田さんはうちにおられますか。J 「いいえ、今おりま せ んが。」 "Yamada-san wa uchi tu oraremasu ka. rashii らしい adjective meaning : I hear.

I hear she was sick last week. It is like her to do such a thing. It seems that he is not doing very well. 3. There is no library-like library in this town. 2. I h e a r h e t r a v e l e d i n E u r o p e l a s t m o n t h . After dictionary form of verb/adjective 天気予報によると明 R は晴れるらしい。 Tenki yoho ni yoru to ashita wa hareru rasnu. 彼が買ったバイクは高かったらし い。 Kare ga katta baiku wa takakatta rasnu. (the past-tense verb must be placed before rashii) そんなことをするのは彼女らしい。 ^onna Koto o suru no wa Kanojo rashii. According to the weather forecast. で 一 . 彼女は先週病気だったらしいです。 Kanojo wa senshii byoki datta rashii desu. After ta-form of verb/adjective -rocsroz JAdou 彼は先月ヨーロッパを旅行したらしい。 Kare wa sengetsu yoroppa o ryoko shita rasnu.rashii — rashii • 1 6 9 168 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS I hear she has a cold. I t s e e m s t h a t h e d o e s n ' t e a t m e a t . it is likely to be clear tomorrow. 彼はあまりよくないらしい。 Kare wa amari yokunai rashii. A f t e r nai-form o f v e r b / a d j e c t i v e 彼は肉は食べないらし い。 Kare wa niku wa tabenai rashii. この町には図害館らしい図書館はありません。 Kono machi ni wa toshonan rashii toshokan wa arimasen. 4.

今 2 千円しかお金を持っていません。 Ima ni sen en shika okane o motte ima sen.I hear that that motorcycle he bought was expensive. I've only been to Tokyo once. • . Mike eats nothing but 2. I have no more than three Japanese friends. Nobody but Yoko came at the appointed time. •, only Note t h a t though a negative verb is used in Japanese ,the English equivalent does not always require one.where but …, no more than …,no o t h e r . 私は三人し か日本の友人がいません。 Watashi wa san nin sniica nihon no yunn ga itnasen. yd desu shika しカゝ particle (used w i t h a negative) meaning : nothing/nobody/no. 1. — S e e also mitai. マイクは野菜しか食べません。 Maiku wa yasai shika tabemasen. After number + counter IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn 束京には 1 回しか行ったことがありません。 fokyo ni wa ikkai smka itta koto ga arimasen. t h a n • . I only have two thousand yen now. After subject/object (used in place of the particle w h i c h indicates the subject/ object) 洋子しか約束の時問に来なかった。 Yoko shika yakusoku no jikan ni ko nakatta. vegetables. so desu. 一 .

After れるそうです。 dictionary form of verb/adjective 明日は晴 Asu wa hareru so desu.shika — so desu 3. so desu そうです(1) predicative phrase meaning : (I) hear (that). After nai-form of verb 田中さんは今日は来ないそうです。 . There is nothing to do but wait here. I hear it will be sunny tomorrow. You can go out only from here. Radios of this type are sold nowhere but at that 4. After particle 170 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 今日は 6 時にしか会えません。 Kyo wa roku ji ni shika ae masen. 2. store. 1. It is said that this building is the tallest in Japan. it is said (that) It is used with reported speech or hearsay. Today I can meet you at no other time except six. After dictionary form of verb ん。 ここで待つしかありませ Koko ae matsu shika arimasen. このタイプのラジオはあの店でしか売っていません。 Kono taipu no rajio wa ano mise de shika utte imasen. ここからしか出られません。 Koko kara shika deraremciseti. このビ ルが日本でいちばん高いそうです。 Kono biru ga nihon de ichiban takai so desu.

A f t e r conjunctive form of verb 雨が降りそうですね。 Ame gafuriso desu ne.Tanaka-san wa kyo wa konai so desu. です。 それはうまく行かなかったそう Sore wa umaku ikanciKatta so aesu. It doesn't look like I'll pass the 験にパスしそうもありません。 山 : exam. I hear she had a fever last 熱だったそうです。 week. seem(s) The supposition expressed is based on the speaker's observation. It looks like rain. I hear she was crying. See also rashu so desu そうです(2) PREDICATE PHRASH MRANING: look(s). 4. doesn't it? 私は試 Watashi wa shiken ni pasu shiso mo arimasen. 3. Tanaka won't come today. . A f t e r ta-iovm of verb/adjective 彼女は泣い て い た そ う で す 。 Kanojo wa naite ita so desu. I hear Mr. After (adjectival) noun + da/datta 彼女は先週 Kanojo wa senshu netsu datta so desu. IrolJQJproz"o 1 . They say it didn't go well.

3. The condition of the car seems good. 5.) 理はあまりおいしくなさそうです o Kono ryori wa amari oishiku nasasd desu. so desu•” で 一 . You looked bored.172 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS so desu 一 so desu あの人はとても優しそう •173 2. T h i s case doesn't look durable. In answer to a question この料 -rocsroz JAdou (used as affirmative answer to a question ending i n desu ka) 「これはあなたのかばんですか。J 「はい、そう です。」 “Kore wa anata no Kaoan aesu ka. She seems to be lacking in spirit. H e looked very glad to see you.y “Hai. After stem of adjective です。 Ano hito wa totemoyasashiso desu. This dish doesn't look very good. 4.or nasa(the irregular stems of yoi and nai respectively) 車の調子はよさそうです。 Kuruma no choshi wayosasd desu. After adjectival noun 退屈そうでしたね。 Taikutsu so desnita ne. That person looks very gentle. After yosa. 彼女は元気がなさそうです。 Kanojo wa genki ga nasasd desu. 彼はあなたに会えてとてもうれしそうでした。 Kare wa anata ni aete totemo uresniso deshita. このケースは丈夫そうではありません。 Kono kesu wajobu so aewa arimasen. (She does not seem well.

it IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn It refers to an object or objects near the hearer and not far from the speaker. A f t e r conjunctive form of verb Nebo shite hikoki ni okureso ni narimashita.” . means ‘‘that person , , or “that direction/’ It becomes sono before a noun it modifies and it becomes soko when expressing ‘‘that place , , or “there•” Sono may also express the English definite article “the. nearly (did) It may be replaced by the dictionary form of a verb. followed by tokoro datta. it is. or something just mentioned and thus already known to both the speaker and the hearer. so desu (J}. The polite form. Densha o machigaeso ni natta. 1 . sochira. rashii.” S e e a l s o mitai.“Is this your bag?” “Yes. those. — S e e also tokoro sore それ DEMONSTRATIVE NOUN MEANING : that. I overslept and nearly missed the airplane. yd desu so ni natta そうになった predicative phrase mfianing : almost (did). I almost took a wrong train.

Please lend it to me." “Sore desu . C a n I g e t t h e r e b y t r a i n ? そこで何をしていたんですか。 Soko de nani o shite ita n desu ka. Whose is that bag? その時ちようどテレビを見ていました。 Sono toKi chodo terebi o mite imashita. Followed by particle 174 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 「それは何ですか。」R 携帯用テレビです。J “Sore wa nan desu KCL” kiKeitai\o terebi aesu” “What's that?” "It's a portable television.” それを贷して下さい。 Sore o kashite kudasai. W h a t w e r e y o u d o i n g t h e r e ? すぐ そちらに行きます。 Sugu sochira ni ikimasu.1. I ' l l b e t h e r e soon. Followed by dci/desu 「捜 しているのはこれですね。」「それです。」 ''Sagashite iru no wa kore desu ne. そこへ電車で行けますか。 Soko e densha de ikemasu ka. That will do. Just at that time I was watching television. Followed by noun it modifies そのかばんはだれのですか。 Sono kaban wa dare no desu ka. 2. 3. それでいいです。 Sore de u desu.

sore ni — soshite • 1 7 9 sorezore それぞれ adverb meaning : each. After indirect object 先生は生徒にそれぞれ問題を 1 問ずつ与えた。 Sensei wa seito ni sorezore mondai o ichi mon zutsu ataeta. A f t e r re-form of verb -rocsroz JAdou これから本屋に行って、そしてデパートに行きます。 で 一 . Followed by no (to modify a noun) 彼らはそれぞれの仕事を一生懸命している。 Karera wa sorezore no shigoto o isshokenmei smte iru. Tanaka and Mr. 田中先生と丨 1 丨田先生はそれぞれ数学と歴史を教えて いま す。 Tanaka sensei to yamada sensei wa sorezore sugaku to rekishi o oshiete imasu. E a c h o f u s w i l l d o a s e a c h of us likes. 3. respectively. After subject 私たちはそれぞれ好きなようにします。 Watashi tachi wa sorezore suki-na yd ni shimasu. soshite そして conjunction meaning : and. T h e y w o r k h a r d at their respective jobs. T h e t e a c h e r g a v e each of the students one question. one 's own 1. Yamada teach math and history respectively. and then ,and after that 1 . 2. Mr.

I am at a loss if you speak like that. and then I will go to the department store. And I think I ' l l try to get into a university.ya ni itte. At the beginning of sentence これからがんばって勉強します。そして大学に入ろうと 思 います。 Kore kara ganbatte benkyo shimasu. Followed by noun it modifies ん。 そういう本は私には向いていませ So iu hon wa watashi ni wa muite i mas en. 1. That type of book is not suited to me. — S e e also sorekara so iu そういろ phrase meaning : that kind of. 2.Kore kara hon . Used in idiomatic expression IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn そういうわけで予約をキヤンセルしました。 So iu wake de yoyciKu o k\anseru shimashita. soshite claigaku ni hairo to omoimasu. . I will study hard from now on. I will go to the bookstore. soshite depato ni ikimasu. 2. Such being the case ,I canceled the reservation. that type of ,such (a) It may be replaced by sonna. そういう風に言 われても困ります。 Sd iu fu til iwaretemo komarimasu.

After adjectival noun あなたは消極的すぎます。 Anata wa shokyoku teki sugimasu. You are too passive. • . too many. These clothes are too big for me. t o o . Y o u a r e working too hard. . 2. あの車は高すぎて買えません。 Ano kuruma wa takasugite kaemasen. excessively 1. After the stem of adjective この服は私には大きすぎます。 Kono fuku wa watashi ni wa OKisugimasu. I b o u g n t t o o m a n y a p p l e s . 3. たくさんりんごを贾いすぎました。 fakusan ringo o kaisugimashita. -rocsroz JAdou The procedure is too complicated to do alone. その手続きは複雑すぎて 1 人ではできません。 Sono tetsuzuki wa jukuzatsu sugite nitori dewa deki masen. 一 .so iu ——sugiru •lbl sugiru すきる verb mhaning : too much. That car is so expensive that I can't buy it. After conjunctive form of verb (may be substituted with sugi [conjunctive form o^sugiru] plus desu) 夕べは飲み過ぎました。 Yube wa nomisugimashita • I d r a n k t o o m u c h l a s t n i g h t . あなたは働きすぎです。 Anata wa hatarakisugi desu.

2. make (a sound). I don ,t care a hit about that. decide on (sometning). I bought a few books. mattaku. can't you? 少しここ で待って下さい。 Sukoshi koko de matte kudasai.) 1 . a bit. takusan.sukoshi 1。し adverb meaning : a few ,some. yoku. work a s • • ” perform (an action). have (a meal’ feeling). a moment. a little. A f t e r object + o -rocsroz"o lJZ Adou あなたはふだんどこで買物をしますか。 Anata wafudan doko de kaimono o shimasu ka. Wait here a moment ,please. (not) at all 1 . zuibun suru する irregular verb meaning : do ,play. 少し日本語が話せますね。 Sukoshi nihongo ga hanasemasu ne. cost. zenzen. wear (an accessory). make (something into something else). Followed by mo in negative sentence そんなことはすこし も気にしません。 Sonna koto wa sukoshi mo ki ni shimasen. possess (a figure/smell/etc. > See also amari. totemo. W h e r e d o you usually do your shopping? 山 : 邙 こ . You can speak a little Japanese. I n affirmative sentence 私は本を少し買いました。 Watasni wa hon o sukoshi kaimashita. treat (in some manner).


8. After noun + ni あの白い車にします。 Ano shiroi kuruma ni shimasu. I treasure the present I received from her. After dictionary or ««/-form of verb + koto ni {koto ni adds the meaning “decide ,,or “pretend” [to do]) 転職することに しました。 fenshoku suru koto ni shimashita. Please treat her kindly.184 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS thing else or some other state) しょう。 彼は彼女を幸せにするで Kcire wa kanojo o sniawase ni suru desho. 6. After object + o + ku-form of adjective もっとスープを 甘くした方がいいです。 Motto supu o amaku shita ho ga ii desu. After 如-form of verb + koto ni I r o l J l r o z f D ^ l J Z c n 」A d o J その事は聞かなかったことにします。 山 : 一 . H e w i l l make her happy. It's better to make the soup sweeter. 5. I'll take that white car. あなたのお父さんはあなたを医者にするつもりですか。 Anata no otosan wa anata o is ha ni suru tsumori desu ka. 4. I decided to change my occupation. After object + ni + ku-form of adjective 彼女に優しく してあげなさい。 Kanojo ni yas ash iku shite agenasai. 7. D o e s y o u r f a t h e r i n t e n d t o m a k e y o u a d o c t o r ? 私は彼女からも らったプレゼン卜を大切にしています。 Watashi wa kanojo Kara moratta purezento o taisetsu ni suite imasu.

At last the engine started. I'll show you around the town. mala sutoppu shimashita. 9. I fell down the stairs and hurt my knee. Please call me this evening. After noun expressing action/state (nouns mainly of Chinese origin and foreign loanwords can be made into verbs by adding suru) 町を案内します。 Machi o annai shimasu. Can you drive a car? -rocsroz JAdou 10. (itasu can replace suru when the speaker wants to be humbler) Machi o annai itashimasu. Please fill in your name and address here. I ' l l p r e t e n d t h a t I didn't hear that. ここに名前と住所を記入して下さい。 Koko ni namae to jusho o kinyu shite kudasai. After noun expressing price 円しました。 この時計は 1 万 一 . 今晩 電話して下さい。 Konban denwa shite kudasai. but it stopped again. (using dekiru instead of suru expresses potential) 車を運転できますか。 Kuruma o unten dekimasu ka. 階段から転げて膝をけがしました。 Kaidan kara korogete hiza o kega shimashita.186 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS suru 一 suru •185 Sono koto wa kikanakatta koto ni shimasu. やっとエンジンがスタ一卜しました力^またストップし ま した。 Yatto enjin ga sutato shimashita ga.


The movie that I saw yesterday was very scary. Fve read this book three times. 仕事はもう終わった。 Shigoto wa mo owatta. The lock on the door is broken. Ta euphonically changes to da after a verb whose dictionary form ends with -bu.187 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS ta — ta •187 The /a-form is made by adding ta to the stem of the /e-form of a verb. -gw ,-mw. or -nu. きのう 見た映画はとても怖かった。 Kind mita eiga wa totemo KOWCIkatta. I went to Kyoto by shinkansen yesterday. この本は 3 回読 んだ。 Kono hon wa san kai yonda. (used as an adjectival. I stopped smoking recently. 最近私はタバコをやめた。 Saikin watasni wa tabako oyameta. The work is finished. Used in adjective -rocsroz JAdou きのう買っ (desu after the /^-form makes it more polite) たカメラはとても安かったです。 で 一 . ドアの 鍵がこわれた。 Doa no kagi ga kowareta. きのう私は新幹線で京都に行って来た。 U s e d in verb Kino watashi wa shinkansen de kyoto ni itte kita. the /“-form of the verb directly precedes the noun it modifies) 2. 1.

かったです。」 ♦ “Tesuto wa muzukashikatta desu ka. The camera I bought yesterday was very cheap., “Was the test difficult?” “It was not very difficult•” — S e e also Verb Forms (II) tabi ni 度 t こ conjunction meaning : every time. Ano rnise ni hairu taoi ni atarashii sofuto katte smmaimasu. and the 2nd person in simple questions or conditional clauses. tai たい auxiliary verb meaning : want to. Each time I go into that store I buy new software (in spite of myself). whenever 1 . Every time he meets me. A f t e r dictionary form of verb Kare wa an tabi ni shigoto no fuman o iii.” ''Amari muzukashiku nakatta desu.188 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Kind katta kamera wa totemo yasukatta desu. would like to , feel like (doing). The 3rd person subject is used with verb + tai . each time. he complains about his job. wish to ,hope to IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn The subject of verb + tai must be the 1 st person in declarative simple sentences.


