id: 57969

date: 3/24/2006 10:28

refid: 06BEIJING5529

origin: Embassy Beijing classification: CON FI DENTIAL destination:



DE RUEHBJ #5529/01 0831028 ZNV CCCCC ZZH

o 241 028Z MAR 06




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E. O. 12958: DECL: 03/24/2016



Classified By: OeM David S. Sedney, Reasons 1.4 (B) and (D).

1. (C) Summary. In a March 23 meeting with Vice Premier Wu

Vi, Senators Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and Charles Schumer (D-NY) strongly urged near-term reform of China,s exchange rate

policy as a key step to promote a successful April visit to

the United States and to preclude Congressional action on

China trade bills, including their own proposal to impose

27.5 percent tariffs on U.S. imports of Chinese goods. Wu Yi said that bill would harm both Chinese and U.S. interests,

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and likely would not withstand a challenge in WTO Dispute Resolution proceedings. The Senators expressed cautious optimism about what they had learned in earlier Beijing meetings about Chinese intentions with respect to exchange rate policy, but urged Chinese actions and statements to make China,s case known to the American public, Congress and the Administration. Wu Yi said exchange rate policies are sovereign matters for each country to decide, and China could not be faulted before the International Monetary Fund or WTG for non-compliance with any rules in those organizations. China will follow principles of self-initiation,

controllability and gradualism in expanding flexibility of

China.s floating exchange rate. China in the twenty-first century is not Japan in the 19808, and the United States should not pressure China now as Japan was then. China will never surrender to external pressure. Detailed points on China,s exchange rate policy outlined by People,s Bank of China Governor Zhou Xlaochuan at an earlier meeting will be published at an appropriate time in the future.

2. (C) Summary continued: The bilateral trade deficit is complementary, not competitive, Wu Yi asserted, with much of the rise in the U.S. deficit with China attributable to

shifts of final manufacturing to China from other Asian countries with which the United States had earlier trade deficits. U.s. export controls on high-tech goods also contribute to the trade Imbalance. China will soon be

importing one trillion dollars of goods per year, and U.S.

firms could provide a large share of those imports. Chinese trade and investment misslons totaling 150 entrepreneurs will soon visit the United States, with particular interests in soybeans, cotton, computer software, aircraft, automotive

parts and machinery. Wu Yi will personally announce China,s measures to improve IPR protection at the April 11 Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade meeting in Washington. Improved IPR protection in China is in China,s own interest, and recent release of an IPR Action Plan is an historic and important step by the Central Government. China will

establish 50 IPR complaint centers in cities across the

country over the next three years, and China is preparing to join the WIPO Internet Treaties. IPR protection at trade

fairs in China has been enhanced. The Ministry of Public Security will publish more data on IPR enforcement action achievements by the end of March. Purchase of legitimate computer software will be promoted to Chinese enterprises and individuals. Still, IPR protection cannot be established overnight in China, a developing country with a low level of scientific and technological achievement. The Vice Premier said China will welcome more visits by Senators,

Representatives and Congressional staff members. End summary.

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Welcome to Zhongnanhai

3. (SBU) Vice Premier Wu Yi welcomed the Senators and said she was pleased to have opportunity to get to know them. She said the visit was the Senators, first to China, so they did

not have a realistic or good understanding of actual

conditions in China. While the Senators had said things in

the United States that were not friendly to China, China

stili welcomes their visit with hospitality. She explained a Chinese adage equivalent to "Seeing is believing," and said Chinese officials had taken note of the Senators, growing understanding of China as reflected in friendlier comments made since their arrival several days earlier. These

comments encouraged Chinese officials. The Vice Premier requested that she first address the issues of the exchange rate, the trade imbalance, and intellectual property rights protection in China followed by their points and discussion.

The Senators accepted the meeting host,s recommendation, and she continued what became an hour-long discourse.

Exchange Rate Policy

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4. (C) The Vice Premier noted that the CODEL had already

met with People,s Bank of China (PBOC) Governor Zhou Xiaochuan, whom she described as a foreign exchange policy expert and the official with the authority to make forex

policy decisions. Wu Yi said that China,s foreign exchange regime complies with International Monetary Fund

requirements. Each country can decide its own exchange rate mechanism, whether a floating exchange rate or managed

floating exchange rate. China,s exchange rate system does

not violate any WTO rules and China,s exchange rate actions have been consistent with commitments undertaken when China joined the World Trade Organization. The WTO is a

multilateral organization that lacks compulsory standards for exchange rate matters and indeed lacks competence on exchange rate issues. There is no internationally accepted definition

of "exchange rate manipulation."

