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EJERCICIOS SOBRE TRANSFORMADA INVERSA DE LAPLACE,


CON EL MÉTODO DE LOS RESIDUOS

Ejercicio 1.
senh (χ ⋅ s )
f (s ) =
s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s )

Para averiguar si s pertenece al denominador o al numerador, se expresa la


función, trasformada, en su serie
⎡ ( χ ⋅ s )3 (χ ⋅ s )5 (χ ⋅ s )7 ⎤
⎢( χ ⋅ s ) + + + + L⎥
3! 5! 7!
f (s ) = ⎣ ⎦
⎡ (α ⋅ s ) 2
(α ⋅ s ) + (α ⋅ s ) + L⎤
4 6
s ⎢1 + + ⎥
⎣ 2! 4! 6! ⎦
[ ]
Se cumple que el Lím f (s ) = 0 , sin modificarla
s →∞

Expresándola en términos del teorema de los residuos


senh (χ ⋅ s ) P (s )
f (s ) = =
s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s ) Q (s )
Que dice que
P (s ) s⋅t
ρ n (t ) = e
Q ′(s ) s = sn

Entonces, por comparación


P (s ) = senh (χ ⋅ s ) Q (s ) = s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s )

Los polos, raíces o puntos singulares de f (s ) son, los que cumplen las
ecuaciones,
Q (s n ) = 0
cosh (α ⋅ s n ) = 0 y s 0 = 0
En la zona real, de s, no se presentan raíces, pero en la imaginaria sí
cosh (α ⋅ sn ) = cosh (i ⋅ λn ) = 0 = cos(λn )

Análisis de procesos G. Chacón V.


2
Que se cumple para
α ⋅ sn π
λn = = (2 ⋅ n − 1) ; para n = -∞, ···, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ···, ∞
i 2
λn = (2 ⋅ n − 1)
π
y sn =
λn
i=
(2 ⋅ n − 1)π i
2 α 2 ⋅α

Derivando el denominador de la función y sustituyéndola en la definición de


residuo.
P (s ) s⋅t senh (χ ⋅ s )
ρ n (t ) = e = e s⋅t
Q ′(s ) s = sn
s ⋅ α ⋅ senh (α ⋅ s ) + cosh (α ⋅ s ) s = sn

Para el polo s 0 = 0
senh (χ ⋅ 0)
ρ 0 (t ) = e 0⋅t = 0
0 ⋅ α ⋅ senh (α ⋅ 0) + cosh (α ⋅ 0)
λn
Para los otros polos sn = i
α
⎛ λ ⎞
senh⎜ χ n i ⎟ λn
⎝ α ⎠
ρ n (t ) =
ti

λn ⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
i ⋅ α ⋅ senh⎜ α n i ⎟ + cosh⎜ α n i ⎟
α ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠

Aplicando las relaciones para las funciones de variables complejas


⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
senh⎜ χ n i ⎟ = i ⋅ sen⎜ χ n ⎟ ; cosh⎜ α ⋅ n i ⎟ = cos⎜ α ⋅ n ⎟
⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠
⎛ λ ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ χ n ⎟ λ
ρ n (t ) = ⎝ α ⎠ i n ⋅t

λn ⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
i ⋅ α ⋅ i ⋅ sen⎜ α n ⎟ + cos⎜ α n ⎟
α ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠
⎛ λ ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ χ n ⎟ λ
ρ n (t ) = ⎝ α ⎠ i nt

− λn ⋅ sen (λn ) + cos(λn )

Trasformada inversa de Laplace G. Chacón V.


3
Por la definición de los polos
⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞
cos(λ n ) = cos⎜ (2 ⋅ n − 1) ⎟ = 0 sen (λ n ) = sen⎜ (2 ⋅ n − 1) ⎟ = −(− 1)
n

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

⎛ λ ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ χ n ⎟ λn
ρ n (t ) = ⎝ α ⎠ e i α ⋅t
λn ⋅ (− 1)n

Aplicando el teorema de los residuos


⎛ χ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠ e i⋅λn α
n→∞ t
L−1 f (s ) = ∑
n = −∞ λn ⋅ (− 1)n