For what purpose do you do that? (Why do you do that?) 飛行機は台風のために欠航しています。 hikoki wa taifu no tame ni Kekko shite imasu. garu tame ni ために phrase meaning : for ,for. I have to save money for travel abroad. 何のためにそれをするんですか。 Nan no tame ni sore o suru n desu ka. There were many refugees as a result of the war. on account of , owing to ,as a result of ,in order to. •,s sake. 戦 争のためにたくさんの難民が出た。 Senso no tame ni takusan nanmin ga deta. It seems that Yoko didn't want to go skiing.190 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Yoko wa sukii ni ikitaku nakatta rashii. 父はガンのために死にました。 chichi wa gan no tame ni sninimashita. See also hoshii. (de may replace tame ni when expressing cause) 外国旅行のために貯金をしなければなりません。 uaikoku ryoko no tame ni chokin o sninakereba narimasen. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 将来のためにもっと勉強したいと思います。 . so as to. A f t e r noun + no それはあなたのためになるでしょう。 ^ore wa anata no tame tu naru desho. for the purpose of 1 . . because of. The air service is being canceled because of a typhoon. My father died of cancer. It will be good for you.

彼は忙しかったために来られませんでした。 Kare wa isogashikatta tame ni koraremasen deshita. After パ("-form of verb (to express purpose) 電車に帰 れないために早く用意しなさい。Densha ni okurenai tame ni hayaku yoi shinasai. 6.192 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS tame ni tame ni 一 Shorai no tame ni motto benkyo shitai to omoimasu. 2. He is disliked because he is insincere. For the sake of my future I t h i n k I ' l l study harder. W e c a n ' t d o a n y t h i n g b e c a u s e h e i s a b s e n t . I am working hard in order to save money. 5. で 一 . G e t r e a d y q u i c k l y s o a s n o t t o miss the train. After dictionary form of verb (to express purpose) 私はお金を貯めるために一生懸命働いています。 Watashi wa o-kane o tameru tame ni isshokenmei hataraite imasu. After /«-form of verb/adjective (to express reason/cause) 1 -rocsroz JAdou 彼が休んだために何もできません。 Kare ga yasunda tame rti nam mo deKimasen. 3 After adjectival noun + na (to express reason/cause) 彼は不まじめなために 嫌われている。 Kare wa fumajime 垂 na tame ni kirawarete iru. Tnis is a class for beginners. 4. Between noun + no and the noun it modifies (changes to tame no) これは初心者のための授業です。 Kore wa shoshinsha no tame no jugyd desu.


T h a t i s w h y w e a r e c o o p e r a t i n g . Tara is euphonically changed into dara after a verb whose dictionary form ends with -bu,-gu. or -nu. no ni. •’ w h y don't you (do) , , if you're talking The stem of the /e?-form of a verb plus tara makes the tara-form. 駅に着いたら電話して下さい。 Eki ni tsuitara denwa snite kudasai. kara. S e e a l s o de. after (doing). S h e c a u s e d the accident because she was careless. その本を読んだら私に贷して下さい。 . sono. -mu. If it rains heavily V \ \ give up going for a drive. ni.After (adjectival) noun + datta (to express reason/cause) 彼女は不注意だったために事故を起こしたんです。 Kanojo wa jucmii aatta tame ni jiko o oKoshita n desu. After t h e d e m o n s t r a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s kono. ano 私たちは そのために協力しているんです。 Watashi tachi wa sono tame ni kyoryoku shite iru n desu. . 8.193 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS He wasn t able to come because he was busy1. A f t e r the stem of / ト form of verb IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 大雨が降ったらドライブに行くのはやめます。 Oattie ga futtara doraibu ni iku no wa yamemasu. When you arrive at the station. yo ni tara たら particle meaning: if when. node. 1 . if only about/looking for. Moshi is often put at the beginning of the sentence to stress the conditional meaning. please call me.

日本語がもっと簡単だったらなあ。 Nihongo ga motto kantan aattara na. After (adjectival) noun + dat(tara) (da + tara becomes dattara) もし私があなただったらそんなことはしません。 Moshi watasni ga anata aattara sonna Koto wa snunasen. Yamada ,he is in the hospital now. If I were you,I wouldn't do such a thing. What about having it properly checked out? 3. ちゃ When I arrived at the station. If you're looking for Mr. If only Japanese were much simpler. A f t e r y o u r e a d t h a t b o o k . If the weather is good tomorrow. (past actions expressed after tara must be done by someone else) 駅に着いたら彼女は待っていました。 Eki ni tsuitara Kanojo wa matte imashita. p l e a s e l e n d i t t o m e . 明日いい天気だったらテニスをしませんか。 Ashita ii tenki dattara tenisu o shimasen kci. After the stem of /a-form of adjective うちに遊びに来て下さい。 よろしかったら 一 . 2. 買物をしたら 帰 ります。 Kaimono o shitara kaerimasu. FUNCTION WORDS tara tara 一 •193 Sono hon o yondara watashi ni kashite kudasai. -rocsroz JAdou 4. she was waiting.194 • GRAMMATICAl. At the end of sentence (with rising intonation) んと調べてもらったら。 Chanto shirabete morattara. A f t e r s h o p p i n g I ,1 1 g o home. would you like to play tennis? 山田さんだったら今入院しています。 Yamada-san dattara ima nyuin shite imasu.

. She often cries and laughs in turn. Euphonic Changes (II) tari たり particle expressing : (some kind of) action/state like .. 今日は雨が降ったりやんだりします。 Kyo wa ame gu juttari yandari shimasu. . He sometimes helps me and sometimes not. a n d . 1 . nara. • The actions or states expressed are often in contrast to each other. A f t e r the stem of / ど-form of verb 私は趣味で帰 を書いたり俳句を作ったりします。 Watasni wa shumi de e o kaitari haiku o tsukuttari shimasu. 彼父はよぐ S いたり笑ったりします。 Kanojo wa yoKu naitari warattan shimasu. If it is all right. I do things like painting and composing haiku as my hobbies. or -nu. •,actions performed in turn.Yoroshikattara uchi ni asobi ni kite kudasai. Tari is euphonically changed into dari after a verb whose dictionary form ends w i t h -bu’ -gu. — S e e also bu. to,to sureba. . . 映画を見たり買物をしたりで 楽 しかった。 Ei^a o mitari kaimono o shitari de tanoshikatta. please come to my house to see me. sometimes . 彼は手伝ってくれたりくれなかったりする。 Kcire wa tetsudatte kuretari kurenakattari suru. It will rain on and off today. Suru usually follows the last tari. -rnu.


Kare wa tasukete moratte o-rei mo iwanakatta. o Kanojo wa totemo yasashikute kirei desu. He was helped. Compared with foreign countries the cost of living in Japan is high. This train is fast and that one is slow. but didn't express his thanks. It is so cold that I can't stand it. After ku-form of adjective Samukute tamarimasen. —See also da. i ride a bicycle to go to the station every day. de’ Euphonic Changes (II) 私は毎日自転車に乗って駅まで行きます。 外国と比べて日本は物価が高い。 , 彼は助けてもらってお礼も言わなかった。 寒くてたまりません。 この電車は速くてあの電車は遅いです。 彼女はとても優しくてきれいです te ageru てあシフ/D > S e e ageru te aru てある IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn S e e aru . 2.196 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS The examination is over and I am relieved. Gaikoku to kurabete nihon wa bukka ga takai. Kono densha wa hayakute ano densha wa osoi desu. Watashi wa mainichi jitensha ni notte eki made iKimasu. She is very kind and pretty.


After noun. followed by na ( それはとてもな計画です。 Sore wa totemo genjitsu te/a-na keikaku desu. 2. followed by dci/desu (becomes the predicate) 会の雰囲気は家庭的です。 Kai no fun . That is a very realistic plan. After noun. followed by ni (modifies verb or adjective) Keizai tem ni kuni ga yutaka demo hitori hitori wa kurushii. have been (doing).198 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS teki 的 SUFFIX making specific nouns into adjectivals or adverbs 1. , IrolJQJproz"o lJZcn 1. The atmosphere of the meeting is homey. Even though the country is economically rich.After the stem of re-form of verb 山 : 一 . After noun. get/become (some state describing the subject). (do something and then) come back PREDICATIVE PHRASE MEANING ), It becomes de kuru after a verb whose dictionary form ends with -bu’ -guy -mu or -mi. begin to (do have done (to some extent). 3.iki wa katei teki desu. each individual is badly off 経済的に国が®かでも一人一人は苦しい。 te kuru て来る : come to (do).

今の仕事に慣れて来ましたか。 Ima no shigoto tu narete kimasmta ka. 2. I’ll go shopping at a department store (and then come back). , , , . isn't it? —See also te iku 仏このごろだいぶ暖かくなって来ましたね。 -rocsroz JAdou 一 temasu てます abbreviated informal form OF THE PROGRESSIVE FORM TE IMASU It is used only in informal speech. It began to rain (and will continue to rain). I have learned a lot of kanji so far. これまでたくさん澳字を覚えて来ました。 Kore maae takusan kanji o oboete Kimashita. I have come to understand how to speak Japanese. Have you become accustomed to your present job? デパートに買物に行って来ます。 Depato ni kaimono tu itte kimasu. 雨が降って来ました。 Ame ga jutte kimashita. It is getting much warmer recently.200 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 日本語の話し方が分って来ました。 Nihongo no hanashikata ga wakatte kimashita. After ku-form of adjective (the form of naru [natte] is always used between the ku-form of adjective and kuru) Kono goro daibu atatakciku natte kimashita ne. After a verb whose dictionary form ends with -bu -gu -mw or -nu it euphonically changes to demasu.

masu 彼女は今図書館で本を読んでます。 彼がどこで仕事をしてるのか知ってますか。 「電話をしてました。」 「何をしてたんですか。」 temo も て PARTICLE MEANING : even if. or -nu. そのことに つ い て 聞い ても彼女は答えませんでした。 Sono koto ni tsuite kiitemo kanojo wa kotaemasen deshita.” —See iru.202 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 1• After the stem of /e-form of verb Kanojo wa ima toshokan de hon o yondemasu. and after adjectival nouns. E v e n i r i t g o e s w e l l . She is reading a book in the library now.” ‘‘What were you doing?” “I was talking on the phone. p l e a s e t r y n o t t o b e i n a t t e n t i v e . though whether …or no matter , …, It euphonically changes to demo after a verb whose dictionary form ends with -bu -gu -mu. T h o u g h I a s k e d h e r a b o u t t h a t m a t t e r ,s h e d i d n ' t a n s w e r . , , 1• After the stem of /e-form of verb IrolJQJproz"OQJPJZCT うまく行っても油断しないようにして下さい。 Umaku itte mo yudan shinai yo ni snite kudasai. Do you know where he is aoing his work? “Nani o shiteta n desu ka•” "Denwa o shitenmshita. 雨が降っても遊びに行 きます。 Ame ga j utte mo asobi ni ikimasu. Kare ga doko de shigoto o shiteru no ka shittemasu ka. .

No matter what I do it's not interesting. Fm going out to have fun. No matter how fast we may run we won't be able to catch the bus. After ku-form of adjective Tatoe iKitaku nciKUtemo ikanakereba narimasen. 2. 4. mo で 一 .temo — temo • 203 Even ii it rains. N o m a t t e r h o w m u c h y o u d i s l i k e i t ,y o u h a v e t o c a r r y i t o u t . After interrogative word 何をしてもおもしろくありません。 Nani o shitemo omoshiroku arimasen. Donna ni takakutemo are ga hoshu. you have to. > S e e a l s o demo. , いつ行っても彼は留守です。 Itsu ittemo kare wa rusu desu. he isn't home. Even if you don't want to go. 3. keredo(mo). Ikura ittemo kodomo wa iu koto o ki kimasen. I want it. No matter how often I say it the children don't listen (to what I say). No matter how expensive that is. No matter when I go. どんなに速く走ってもバスに問にあいません。 Donna ni hayaku hashittemo basu ni ma ni aimasen. After adjectival noun , いくら言っても子供は言うことを聞きません。 , たとえ行きたくなくても行かなければなりません。 どんなに高くてもあれが欲しい。 -rocsroz JAdou いくらいやでもそれを実行しなければならない。 Ikura iya demo sore o jikko shinakereba naranai.

You can use this copy machine freely. -mu. and is followed by desu ka in questions when speaking to a person who is older or of higher status. do without.." (speaiang to a superior) 「入っていいですか。」「ええ、もちろん。」 , 「もう帰ってもよろしいですか。」「いえ、いけません。」 IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 2.204 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS temo ii てもレ、レ、 : may can. After the stem of form of verb 化- このコピー機は自由に使ってもいいです。 Kono kopu Ki wa jiyu ni tsukattemo ii desu. yoroshii is usually used in affirmative sentences when speaking to a younger person. •’ (not) have to (do). it is all right (even) if. (kekko desu should replace ii desu when giving permisison to a superior) “haitte ii desu ka. -gu. ikemasen•” ‘‘May I leave now?” ‘‘No. The mo is sometimes dropped and ii may be replaced by its synonym yoi/yoroshii. ‘‘May I come in?” ‘‘Yes of course•” (note that mo has been dropped) "Mo kaettemo yoroshii desu k“•” “le. •,(not) feel like (doing) PREDICATIVE PHRASE MRANING , It euphonically changes to demo after a verb whose dictionary form ends with -bu. , 1. and after adjectival nouns. or -nu. However.、Ee、mochiron. After ku-form of adjective (kekko can replace ii) 動けば古くてもいいです。 .. Ii may also be replaced by karnawanai/ kamaimasen. you may not.

It's all right even if there isn't a manual. I don't feel like swimming. it is all right even if it is old. so please write (something).) Tenki wa yokunakutemo ii desu. Kantan aemo u desu kara’ kaite kuaasai. A n y t h i n g i s f i n e . (I can do without a manual. 3. If it works. temo. Watashi wa oyoganakutemo ii desu. I'll just watch. Sonna ni isoganakutemo u desu yo. It's all right even if the weather is not good. W i l l a n y t i m e b e a l r i g h t ? — S e e a l s o ikenai. 天気は良くなくてもいいです。 そんなに急がなくてもいいですよ。 私は泳がなくてもいいです。見てます。 不便でもいいです。 簡単でもいいですから書いてくだ さい。 -rocsroz JAdou 何でもいいです。 Nan demo n desu. You don't have to hurry so much.temo ii — temo ii • 205 Ugokeba furukutemo ii desu. Mite masu. 何時で もいいですか。 Itsu demo u desu ka. After (adjectival) noun or interrogative word Fuben demo ii desu. マニュ アルは な く て も い い で す 。 Manyuaru wa nakutemo u desu. yoroshii 一 . Even something simple will be fine. It's alright even if it's inconvenient.


or how an action is performed. (I have a feeling I m going to fall for that person. ジュースとアイスクリームのどちら にしますか。 Jiisu to aisu kurumu no dochira ni snimasu ka. Ano hito ga suki ni natte shimaiso desu. a criterion for comparison. the object of a specific verb a word that describes the object of a sentence. I feel I will really grow to like that person. W h i c h would you like. Suiyooi to nichiyooi ga watasni no yasumi desu. •’ , if. a statement in indirect speech. , 1.206 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS I absent-mindedly left my umbrella in a restroom. with (accompanied by).. I'll take film and dry batteries. . After noun expressing person フィルムと乾電池を下さい。 水曜日と日曜日が私の休みです。 私は前の日曜日に妻と映画を見てきました。 Watashi wa mae no nichiyobi tu tsuma to eiga o mite IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn kimashita. W e d n e s d a y a n d S u n d a y a r c m y h o l i d a y s .) あの人が好きになってしまいそうです。 , to と PARTICLE MEANING : and or. when(ever). Between nouns Fuirumu to kandenchi o kudasai. juice or ice cream? 2. no matter It also indicates a quotation. once .

