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³ Multimedia software Life Cycle

P.G. Department of Computer Sciences University of Kashmir

Multimedia System Development LifeCycle

Structured approach to multimedia and information system development that guides all the processes involved from an initial feasibility study through to maintenance of the finished application.


Stage 1 : Planning and Costing
‡ The main concerns in this phase are
± to capture the ideas and requirements of you or your clients ± to identify the potential audience and users of the application ± to find out the benefit that will gain from developing the application ± to evaluate the feasibility and costs of the entire project, including all tasks of production, testing and delivery


Stage 2 :Designing
‡ Design is a creative activity. ‡ It requires the knowledge and skill with computer ‡ It requires the talent in graphics arts, video and music ‡ It also requires the knowledge of the subject area of the application


‡ Storyboards describes the project in exact detail using words and sketches for each screen images, sound, and navigational choice .


Design ² Architecture ‡ Architecture is the arrangement of the multimedia information ‡ Types of architecture ‡ Linear ‡ Nonlinear ‡ Hierarchy ‡ Composite www.company.com .

company.com .Design ² User interface ‡ The main emphasis in the design of multimedia user interface is multimedia presentation ‡ Contents selection is the key to convey the information to the user content can be influenced by constraints imposed by ‡ the size and complexity of the presentation ‡ the quality of information ‡ the limitation of the display hardware ‡ the need for presentation completeness and coherence www.

com .company.User-friendliness ‡ User-friendliness is the primary goal of multimedia interface. ‡ Feedback www.

The tasks to be performed in this phase are: ‡ Acquiring all media elements ‡ Composing the elements according to the storyboard ‡ This is the phase when your artistic talent and your technical knowledge are in high demand www.com . ‡ Production is the phase when your multimedia project is actually rendered.Developing and Producing. By now your project plan (and storyboard) has be filled with all details.company.

company.Rights and permissions ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ You need to consider what rights do you require How will the material be used and distributed Is the license for a fixed period Is the license exclusive or non-exclusive Where will your product be distributed Does the content owner have the authority to assign right to you ‡ Will the copyright owner receive renumeration for the license www.com .

Testing and Debugging ‡ Alpha testing is typically an internal activity.com . They should be representative of real users. The product is tested by in-house team ‡ Beta testing involves a wider range of testers.company. www.

Delivery ‡ You should plan how to deliver the product very early in the development process.com . Nowadays. CD-ROM and Internet are the two most popular means of delivering multimedia applications.company. www.

com .Instruction Design www.company.

Stage 6 ± PROGRAMMING OF GOLDEN MASTER CD: ‡ Stage 7 ± REPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION: www.A Case Study. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Stage 1 .TRACK FRAMEWORK: Stage 2 ± NAVIGATION MAP: Stage 3 ± PROJECT PLAN: Stage 4 ± GRAPHICS: Stage 5 ± ASSET GATHERING:.company.com .

company.com .Multimedia Presentation ‡ A multimedia presentation made up of many ingredients from existing print products or from a multitude of software. Each presentation has its own set of requirements. www.

company. ‡ Clarify communication goals. ‡ Arrange content into a design that serves these goals.Information Design ‡ A guide to organizing the information and presentation medium ‡ The beginning of any interactive product. www. ‡ Create a flowchart.com .

com .company.Elements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Audience Plan Organize Flowcharts www.

‡ Create an interesting journey through the information.com . ‡ Create a storyboard. www.Interaction Design ‡ A guide to organizing the navigation and look of the presentation ‡ Give users control to go where and do what they want. ‡ Make the experience as easy and intuitive as possible.company.

com .Elements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Theme Navigation Tools Usability Storyboarding www.company.

‡ Create a prototype. ‡ Develop big picture strategy for putting pieces together.Presentation Design ‡ A guide on how to put your presentation together ‡ Define style and composition of elements. ‡ Visual Style ± Graphics ± Text ± Media www.company. ‡ Keep it simple and consistent.com .

com .Elements ‡ Layout ‡ Interface Design www.company.

company.Motion ‡ Video and animation give us a sense of motion ‡ can hold the interest of viewers Visual Representation ‡ The visual effect of motion is due to a biological phenomenon known as persistence of vision ‡ Phi Phenomenon www.com .