⎛ χ⎞ ⎛ χ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟ i ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠ ei ⋅λ n α + ⎝ α ⎠ ei ⋅λ n α
n →∞ t n → 0 t
L−1 f (s ) = ∑ ∑
n =1 λn ⋅ (− 1)n n = −∞ λn ⋅ (− 1)
⋅n

Por las propiedades de las sumas (de series), se cambian los límites,
⎛ χ⎞ ⎛ χ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟ i ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠ ei ⋅λ n α − ⎝ α ⎠ ei ⋅λ n α
n→∞ t n → −∞ t
L−1 f (s ) = ∑ ∑
n =1 λn ⋅ (− 1)n n=0 λn ⋅ (− 1)n
Por las propiedades de las sumas (de series), se cambian negativos por
positivos
⎛ χ⎞ ⎛ χ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟ i ⋅ sen⎜ − λn ⎟
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠e α − α ⎠ −i⋅λn α
n→∞ t n→∞ t
L−1 f (s ) = ∑
⋅λ


i n
e
n =1 λn ⋅ (− 1)n n =0 − λn ⋅ (− 1)
n

Por las propiedades de las funciones trigonométricas de los ángulos


negativos, y como da lo mismo dividir que multiplicar por (±1),
⎛ χ⎞ ⎛ χ⎞
sen⎜ − λn ⎟ = −sen⎜ λn ⎟
⎝ α⎠ ⎝ α⎠
⎛ χ⎞ ⎛ χ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟ i ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠e nα − ⎝ α ⎠ e − i ⋅λ n α
n→∞ ⋅ λ
t n→∞ t
L−1 f (s ) = ∑ (− 1) ∑ ( )
i

n n
1
n =1 λn n=0 λn
Análisis de procesos G. Chacón V.
4
Factorizando y multiplicando y dividiendo por 2·i, para n = 0, ya se calculó
⎛ χ⎞
sen⎜ λn ⎟ ⎛ i⋅λn αt −i⋅λn ⎞
t
⎜ α ⎟
[ ] α −
n→∞
L−1 f (s ) = ∑ 2 ⋅ i 2 ⋅ (− 1)
n ⎝ ⎠ e e
⎜ ⎟
n =1 λ n ⎜ 2⋅i ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Se tiene, por la definición se la función seno en números complejos, que
⎛ i ⋅λ n αt − i ⋅λ n
t

⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ e −e α ⎟
sen⎜ λn ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ α⎠ ⎜ 2⋅i ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ χ⎞ ⎛ t ⎞
sen⎜ λn ⎟ ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟
[ ] ⎝ α⎠ ⎝ α⎠
n→∞
L−1 f (s ) = f (t , χ ) = ∑ 2 (− 1)(− 1)
n

n=0 λn
Con lo que, sustituyendo el valor de λn

f (t , χ ) = ∑
[
4 n → ∞ − (− 1)
n
] ⎡
sen ⎢(2 ⋅ n − 1)
π χ⎤ ⎡
⋅ sen ⎢(2 ⋅ n − 1)
π t⎤
→1
π n =1 (2 ⋅ n − 1) ⎣ 2α⎦⎥ ⎣ 2 α ⎥⎦

Ejercicio 2.

f (s ) =
(
senh χ ⋅ s )
(
s ⋅ senh α ⋅ s )
Para averiguar si s pertenece al denominador o al numerador, y si tiene
puntos de ramificación, se expresa la función, trasformada, en su serie

) ( ) ( ) ( )
⎡ 3 5 7

(
⎢χ⋅ s +
χ⋅ s
3!
+
χ⋅ s
5!
+
χ⋅ s
7!
+ L⎥
⎢ ⎥⎦
f (s ) = ⎣
) ( ) ( ) ( )
⎡ 3 5 7

(
s⎢ α ⋅ s +
α⋅ s
3!
+
α⋅ s
5!
+
α⋅ s
7!
+ LL⎥
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

Trasformada inversa de Laplace G. Chacón V.