206 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS I w e n t a n d s a w a m o v i e w i t h m y w i f e l a s t S u n d a y . Dekakeru to sugu ni ame ^a juridasnita. After dictionary form of verb/adjective Kesa okiru to zutsu ga shimashita. “Yujin no maiku to desu:9 “Who were you talking with just now?" “With my friend Mike. I had a headache. Kare wa karaoke o utaidasu to nakanaka yamenai. (unlike tara. I would often browse through books when I went to bookstores. After interrogative word + volitional form of verb 今朝起きると頭痛がしました。 彼はカラオケを歌い出すとなかなかやめない。 出かけるとすぐに雨が降り出した。 , あの角を右に曲がるとバス停があります。 私は本屋に行くとよく立ち読みをしていた。 -rocsroz 34JZCT Adou 彼が何をしようと私には関係ありません。 で こ . When I got up this morning. W h o i s s h e g o i n g t o m a r r y / 3. 「今 だれと話していたんですか。」「友人のマイクとです。」 “Imci aare to hanashite ita n desu ka. V/atasm wa non ya ni iku to yoku tachiyomi o shite ita. the action expressed after to may be of the subject's own volition) 4. Ano Kado o migi ni ma garu to basu tei ga cirimasu. Once he starts singing to karaoke he doesn't reaaily stop. As soon as I left home it began to rain." 彼女はだれと結婚するんですか。 Kanojo wa dare to kekkon suru n desu ka. If you turn to the right at that corner there's a bus stop.

彼は来. 彼女はいつでも遊びに来て下さいと言っていましたよ。 Kanojo wa itsu aemo asobi ni kite Kudasai to itte imashita yo. I have nothing to do with it. nai-’ or /a-form of verb/adjective. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn みんなそれをいいと思っています。 . He wrote that he is coming to Japan next month. What do you think this is? 店は 8 時から 17 時までと書いてあります。 Mise wa hacm ji kara ju shichi ji made to kaite arimasu. これは何だと思いますか。 Kore wa nan da to omoimasu ka. He said that he didn't want to go. da. 5. 6. It is written that the shop is open from eight to seventeen (five) o'clock. After statement in reported speech or quotation (the statement must end with dictionary. a particle. She said to please come and see her any time.1 日本に行くと寄いてきました。 Kare wa raigetsu nihon ni iku to kaite kimashita.208 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Kare ga nani o shiyo to watashi ni wa kankei arimasen. 彼は行きたくないと言っていました。 Kare wa ikitaku nai to itte imashita. No matter what he may do. I think (that) she will come soon. I c a l l m y d o g K e n . or command form of verb) 彼女はもうすぐ来ると思います。 Kanojo wa mo sugu kuru to omoimasu. After (adjectival) noun/adjective that describes the object 私は 犬をケンと呼んでいます。 Watashi wa inu o ken to yonde imasu.

Will you speak more slowly? 酔 っ払いが ふらふら(と)歩 て い ますよ。Yopparai ga い furafura (to) aruite imasu yo. This book is not the one I ordered. S e e a l s o ba 、 koto. After specific adverb/imitative word {to may be dropped) . to ka 一 . I stayed at a hotel reputed to be the best in town.r o c s r o z 」A d o u もっとゆっくり (と )話してくれませんか。 Motto yukkuri (to) hanashite kuremasen ka. 彼らは彼の行為を無罪と見なした。 Karera wa kare no koi o muzai to minashita. T h e y r e g a r d e d h i s b e h a v i o r as innocent. Your watch is the same as the one that I bought.Minna sore o n to omotle imasu. temo. 私はその町で最高だと されるホテルに泊った。 Watashi wa sono machi ae saiko da to sareru hoteru ni tomatta. 9. この本は私が注文したのと巡います。 Kono hon wa watasni ga cnumon shita no to chigaimasu. E v e r y b o d y t h i n k s t h a t i s g o o d . A v i d e o g a m e c a l l e d F a m i c o n i s p o p u l a r . tara. A d r u n k i s s t a g g e r i n g a r o u n d . After noun/clause expressing criterion for comparison あなた の時計は私が買ったのと同じです。 t o Anata no tokei wa watashi ga katta no to onaji desu. After word/clause that describes some other word ファミコンと呼ばれるテレビゲームがはやっています。 Famikon to yobareru terebi ^emu ga hayatte imasu. 8. 7.

. She said something like she would quit her job. 2. and. 私はトムとかマイクとよく親しい話をします。 Wcitcishi wa tomu to ka maiku to voku shitashu hanashi o snimasu. I watch television or listen to records when I'm alone. followed by suru 一人の時はテレビを見るとかレコ一ドを間くとかします。 Hitori no toki wa tereoi o miru to ka rekodo o kiku to K U snimasu. I usually listen to (music like) rock and jazz. After dictionary form of each of two successive verbs. Yamamoto.. — S e e also niy tari. fo. 3. 4. I usually have intimate talks mainly with people like Tom and Mike. ya 山本さんとかいう女の人から電話ですよ。 IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn . to iu. •,mainly . Followed by iu 彼女は仕事をやめるとか言ってい ました。 Yamamoto-san to ka tQ onna no hito kara denwa aesu vo.. Between nouns 私はロックとかジャズをよく開きます。 Watashi wa rokku to ka jazu o yoku ki kimasu.. PARTICLE MEANING 1. After quoted statement (indicates a quotation of uncertain content) Kanojo wa shigoto o yameru to ka itte imashita.. There's a telephone call for you from a woman named something like Ms.208 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS to ka とか : some kind of (things/persons/actions/states) like .

t o .

I take traveler's checks. 出かける時には戸締まりをしなさい。 Dekakeru toki ni wa lojimari o shinasai. Let's take a camera with us the next time we go there. or followed by wa.After dictionary form of verb/adjective 外国に行く時にはトラベラーズチェックを持っていきま す。 uaikoku ni iku toKi tu wa toraberazu chekku o motte ikimasu. make sure to lock the doors. When I go abroad. in case of Toki literally means “time” and ni “at•” Ni is sometimes omitted. 今度そこへ行く時にはカメラを持って行きましょう。 Kondo soko e iku toki ni wa kamera o motte ikimasho. When you go out. 1. 暑い時はビールがうまい。 Atsui tOKi wa oiiru ga urnai. 家を出る時に雪が降って来ました。 Ie o deru tOKi ni yuki ga futte kimashita.to ka — toki ni • Zll toki ni 時に CONJUNCTION MEANING : (at the time) w h e n • • ” a s • • ” while. whenever. replaced by wa. 一 . When it is hot beer is tasty. , 彼は私が悲しい時にはいつも励ましてくれます。 Kare wa watashi ga kanashu toki m wa itsumo nagemashite . I listen to music while reading books. It began to snow as I was leaving home.r o c s r o z 」A d o u kuremasu. 私は読書をする時は音楽を聞きます。 Watashi wa dokusho o suru toKi wa ongaku o ki kimasu.

to ka — toki ni • Zll .

I ' l l h e l p y o u w h e n e v e r y o u ' r e i n a b i n d . Please call me up in case of emergency. . After noun + no 私は大学生の時に哲学を専攻していました。 Watashi wa aaigakusei no toki ni tetsugaku o senko shite imashita. When I was a university student I was specializing in philosophy. 困った時はいつ でもお手伝いします。 Komatta toki wa itsu demo o-tetsudai snimasu. 食事を した時には「ごちそうさま」と言います。 Shokuji o shita toKi ni wa “gocnisd-sama” to umasu. (bai may replace toki when expressing “in case of ’) 緊急の時には!.話を下さい。 Kinkyu no toki ni wa denwa o kudasai. Push this red button in case of fire. 2. IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn Please use this freely whenever you need it. After /“-form of verb/adjective 私が来た時には彼女はまだ来ていませんでした。 Watashi ga kita toki ni wa kanojo wa mada kite imasen deshita. A f t e r h a v i n g a m e a l w e s a y .212 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS He always cheers me up when I am sad. , 火私の時にはこの赤いボタンを押して下さい。 Kaji no toki ni wa kono akai botan o oshite kudasai. “gocfiisd-sama•” 3. s h e h a d n o t y e t a r r i v e d . 4. After adjectival noun + na これは必要な時に自由に使って下さい。 Kore wa hitsuyd-na toki ni jiyu ni tsukatte kudasai. W h e n I c a m e .


on the verge of. just as. to. When I visit Tokyo. be going to (do). in the middle of (some action or state have just (done). (The university is a fifteen-minute walk from the station.5. tsuiae ni. I'll stay at my older brother's.) Tokyo ru itta toki wa am no tokoro ni tomarimasu. The university is at a place which is fifteen minutes from the station on foot. After word expressing length of time/distance + no Daigaku wa eki kara aruite jii go fun no tokoro m arimasu. Please come to the place where I am.) 泊ります。 大学は駅から 歩 いて15 分のところにあります。 東京に行った時は兄のところに -rocsroz JAdou で 一 . ► S e e a l s o ato de’ mae ni,tara. or nearly (did something). (Please come to me. t h e t u i t i o n w a s c h e a p . After (adjectival) noun + datta 私が学生だった時には授業料は安かった。 Watashi ga gakusei datta toki ni wa jugyoryo wa yasukatta. a place which is … be about to (do). uchi ni t o tokoro ところ NOUN MEANING : a place. •, ), 1• After noun expressing person + no 私のところに来て下さい。 Watashi no tokoro ni kite kudasai. have been (doing). 2. a point in time Followed by a particle or da/desu/dattci/deshita it expresses: where somebody is. W h e n I w a s a s t u d e n t .

“Where are you going?” “I m about to go stay at a hot spring•” , 窀話した時彼女は家を出るところでした。 Denwa shita toki kanoio wa ie o derii tokoro desnita. I a r r i v e d j u s t n o w . We were on the verge of missing the shinkansen.216 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 郵便局はここから約 5 百メートルのところです。 Yubinkyoku wa koko kara yaku go hyaku metoru no toKoro desu. She was about to leave home when I called her. "Onsen ni tomari ni iku tokoro desu. IrolJQJproz"o 山 : . D i n n e r p r e p a r a t i o n s h a v e j u s t b e e n c o m p l e t e d . 銀行を出たところで彼女に会いました。 uinkd o acta tokoro de kanojo tu cumashita. I am in the middle of talking to her about that now. さきほど着いたところです。 Saki hodo tsuita tokoro desu. After dictionary form of verb Chodo shigoto o owaru tokoro desu. 新幹線に乗り 遅 れるところでした。 Shinkansen ni noriokureru tokoro deshita. The post office is about five hundred meters from here. 今そのことについて彼女と話しているところです。 Ima sono koto ni isiute kanojo to hanashite iru tokoro desu. 3. I am just about to finish work. ちょうど仕事を終わるところで す。 「どこへ行くんですか。」「湿泉に泊りに行くところで す。」 “Doko e iku n aesu ka. After /cz-form of verb ちょうど食事の準備ができたところです。 Chodo shokuji no junbi ga dekita tokoro aesu. 4.

domo sui masen. I c a m e t o d o m y s h o p p i n g ,b u t t h e s t o r e w a s c l o s e d . Tokyo wa ii mcichi desu. dakedo’ ga (2)9 keredo(mo) い町です。ところが暑すぎます。 東京はい 一 . 寝ようとしていたところへ電話がかかってきました。 いところ、どうもすいません。 , お忙し tokoro ga と^ろが conjunction meaning : BUT ,HOWEVER,AND 1. fokoro ga mada kaeshite kurenai. — S e e also daga. The telephone rang just as I was going to bed. 2 -rocsroz JAdou I lent him some money.tokoro — tokoro ga I met her just as I went out of the bank. At the beginning of sentence 彼にお金を貸してあげた。ところがまだ返してくれない。 Kare ni o-kane o kashite ageta. But he has not returned it to me yet. 5. Tokyo's a good town. After dictionary form of adjective O-isogashii tokoro. Neyd to smte ita tokoro e denwa ga kakatte kimashita. After /rt-form of verb 買物をしに来たところが店が閉まっていました。 Kaunonu o sni ni kita tokoro ga mise gci smmatte imasmta. I m sorry to trouble you when you are busy. Tokoro ga atsusugimasu. But it's too hot. やってみたところが うまく行きました。 Yatte mita tOKoro ga urnciKii ikimashita. I t r i e d i t ,a n d i t w o r k e d w e l l . 2.

Even though you have the money.. continue studying and don't give up. 2. 彼がそれを知らなかったとしてもその過ちは許されな い。 Kare ga sore o shiranakatta to shitemo sono ayamachi wa yurusarenai. E v e n i f y o u d o n ' t n e e d i t ,y o u m u s t p a y f o r i t . I won't give up. 3. No matter what happens. After nai-iovm of verb たとえ要らないとしても支払わなければなりません。 Tatoe iranai to shitemo sniharawanakereoa ikemasen. たとえ日本語がむずかしいとしてもあきらめずに勉強し て 下さい。 icitoe nihongo ga nuizuKashii to shitemo akiramezu ni benkyo shite kudasai.218 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS to shitemo としても CONJUNCTION MEANING : even though/if no matter . After form of verb/adjective 如- IrolJQJprozfD^lJZCT たとえ何が起こったとしてもあきらめません。 Tatoe nani ga okotta to shitemo akiramemasen. The to may be replaced by ni. , Tatoe may also be put at the beginning of the clause for emphasis. 1. Even if Japanese is difficult.After dictionary form of verb/adjective O-kane o motte iru to shitemo sonna takai mono o kattewa ikenai. you should not buy such an expensive thing. ..


Assuming that he is a teacher’ I wonder what he is teaching. (not). to , IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn totemo とても ADVERB MEANING : very.218 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS 2. • . After (adjectival) noun + da Kare ga sensei da to sureba nani o oshiete iru no daro. fo sureba’ anata ni tanomanakereba narimasen.at all. Kore ga aame da to sureba donna mono ga \oi no daro. After /a-form of verb/adjective Kare ga uso o tsuita to sureoa kanojo ni mo tazuneru beki aa.possibly 1. terribly. 4. (not). nara. you should ask her about it’ too. — S e e also bci. Assuming that he told a lie. After nai-fovm of verb Kare ga dekinai to sureba dare ni shite tnorad. He says that he has a cold. Assuming that he can't. At the beginning of sentence 彼ができないとすればだれにしてもらおう。 彼がうそをついたとすれば彼女にもたずねるべきだ。 彼が先生だとすれば何を教えているのだろう。 どんなものが良いのだろう。 これがだめだとすれば 彼はかぜをひいたと言っています。とすれば、あなたに 頼 まなければなりません。 Kare wa kaze o hiita to itte imasu. tara.Before adjective/adjectival noun 一 . Assuming that this is no good. what kind of things will be good? 5. who shall we have do it? 3. If that is the case I have to ask a favor of you. • .


2. 2. (I live in the city of Kobe. That place is very dangerous so you must not go in. Used in statement expressing improbability (takes a negative verb) Totemo mani au mikomi wa arimasen. called saying that the fact that , , 私は神戸という都市に住んでいます。 1 . A f t e r noun in apposition to the following word Watashi wa kooe to iu toshi ni sutuie imasu. I live in a city called Kobe. isn't it? そこはとても危険なので入ってはいけません。 Soko wa totemo kiken-na node haittewa ikemasen. — S e e also amari. I can't possibly put up with this cold.) Sato to in hito ga ai ni kite imasu. There is no hope at all that we'll make it in time.totemo — to in 221 今日はとても暑いですね。 Kyo wa totemo atsui desu ne. A Mr. After statement in apposition to the following word 彼女は彼が無事だという知らせを間 いて喜んだ。 佐藤という人が会いに来ています。 . Sato is here to see you. mattaku この寒さにはとても我慢できません。 とても問に合う見込みはありません to iu という PHRASE MEANING : of. Used with negative potential verb Kono samusa tu wa totemo gciman dekimasen. Today is very hot. 1.