5. (SBU) In order to further promote opening up and reform, China on July 21,2005 adjusted its exchange rate mechanism to become a market-based managed floating rate with reference to a basket of currencies. Since then, important measures

had been implemented to enhance that reform, stabiliz.e the market, streamline supervision and diversify products in the Chinese financial market. Since the July reform, the

exchange rate had appreciated and depreciated, moving up and

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down, and through March 20, the renminbi had appreciated more than three percent. That three percent appreciation has been helpful for the global economy and for the economies of

China,s Southeast Asian neighbors in particular. China had received objective positive responses to its July reform.

The renrnlnbl.s value can go up or down now in accord with market forces and changes in currency markets.

Administrative measures to appreciate or depreciate the renminbi are no longer an option for China, Wu Yi said.

6. (SBU) China will follow principles of self-initiation, controllability and gradualism in reforming the exchange rate mechanism and expanding flexibility of the floating exchange rate, Through these principles, China hopes to achieve and maintain a stable exchange rate at an adaptive equilibrium level. China has a responsible attitude on the exchange rate,

-- Advice for America re China,s Exchange Rate Reforms

7. (C) The Vice Premier offered the following advice to her visitors: Tell your American friends not to use methods from the 1980$ as were used against Japan. China is not Japan. Those methods will not work on the Chinese people of the twenty-first century. China will not surrender to external pressure, The only acceptable way forward is through dialogue on an equal footing. External pressure will lead to

a backlash from the Chinese people. Wu Yi concluded her set piece on the exchange rate by acknowledging the CODEL,s interest in detailed points outlined by PBOC Governor Zhou in their earlier meeting and said that at an appropriate future time, the points outlined by Governor Zhou will be published.

The U.S. Trade Deficit with China: Production and Surplus Reallocations

8. (SBU) Wu Yi turned to the U.S. trade deficit with China, noting the CODEL,s great interest in the topic and the

proposal she attributed to Senator Schumer alone for a 27.5 percent tariff on goods imported by the United States from China due to an unfair Chinese exchange rate. Many complicated causes contribute to the trade imbalance, and the propaganda heard in the United States is not consistent with the reality in China. The trade deficit is very much related

to industrial reallocation against the backdrop of

globalization, Different economic structures and different levels of economic development between China and the United States also are important contributing factors. In sum, the trade imbalance is structural, complementary and not a competitive deficit. She encouraged the professional staff membrs in the CODEL to note the statistics she was bout to enumerate.

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9. (SBU) First, th U.S. trade deficit with China is a matter of reallocation. I n the period from 1999 through 2005, foreign-invested enterprises in China amounted to 228,000 (as translated by the Vice Prmier,S interpreter).

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Those 228,000 enterprises invested $355.1 billion in China. Upon further analysis of these foreign-invested enterprises, China had determined that 73 percent came from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Southeast Asian countries and others who already had large trade surpluses with the United States. Among the 228,000 foreign-invested enterprises, more than 77 percent are export-oriented. In 2005, 83 percent of China,s trade surplus was attributable to foreign~invested

enterprises in China.

10. (SBU) The U.S. trade deficit with China in 1999 was $22.4 billion, Wu Yi continued. (Note: The Vice Premier,s trade data is China,s data; USG trade data shows significantly higher trade deficits in the years she cited.

End note.) By 2005, that had jumped to $110 billion. Before 1993, however, China had always run a trade deficit with the United States, but that situation had reversed itself in

1993. China,s trade surplus with the United states comes from companies and countries that had earlier surpluses with the United States but those surpluses have now been reallocated to China. In the 1999-2005 period during which China.s trade surplus with the United States had expanded,

the trade imbalances between Southeast Asian nations and the United States had narrowed. Wu Yi asserted that the U.S. global trade deficit had decreased six percent in this same recent six-year period. She also claimed that the U,S. trade deficit with the rest of the world had increased from 43

percent in 1999 to 57 percent in 2005. The main cause for

the rising U.S. trade deficit is not China but lies with

other important trade partners of the United States.

11. (SBU) Wu Yi next cited a passage that she said came

from the 2005 Economic Report of the President and attributed much of the U.S. trade deficit with China to manufacturing operations established in China by Asian companies who then shipped to the United States, moving trade surpluses to China while their home country surpluses with the United States decreased. This cited passage shows that the Economic Report of the President finds that China is not the main cause of

the trade imbalance, she said.