5
Si se divide por √s el numerador y el denominador, se eliminan los puntos de
ramificación
1 ⎡
) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 5 7

s ⎢⎣
(
⎢χ⋅ s +
χ⋅ s
3!
+
χ⋅ s
5!
+
χ⋅ s
7!
+ L⎥
⎥⎦
f (s ) =
s ⎡
) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 5 7

s ⎢⎣
(
⎢α ⋅ s +
α⋅ s
3!
+
α⋅ s
5!
+
α⋅ s
7!
+ LL⎥
⎥⎦


( χ ) +
(
χ3 ⋅s
+
) (
χ 5 ⋅ s2
+
χ 7 ⋅ s3) ( ⎤
+ L⎥
)

3! 5! 7!
f (s ) = ⎣ ⎦

s ⎢(α ) +
(
α ⋅s α ⋅s
3
+
5
) (2
+
α ⋅s
7
) (
3
+ LL⎥
⎤ )
⎣ 3! 5! 7! ⎦
[ ]
Se cumple que el Lím f (s ) = 0 , así modificada
s →∞

Expresándola en términos del teorema de los residuos


1
senh χ ⋅ s
P (s )
( )
f (s ) =
s
=
s ⋅ senh α ⋅ s Q (s ) ( )
Que dice que
P (s ) s⋅t
ρ n (t ) = e
Q ′(s ) s = sn

Entonces, por comparación


P (s ) =
1
s
senh χ ⋅ s ( ) (
Q (s ) = s ⋅ senh α ⋅ s )
Los polos, raíces o puntos singulares de f (s ) son, los que cumplen las
ecuaciones,
Q (s n ) = 0
(
senh α ⋅ sn = 0 ) y s0 = 0 : s0 = 0

En la zona real no presenta raíces, pero en la imaginaria sí


( )
senh α ⋅ sn = 0 = senh (i ⋅ λn ) = 0 = i ⋅ sen (λn )

Análisis de procesos G. Chacón V.


6
Que se cumple para
α ⋅ sn
λn = = n ⋅π ; para n = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, ···, ±∞
i
2
⎛λ ⎞ n2 ⋅ π 2
λn = n ⋅ π y s n = −⎜ n ⎟ = −
⎝α ⎠ α2

Derivando el denominador de la función y sustituyéndola en la definición de


residuo.

P (s ) s⋅t
1
senh χ ⋅ s ( )
ρ n (t ) =
s
e = e s⋅t
Q ′(s ) s = sn s ⋅ α ⋅ cosh α ⋅ s
1
+
2⋅ s 2⋅ s
1
(
senh α ⋅ s ) ( )
s = sn

ρ n (t ) =
2 ⋅ senh χ ⋅ s ( ) e s⋅t
(
α ⋅ s ⋅ cosh α ⋅ s + senh α ⋅ s ) ( ) s = sn

Para el polo s 0 = 0

ρ 0 (t ) =
2 ⋅ senh χ ⋅ 0 ( ) e 0⋅t
(
α ⋅ 0 ⋅ cosh α ⋅ 0 + senh α ⋅ 0 ) ( )
Indeterminado, aplicando el teorema de L’Hopital
(
2 ⋅ χ ⋅ cosh χ ⋅ s ) 1
2⋅ s
ρ n (t ) = e s ⋅t
(
α ⋅ s ⋅ senh α ⋅ s
2
) 1

1
( )
cosh α ⋅ s + α ⋅ cosh α ⋅ s ( ) 1
2⋅ s 2⋅ s 2⋅ s s = sn

ρ n (t ) =
(
2 ⋅ χ ⋅ cosh χ ⋅ s ) e s⋅t
( ) ( )
α ⋅ s ⋅ senh α ⋅ s + α cosh α ⋅ s + α ⋅ cosh α ⋅ s
2
( ) s = sn

2 ⋅ χ ⋅ cosh (χ ⋅ 0 ) χ
ρ n (t ) = 0⋅t
=
α ⋅ 0 ⋅ senh α ⋅
2
( 0 ) + α ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ 0 ) + α ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ 0 )
e
α
2
⎛λ ⎞ λn
Para los otros polos s n = −⎜ n ⎟ sn = i ⋅
⎝α ⎠ α

Trasformada inversa de Laplace G. Chacón V.