The frequency at which the flicking light source must be repeated before it appears continuous  This depends on the brightness of the light source www.com .Temporal aspect of Illumination ‡ The rate of repetition of the images must be high enough to guarantee smooth motion from frame to frame the rate must be high enough so that the persistence of vision extends over the interval between flashes ‡ Fusion frequency.company.

‡ Aspect ratio is the ratio of the picture width to height.com . It is 4:3 for conventional TV www. each contains the alternative scan lines.company. and displaying the field in twice of the frames rate ‡ The smallest detail that can be reproduced in the image is a pixel.Interleaving ‡ improves the view by dividing a frame into two fields.

com .company.Video ‡ Video capture cards www.

company.com . contrast and colour ‡ Compressor/encoder ² to compress and encode the digital video into a required format ‡ Interface to the system PCI bus www.g. ‡ high-end capture cards can accept digital video (DV) ‡ Video input mixer and ADC ² to select/combine video sources. to convert analog video signal to digital samples ‡ Video frame buffer ² temporary storage for video frame ‡ Video processor ² to filter or enhance the video frame.Video Capture Board ‡ Can accept composite video or S-VHS in NTSC or PAL.. e. reduce noise. adjust brightness.

com . It is a software-only system .It supports a number of compression algorithms ‡ QuickTime was originally developed by Apple for storing audio and video in Macintosh systems It supports video playback at up to 30 frames per second on a small window (typical size 300 x 200 with 8 or 16 bit colour). It is a software-only system www.Video formats ‡ AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) format was defined by Microsoft for its Video for Windows systems It supports video playback at up to 30 frames per second on a small window (typical size 300 x 200 with 8 or 16 bit colour).company.

It requires hardware support for encoding and decoding (on slow systems) The maximum data rate is 1. It can interleave audio and video www. The most commonly used now is mpeg-1.] ‡ It supports a number of compression (Motion Picture Expect Group) is a working group under ISO.company.Video Format [ contd.The next generation mpeg-2 is now getting popular Mpeg2 improves mpeg-1 by increasing the maximum data rate to 15Mbit/sec.5Megabit/sec .There are several versions of mpeg standard.com ..

company. www. literally. to bring it to life An animation covers all changes that have a visual effect Visual effect can be of two major kinds: motion dynamic ² time varying positions update dynamic ² time varying shape. etc. colour. or even lighting. texture. camera position.Animation ‡ In conventional Animation we have to draw each frame of the animation ± ± great control tedious layer keyframe inbetween cel panoramas (Disney¶s Pinocchio) ‡ Reduce burden with cel animation ± ± ± ± ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ To animate something is.com .

Input process ‡ Keyframing describe motion of objects as a function of time from a set of key object positions.com . In short. compute the inbetween frames. ‡ Key frames have to be created and input into the computer. Key frames are the frames in which the objects being animated are at extreme or characteristic positions www.company.

The system is given the starting and ending positions. ‡ It calculates the positions in between www.com . The process of inbetweening is performed in computer animation through Interpolation.company.Inbetween Process ‡ The animation of movement from one position to another needs a composition of frames with intermediate positions in between the key frames.

navigation systems.com . and content. www. ‡ Vital elements of multimedia menus. and feelings.company. ‡ For presenting information and expressing moods.TEXT ‡ Humans have used graphics and text to communicate experiences. knowledge.

‡ It concerns the precise shape of characters.com . ‡ The study of how to display text is known as typography.Typography ‡ Text is a visual representation of language.company. and so on. the layout of the lines and paragraphs. their spacing. www.

com . punctuations and other symbols. a piece of text consists of letters. www.company. These can be considered as abstract characters. ‡ Grouped into alphabets. digits.Abstract Characters ‡ Fundamentally.

i.Character Set ‡ Is a mapping between (abstract) characters and the values that are stored in a computer system to represent text digitally.e. ‡ UniCode ver 3.0 www.com .. the abstract characters are called character repertoire.company. ‡ The domain of this mapping. ‡ The values to be stored are called the code values or code points. ‡ ASCII (American standard code for information interchanger).

we need to have a visual representation of the characters stored as codes in the computer. ‡ To display text.com . In fact.Encoding ‡ An encoding is a mapping to transform a code value into a sequence of bytes for storage and transmission. www. each character may be represented by many different glyphs.company. ‡ A typeface is a family of graphic characters with a coherent design and usually includes many sizes and styles.

com .Font A font is a collection of characters of a single size and style belonging to a particular typeface family.company. Typical font styles are boldface and italic. www.

com .company.Font Size The font¶s size is the distance from the top of the capital letters to the bottom of the descenders in letters such as g and y. www.