222 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONga buji da to iu shirase o kiite yorokonda. •,incidentally This phrase implies that some opportunity is taken advantage of in order to do something else.. Please mail this letter on your way to the bank. 3. followed by no/koto (nominalizes the preceding statement) Kare ga kekkon shita to lii no wa honto desu. while . While we're drinking coffee. 彼女が入院しているということを知っていますか。 Kanojo ga nyuin shite iru to iii koto o shitte imasu ka. I asked him to do it since I met him. too. After to-form of verb 銀行へ行くついでにこの手紙をボス卜に入れて下さい。 コーヒーを飲むついでにケーキも食べましょう。 2. Kohu o nomu tsuide ni keki mo tabemasno. no. D o y o u k n o w t h a t s h e i s i n t h e h o s p i t a l ? — S e e a l s o koto. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 彼に会ったついでにそれを頼みました。 Kare tu atta tsuide ni sore o tanomimashita. It is true that he got married. 1. let's have some cake. After dictionary form of verb L/inko e iku tsuide ni kono tegami o posuto ni irete kuaasai. . After statement. She Kanojo wa kare WORDS was happy to hear the news that he was all right. to 彼が結婚したというのは本当です。 tsuide ni ついでに PHRASE MEANING : on the way.

Eiga o mi m itta tsuide m kaimono o shite Kimashita. . After noun + no 旅行のついでに昔の友人に会って来ました。 Ryoko no tsuide ni mukashi no yujin m atte kimashita. -► See also toki ni 映画を見に行ったっいでに買物をして来ました。 ついでにひとつ大事なことを言っておきます。 tsumori desu つもりです PHRASII MEANING : be going to. I m e t m y o l d f r i e n d w h i l e traveling. It can also be used with de. At the beginning of sentence Tsuide ni mtotsu daij ト na koto o itte o Kim asu. While I went (out) to see a movie I did my shopping.tsuide ni tsumori desu • 221 一 3. , 1 . mean to , expect (somebody) to. A f t e r dictionary form of verb 日本ではどんな仕事を探すつもりですか。 Nihon de wa donna shigoto o sagasu tsumori aesu ka. この写真は彼女にあげるつもりでした。 -rocsroz Kono s hash in wa kanojo ni ageru tsumori deshita. While I am at it. think/fancy that Tsumori is a noun expressing intention expectation. What kind of job do you intend to look for in Japan? 一生懸命働いてお金をたくさん貯めるつもりです。 Isshokenmei hataraite o-kane o takusan tameru tsumori desu. or fancy. intend to , plan to. I plan to work hard and save a lot of money. let me tell you one important thing. 4.

After noun + no 彼女は自分ではかわいいつもりでいる。 ちゃ んと書いたつもりですが。 それで十分良かったつもりですが。 彼は芸術家のつもりでいます。 Kare wa geijutsuka no tsumori de imasu. After rn-form of verb/adjective Chanto kaita tsumori desu ga. After mz/-form of verb 私は今年の夏はどこにも行かないつもりです。 Watashi wa kotoshi no natsu wa doko ni mo ikanai tsumori desu. 何のつもりでそんなことをしたのですか。 IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn Nan no tsumori ae sonna koto o shita no desu ka. but …(didn't I?) 、 ore de jubun yokatta tsumori desu ga. She fancies herself to be cute. I didn't mean to hurt you. but …(wasn't it?) 5. 2. He fancies himself an artist. . I thought that I wrote it properly. 傷つけるつもりはありませんでした。 KizutsuKeru tsumori wa arimasen desnita.224 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS I intended to give this photograph to her. I thought it was good enough. I have no intention of going anywhere this summer. The boy studied Japanese with the intention of living in Japan. After dictionary form of adjective Kanojo wa Jibuti de wa kawau tsumori de iru. 3. 少年は日本に住むつもりで日本語を勉強した。 Shonen wa nihon tu sumu tsumori de nihongo o benKyo shita. 4.


— S e e also toki ni 彼らは勤勉なつもりでいる。 す。 t 彼はそうするのが賢明だったつもりでいま tte つ て (used mostly but not exclusively by women) that emotionally emphasizes the subject or object noun. you know. He thinks it was wise of him to do so. After adjectival noun + na/datta Karera wa kinben-na tsumori de iru. Memorizing kanji is difficult. After dictionary form of verb (makes verb into noun equivalent) Kanji o oboeru-tte muzukashii desu ne. They fancy themselves diligent.r o c s r o z " o l J C C T 」A d o u (used in place of wa to emphasize the subject/object) Maiku-tte totemo omoshiroi nito desu ne. 2. isn't ur おもしろい人ですね。 , あの事故って彼が起こしたんですよ。 漢字を覚えるってむずかしいですね。 マイクってとても 山 : 一 . Mike is a very interesting man isn't he? Ano jiko-tte kare ga oko shita n aesu yo. a quoted statement. Kare wa so suru no ga kenmei datta tsumori de imasu.With what intention did you do such a thing? 6. That accident—he caused it. or a concessive clause INFORMAL PARTICLE L After subject/object .

t .

wa 如 今頃気付いたってもう遅いよ。 ないって?」 絶対に良くなるって。 「彼女は行かないって言ってますよ。」「行か uchi de/kara うちで/から PHRASE MEANING : among. After quoted statement (a verb after -tte is often omitted when it is obvious) “Kanojo wa ikanai-tte itte masu yo. W h i c h o f t h e m c a n s p e a k J a p a n e s e ? 3 冊のうちから好きな本を 1 冊選んで下さい。 San satsu no uchi kara suki-na hon o issatsu erande kudasai. 1 . ► S e e a l s o aida ni IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn ." “Ikanai-tte?” “She says she won't go. Noticing now is really too late. A f t e r noun + no 彼らのうちでだれが日本語を話せますか。 Karera no uchi de dare ga nihongo o hanasemasu ka. After form of verb concessive clauses) Ima goro kizuita-tte mo osoi yo. No doubt it will get better. — S e e also no. between of , Uchi can be replaced with naka.224 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS (expresses 3. 4.” ‘‘She won't go? (Really?)” Zettai ni yoku nan ト tte. koto、to. Please choose your favorite book among the three.

(m is dropped when a definite number is stated) 15 人のうち 10 人が女性でした。 Jii go nin no ucm ju nin ga josei desnita. out of while. Asa no uchi m shuppatsu no junbi o shite okimasu. 彼は 1 年のうち 3 ヶ月は仕事で家にいません。 Kare wa icm nen no ucm san kagetsu wa snigoto de ie ni imasen. , , before (with a negative) When it follows a verb. You ,11 be able to speak Japanese within a few months. ril finish my preparations for the departure during the morning.r o c s r o z 」A d o u 2. . He is away from home on business three months a year. で 一 . After 数か月のうちに日本語が話せるようになるでしょう。 出発の 哗 備をしておきます。 朝のうちに 国会は混乱のうちに閉会した。 Kokkai wa konrati no uchi ni heikai shita. Ten out of fifteen persons were female. 1. noun + no ^ukagetsu no uchi m nihongo ga hanaseru yo ni naru desho. The National Diet closed in the midst of confusion.226 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS uchi defkara — uchi ni • 225 uchi ni ラちに CONJUNCTION OR PHRASE MEANING : within. After dictionary form of verb/adjective 何でもできるうちにやっておくのがいいと思います。 Nan demo dekiru uchi ni yatte oku no ga ii to omoimasu. during in (some state). the main clause will state something that should be done in a hurry.


, 彼女は大学生です。英語を勉強しています。 あの人がポールです。彼はアメリ力から来ました。 が買った率はドイツ製です。とてもいい車です。 彼 FI 本語をマスターするのはむずかしいです。でも楽しい . Note that the particle wa is expressed by (i. The subject in a subordinate clause must be indicated by ga. on the other hand.227 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS wa 一 wa • 227 sentence. Ano hito ga porn desu. Kare ga katta Kuruma wa doitsu-sei desu. She is studying English. It's a very nice one. something that is singled out for special attention Wa cannot be used in a relative clause. He came from America.) Kanojo wa daigakusei desu. and is rarely used in other subordinate clauses (conditional/concessive clauses) when it has already been used to introduce a word as the topic of the whole sentence or the main clause. something that is contrasted with some other thing. hare wa amerika kara kimashita. tells complete information about a subject at the time of speaking.r o c s r o z 」A d o u で す。 一 . Totemo ii kuruma desu. t^igo o benkyo shite imasu. therefore the existence of the subject needs to be already known to the hearer. The car that he bought is German-made. That man is Paul. L After subject (The predicate after wa only describes one attribute of the subject. Ga. She is a college student. not by わ. Interrogative words such as nani or dure may not be followed by wa because they cannot be a topic themselves.

2.229 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Nihongo o masuta suru no wa muzukashii desu. But it's fun. It may be too difficult for Japanese to learn English. except when it is expressed in contrast with another subject. ralking about sports. asu wa kanarazu hataraKimasu. After each of two contrasted words ミチコさんは髮がきれいですね。 , , 今日は仕事を休みますが、明日は必ず働きます。 kyo wa shigoto o \asumimasu ga. It is difficult to master Japanese. doesn't she?) 4. 英語は日本人が 覚 えるにはむずかしすぎるかもしれませ ん。 Eigo wa tuhotijin ga oboeru ni wa muzukashisugiru katno shiremasen.) この本はマリがきのう貸してくれたんですが、もう読み ま した。 Kono hon wa mart ga kind kashite kureta n desu ga9 mo yomimashita. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn 一 . what do you like? (What sports do you like?) iViichikO'San wa kami ga kirei desu ne. Man lent this book to me yesterday. After object (When the object of a verb is indicated by wa. Demo tanoshii desu. 3. the subject of the verb must be indicated by ga and placed after the object + wa. After topic of sentence スポ一ツは何が好きですか。 supotsu wa nam ga suki desu ka. and I've already read it. As for Michiko her hair is beautiful isn't it? (Michiko has beautiful hair.


6. 彼女は病気ではありません。 Kanojo wa bydki de wa arimasen. , 彼は行くそうですが、私はわかりません。 Kare wa iku so aesu ga.wa — wa • 228 Today I ll take off from my job. After particle -rocsroz JAdou (the word preceding the particle is usually contrasted w i t h 一 . 私は毎日 3 時間は勉強します。 Watashi wa mainichi san jikan wa benkyo shimasu. この時計は安くはありません。 Kono toKei wa yasuKU wa arimasen. After noun + de adjectival noun + de/tii or -form of adjective (a word to be contrastively negated is first introduced with wa) , , これは私のかばんではありません。 Kore wa watasni no Kaoan ae wa arimasen. I study at least three hours every day (and sometimes longer). He doesn't smoke (but he may drink). You can't do it easily. (the contrasted word is sometimes not stated) , 彼はタバコは吸いません。 Kare wa tabako wa suimasen. He says that he will go but I don't know (whether I will go or not). but tomorrow Ml be sure to work. 5. watashi wa waKarimasen. She is not sick. This watch is not cheap. This is not my bag. それは単にはできません。 Sore wa kantan ni wa dekimasen.

This dress is better than that one.) あの服よりはこのほう力《いい。 Ano fuku yori wa kono ho ga ii. Kore kara wa ganbarimcisu. aren't they? -> See also dewa (J)f ga (1) 10 時まではテレビを見てもよろしい。 これからはがんばります。 , 東京では物価が高すぎますね。 wake わけ NOUN MEANING : the reason why/for It can be replaced with its synonym riyu. From now on「11 do my best (since I ve been lazy). In Tokyo prices are too high. Tokyo de wa bukka ga takasugimasu ne. (You can talk somewhere else.) Ju ji made wa terebi o mi temo yoroshii.wake—wake • 229 some other word that is not stated) ここでは静かにして下さい。 Koko de wa shizuka ni shite kudasai. The reason why I learn Japanese is that I am interested in it.form of verb/adjective Nmongo o manabu wake wa kyomi ga aru kara desu. 2. IrolJQJproz"o lJZCT 1• After dictionary or nai. (But possibly there is a better one. Please keep quiet here. Used in idiomatic expression (may not be replaced by riyu) 日本語を学ぶわけは興味があるからです。 山 : . You may watch television until ten o'clock (but no later).

,,’ それでみんな粜つているわけですね。 似/彼女を手伝わないわけには行きません。 "ト 3. I should not keep from helping her. meaning “it doesn't necessarily mean that , あなたがしないなら私もするわけには行きません。 , ”) あなたが悪いわけではない。 Anata ga warui wake dewa nai. I don't want to tell you why I quit my j o b .230 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS (followed by ni wa ikanai meaning ‘‘should not ) Anata ga shinai nara watashi mo suru wane ni wa ikimasen. It doesn't mean that you are wrong.) After form of verb/adjective 仕事をやめたわけは言いたくありません。 Snigoto o yameta wcuce wa iitaKu arimasen. 4. That's why they are all gathering. (followed by de wa nai. It doesn't mean that I quite agree with you. isn't it? After / form of verb Kcmojo o tetsudawanai wake ni wa ikimasen. (followed by da/desu’ meaning "it's natural that “that's why ”) Sore de minna atsumatte iru wake desu ne. (I have to help her. 子供がおとなしかったわけが分りまし た 。 Kodomo ga otonashiKcitta wake ga wakcirimasnita. I u n d e r s t a n d w h y t h e child was quiet. If you don't do it I shouldn't either. すべてあなたに賛成するわけではありません。 Subete anata ni sansei suru wake dewa arimasen. 必ずしもあなたの新しい提案に同意したわけではありませ -rocsroz JAdou ん。 一 .

We were not necessarily indifferent throughout.wake—wake • 231 5. M) I U J I J O de shdKVOKU teki datta W A K E desu ne. If that is the case. Sore de okureta wake desu ne. I don't necessarily agree to your new proposal. それではたいへんなわけだ。 Sore dewa tainen-na wake da. それで遅れたわけですね。 , 別にそれが嫌いなわけではありません。 Betsu ni sore ^a kirai-na wake dewa arimasen. It doesn't mean that I particularly hate it. it will of course be difficult. That's why you were late isn't it? After adjectival noun + na 彼がずっと健康なわけは早寝早起きをしているからだ。 Kare ga zutto kenKO-na wake wa navane havaoki o shite iru kara da. The reason why he remains healthy is that he always goes to bed early and gets up early. Kanarazushimo anata no atarashii teian ni doi shita wake dewa arimasen. 私たちはずっと無関心だったわけではありません。 ですね。 6. そういう事情で消極的だったわけ wo を IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZcn > See む . After (adjectival) noun + datta Watashi tachi wa zutto mukansnin datta wake dewa arimasen. You have a good reason to have been passive under the circumstances.


This camera is easy to handle. use) 1 . Kare wa nomu to okoriyasuku naru. He is apt to get angry when he drinks.234 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONwa kaze ni kakariyasui. IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZCT Did you buy shoes for mountain climbing? . . Tnis book is suitable for beginners. (no may be used between yd and the noun it modifies) 家庭用(の)洗剤はありますか。 Katei yd (no) senzai wa arimasu ka. ► See also nikui 私は風邪にかかりやすい。 彼は飲むと怒りやすくなる。 彼は親しくなりやすい人です。 yo 用 SUFFIX MHANING : suitable for. for (. このカメラは扱いやすい。 Kono kamera wa atsukaiyasui. A f t e r noun この本は初心者用です。 Kono hon wa shosninsha yd desu. He is a man who is easy to make friends with. Kare wa shitashiku nariyasui hito desu. . Do you have detergent for home use? 登山用(の)靴を買いましたか。 Tozan \d (no) kutsu o kaimashita ka. I am prone to catching Watashi WORDS colds.