7
⎛ λ ⎞
2 ⋅ senh⎜ χ ⋅ i n ⎟ ⎛λ ⎞
2

⎝ α ⎠ −⎜ n ⎟ t
ρ n (t ) = e ⎝α ⎠
λ ⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
α ⋅ i n cosh⎜ α ⋅ i n ⎟ + senh⎜ α ⋅ i n ⎟
α ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠

Aplicando las relaciones para las funciones de variables complejas


⎛ i ⋅ λn ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ i ⋅ λn ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
senh⎜ χ ⋅ ⎟ = i ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⋅ n ⎟ ; cosh⎜ α ⋅ ⎟ = cos⎜ α ⋅ n ⎟
⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠

⎛ λ ⎞
i ⋅ 2 ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⋅ n ⎟ ⎛λ ⎞
2

⎝ α ⎠ −⎜ n ⎟ t
ρ n (t ) = e ⎝α ⎠
λ
α ⋅ i n cos(λ n ) + i ⋅ sen (λ n )
α
Por la definición de los polos
sen (λ n ) = sen (n ⋅ π ) = 0 cos(λ n ) = cos(n ⋅ π ) = (− 1)
n

⎛ λ ⎞
2 ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⋅ n ⎟ −⎛⎜ λn ⎞⎟ 2 t
⎝ α ⎠e ⎝α ⎠
ρ n (t ) =
(− 1) ⋅ λn
n

Aplicando el teorema de los residuos, para n = 0, ya se calculó


⎛ λ ⎞
2 ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⋅ n ⎟ − ⎛⎜ λn ⎞⎟ 2 t
χ
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠ e ⎜⎝ α ⎟⎠
n→∞
L−1 f (s ) = + ∑
α n =1 (− 1)n ⋅ λn

sen (− n ⋅ π ⋅ χ α ) sen (n ⋅ π ⋅ χ α )
2 2
⎛ n ⋅π ⎞ ⎛ n ⋅π ⎞
Nota: = y ⎜− ⎟ = ⎜+ ⎟
− n ⋅π n ⋅π ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠
Con lo que, sustituyendo el valor de λn
2

χ 2 n → ∞ (− 1)n
⎛ n ⋅π ⎞
⎛ χ ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ t
f (t , χ ) = + ∑ sen⎜ n ⋅ π ⎟ ⋅ e ⎝ α ⎠
→2
α π n =1 n ⎝ α⎠

Análisis de procesos G. Chacón V.


8
Ejercicio 3.
senh (χ ⋅ s )
f (s ) =
s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s )
2

Nótese que por el teorema de la división por s, la transformada inversa de


esta función es la integral de la correspondiente a la del ejercicio, anterior, 1.
⎧ senh (χ ⋅ s ) ⎫ −1 ⎧ senh (χ ⋅ s ) ⎫
f (t , χ ) = L−1 ⎨ 2
t
⎬ = ∫0 L ⎨ ⎬ dt
⎩ s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s ) ⎭ ⎩ s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s ) ⎭
Por otro lado, parece que tiene un polo con multiplicidad 2, para s = 0; para
averiguarlo (averiguar si s pertenece al denominador o al numerador), se
expresa la función, trasformada, en su serie
⎡ ( χ ⋅ s )3 (χ ⋅ s )5 (χ ⋅ s )7 ⎤
⎢( χ ⋅ s ) + + + + L⎥
3! 5! 7!
f (s ) = ⎣ ⎦
⎡ (α ⋅ s ) 2
(α ⋅ s ) + (α ⋅ s ) + L⎤
4 6
s 2 ⎢1 + + ⎥
⎣ 2! 4! 6! ⎦

1⎡
( χ ⋅ ) +
(χ ⋅ s )3 + (χ ⋅ s )5 + (χ ⋅ s )7 + L⎤
⎢ s ⎥
s⎣ 3! 5! 7! ⎦
f (s ) =
⎡ (α ⋅ s )2 (α ⋅ s )4 (α ⋅ s )6 ⎤
s ⎢1 + + + + L⎥
⎣ 2! 4! 6! ⎦


( χ ) +
( χ 3 ⋅ s2 ) (
+
χ 5 ⋅ s4
+
) (
χ 7 ⋅ s5 )
+ L⎥


3! 5! 7!
f (s ) = ⎣ ⎦
⎡ (α ⋅ s ) 2
(α ⋅ s ) + (α ⋅ s ) + L⎤
4 6
s ⎢1 + + ⎥
⎣ 2! 4! 6! ⎦
[ ]
Se cumple que el Lím f (s ) = 0 , así modificada
s →∞