12. (SBU) U.S. companies have more than 40,000 investment

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projects in China. Many U.S. multinational companies have established joint ventures and wholly-owned foreign enterprises in China. They sell goods in China, replacing goods formerly imported from the United States to sell in China. They also sell to the U.S. market. The Vice Premier thinks that this business pattern is a major reason for the increasing U.S. trade deficit with China and another example that reallocation of production is a major cause for the

trade imbalance between China and the United States.

The Trade Deficit: Complementarity of Economies

13. (SBU) The U.S. and Chinese economies are cut out for each other, the Vice Premier stated, and the U.S. trade

deficit with China is a complementary deficit. Many types of Chinese-made goods imported by the United States are products that the United States no longer produces, such as labor-intensive toys, apparel and shoes. So these Chinese manufacturers are not competing with U.S. manufacturers.

Even if the United States were to cease importing such goods from China, the United States would have to look to other

foreign suppliers to meet U.S. demand. U.S. measures to restrict imports from China would not solve the trade

imbalance matter, and would cause indignation among U.S. consumers.

The Trade Deficit: Those U.S. Export Controls on High-Tech Goods

14. (SBU) U.S. export controls are another cause of the u.s. trade deficit. U.S. export controls are the biggest uncertainties facing Chinese efforts to expand high-tech imports from the United States. While the ratio of high-tech imports in China.s imports from the rest of the world are growing, as are the absolute volumes of high-tech imports, the ratio of high-tech imports from the United States to

total imports from the United States is decreasing. In 2005, China,s imported more than $200 billion of high-tech goods from all countries. but the United States supplied only 8.1 percent of those goods. That was 8 percent lower than in

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2001" While the United States had been the second largest source of Chinese high-tech imports in 2001, the United

States had slipped to sixth place in 2005. The increase in value of U.S. high-tech exports to China has been far less than growth rates achieved by the European Union, Japan and South Korea. The United States is the largest developed country in the world. In the structure of international

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trade, high technology is where the United States is most competitive. China is a WTO member and its economy is open to the world. China,s imports from all countries amounted

to $600 billion in 2005, and China does not discriminate when importing. The Vice Premier expressed surprise that the United States is being left behind by the European Union, Japan and South Korea with respect to high-tech exports to China. She urged the United States to look internally for causes and solutions.

The Trade Imbalance: Important Issue for Chinese Leaders, Too

15. (SBU) China attaches great importance to the trade imbalance. President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao have indicated to President Bush in earlier meetings their hopes

to increase Chinese imports from the United States. Premier Wen made a three-point proposal to President Bush on this very matter, The Chinese people are a people that keep their word. China has taken important measures to promote trade with the United States, and those measures are now beginning to payoff.

USTR Testimony: China Is America,s Fastest Growing Export Market

16. (SBU) Wu Yi cited USTR,s February 15 testimony to a House of Representatives Committee, In 2005, U.S. exports to China had increased 20 percent, marking the third year in a row that U.S. exports to China had increased 20 percent or more. USTR also said that exports to China had increased 118 percent since 2001, the year in which China had acceded to the World Trade Organization. China is the fastest growing export market for the United States, and is now the fourth largest export market for the American goods and services.

Imminent Chinese Trade and Investment Missions to the United States

17. (SBU) China plans to promote trade and investment with the United States in 2006. Chinese businesses and entrepreneurs are being encouraged to travel to the United States to look for business cooperation opportunities.

During her upcoming trip to the United States for the April

11 meeting of the Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade, Wu Yi said, she will be responsible for business delegations amounting to 150 Chinese entrepreneurs. The delegation members will sign contracts and cooperation agreements as

they look for trade opportunities, consider U.S. products and pursue investment opportunities. Business delegations will

visit locations in California, Tennessee, South Carolina, Minnesota, New York, Georgia, Illinois, Washington State and

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Washington, DC. Particular interests of the delegations will include soybeans, cotton, computer software, aircraft, automotive parts and machinery. According to China,s trade promotion plans for 2006, 90 functions to promote Sino-Ll.S. trade will be conducted, with more than 30 of them scheduled for locations in the United States. These events will help

U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises to learn about opportunities in the China market. China is sincere in

making great efforts to promote imports from the United States.