Its adjectival form is yo-na and its adverbial form is yd ni. Kanojo wa snigoto o yameru yo-na koto o itte imashita. He looks like he will travel abroad (because he is carrying his suitcase). be likely to such as like. as such …as to the effect PREDICATIVE PHRASE MEANING , , , , It is used to express a supposition the speaker makes based on observation.r o c s r o z 」A d o u 2. らないようです。 彼女は何も知 一 . A f t e r dictionary form of verb/adjective Kare wa gaikoku e ryoko ni I K U yd desu. その試験はやさしいようです。 Sono shiken wa yasashii yd desu. The examination seems easy (since many people passed it). 彼は外国へ旅行に行くようです。 ことを言っていました。 もっと役に立っような道具を買いなさい。 彼女は仕事を辞めるような その計画はあなたが思うようにはうまく行かないでしょ Sono Keikaku wa anata ga otnou yd m wa umaku ikatuu desho. T h a t plan will probably not work as well as you expect. You should buy more useful tools. Motto yaku ni tatsu yd-na dogu o kciinasai. . 1 .yd 一 yd desu • 235 yo desu よつです : seem to. After «a/-form of verb/adjective Kanojo wa nani mo shiranai yd desu. She said that she might quit her job. (I heard so). look like.


marude. A f t e r dictionary form of verb 私にも分るようにゆつくり日本語を話して下さい。 Watashi ni mo wakaru yd til yukkuri nihongo o hanashite kudasai. ► See also desho. in order to. . so that • • • (can) This yd ni differs from the adverbial form of yd desu mentioned above. L e t ' s s t a r t e a r l y s o a s n o t t o b e l a t e f o r t h e p l a n e . Please speak Japanese more slowly so that I can understand you too. rashii. 一 S e e a l s o naru.238 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS Ano yd-na utsukushii kimono o mita koto ga arimasen. The word or words before yo ni express a wish. tame ni yo ni suru ようにする PREDICATIVE PHRASE MRANING : make sure that take care that. no ni. 1 . I ' v e never seen such a beautiful kimono. so desu yo ni ように ADVERBIAL PHRASE MEANING : so as to. mitai. 飛行機に 遅 れないように早く出発しましょう。hikoki ru okurenai yd iu hayaku shuppatsu shimasho. try to (do make , ), it a rule to (do) IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn The progressive form yo ni shite iru expresses an habitual action.

2. dictionary form of verb Asu ku ii made ru koko ni kuru yd m shite kuaasai. /-form of verb 彼にあまり飲まないように言いなさい。 Kare ru amari nomanai yd ni unasai. Please make sure that you come here by nine tomorrow. Kono goro wa hayane hayaoki o suru yd ni shite imasu. Recently I am going to bed and getting up early. — S e e also suru あす 9 時までにここに来るようにして下さい。 この頃は早寝早起きをするようにしています。 毎 日漢字をみっつ 覚 えるようにします。 バスに 遅 れないようにして下さい。 After yo ni iu ように言う PREDICATIVE PHRASE MEANING : tell (somebody) to (do something) 1.yd ni yd ni iu • 240 一 1. Yesterday I told her to come here at three o'clock today. r i l make it a rule to learn three kanji every day. 2. き の う 彼 女 に 今 日 の 3 時 に ここ へ来 るよ うに 言い まし た。 拟 After . Please make sure that you don't miss the bus. dictionary form of verb Kino kanojo ni kyo no san ji ru koKo e kuru yd til umashita. Mainichi kanji o mittsu oboeru yd ni snimasu.r o c s r o z 」A d o u (replacing tanomu with iu changes the meaning to “ask [somebody] to [do something ]”) で 一 . After wc/z-form of verb Basu ni okurenai yd ni smte kudasai. After. T e l l him not to drink too much.

yd ni yd ni iu • 240 一 .

I s t h i s t h e r i g h t s t r e e t t o t h e station? 2. Either will do. Is it all right if 1 smoke here? IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn バス停までついて行って(も)よろしいですよ。 . A f t e r noun + de Sore de yoroshii desu. After interrogative word + demo Itsu demo yoroshii desu yo. A f t e r 佗-f o r m o f v e r b ( + mo) 電話を使ってもよろし い 。 Denwa o tsukattemo yoroshii. That will do. 1 . Any time will be all right.242 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS When used toward a person of higher status or to whom one wishes to show respect. Dochira demo yoroshii desu. Is it all right if I go home now? それでよろしいです。 いつ でもよろしいですよ。 どちらでもよろしいです。 ここでタバコを吸って(も)よろしいですか。 Koko cle tabako o sutte(mo) yoroshii desu ka. it should be followed by desu. もう帰ってよ ろ し い で す か 。 Mo kaette yorosnu desu ka. 3. 駅へ行くのにこの道でよろしいですか。 Eki e iku no ni kono michi de yoroshii desu ka. Y o u m a y u s e t h e telephone.

If you feel like it would you like to go to a movie? ► See also ho ga ii. 5. 4. あれには笑わざるを得ませんでした。 Are ru wa warawazaru o emasen deshita. I am obliged to give up the plan to take a trip. I'd be glad to accompany you to the bus stop. After 如-form of verb + ho ga Yameta ho ga yoroshii desu yo. It would be better to stop it. I n c o n d i t i o n a l わ 以 f o r m よろしければ 映画を見に行きませんか。 YoroshiKereba eiga o mi ni iKimasen ka. I have no choice but to cooperate with them. have no choice but to (do) PREDICATIVE PHRASE MEANING ), 1 . A f t e r the stem of nai-form of verb 私は旅行する計両をあきらめざるを得ません。 Watashi wa ryoko suru keikaKu o akiramezaru o etnas en.243 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS zaru o enai 一 zaru o enai • 243 Basutei made tsuite itte (mo) yoroshu desu yo. I could not help laughing at that. temo ii やめた方がよろし いですよ。 , zaru o enai ざるを{等なレ、 : cannot help (doing). 彼らに協力せざるを得ない。 Karera ni kyoryoku sezaru o enai. -rocsroz JAdou (note the irregular stem of suru is se) で 一 . cannot help but (do be obliged to (do).

1 . entirely completely ADVERB MEANING , 1 . A f t e r the stem of nai-form of verb IrolJQJproz"o lJZcn あきらめずにがんばってドさい。 山 : . I don't care a bit about what she said. W h a t y o u say is entirely different from what he says. g Kanojo no itta Koto wa zenzen ki ni shite imasen. I cannot write in Japanese at all.244 • GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS zenzen 全然 : (not) at all. U s e d with negative (total negation) Nihongo wa zenzen kakemasen. mattaku zu ni ずに PHRASE MEANING : without (doing)’ not (do something) but (do another thing) It is equivalent to nai de. > See a l s o marude. (not) in the least. 日本語は全然書けません。 そのことについては全然知りません。 彼女の ったことは全然気にしていません。 あなたの言うことは彼の言うことと全然違います。 Ancita no iu koto wa kare no iu koto to zenzen chigaimasu. 。ono koto ni tsuite wci zenzen shirimasen. (not) a bit’ (not) anything. I know nothing at all about it.

— S e e also nai わざわざ東京まで行かずにすみました。 一 Grammatical Explanations - .zenzen zu ni • 245 一 Akiramezu ni gcuibatte kudasai. -rocsroz JAdou Wazcivvaza tokyo made ikazu ni sumimashita. He was playing and didn't study. Chiketto o misezu ni kaijo ni ha iru koto wa de kimasen. You cannot enter the hall without showing the ticket. (note the irregular stem of suru is se) 2. I looks like we'll manage without borrowing money from the bank. Followed by the verb sumu (meaning ‘‘can manage without [doing ‘‘not have to [do ケットを見せずに会場に入ることはできません。 勉強もせずに遊んでいた。 ],,, ],,) チ 彼は 銀行からお金を借りずにすみそうです。 uinko kara o-kane o karizu ni sumisd desu. Kare wa benkyo mo sezu ni asonde itci. I didn't have to make a special trip to Tokyo. Do your best and don't give up.

I w a n t m o r e f r e e d o m . adverbs or less often. Amari no muda wa sakenakereba narancii. Kono shashin wa kirei ni torete imasu. noun form adjective form shinsetsu (kindness) shinsetsu-na (kind) kirei (beauty) kirei-na (beautiful) byddo (equality) byodo no (equal) jiyu (freedom) jiyu-na (free) muda (waste) muda-rui (wasteful) muda ni (wastefully) 1. isn't he? Dare demo koko dewa byodo no kenri ga aru. , Adjectival Noun Forms Most adjectival nouns are followed by -na before a noun they modify. though some are followed by no (refer to List of Common Adjectival Nouns below). This photograph is taken beautifully. When used as adverbs. ADJECTIVE FORM Kare wa shinsetsu-na hito desu ne. 3. as ordinary nouns in the subject or object of a sentence. 4. He is a kind person.ANATIONS ADJECTIVAL NOUNS (also known as ^-adjectives) Words in this category can function as adjectives. they are followed by ni. W e h a v e t o avoid too much waste. ADVERB FORM Kare wa watashi tcichi ni shinsetsu ni shite kuremashita. Everybody has equal rights here. He treated us kindly. or as complements that describe the subject or object.246 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. AS COMPLEMENT ADVERB FORM 2. shinsetsu ni (kindly) kirei ni (beautifully) byodo ni (equally) jiyu ni (freely) IrolJQJproz"OQJPJZCT . N O U N FORM Watashi wa motto jiyu ga hoshii.

.247 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS Kanojo wa totemo kirei ni narimashita.

particular’ exceptional tokui'tia strong (point of ability). well-known. in one's line tdzen no natural. proper tokubetsu-na special. desu does not follow. Adjective Forms Note that the adjective type of auxiliaries (-tai. noted yushu-na excellent. superior zettai no absolute. 1. deriketo-na デリケート(な)delicate gdjasu-na コーンヤス(な)gorgeous hotto-na ホット(な)hot hansamu-na ノ、ンサム(. unconditional zeitaku-na ぜレ、たく(な)luxurious.DICTIONARY FORM • As non-past predicate (Adding desu at the end makes it polite. extravagant 適当(な) (な) 得意(な) 当然(の) 愉快(な) 有名 (な) 優秀(な) 絶対(の) 特別 Borrowed (foreign) adjectives can also be dealt with as other Japanese adjectival nouns. IrolJQJproIAI (Used as a present predicate in a quotation.) Kono ryori wa taihen oishu desu. appropriate. -nai. and -rashii} conjugate in the same manner as /-adjectives. enjoyable yumei-na famous. but are also used as predicates and thus can be conjugated.) .248 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. reasonable yukai-na pleasant. This dish is very tasty.よ)handsome ADJECTIVES (also known as /-adjectives) /-adjectives are used to modify nouns which directly follow them. They conjugate depending on the word following and their function in the sentence.ANATIONS tekitd-nci suitable.


koto. I will ask her which is good. desho. to. while in questions in reported speech. hazu ga nai. dokoroku. modifying noun directly following Watashi wa totemo takai kamera o kaimashita. ( I n questions in direct speech. yori 2. isn't it? Kanojo ni dore ga u (no) ka tazuneyd. dokoro de (wa) nai. dealt w i t h i n F a r t I : aida. tsumori desu. desu. and functions in the various ways listed below. node. uchi ni. -rocsroz . no ni. kagiri. no desu. na. Kono tabemono wa furui kamoshirenai. rashii 、 so desu. followed by desho/kamoshirenai Ashita wa samui desho. It will probably be cold tomorrow. tokoro. to sureba. no. hazu desu. It is used in making the re-form and negative form. 丨 • As attributive adjective. ho. nagara9 nara. dake. • As presumptive predicate.ADJECTIVES • 253 Ano fuku wa yasui to omoimasu. kamoshirenai , kara. mitai (2)9 mono. desu is not used before [no Raishu no nichiyobi wa isogashii desu ka. yd desu.尺“-FORM This form is made by replacing the final-z with -ku. keredo(mo). ni chigai ticii9 ni mo kakawarazu. I bought a very expensive camera. Are you busy next Sunday? Kyo wa totemo atsui desu ne. It's very hot today. hodo. • Preceding the following words and phrases. desu is used before ka or ne. toki ni. I t h i n k that dress is cheap. wake. to snitemo. This food may be stale.


I think it is not bad. suru. nai. She became beautiful. ご //- -rocsroz JAdou Kyo wa amari samuku nai desu ne. temo ii 3. "A/-FORM This form expresses the non-past negation. te. nakereba ikenai. naru. Please don't make me sad. (I don't think it is bad. nakutemo yoi. dict. It is made by adding -nai to the Aw-form. form na 卜 form (plain) aw/-form (polite) muzukashii muzukashiku nai sarnui samuku nai muzukashiku nai desu samuku nai desu • The functions are exactly the same as those of the dictionary form above. • Decribing the subject or object as a result of change Kanojo wa utsukushiku narimashita. The « form can be followed by a n y words or phrases that follow the dictionary form. as nai is the dictionary form of the adjective nai.ADJECTIVES • 255 • As adverb Kare wa itsumo isogashiku ugokimawatte imasu. W e s p e n t t h i s afternoon pleasantly. • Preceding the following words and phrases. Watashi o kanashiku sasenaide kudasai. Today isn't very cold is it? Waruku nai to omoimasu.) , で 一 . nakereba naranai. dealt with i n P a r t I : arimasen. Nai in turn conjugates like an /•adjective. H e i s a l w a y s b u s i l y m o v i n g a b o u t . Watashi tachi wa kyo tanoshiku gogo o sugoshimashita.

I wanted to stay longer.) Watashi wa motto yukkuri shitakatla desu.257 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.) PLAIN PAST (NEC. DICT. It is made by replacing the final -i with -katta (affirmative) or by adding ncikattci to the /:w-form (negative). ( I n questions in direct speech desu is used before ka or ne’ while in questions in reported speech.) Kyo wa totemo samukatta desu ne. Japanese has been very difficult for me to learn. TA-FORM This form expresses past states and states that have continued up to the time of speaking. 4. I t w a s v e r y c o l d t o d a y ,w a s n ' t i t ? Kare ni nani ga yokatta no ka kikanakcitta. desu is not used before [no] ka. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn . She said it was not good.) yoi isogashii yokatta isogashikattci yoku nakatta isogashiku nakatta • As simple past predicate (Adding desu after the adjectve makes it polite.ANATIONS Amari muzukashiku nai hon o katta ho ga ii desu. , • Expressing state which has continued up to the time of speaking Nihongo wa watashi ni wa totemo oboenikukatta desu. I didn't ask him what was good (about it). Kanojo no iu koto wa tadashiku nai desho. It would be better for you to buy a book that is not very difficult. FORM PLAIN PAST (AFF. desu is not used. ( I n a quotation. Probably what she says is not right.) Kanojo wci yoku nakatta to itte imashita.


to in Pari I 7. let's postpone it. Ima isogashiku nakereba o-hanashi shitai no desu ga. FORM This form expresses a present or past condition. tara. TARA-FORM This form expresses a present condition. I couldn't have done it. If the weather is bad. It is made by adding -tara to the stem of the /a-form. A future condition is expressed by the ku-form + nareba.233 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. ( わ DICT. A past conamon is expressed by the /a-form + no nara. The negative of the tara-form is made by adding -nakattara (r«ra-form of -nai) to the ku-iorm. 似- It is made by replacing the final-/ with -kereba. and a future conamon by the ku-form + nattara. Without your help. FORM ト ORM NEG. The negative of the /w-form is made by adding -nakereba fl-form of nai) to the kuform. Anata no tasuke ga nakereba dekimasen deshita. , • See also ha、nara. DICT. If you are not busy now I would like to talk with you.ANATIONS • See also sore ni’ te in Part I 6. OF M/M- ト ORM IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn takaku nakattara samuku nakattara 一 . OF B/\-FORM warui isogasnu warukereba waruku nakereba isogashikereba isogashiku nakereba Tenki ga warukereba enki shimasho. FORM takai samui TARA-FORM takakattara saniukattara NEG.


mottomo. speedy prompt hayai early 危ない 明るい 甘レゝ 新しい 分厚ぃ さい 近レ、 , 占ぃ 太い 速い , , 早い IrolJQJproz"o hazukashii 力、しレ、shy. bulky chiisai /j、 small. Katakana is as difficult as hiragana to learn.EQUIVALENT DEGREE COMPARISON To onaji kurui/gurai’ which literally means “to the extent of similarity. I am not as clever as he. , • Comparison of adjectival nouns and adverbs is made in the same manner as above • S e e a l s o ho9 hodo. kurai.ANATIONS Kenji is the youngest of the three. cheerful amai sweet.260 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. bashful 山 : . low (of volume) chikai near close furui old (not used of humans) futoi fat. superficially optimistic. Which is the best of them? 11. Watashi wa kare hodo kashikoku arimasen. not strict atarashii new.” is used in the affirmative and hodo in the negative. Katcikana wa hiragana to onaji kurai oboeru no ga muzukashii. fresh. bold hayai fast. quick rapid. yori i n P a r i I List of Common Adjectives abunai dangerous akarui bright. up-to-date atatakai 暖カ、レ、w a r m citsui 熱レ、,暑レ、hot buatsui thick. Kono naka de dore ga mottomo yoi desu ku.