Expresándola en términos del teorema de los residuos


1
senh (χ ⋅ s )
P (s )
( )
f s = s =
s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s ) Q (s )
Trasformada inversa de Laplace G. Chacón V.
9
Que dice que
P (s ) s⋅t
ρ n (t ) = e
Q ′(s ) s = sn

Entonces, por comparación


1
P (s ) = senh (χ ⋅ s ) Q (s ) = s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s )
s
Los polos, raíces o puntos singulares de f (s ) son, los que cumplen las
ecuaciones,
Q (s n ) = 0
cosh(α ⋅ s n ) = 0 y s 0 = 0
En la zona real no presenta raíces, pero en la imaginaria sí
cosh(α ⋅ sn ) = cosh(i ⋅ λn ) = 0 ≡ cos(λn )
Que se cumple para
α ⋅ sn π
λn = = (2 ⋅ n − 1) ; para n = -∞, ···, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ···, ∞
i 2
λn = (2 ⋅ n − 1)
π
y sn =
λn
i=
(2 ⋅ n − 1)π i
2 α 2 ⋅α
Derivando el denominador de la función y sustituyéndola en la definición de
residuo.
1
senh (χ ⋅ s )
P (s ) s⋅t
ρ n (t ) = e = s e s⋅t
Q ′(s ) s = sn
s ⋅ α ⋅ senh (α ⋅ s ) + cosh (α ⋅ s )
s = sn

P (s ) s⋅t senh (χ ⋅ s )
ρ n (t ) = e = e s⋅t
Q ′(s ) s = sn
s ⋅ α ⋅ senh (α ⋅ s ) + s ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ s )
2
s = sn

Para el polo s 0 = 0
senh (χ ⋅ 0 )
ρ 0 (t ) = e 0⋅t
0 ⋅ α ⋅ senh (α ⋅ 0) + 0 ⋅ cosh (α ⋅ 0 )
Indeterminado, aplicando el teorema de L’Hopital
Análisis de procesos G. Chacón V.
10
χ ⋅ cosh(χ ⋅ s )
ρ n (t ) = e s ⋅t
α ⋅ 2 ⋅ s ⋅ senh(α ⋅ s ) + α ⋅ s cosh(α ⋅ s ) + cosh(α ⋅ s ) + α ⋅ s ⋅ senh(α ⋅ s ) s = s
2 2
n

χ ⋅ cosh (χ ⋅ s )
ρ n (t ) = e s⋅t
3 ⋅ α ⋅ s ⋅ senh (α ⋅ s ) + α ⋅ s cosh (α ⋅ s ) + cosh (α ⋅ s )
2 2
s = sn

χ ⋅ cosh (χ ⋅ 0)
ρ n (t ) = e o⋅t = χ
3 ⋅ α ⋅ 0 ⋅ senh (α ⋅ 0) + α ⋅ 0 cosh (α ⋅ 0) + cosh (α ⋅ 0 )
2 2

λn
Para los otros polos sn = i
α
⎛ λ ⎞
senh⎜ χ n i ⎟ λn
ρ n (t ) = ⎝ α ⎠ e α
i ⋅t
2
⎛ λn ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞ λ ⎛ λ ⎞
⎜ i ⎟ α ⋅ senh⎜ α n i ⎟ + n i ⋅ cosh⎜ α n i ⎟
⎝α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ α ⎝ α ⎠
Aplicando las relaciones para las funciones de variables complejas
⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
senh⎜ χ n i ⎟ = i ⋅ sen⎜ χ n ⎟ ; cosh⎜ α n i ⎟ = cos⎜ α ⋅ n ⎟
⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠
⎛ λ ⎞
i ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⋅ n ⎟ λ
⎝ α⎠ i n ⋅t
ρ n (t ) = 2
e α
⎛λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞ λ ⎛ λ ⎞
− ⎜ n ⎟ ⋅ α ⋅ i ⋅ sen⎜ α ⋅ n ⎟ + n i ⋅ cos⎜ α ⋅ n ⎟
⎝α ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ α ⎝ α ⎠
Simplificando.
⎛ λn ⎞
α ⋅ i ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⋅ ⎟ λ
⎝ α⎠ i n ⋅t
ρ n (t ) = e α
− λn ⋅ i ⋅ sen (λn ) + i ⋅ λn ⋅ cos(λn )
2

Por la definición de los polos


⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞
cos(λ n ) = cos⎜ (2 ⋅ n − 1) ⎟ = 0 sen (λ n ) = sen⎜ (2 ⋅ n − 1) ⎟ = −(− 1)
n

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛ λ ⎞
α ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⋅ n ⎟ λn
ρ n (t ) = ⎝ α ⎠ e i α ⋅t
λn 2 ⋅ (− 1)n

Trasformada inversa de Laplace G. Chacón V.