1 B. (SBU) The United States should express its sincerity by undertaking measures to settle the trade imbalance, the Vice Premier said. Unilateral Chinese measures will not be enough to resolve the trade imbalance. The United States should ease export controls that affect shipments to China and ease restrictions on visas for Chinese entrepreneurs wishing to travel to the United States to purchase goods.

IPR: I Am in Charge: Increased Enforcement Efforts

19. (SBU) The Vice Premier said IPR protection was another concern for the COOEL. I PR protection is also an issue for the Chinese Government Protection of intellectual property

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and the interests of IP rights owners is important not only

in the international arena but is also closely related to improvement of China.s socialist market economy and China,s own economic development. China and the United States have closely related interests with respect to IPR Over the last twenty-some years, China has implemented a nearly complete legal system to protect IPR and has acceded to many international agreements relating to IPR. Domestically,

China has implemented administrative and judicial measures to protect IPR

20. (SBU) The State Council formed a Working Group on IPR Protection, which the Vice Premier leads. The Working Group,s mission is to enhance the leadership and

coordination of the Central Government in protecting IPR in China. As leader of the Working Group, Wu Yi regularly meets with business representatives in China to discuss IPR concerns.

21. (SBU) Chinese law enforcement agencies have taken a series of important and effective measures to protect IPR. Criminal penalties for IPR violations have been strengthened. At the end of 2004, the Supreme People,s Court and the

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Supreme People,s Procuratorate issued a Judicial Interpretation that has been implemented. The Judicial Interpretation lowered the threshold for criminal punishment of IPR violations. In 2005, the applicability of the

Judicial Interpretation was expanded to include violations involving audio-visual products. The Ministry of Public Security and administrative enforcement organizations have set up effective mechanisms to fight IPR violations. Several special enforcement campaigns have been conducted to specially target trademark and copyright protection concerns.

By the end of 2005, all Chinese Government agencies were using authentic copyrighted computer software.

22. (SBU) At the sixteenth JCCT meeting (July 2005), China and the United States agreed to enhance cooperation on cracking down on IPR violations. Four mechanisms were agreed. The Chinese Government attaches great importance to education and training on IPR protection. For example,

Beijing had convened Vice Governors from all the provinces

for a dedicated two-week course on IPR issues. Many other IPR publicity campaigns have been conducted in China. Public education on IPR matters include a national IPR week around World Intellectual Property Day (April 26). IPR subjects

have been incorporated into Chinese educational curricula.

In 2006, China will implement stronger IPR enforcement

efforts. Legislation and regulations will be enacted.

International cooperation on IPR matters will also be strengthened.

IPR: Historic First NationallPR Action Plan

23. (SBU) China has just weeks ago published its first-ever nationallPR Action Plan. Too long to summarize in this

brief exchange with the Senators, the Vice Premier presented translated documents about the Action Plan to her visitors.

Specialized IPR Tribunals Coming

24. (SBU) The Supreme People,s Court has informed courts at all levels to establish speciallPR tribunals to try IPR violators. This will enhance judicial organs, abilities to

crack down on IPR violations.

25. (SBU) Within the next three years, China will establish 50 IPR information centers in 50 cities throughout the country to take complaints about IPR protection matters. As promised at last year,s JCCT meeting, China has begun to place IPR officials in diplomatic missions overseas. The

first Chinese IPR Ombudsman has joined the Chinese Embassy in Washington. His job is to enhance communications with the

U.S. business community, especially small and medium-sized

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enterprises, and inform them about how to protect their IPR in China.

WIPO Internet Treaties

26. (SBU) The relevant departments have stepped up their efforts to prepare the legislative package required for approval of Chinese accession to the WIPO Internet Treaties

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by the National People,s Congress.

27. (SBU) The Ministry of Commerce and other departments are working closely to protect IPR at trade fairs in China under a special campaign known as the Azure Sky program.

More IPR Enforcement Data Imminent!

28. (SBU) By the end of March, the Ministry of Public Security and National Copyright Administration of China will publish their achievements in recent specialized campaigns against IPR violators in China. Law enforcement transparency will be enhanced in the coming year. The Central Government is encouraging purchase of authentic software by Chinese enterprises and individuals. Civil law enforcement of IPR matters will also be enhanced in the coming year.

At April JCCT, Wu Yi Announcements on IPR

29. (SBU) The Vice Premier said at the seventeenth JCCT meeting On April 11, she will personally introduce the

measures to improve IPR protection and enforcement that China has taken or is taking. It is only fair to say that the

Chinese Government,s attitude on IPR protection is very

firm. Anyone can see China,s increased efforts to protect