loud tall osoroshii 恐ろしい fearful.ADJECTIVES • 262 hiroi 広ぃ wide broad spacious. crazy. tame. small , , 細ぃ 痛レ、 , , , 恐い , 暗レ、 , なレ , 重レ、 多ぃ , , , 大きい , , 寒レ、 狭レ、 -rocsroz JAdou subarashii 素 RS らしレ、wonderful excellent. fine. does not exist nemui 目民い sleepy. tight. amusing. terrible. brief muzukashii むず力、しい difficult troublesome nagai te レ、long nai 、there is not. enjoyable oi many much numerous frequent okii big large. serious (of illness) omoshiroi 面由い interesting. marvelous. right. slender ii い い good. foul. horrible otonashii おとなしい obedient. improper omoi heavy. delicious okasnu お力、しい funny. quiet sabishu 寂しい lonely samui chilly. right , , , 一 . cute tiny kitanai テ与い dirty. drowsy nikui にくい hateful hard (to do) oishii ^ V ^ L t a s t y . vast hosoi thin. slight (of illness) kashikoi 力、しこい smart. hard kawaii 力、わいい lovely. clever wise katai かたい stiff. gloomy mijikai 斑い short. cold (of the weather) semai narrow. well-behaved. nice. suitable isogashii 十亡し レ、 b u s y itai painful. sore kanashu もてしい sad sorrowful karui 軽ぃ light. nasty kowai afraid fearful kurai dark. splendid sukunai 少ない a few a little suzushii 保しレ、cool (of the weather) tadashii 正しい correct accurate.


truly jiyu ni Sftl freely jozu ni skillfully kantan ni 簡単に easily omo ni chiefly. abruptly. called gitaigo.236 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. mainly 具体的に 本出に に 上丰に 主に Onomatopoeic Words (+ To),Used as Adverbs (The following are words (hat imitate sound or voice.) IrolJQJproz"OQJPJZCT kotsukotsu {to)こつこつ(と)(work) steadily nikoniko (to)に こにこ(と)smilingly wakuwaku (to)わくわく (と)excitedly . rapidly hidoku badly severely. unexpectedly zenbu all zenzen (not) at all completely (The above can be used as adjectives as well by adding no before the noun they modify. awfully はやく , , ひどく , 好し く みじかく すごく Adjectival Nouns + Ni,Used as Adverbs gutaiteki ni concretely.) 突然 全部 全然 , , /Cw-form of Adjectives Used as Adverbs hayaku early fast cjuickly. definitely honto ni really. terribly kuwashiku in detail mijikaku briefly sugoku terribly.) dokidoki (to) heart beats) fast gayagaya (to) talk) noisily zaza (to) rain) heavily どきどき(と)( がやがや(と)( ざあざあ(と)( Mimicry Words (+ To、 , Used as Adverbs (The following are words that imitate action or movement.ANATIONS totsuzen suddenly. called giseigo.

Watashi wa tenisu to sukii ga tokui desu. , 3. . KA • Between n o u n s : .ANATIONS CONJUNCTIONS To Connect Nouns 1. Konu ka o-cha o nomitai. I want to drink coffee or green tea.238 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. She speaks Japanese and also Chinese (both Japanese and Chinese). a n d ( a l s o ) . since then soretii moreover. . . . T O • Between n o u n s : . . 2. . I read things such as newspapers and magazines. C O M M O N CONJUNCTIVE WORDS daga 7 こが but. . MO • After each n o u n : . however (written language) dakara and so. after that. . Kanojo wa nihongo mo chugokugo mo hanashimasu. and then. I a m good at tennis and skiing. . . . a n d . o r . a n d . When I m free. . . . therefore that’s why dewa then il so (informal form is ja) keredo(mo) but (informal) shikashi but (formal) sorekara and. . 3. Hima-na toki wa shitibun ya zasshi o yomimasu. besides た•力、ら , では , けれども しカゝし それ力、ら それに . . YA • Between n o u n s : . To Connect Sentences 1 .

depending on the nature or shape of the object being counted. volumes shukan weeks wa birds 人 才 週問 羽 . bottles. round. (number or ranking) hanme (ordinal number) ciai vehicles or machines doru dollars 倍 带め 台 ドル en yen fun minutes gatsu months (of the year) hai cups or glasses hiki small animals. from the second to the tenth) kagetsu months (as the unit) kai 111 times (frequency) kiro kilometers or kilograms ko objects of small. ji o'clock jikan hours ka H days (of the month. or for days of the 円 分 月 杯 匹 本 時 時間 ケ月 キロ 個 枚 , , 年 IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn month after the tenth) nin persons sai years old satsu # books.238 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. or non-specific shape mai tnin or flat objects like paper boards. etc. nen years (as the date and unit) nichi I I days (for one day or more than ten days. etc. fish’ worms. slices. or insects hon long objects like sticks. List of Common Counters bcii times (multiplicative number) ban nr No.ANATIONS toKi (ni) に)when COUNTERS Japanese uses various counters.


Two cars are parked in front of the house. Migi kara san batune no seki ni suwatte kudasai. T h r e e s t u d e n t s are absent. THE NUMBER + COUNTER IS FOLLOWED BYiVO San nin no seito ga kesseki desu. Here are two pens and two sheets of paper. 3. WHEN PRECEDING A NOUN. I drank two cups of coffee. I N A SENTENCE THE NUMBER + COUNTER IS GENERALLY PLACED AFTER T H E N O U N ( + PARTICLE) TO WHICH T REFERS Ie no mae ni kuruma ga ni dai tomatte imasu. About how many books do you read in a week? Hagaki o nan mai motte imasu ka. IN A QUESTION (HOW M A N Y / H O W M U C H NAN + COUNTER IS USED Isshukan ni hon o nan satsu gurai yomimasu ka. How many postcards do you have? Kyo wa nan nicm desu ka. Please sit down in the third seat from the right. Eki made takushu de rti juppun kakarimasu. Koko ni pen ga ni hon to kami ga ni mai arimasu. What day of the month is today? ), • Note the following euphonic changes after nan : nan bon How many sticks . , 丨 2.r o c s r o z 」A d o u nan bai 何杯 How many cups nan biki イ町匹 How many animals nan pun i^^y How many minutes 一 .C O Usage of Counters 1 . It takes twenty minutes to the station by taxi. Konu o ni hai nomimashita.

DAYS (OFTHE MONTH) {ka 1 tsuitachi 6 muika 2 futsuka 7 nanoka mikka 8 yoka yokka 9 kokotioka itsuka 10 toka 曰) 3 4 5 6.COUNTERS 3 4 5 5. KILOGRAMS OR KILOMETERS 1 ichikiro 6 nikiro 7 nanakiro sankiro 8 hachikiro yonkiro 9 kyukiru gokiro 10 jukkiro キロ) rokkiro 2 3 4 5 .MONTHS (AS A UNIT) {kc^etsu 1 ikkagetsu 6 rokkagetsu nikagetsu 7 nanakagetsu sankagetsu 8 hachikagetsu yonkagetsu 9 kyukagetsu gokagetsu 10 jukkagetsu 8. DAYS (AS A UNIT) (nichif ka 1 ichinichi 2 futsuka 7 mikka 8 yoka yokka 9 kokonoka itsuka 10 toka 日) 6 muika nanoka mikka yokka itsuka ichinichi 6 muika futsuka 7 nanoka 8 yoka 9 kokonoka 10 toka 力月) 2 3 4 5 1.

ROUND.ANATIONS 9.243 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. SMALL. OR NON-SPECIFIC OBJECTS [ko 1 ikko 6 rokko 2 nikoi nanako 3 sanko 8 hachiko 4 yonko 9 kyuko 5 goko 10 jukko 個) .

B O O K S . PERSONS (nin 人) 1 hitori 2 futari 3 sanniti 4 yonin 5 gonin 6 7 nin 8 9 roku nin nananiti/snichi hachinin kyunin/kunin 10 jun in 1 1 .COUNTERS 10. VOLUMES (satsu 冊) issatsu 6 nisatsu 1 sansatsu yonsatsu gosatsu10 BIRDS (wa 羽) 8 9 ichiwa mvvfl sanba yonwa ^owa 6 / 8 9 10 YEARS OLD (如/ 才) issai6 nisai1 sansai 8 yonsai 9 rokusatsu nanasatsu hasscitsu kyusatsu .

245 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZCT 一AdoJ 」 jussatsu rokuwa nanawa hachiwa kyuwa j 叩 Pa rokusai nanasai hassai kyusai jussai gosai 6 IrolJQJprozfDQJpJZCT 1 gosai 6 rokuwa nanawa hachiwa kyuwa .

There are three types of euphonic changes: the /-sound change. and these occur only when the te ta or tara. the gemi-, -, .COUNTERS EUPHONIC CHANGES Only the consonant-stem verbs have euphonic changes.form of the verb is made.

either•” ?,, List of Fairs of Intransitive and Transitive Verbs Pairs of intransitive and transitive verbs are listed below. ni or ga. FORM asonde M-FORM play) asonda drink) shinu mananda manabu (to (to die) yomu (to nonda shinda INTRANSITIVE A N D TRANSITIVE VERBS Verbs which do not or cannot take a direct object are called intransitive verbs. However the object before a n y Japanese transitive verb can be freely dropped.” "Kescinaide kudasai” “Shall I turn off the light?” "Please don't turn (it) off•” “Kino poru ni aimashita ka:、UAimasen deshita•” “Did you meet Paul yesterday “I didn't meet (him). , , “Akari o keshimasu ka. , IrolJQJproz"OQJPJZCT .replace it with -/?• The following te and ta become de and da respectively. The objects are mainly followed by the particles o9 wa.” “1 can't play (it). Verbs which can take a direct object are called transitive verbs. but as explained above the transitive verbs of these pairs do not necessarily take a direct object. 7£-form asobu (to manande learn) nomu (to read) twnde DICT .” ''Watashi wa gorufu ga dekimasen•” il Watashi mo dekimasen “1 cannot play golf.

ANATIONS INTRANSITIVE agaru 上力《る(to go up) aku 開 < (to open) ataru 当 たる(to hit) transitive ageru 上 け 一 々 (to raise) akeru 開 け る ( toopen) ateru 当てる(to hit) .248 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.

INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS • 275 butsukaru ぶつ 力 、 る (t o b u m p ) deru to go out) fueru (to increase) hairu (to go in) hajimaru to begin) hanareru 16 (to separate) hazureru 夕 レれる(to come off) hieru to grow cold) hirogaru to spread) kaeru f to go back) kakureru to be hidden) kawaru tochange) kieru 消え る(to be put out) kimaru to be decided) kireru (to be cut) koboreru to spill) kowareru (to break down) magaru (tobend) matomaru to be united/ arranged) mawaru to rotate) mazaru ffi to be mixed) michi ru 満ち る(to become full) mitsukaru to be found) moreru to leak) mukeru (to peel) muku (to face) 出る( 增え 入る 始まる( 離•ナ 冷える( 広力《る( 录る( 陆れる( 変 わる ( 決まる( 切れる こしる( 曲がる まとまる( 回る( ざる( 見つかる( もれる( むける 向く nakunaru (to be lost) narabu (to be lined up) nokoru to he left over) nobiru to grow long) nobiru to be postponed) butsukeru ぶ つける(to bump) なくな々 残る ( 伸びる( 延びる( .r o c s r o z 」A d o u dasu (to let out) fuyasu 增やす(to increase) ireru 人 れる(to put i n ) hajimeru to begin) hanasu (to let go) hazusu (to remove) hiyasu (to cool) hirogeru 4 to spread) kaesu 1 (to let go back) kakusu to hide) kaeru to change) kesu (to put out) kimeru to decide) kirn (tocut) kobosu to spill) kowasu (to break) ma^eru tobend) matomeru to unite/arrange) 出す 始める( 離す 夕もす 冷やす 広 デる( 失! 『す 隠 す( 変 又る ( 消す 決める( 切る こぼす( 壊す 曲げる( まとめる( 一 .

ANATIONS mawasu (to rotate) mazeru to mix) mitasu (to fill) mitsukeru TO FIND) morasu (to let leak) muku to peel) mukeru t o t u r n ) nakusu (to lose) naraberu to line up) nokosu (to leave) nobasu (to lengthen) nohasu (to postpone) 回す 混ぜる( 满たす 見つける( もらす む く( る( なくす 並べる( 残す イ申{ずす 延{ずす 向け .250 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.

i (to stop) toreru to come off) tsuzuku 統 (to continue) 抜 ける ( 落ちる( ( 降り々 終わる( 下力 J る さめる( 閉まる 貯まる( 助力、る ( 立っ 溶ける 取れる( く く 起きる noseru to give a ride) nuku to pull out) otosu todrop) okosu (to wake up) oru (to break off/fold) orosu I (to take down) oeru to finish) sageru I to lower) sarnasu (to cool) shimeru to close) tameru (to save up) tasukeru to rescue) tateru to stand) tokasu (to melt) tomeru ih tostop) torn J to remove) tsuzukeru to continue) 乗せる( 抜く( 落とす( 起こす 折る 降ろす 終又る( 下 デる( さます 閉める( 貯め々 於カけ る( 立てる ( 溶かす め る( 仅る( る( 続け IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn tsuku 点 (to be lighted) tsumaru to be packed) tsutuigaru つな刀、々(to connect) tsutawaru (to spread) umareru (to be born) yakeru to bake) yasumu to take a rest) waku i to boil) wareru tocrack) 詰まる( 伝わ々 生まれ々 •焼ける( 休む( 弗く( 割れる( tsukeru 点、け々 (to light) tsutneru 56 (to pack) tsunagu つ (to connect) tsutaeru to tell) umu to give birth to) yaku 焼く (to bake) yasumeru (to rest) wakasu (to boil) waru tocrack) める な く、 伝える ( 生む( 休める 沸かす 割る( .noru to ride/get on) 乗る( nukeru to fall out) ochiru to fall) okiru to get up) oreru す斤 れる(to break in two) oriru (to get down) owaru to be over) sagaru (to go down/off) sameru to get cold) shimaru (to close) tamaru to be saved up) tasukciru to be rescued) tatsu (to stand up) tokeru (tomelt) tomaru il.

252 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. Case is indicated by a particle. There is also no distinction between singular .ANATIONS NOUNS Japanese nouns have no gender or cases in themselves.

CONJUNCTIVE FORM AS NOUN There are several verbs whose conjunctive forms can be dealt with as nouns. certain suffixes such as tachi may be added after a pronoun to indicate the plural. Types of Nouns 1. FORM OF VERB hajimeru (to begin) hareru (to clear up) kangaeru (to think) kotae ru (to answer) odoroku (to be surprised) owaru (to end) tasukeru (to help) CONJUNCTIVE FORM AS NOUN hajirne (the beginning) hare (good weather) kangae (a thought/idea/ opinion) kotae (an answer) odoroki (a surprise) owari (an end) -rocsroz JAdou で 一 . However.nouns • 277 and plural nouns. DICT.

tasuke (a help) DICT.254 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. FORM OF ADJECTIVE akai (be red) shiroi (be white) takai (be high) tanoshii (be pleasant) STEM AS NOUN aka (the color red) shiro (the color white) taka-sa (height) tanoshi-mi (pleasure) 3. though some require a specific suffix.ANATIONS 2. COMPOUND NOUNS • Noun + noun kyuko ressha express train gijutsu kakushin technological innovation • Conjunctive form of verb + noun . ADJECTIVE STEM AS NOUN There are several adjectives whose stems can be dealt with as nouns.

Caution is advised regarding the overuse of polite language as it can create a sense of distance between the speaker and those being addressed. Respectful language shows respect toward a person to whom or about whom the speaker is talking. , Prefixes and Suffixes I. ONoun prefix mainly for words of Japanese origin. o-kasan mother (of the other person) o-miyage a souvenir o-namae the name (of the other person) o-shigoto the work (of the other person) o-tenki the weather , IrolJQJproz"o o-tosan father (of the other person) 山 : . way out Stem of adjective + noun chika-michi shortcut Noun + conjunctive form of verb hana-mi flower viewing Conjunctive form of verb + conjunctive form of another verb hikidashi drawer Stem of adjective + conjunctive form of verb yasu-uri bargain sale Noun + stem of adjective ki-rmgu leisurely attitude Stem of adjective + stem of another adjective hoso-naga slendemess Double noun hito-bito people POLITE LANGUAGE In Japanese two kinds of polite language are very commonly used. a n d humble language indicates the speaker's humbleness.• • • • • • • wasure-tnono forgotten item de-guchi exit.