Font [ contd.com .] www.company..

company. 1 inch = 72.27 point in printing industry. a similar look and feel ‡ Shape ² refers to the different appearance within a family ‡ Weight ² measures the darkness of the characters.Specifying a Font ‡ Family ² fonts in the same family have a coherent design. or the thickness of the strokes. 1 inch = 72 point in PostScript systems www. ‡ Width ² the amount of expansion or contraction ‡ Size ² unit is point.com .

The result will be very poor if they are scaled to different sizes. ‡ There are two kinds of outline fonts: PostScript and TrueType. ‡ Outline fonts contain the outline of the characters.com . They can be scaled to a large range of different sizes and still have reasonable look. They need a rasterizing process to display on screen.Font Formats ‡ Bitmap fonts come in specific sizes and resolutions.company.. www.

Text in multimedia ‡ Be Concise www.company.com .

company.com .Use Appropriate fonts www.

or bitmaps. of text www.com .‡ Make it Readable ‡ Consider Type Styles and Colors ‡ Use Restraint and be Consistent ± bundle the font with your title ± to avoid font compatibility problems is to create graphic images.company.

company.com .www.


Colour ‡ Colour is a vital component of multimedia. ³Colour is the frequency/wave-length of a light wave within the narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum (380 ± 760nm) to which the human eye responds. Colour management is both a subjective and a technical exercise.´ www.com .company. but ‡ Colour perception is a human physiological activity. because: ‡ Colour is a physical property of light.

Colors perceived in additive models are the result of transmitted light.com .company. ‡ Subtractive and Additive. ‡ Additive color models use light to display color while subtractive models use printing inks. Colors perceived in subtractive models are the result of reflected light. www.Colour Models ‡ An orderly system for creating a whole range of colors from a small set of primary colors.

green and blue.com . are added to black to produce new colours. ‡ R ² Red ‡ G ² Green ‡ B ² Blue www.company. red.The RGB Color Model ‡ It is an additive system in which varying amount of the three primary colours.

a black ‡ colour is added in printing process. thus resulting in black.The CYM Color Model ‡ Based on the light absorbing quality of inks printed on paper.company. Combining three primary colour pigments. three inks actually ‡ produce a muddy brown. Magenta and Yellow. www. should absorb all light. ‡ Because all inks contain some ‡ impurities. Cyan.com . It is a subtractive model.

www.The HSB Color Model ‡ Fundamental characteristics of colours are: ‡ Hue ² is the wavelength of the light.. It is measured as a location on the standard colour wheel as a degree between 0 to 3600 ‡ Saturation ² is the strength or purity of the colour.company.com . It represents the amount of gray in proportion to the hue and is measured as a percentage from 0%(gray) to 100%(fully saturated).

company.com . It is measured as a percentage from 0%(black) to 100%(White).‡ Brightness ² is the relative lightness or darkness of the colour. www.

The YUV Colour Model ‡ The Y-signal encodes the brightness information.company.com . Black-and-white television system will use this channel only. www. ‡ The U and V channels encode the chromatic information. The resolution of the U and V channels is often less than the Y channel for the reason of reducing the size.

com .company.GAMUT ‡ The gamut of a colour system is the range of colours that can be displayed or printed www.

company.Colour Palette ‡ A colour palette is an index table to available colours in an indexed colour system. ‡ The system keeps a default palette of available colours www.com . a system can display only 256 Colours out of a total of 16 million colours. ‡ When working in 8-bit mode.

This is a serious problem in multimedia applications. It may replace the system palette with its own for the period it is active.Palette Flashing ‡ Each program may have its own palette. www.company. known as palette flashing.com . This may cause an annoying flash of strange colors in your screen.

com .company.Thankyou www.

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