11
Aplicando el teorema de los residuos
⎛ λn ⎞
α ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⎟ λn
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠ e i α ⋅t
n →∞
L−1 f (s ) = χ + ∑
n = −∞ λn 2 ⋅ (− 1)n

⎛ λn ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
α ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⎟ i λ n t n → 0 α ⋅ sen⎜ χ n ⎟ i λ n t
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠e α + ⎝ α ⎠e α
n→∞
L−1 f (s ) = χ + ∑ ∑
n =1 λn ⋅ (− 1)
2 n
n = −∞ λn ⋅ (− 1)n
2

Por las propiedades de las sumas (de series), se cambia límites,


⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
α ⋅ sen⎜ χ n ⎟ α ⋅ sen⎜ χ n ⎟ λn
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠e nα − ⎝ α ⎠ e i α ⋅t
n→∞ ⋅ λ
t n → −∞
L−1 f (s ) = χ + ∑ ∑
i

n =1 λn 2 ⋅ (− 1)n n=0 λn 2 ⋅ (− 1)n


Por las propiedades de las sumas (de series), se cambia negativos por
positivos
⎛ λ ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞
α ⋅ sen⎜ χ ⋅ n ⎟ λn n → ∞α ⋅ sen⎜ − χ n ⎟ λn
[ ] ⎝ α ⎠ e i α ⋅t − α ⎠ − i α ⋅t
n→∞
L−1 f (s ) = χ + ∑ ⎝
n =1 λn ⋅ (− 1)
2 n ∑
n = 0 (− λn ) ⋅ (− 1)
2 n
e

Por las propiedades de las funciones trigonométricas de los ángulos


negativos, y como da lo mismo dividir que multiplicar por (±1),
sen (− λn ) = −sen (λn )

⎛ χ⎞ ⎛ χ⎞
α ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟ α ⋅ sen⎜ λn ⎟
[ ] α⎠ α⎠
n →∞ t n →∞ t
L−1 f (s ) = χ + ⎝ i ⋅λ n
⎝ − i ⋅λ n
∑ (− 1)n
n =1 λn 2
e α
+ ∑ (− 1)n
n=0 λn 2
e α

Factorizando y multiplicando y dividiendo por 2, para n = 0, ya se calculó


(− 1)n ⋅ α ⋅ sen⎛⎜ λn χ ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ i⋅λn αt − i⋅λn αt ⎞⎟
+e
[ ] ⎝ α⎠ e
n→∞
L−1 f (s ) = χ + ∑ 2 ⎜ ⎟
n =1 λn 2
⎜ 2 ⎟
⎝ ⎠

Se tiene, por la definición de la función seno en números complejos, que

Análisis de procesos G. Chacón V.


12
⎛ i⋅λn −i ⋅λn
t t

⎛ t ⎞ ⎜e α +e α ⎟
cos⎜ λ n ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ α⎠ ⎜ 2 ⎟
⎝ ⎠

(− 1)n ⋅ α ⋅ sen⎛⎜ λn χ ⎞⎟ ⋅ cos⎛⎜ λn t ⎞



[ ] α⎠ α⎠
n →∞
L−1 f (s ) = f (t , χ ) = χ + ⎝ ⎝
∑2
n =1 λn 2

Con lo que, sustituyendo el valor de λn

f (t , χ ) = χ +
8 ⋅α n →∞
(− 1)n ⎛
sen⎜ (2 ⋅ n − 1)
π χ⎞ ⎛ π t⎞
∑ (2 ⋅ n − 1) ⎟ ⋅ cos⎜ (2 ⋅ n − 1) ⎟ →3
π 2
n =1
2
⎝ 2α⎠ ⎝ 2α⎠

Trasformada inversa de Laplace G. Chacón V.