A suffix used in the same way as -sun、but more respectful and formal.) -rocsroz JAdou で 一 , (*set phrases for thanking somebody after finishing a ^SAMA job) 4. -SAN Suffix added to family or first names. or nouns expressing relation. (Ms. Mr.256 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.) Tanaka Taro uncle or an oldish gentleman a u n t or an oldish lady the chief of a section tiredness (You worked hard thank you. status. (Ms.) Yamada o-kyaku'sama customer or visitor dochira-satiui/ who donata-sama Polite Auxiliary Verbs .ANATIONS home (of the other person) hardship (of the other person) success (of the other person) address (of the other person) husband (of the other person) 3 . or condition. Yamada-sama Mr.

DESU The polite equivalent of the auxiliary verb da. . 2 .1. -MASU p The polite auxiliary verb used for making the wovw-form of verbs.


ANATIONS Dochira This is the polite equivalent of doko (where). I l o s t t h e b o o k that was in the bag. {no naka ni becomes no naka no as it is used to modify the noun [/? o. 山 : . Kaban no naka no hon o nakushimashita. ACROSS IrolJQJproz"o lJZcn • o yokogitte: c r o s s i n g f r o m o n e s i d e t o t h e o t h e r s i d e o f Obasan ga ddro o yokogitte aruite imasu yo. Which meaning it carries must be determined by context (and can at times be confusing). they must be followed by no. If made or kara are used in the phrase. ABOVE no ue de/ni: higher than Ima kurno no ue ni imasu.282 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. Compare the following two sentences: Sono hon wa kaban no naka ni iremcishita. ijo: to a greater degree than Tesuto no ten wa heikin ijd desu. as a rule the ni or de in the phrase is replaced with no. dore (which ), and dare (who). • • 2. I p u t t h a t b o o k i n t h e b a g . When a post-positional phrase using particles precedes a noun and is used to modify it. My test scores are above average. We are above the clouds now.! 】 which follows) English Prepositions Expressed in Japanese 1. PREPOSITIONS Common English prepositions are generally expressed by post-positional particles or phrases in Japanese.

で 一 . After you i s fine. If you go along this street. Kaimono o shita ato de eiga o miyd. 2. 2. Anata no ato de kekko desu.PREPOSITIONS • 282 • An old woman is walking across the road. I t w a s already discussed among them. I sometimes take a walk along the beach. no muko ni: on the opposite side of Shiyakusho wa ano ginko no muko ni arimasu. 2. Let's have tea after work. 2. o: f r o m o n e e n d t o t h e o t h e r e n d o f Kono tori o iku to kden ga aru. you will find a park. ALONG ni sotte or o: parallel to the length of Tokidoki kaigan ni sotte scinpo shimasu. no aula de/ni: in the group of Sore wa karera no aida de sude ni giron sareta. AMONG no naka de/ni: in the middle of/bcing one of San satsu no naka de kore ga ichiban suki desu.r o c s r o z 」A d o u • • • • • • San ji ni aimasho. Let's see a movie after doing the shopping. The city office is on the other side of that bank. I like this best among the three (books). AFTER (no) ato de/ni: the time that follows Shigoto no ato de o-cha o nomd. AT ni: time .

FROM • kara: starting point Shinkansen wa kono e/ci demasu. ni: occasion Tanjobi ni kore o moratta. It is difficult for me to learn kanji. 1 bought this for one thousand yen. I was in Japan for two years. ni totte: semantic subject of verb in the infinitive Kanji o oboeru no wa watashi ni totte muzukashii. ni wa: someone for whom some state is excessive Kore wa watashi ni wa takasugiru. no tame ni ( m o d i f i e s v e r b s ) : b e n e f i t o f s o m e o n e / t h i n g Kanojo no tame ni patii o shimasu. de: price Kore o sen en de kaimashita. I was given this for my birthday. 18. • kara: point in time something starts Mise wa ku ji kara aite iru. The shinkansen starts from this station. This is too expensive for me.PREPOSITIONS • 287 • • • • • • • What did you buy tor her? ni: purpose Mai asci sanpo ni ikimasu. kan or no aida: period of time Ni nen kan nihon ni imashita. The store is open from nine o'clock. • kara: material Kara . We ,11 give a party for her. I ' m leaving for Tokyo tomorrow. •ど or ni: destination or direction Asu tokyo e dekakemasu. I go for a walk every morning.

• no naka de/ni: within an enclosed space Kamera wa kaban no naka ni aru. • de: method or means Nihongo de hanasemasu ka. IN • ni: at some time during Go gatsu ni kare wa nihon ni kimasu. S a k e i s made from rice. M y b r o t h e r lives in Kyoto. The camera is in the bag. • de: place where an event is held Konsato wa ano horu de arimasu. 19. IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn • ni: result of a change . de: cause Ojiisan wa gan de shinimashita. • de: place where an action is performed Kare wa heya de nete iru. • ni: place of existence Ani wa kydto ni sunde imasu. A dog came into the room. They went in that direction. My grandfather died of cancer. The concert is given in that hall. He is sleeping in his room. 19. H e ' l l come to Japan in May. INTO • no naka e\ toward the inside of Inu ga heya no naka e haitte kita.• Sake wa kome kara tsukurareru. Can you speak in Japanese? • ni: direction toward which an action is directed Karera wa ano hbko ni itta.

NEAR • no chikaku de/ni: close to Eki no chikak u ni yasui hoteru wa arima su ka. 19. Please put this into Japan ese. Is there a cheap hotel .288 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS PKHPOsrriONS • 289 Kore o nihon go ni nciosh ite kudas ai.

ON . I like the city of Kobe. • no: semantic object/subject of a noun expressing action Sono imi no setsumei wa muzukashisugiru. 19.near the statio n? 19. The explanation of the meaning is too difficult. • no: apposition Watashi wa kobe no machi ga suki desu. My car has a flat tire. OF • no: belongin g or in relation to Kuruma no taiya ga panku shita.

ANATIONS • of ni: at the time N u n y o b i n i k o r u r e m u s u k a . O n w h a .290 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.

t d a y c a n y o u c o m e ? • ni/de: on the surface of Kabe ni kirei-na e ga aru. • no ue de/ni: on the horizontal surface of Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni am. The dictionary is on the desk. There is a beautiful picture on the wall. .

A cat jumped onto the table. 一 . ONTO .ANATIONS 19.r o c s r o z 」A d o u • no ue e/ni: toward the surface of Neko ga teburu no ue e tobiagatia.292 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.

A bri dg e wa s bui lt . OVER • no ue cle /ni : in a hig her po siti on So no kai ky o no ue ni ha shi ga de kit a.19.

• yori takaku: higher than A n o k i k y u w a k u r n o y o r i t a k a .294 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS ov er the str ait.

T h a t b a l l o o n i s f l y i n .k u t o n d e i r u .

296 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS g o v e r t h e c l o u d s . • o ko ete : to th e fa r si de of Ne ko ga hei o .

ko ete nig eta . 1 have . She lives on the other side this road. A cat ran away over the fence. of • ijo: more than Hyaku mat ijo shii dii o motte imasu. • no mukd de/ni: on the other side of Kanoj o wa kono ddro no mukd ni sunde imasu.

ANATIONS over one hund red CDs. SINCE • kara or ir ai : fr o m a po in t in pa st ti m e S e ns h u n o ni c .298 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. 19.

I’ ve be en si ck si nc e la st S un da y.hi y o bi k ar a b y o ki d es u. Kanoj o to saigo ni atte kara ni nen .

• no toki kara: from a point in past time Watashi tachi wa gakusei no toki kara tomodachi desu. THROUGH • o totte: in one side and out the other side of Densha ga nagai tonneru o totte kita. IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn • o aid n .300 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. I t is two years since I saw her last. The train came through the long tunnel. 19.ANATIONS ni narim asu. We've been friends since we were students.

fr om th e be gi nn in g to th e en d of Fu yu no aid a shi nsh u de suk ii o shi ma su.er. I'll ski in Shi nsh .

ANATIONS u thr oug h the win ter.302 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. .

• made: t i m e w h e n a n a c t i o n i s s t o p p e d Ju ji kara go ji made hatarakimasu. 19.) で 一 . 19. TOWARD • no ho e: direction Kare wa eki no ho e ikimasmta.r o c s r o z 」A d o u noun immmediately following it. (As explained above when the phrase is used to modify a , . I ' l l give that to you. THROUGHOUT • no aida (zutto) or ju: from start to nnish Gakusei jidai no aida zutto arubaito o shita. TO • ni: indirect object Anata ni sore o agemasu. I m going to Tokyo. 19. • ni or e or made: destination/direction Tokyo ni iKimasu. no is used in place of ni.PREPOSITIONS • 303 • made: up to and including Getsuyobi kara kin ’ydbi made hatarakimasu. A dog is under the table. I work from Monday through Friday. He went toward the station. UNDER • no shita de/ni: i n / t o a l o w e r p l a c e t h a n Teburu no snita ni inu ga imasu. I worked part-time throughout my school days. , 19. I work from ten to five. • miman or ika de/ni: less than Ju hassai miman no hito wa hairemasen. People under eighteen may not enter.

• no tsuita: attached possessing Akai raberu no tsuita shohin ga bagen desu. UNTIL • made: up to Asa made hon o yonde imashita. Please use a pencil. , PRONOUNS Personal Pronouns Japanese personal pronouns are frequently omitted except when it is not easy to guess who is being referred to. the name of a person or his/her position or occupation followed by the polite suffix -san is commonly used instead of a personal pronoun. I was reading books till morning.ANATIONS 19. • de: material for covering Fuji-san wa yuki de owarete iru. I was in bed w i t h a cold yesterday. In general. • de or o tsukatte: means or method Enpitsu o tsukatte kudasai. Case is given to the personal pronoun by adding specific particles wa3 ga o.304 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. WITH • to issho ni: accompanied by Anata to issho ni ikitai desu. Mt. 19. Fuji is covered with snow. I want to go with you. • de: cause Kino wa kaze de nete imashita. ni. He is a man w i t h a sense of humor. • no aru: character of Kare wa yumoa no aru hito desu. , IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn . The items w i t h red labels are bargains. or no.

achira (polite) で 一 The following are used for expressing place and direction (combined with the particles ni de’ e kara. sono. kore. sore in Part I VERBS you (sing. -rocsroz JAdou this. that. those that. and ano respectively before nouns they modify. kimi tachi (informal) kare. these it. kono/sono/ano hito tachi Demonstrative Nouns These pronouns become kono.) you (pi. kono/sono/ano hito karera. kochira (polite) sore. sochira (polite) are. bokii/ore tachi (male) anata.VERBS • 305 watashi. they. those (over there) kore. or made). kinii (informal) anata tachi.) they . there that place over there that place,over there this way (direction/side) that way (direction/side) that way over there (direction/side) which way (direction/side) , , koko soko asoko asoko kochira sochira achira dochira See also are. kono/sono/ano hito kanojo. bokii/ore (male) watashi tachi. , , this place here that place.

particles. auxiliaries.306 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. but according to the verbs. or other .ANATIONS Japanese verbs change form not according to person or the number of the subject.

crash shinjiru to believe (in). The dictionary form of a l l verbs ends with . The verbs listed below look like 7 verbs but actually conjugate as consonant-stem verbs. /rw-Verbs The dictionary form always ends with -iru.VERBS • 307 f u n c t i o n words w h i c h follow the verb. The verbs listed below look like zrw-verbs but actually conjugate as consonant-stem verbs. There are three types of regular verbs and two irregular verbs. trust りる 兑る , 起さ^) , 落ちる , イ萏し々 -Verbs The dictionary form always ends w i t h -eru. slide kaeru w to go back come back neru to elaborate knead 蹴る しゃべる すへ々 , 練る , る List of Common Erw-Verbs IrolJQJprozfD^lJZCT ageru あ【デる to give raise. look watch okiru to get up wake up ochiru to fall come down. ど/ ト kern to kick shaberu to speak. hairu to enter hashiru to run kiru t o c u t shiru o to know iru to need 入る 走る 知 要 切る List of Common /rw-Verbs dekiru でさ々 can (do).M . do (something) for others , . to complete kariru in to borrow miru to see. chat suberu to slip.

-gu -su. call on tomeru I to stop. , , , , , List of Common Consonant-Stem Verbs -rocsroz JAdou aru to exist ある で 一 . The second to last syllable may be a n y consonant + a n y vowel. visit. graduate. retire 開ける あきらめる 出かける る , 晴れる 八れる , 聞こえる 壊れる くナしる , 見える , 見せる , 渡る 述べる 见又る 糸で又る 遅 る れ 教える 助 ける 铭ねる 卜•める つける 生まれる -忘れる , やめる Consonant-Stem Verbs The dictionary form ends in -rw -M -ku. or just a vowel. stop. -tsu9 -nu -bu or -ww. set out deru tl Ji to go out.ANATIONS akeru to open akirarneru to give up dekakeru to go out. light. go to bed noberu to describe oboeru to memorize. be delayed oshieru to teach. tell tasukeru J to help tazuneru to ask. park tsukareru 疲れる to get tired tsukeru to turn on. attach umareru to be born wasureru to forget leave (something) behind yameru to quit. come out leave. be visible appear (come) miseru to show let (somebody) see neru to sleep. appear hareru to clear up ireru to put in insert kikoeru to be heard. get out of order kureru to be given get a profit by an action mieru to be seen. learn (by heart) oeru to finish oku rem to be late.308 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. be audible kotaer"答ん々 to answer kowareru to break down.

be wrong dasu to let out. post. ask ttmgaru 曲力、る to turn (a corner),curve. catch (a train.) mcitsu 待っ to wait morau to be given. erase. amuse oneself au 会つ to meet. weep nakunaru to be gone. see (a person) chigau M l to differ. bus. perform (an action) oku to put. eat (soup). run out. tell kaku 邦 く to write kasu to lend kau to buy kesu to turn off. bend ma ni au to be in time. draw. minus. have. pay furu P 单る to fall (of rain or snow) ganbaru 力ぐん(丈る to do one’s best hold on try hard hanasu to speak. pass away nakusu to lose nara" to take lessons. learn naru to become nomu 飲む to drink. take (medicine) noru to ride get on board odoroku to be surprised okonau to do. tell harau iUo t o p a y hatarciku W) く t o w o r k hiku I to pull. take out. receive tnotsu to hold. reduce a price iku u \ t o g o iii to say. possess naku 仇 to cry.VERBS • 309 aruku to walk asobu to play. place 歩く 出す , , 話す リ く 目っ 贷す 買う ;肖す く , 間に合う もらう 持っ く なくなる なくす 習ラ なる 乗る , , 驚く つ ■く IrolJQJproz"oQJpJZcn . etc. talk. hand in. extinguish kiku fifj to hear listen.

ANATIONS okuru to send see off 送る , .310 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.

VERBS • 311

oru おる to be, stay osu 和 P す to push, press owaru to be over, end shimaru to be closed, be s h u t shinu タ匕ぬ to die sumu to live, reside suwaru to sit down, be seated tcitsu 立つ to stand up leave tomaru to come to a stop, run down tomaru to stay (overnight) toru Hk る to take, take off remove tsuzuku 続 to continue, follow tsukxiii to use, handle, spend (money) tsuku to arrive get to tsukuru to make, cook, manufacture utau 歌う losing wakaru to understand, know, recognize warau to laugh, giggle, grin, chuckle yaru to do, give (informal) yasumu to take a rest, he absent yomu to read
終わ々 閉まる 住む 雖•る , 止まる 泊まる , く 使う 着く , 作る わかる 笑ラ やる


Irregular Verbs kuru to come suru to do perform various actions, be in some state
来る する ,

Verb Forms 1.DICTIONARY FORM This refers to the plain form found in the dictionary and always ends with -u. • This form is used at the end of a relative clause which modifies a noun placed directly after it or in other types of subordinate clauses such as noun clauses. The cannot be used in

-rocsroz JAdou

such clauses- Also note that the use of the //^.vw-form to end


sentences in conversation is more polite. Anata ga susumete kureru jisho o kaimasho. I ' l l buy the dictionary that you recommend to me. Kare ga chugoku ni iku koto o shitte imasu ka. Do you know that he is going to China? • This form is also used at the end of an appositive clause which precedes specific nouns, such as yosu (sign/look), nozomi (hope), yakusoku ( p r o m i s e / a p p o i n t m e n t ) , ( f a c t ) , etc. Kare wa akirameru yosu ga nai. He shows no sign of giving up. San ji ni tomodachi to au yakusoku ga aru n desu ga.
Sorry I have an appointment to meet my friend at three.

Kare ga seiko suru nozomi wa nai. There is no hope that he will succeed. • The dictionary form can also precede the following w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s , d e a l t w i t h i n P a r t I : bakari, beki, bun, dake, desho, dokoro de (wa) nai, dokoro ka, hazu desu, hazu ga nai, ho, hodo, ho ga ii, hoka nai, igai, kagiri, kamoshirenai, kara, kawari ni , keredo(mo), koto, koto ga ant, koto ga dekiru. koto ni naru, koto ni natte iru f koto ni shite iru, koto ni suru, kurai, made, made ni, mae, mitai (2) 9 mono, na, tiara, ni chigai nai, ni mo kakawarazu, ni tsurete. ni wa, no, node, no desu, no ni, rashii, shika, so desu (l), tabi ni, tame ni, to, toka, toki ni, tokoro, to shitemo, to sureba, tsuide ni, tsumori desu, tte, uchi ni, wake, ya, yo desu, yo ni, yd ni suru, yo ni iu, yori 2. "A/-FORM This form expresses plain negation. • This form is made as follows:

VERBS • 313

Consonant-stem verbs: Replace the f i n a l - w with -a and add nai. When the final -u is preceded by another single vowel, as in iu or kau, replace t h e u with wa and add nai.


VERBS • 301

masu to the conjunctive form of the verb.

This form cannot be used in relative clauses. It is commonly used at the end of a sentence or certain subordinate clauses. • Musu can be replaced with the following variations of masu to express the meanings on the right respectively: Polite non-past negative Polite past affirmative Polite past negative Polite volitional




VERBS • 303

mima sh se su it n a


minm mima sh se o n de sh it a

VERBS • 305

dema sh se su it n a


denui dema sh se o n de sh it a

VERBS • 307

ikima sh se su it n a


ikima sh se o n de s m ta

VERBS • 309

shima sh se su it n a

310 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS shima sh se o n de sh it a .

VERBS • 311 kimas hi en u ta .

Would you like to go see a movie tomorrow? Watashi no atarashii kuruma de doraibu ni ikimasho. Let's go for a drive in my new car.r o c s r o z 」A d o u miru Used to express an invitation Ashita wa eiga o mi ni ikimasen ka.312 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. Used to express habitual action で 一 deru .ANATIONS kimas h en o de sh it a .

. watashi wa nama no tabemono wa zenzen tabemasen. I ' m sorry. but I don't eat raw food at all.VERBS • 313 Sumimasen ga.

• Used to express volition Watashi ga kawari ni sore o shimasho. -mu or -nu. , , , IrolJQJprozfD^lJZCT . • This form is made by adding -te to t h e conjunctive form. a process of action contrastive actions or a condition. -gu. See also Euphonic Changes in Part II. r£-FORM This form expresses actions in succession.ANATIONS • Used to express a suggestion O-cha demo nomimashd ka. The last syllable of the conjunctive form of a consonant-stem verb whose dictionary form ends with the following syllables is also euphonically changed before -te as follows. an unemphatical reason or cause. Fve already seen that movie. Shall we have tea or something? • Used to express present action Kono natsu yasumi wa dokoka e ikimasu ka. Are you going anywhere during this summer vacation? • Used to express past perfect action Sono eiga wa mo mimashita. However. • See also masu in Part I 5.314 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. the -te of /e-form becomes -de after the conjunctive form of a consonant-stem verb whose dictionary form ends with -bu. I w i l l d o i t i n place of you.

(-rule) .{-ite/'ide) •u. -gu — -i. -ru — 小 (-tte) -bu. -tsu.VERBS • 315 -ku. -nu -n.

316 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS DI r^CT FO . R FO M R M aso b n u de iku* itte oyo oyoi g" de kak kait u e kur kite u shi m ar at u te shin u de .

VERBS • 317 suru snit e tabe ru te nom non u de mat matt su e mir mite u iii itte (* ik u is an ex ce pt io n) .

lasting state as the result of an action. sorekara. teniasu. te iku. hoshii. dealt with in Part I: ageru9 aru. yoroshii See also te hoshu. FORM ァル This form expresses past actions or events completion of an action or movement. or movement and experiences at some undefined time. oru. bakari.ANATIONS • The /^-form can precede the following words and phrases. te oku. , • This form is simply made by replacing -te of / ど-form with -ta. te miru.318 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. soshite. .r o c s r o z 」A d o u で 一 ik DICT. te shimau • See also Euphonic Changes in Part II 6. mitai ⑴. kureru. itadaku. iru. FORM 7V1-FORM itta .morau. te kuru. irai. kara , kudasai.

She shows no sign of having gotten better. Like the dictionary form. FORM 7^-FORM hanareru (to stay away) kawaru (to differ) komaru (to have difficulty) machigau (to make an error) megunuireru (to be blessed) hanareta (distant) kawatta (peculiar/unusual) komatta (difficult/embarrasing) machigatta (wrong/incorrect) megumareta (blessed/comfortable) . IrolJQJprozfD^lJZcn DICT. Kanojo wa yoku natta yosu ga nai. this form can be used at the end of an appositive clause which precedes specific nouns such as yosu (sign/look jijitsu (fact ),etc. Watashi wa kind katta hon o mo yomimashita. The fact that he made a mistake cannot be denied. but in conversation it is more polite to use -mashita. Kare gci misu o okashita jijitsu wa hitei dekinai. or in other types of subordinate clauses. It can also end a sentence. Fve already read the book that 1 bought yesterday. , The "/-form of several verbs may be used as an attributive adjectival which can be used to modify a noun immediately following it.VERBS • 319 kaku kuru suru taberu miru iu iu kaita kita shita tabeta mita itta itta This form is used in a relative clause which modifies a noun.

320 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. dake. . bun.ANATIONS The /«-form can precede the following words and phrases. bakari. dokoro kay hazu desu. dealt with in Part I: ato de.

FORM ZM-FORM NEG. tte. nara. It implies the completion of an individual action. tokoro ga.and 7/-verbs: Replace the final w w i t h -re. tame ni. FORM iku miru taberu ittara mitara tabetara ikanakattara -rocsroz JAdou minakattara tabenakattara で 一 • See also ba.” “after (doing and so forth. koto. no. • This form is made as follows: Iru. to shitemo. CONDITIONAL iku miru taberu ikeba mireba tabereba ikanakereba minakereba tcibenakereba • See also ba、nara. ho ga ii. no desu. 7A/M-FORM This form is a conditional t h a t means “if “ when. rashii. Note that /«m-form of the copula verb da is dattara. toki ni. FORM L4/64-FORM NEG. -FORM This form expresses a non-past condition. na. kamoshirenai. • This form is made by adding -tara to t h e stem of the /p-form. so desu ( J ) . keredo(mo). hodo. ni chigai nait ni mo kakawarazu. , ’ ),,, DICT. I r r e g u l a r v e r b s : suru 一 sureba. karci. no ni. wake. . node. tsuide ni9 tsumori desu. kuru kureba 似 ど/ -厂 DICT. koto ga aru. tara. tara、to in Part I 8. tokoro. to sureba. yd desu. yori 7. fio. Consonant-stem verbs: Replace the last vowel with and add ba. kawari ni.VERBS • 321 hazu ^ci nui. to in Part I . and add ba. mitai (2) f mono. nara.


as in iu or kau replace it with -wareru. • In Japanese a few intransitive verbs that do not take an object’ such as kuru or furu. Kaeru tochu de ante ni furaremashita. • This form is made as follows: Consonant-stem verbs: Replace the final _u w i t h -areru. My wallet was stolen (I had my wallet stolen) in the train. Iru.VERBS • 307 • See also koto ga dekiru in Part I 10. Densha no naka de saifu ga/o nusumaremashita. Isogashii toki ni mala o-kyaku-san ni korareta. kuru korareru , 一 一 • Verbs in the passive form are dealt w i t h as an erw-verbs. I w a s caught in the rain on my way home. The agent of the passive verb may be indicated by ni.and erw-verbs: Replace the final -ru with -rareru. Irregular verbs: suru sareru. can be formca into the passive to express an action that is inconvenient for the speaker. ni yotte in Part I and honorific form below で 一 .r o c s r o z 」A d o u • See also ni. Refer t o t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of rw-verb conjugation in the entries above. PASSIVE FORM This form expresses the passive. When the final -u is preceded by another vowel. FORM PASSIVE (PLAIN) PASSIVE (POLITE) T と-FORM kowasu kowasareru kowasaremasu kowasarete nusumu nusumareru nusutnaremasu nusumarete • Usually transitive verbs t h a t describe an action toward a direct object can be formed into the passive. ど DICT. A visitor came again when I was busy. .

It is used when a superior orders something to be done or when spectators cheer a team. , • See also Polite Language in Part II 12. especially when speaking to a mend in order to soften the command. Anata mo ikaremasu ka. COMMAND FORM This form expresses a strong emphatic command. t o o ? Sensei wa kyo wa koraremcisen. • This form is made as follows: Consonant-stem verbs: Replace the final-u with Iru. morau. A verb in the honorific form is dealt with as an eru-verb. • The sentence-ending particle yo may be added. masen. • This form is made in the same manner as the passive form.and erw-verbs: Replace the final -ru with -ro. Irregular verbs: suru shiro. HONORIFIC FORM This form is used for showing the speaker's respect toward the subject of the verb. W i l l y o u g o . 一_ • The negative command form is the dictionary form + na. Therefore whether the form is passive or honorific must be determined from the context. T h e t e a c h e r isn't coming today. nasai i n P a r t I . Chanto shiro yo. Do it right okay? , , IrolJQJproz"o^lJZcnLJ • S e e a l s o ka. kuru " koi , , そ.VERBS • 307 11. Its use in conversation is not advised unless the speaker wants to sound abrupt. kureru. kudasai.

Iru. mitai. events. • This form is expressed by adding desho. yd desu i n P a r t I 12. so desu. present or past actions. PRESUMPTIVE FORM This form expresses t h e speaker's u n c e r t a i n t y concerning future. , • S e e a l s o desho. mitai. kuru > koyo PO PL DI LI AI CT TE N .’’ • This form is made as follows: Consonant-stem verbs: Replace the final -u with -o. VOLITIONAL FORM This form expresses the speaker's volition in making a suggestion.and erw-verbs: Replace the final -ru w i t h -yd. similar to the English expression “I will/let's. or states. rashii so desu. VO FO LI R TI M ON AL . rashii. or yd desu to the dictionary form of verbs. Irregular verbs: suru > shiyo.VERBS • 307 12.

308 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS ikima iko iku sh o imash iyo iru o .

VERBS • 309 mima miyd miru sh o okim oko oku as h o .

Kura o tsukemasho ka. Let's go and see a movie. Let's do our shopping here shall we? , , . Shall I turn on the air conditioner? Koko de kaimono o shimasho ka. However as it is used rather informally. offers.310 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI. Eiga o mi ni iko yo. or suggestions.ANATIONS yame m y ru as o h o • This form can be used to express invitations. it is better to use rnashd (the volitional form of masu) in polite speech.

A verb in the causative form is dealt w i t h as an erw-verb. Nai-form + de + oko/okimasho: Let's leave as it is unperformed. and add -seru. Iru. CAUSATIVE FORM This form expresses the idea that the subject person makes or permits somebody or something to perform an action. kuru kosaseru 一 一 邙 こ . Ame na node doraibu ni iku no o yameyd. • This form is made as follows: -rocsroz"oa):lJZ Adou Consonant-stem verbs: Replace the final -u with -a. In Japanese inanimate things are rarely used for the subject of the verb in the causative form. Let's not drink too much. Irregular verbs: suru saseru.and eru-vtrbs: Replace the final ィ u with -saseru. Amari nomanai de okimashd. replace it w i t h -wa and add -seru. • See also masu-form in Part II 15.VERBS • 311 • The negative of this form is as follows: Nai-form + de + iyo/imasho:し et’s keep ourselves from (doing). When the final -u is preceded by a vowel. Let's not go for a arive because it is rainy. as in iii or kau. Dictionary form + no o + yameyd/yamemasho: Let's give up (doing).


VERBS • 309 7^FO R M " パ / FO R M ikaset ikase ikcise iku a na ru i .

ANATIONS tsuka w u as et en er a ai u .310 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.

VERBS • 311 rnisas misas miru et en er a ai u .

312 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.ANATIONS noma tioma nomu se ta na ru i .

When the final syllable is 14. as in iu or kau. replace it w i t h -wasu. kuru kosasu 一 -TOCSroz FJ^lMcnIJAClo:} CA DI US CT AT . Consonant-stem verbs: Replace the final -u w i t h -asu. IV FO E R (P M LA IN) W■FO R M hata ra ru rc ka ik sh sa su u it n a ui .VERBS • 313 neru nesaseru nesasenai nesaseta (miseru [to show let see] is widely used instead of misaseru) , • Some verbs may be changed into causative form by the following rules and conjugate as consonant-stem verbs. These verbs then become transitive verbs and must take an object (either stated or implied). Iru.and erw-verbs: Replace the final -ru with -sasu. Irregular verbs: suru • sasu.

ANATIONS nak as u hi an u ta ai has hi ra ru sn sa su it ru u ii ugo ka k sh sa us u it na u a i toba tobc tobu sh is it at u a ia i ka kaw w ak as ak u hi an as ta ai u .314 • GRAMMATICAL EXPI.

• Use of ni with the causative The person or t h i n g w h i c h is made or let to perform an action is followed by ni or o. Kodomo ni motto yasai o tabesaseta ho ga //• It is better to make children eat more vegetables. o r w h e n t h e person is p e r m i t t e d t o d o something. Ni is used to i n d i c a t e t h e person made to do something when the verb takes a direct object w i t h o . Please move your car a little forward. Watasni ni soko e ikasete kudasai. .VERBS • 315 Kuruma o sukoshi mae e ugokashite kudasai.

You should not make a lady cry. Iru. Hayaku kodomo o nekaseta ho ga ii. Irregular verbs: suru _ saserareru. I will let you listen to my favorite songs. W i l l you let me use the copy machine for a while? 16.” or “be permitted to (do)•” • This form is made as follows: -rocsroz Adou Consonant-stem verbs: Replace the final-w w i t h -u and add sareru or serareru. Kodomo tachi o suki-na yd ni asobaseta. Chotto kopu o tsukawasete kuremasen ka. I ' l l have my assistant go and get it. I let the children to play as they pleased. Watashi no buka ni tori ni ikaseru. or a request in a question. Josei o nakasete wa ikenai.and er«-verbs: Replace the final -ru with -saserareru.VERBS • 317 Please let me go there. CAUSATIVE PASSIVE FORM This form means “to be made to (do). ), , , • Ageru and kureru may be used after び-form of the causative in order to express permission in a declarative sentence. kuru > kosaserareru , こ . Anata ni watashi no suki-na uta o kiKasete agemasu. It s better to make the child go to bed early. • Use of o with the causative l n i s is used w h e n the person or t h i n g is made to do something (with transitive verb the person is made to have some emotion or the person is permitted to do something on the subject person's own responsibility (transitive or intransitive verb). When the last syllable is -u as in iu or kau replace it with -wa and add sareru or serareru.

Sareru i s t h e abbreviated form of serareru. DICT. Takai mono o kawasarete komatte imasu. .) • A verb in t h e causative passive form conjugates as an eruverb. FORM CAUSATIVE PASSIVE FORM iku kau shinjiru akirarneru ikasure ru/ikase rare ru kawasarera/kawaserareru shinjisaserareru akiramesaserareru Watashi wa tokidoki nichiyobi mo hatarakasaremasu. (The former is more commonly used than the latter. I am made to work even on Sundays at times. I am distressed because I was forced to buy something expensive.VERBS • 309 • Serare ru/sase rare ru is made by combining the causative ending -seruAsaseru with the passive e n d i n g -rareru.

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