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TEAM MEMBER: 1. S.SAMUMTRAM (MA101203) 2. S.SIVAKUMAR 3. SUFIAN BIN HUSIN (MA101414) 4. ZULKIFLI BIN ARIFFIN (MA!01413) PROFESSOR: ASSOC PROF. DR. MOHAMAD IBRAHIM MOHAMAD SUBMISSION DATE: 17 APRIL 2011 (MA091351)
stock and handle) y total number of parts reduced from 300 to 189 (much reduced assembly effort). What is the evidence to support the claim that this project was a success? The evidence to support the claim that this project was a success in Instron began when they decided to undertake change in the late 1980s.to findnew and innovative ways to improve the product. It refers to product developmentin which functions of design engineering. and it allows for employees to work collaboratively on all aspects of a project from start to finish. whatmore at the height of the recession. the easier and less costly they are to be rectified. and lower costs for both the manufacturer and the consumer. y assembly/machining time reduced by 55 per cent. or multiple times. y project completed on time. profit margins being squeezed and sales volume dropping. y unique part count reduced from 141 to 98 (fewer parts to plan. Concurrent engineering allows for design and analysis to occur at the same time. Also known as the iterative development method. Modifications to the process of introducing new products have generally been the natural response to a changing set of market requirements. This CE multidisciplinary approach emphasizes teamwork through the use of cross-functional teams. It is a method used in product development. rather than sequential. Brainstorming sessions with manufacturing engineers. y product range rationalised from 12 to 2 versions.Steps are already taken to evaluate the pilot project and the pilot product within the confinement of concurrent engineering work technology. prior to actual deployment. it requires continual review of a team¶s progress and frequent revision of project plans. members of the shop floor. the need to redesign the instrument to reduce its cost and make it easier to manufacture. buyers. The design management system offers several benefits. manufacturing engineering and other functions are integrated to reduce the elapsed time required to bring a new product to the market. The outcome of these investigations was to drawcost reduced by 49 per cent. suppliers and additional design engineers. Instron decided to redesign a pilot product to reduce its cost and make it easier to manufacture. processes. With the adoption of concurrent engineering within Instron. including increased product quality for the end user. Concurrent engineering is a work methodology based on the concurrent of tasks. y with last version to be released in April 1994.1. a programme to incorporate the concurrent new product development. forward-looking approach is that the earlier that errors can be discovered. faster product development times. The rationale behind this creative. it is seen as a timely evolutionary progress towards achiving better success. By completing tasks in parallel. purchase. In 1992 at the height of the recession. . The difference being the traditional product development approach employs simultaneous. product development can be accomplished more efficiently cost savings.
manufacture. production. and marketing of the product are usually involved in the early stages of a product s design cycle. ubstantial design savings accomplished through incorporating all of the design cycles and utilising a computer workstation environment. management. finance. his provides access to a commonly shared database where any alteration to a product design is updated and disseminated for all members of the design and support teams. which shows how knocking down the old walls opens up opportunities for greater input into the earlier stages of the development cycle. VS .The concurrent engineering environment is a co-operative and collaborative one. and to sustain its growt in arket share. its new t evel ent ess(NPD) inging new t servi e t rket nd in rder t generate and ercialise new roducts wit in its overall strategic li e cycle. as illustrated in Figure . One of the evidences to show success to this project is the ability of Instron to embrace the basic concept adopted in the concurrent engineering approach that is all parts of the design.In Inst n. to reduce the NPD downti e any companies completed several steps at the same time referred to as concurrent engineering or time to market Many industry leaders see new product development as an ongoing process of continuous development in which the entire organi ation is always looking for opportunities. enabling faster product development through extensive use of simulation.
y allowing errors and redesigns to be discovered early in the design process when the project is still in the concept stage. y the selection of the right people ² those who were prepared to be open-minded and have some enthusiasm for the changes. Only few minor problems were encountered.Fig 1: Coll borati g ± knocking down the old wall Sequential Development Method vs. y reduce manufacturing. and in the precise format. or concurrently: y to significantly increase productivity. The large variety of software integrated into the electronic design environment has allowed multi-disciplinary teams to work in their own . y increase product uality. In concurrent engineering is important to get the correct data to the intended person or tool a t the right time. y reducing cycle-times. The success was attributed by the firm to two decisions: y the selection of the right project ² one that made it easy to demonstrate concurrenly. The success story at Instron is due to the adopted concept in concurrent engineering with design activities all occurring at the same time. re-work y quality costs. Iterative Development Method Finally the environment of concurrent engineering at Instron successfully produce its product and be operational.
Instron was noticeably out of date with their concurrent engineering implementation. Successful companies today will learn to manage the changes needed to ensure continued productivity in the global marketplace. To manage the forces of change. The process of change has now been accepted by most. What is also clear is that the product was subject to technical change in only one area: y y the materials used. as a way of organizational life within the company.environment. a company must have a product development environment that uses concurrent engineering to produce its basic product. The other benefits have all been due to the approach that the firm's management has taken to its new product development (NPD) process.At the start of the article. Instron now views this simple project had restored the profitability of an established product through the use of innovation. Instron felt that the project has been a success and that this concurrent engineering method of working would become an institutionalised methodology. Lastly. ingenuity and new design techniques by the whole concurrent team. getting the highest quality. lowest cost product to market in the least time. The term concurrent engineering is therefore seen as a suitable description for the approach to developing new products that Instron had naturally intended. They follow evolving paths that lead them to achieve their goals in a new product release. Concurrent engineering can be considered as a systematic approach that brings product development and processes together for the entire company. good and reliable infrastructures complement the use of concurrent engineering and help bring them into reality. .
quality. This contributed to the success of the firm. concurrent design of products and their related processes. until an ultimate and optimum design being produced. when the product range rationalised from 12 to 2 versions.2. schedule and user requirements. from the outset. Most importantly. product development was carried out in a serial mode. . the first step that this firm took was to initiate a cross functional team. management. and satisfied to customers requirements. including manufacture and support. a design engineer. Instron moved to ensure that all project team were structured to include marketing and manufacturing input from their initial inception. without severing any cost impact and quality. the concurrent engineering concept approach is that all parts of design. A cross functional team is a group of people with different functional expertise towards a common goal. enabling faster product development through extensive use of simulations and trials. Until early 1980s. with the part count reduced from 141 to 98 numbers. with manufacturing become closely involved in the process only when the engineering team had completed the design and documentation. testing and prototyping repeatedly and regularly. This is one principals of CE. a marketing engineer and a draughtsman with a mission approach of improving the ease of manufacture of the product such that a cost reduction of 20 percent could be achieved. finance and marketing are usually involved in the early stages of a product design cycle or in a conceptual design stage. including cost. This approach could not continue as the market become more demanding and cost conscious. As a result. They often function of self directed teams responding to broad but not specific directives. They carried out a brainstorming sessions to find new and innovative ways to improve product quality. due to it is in the conceptual design stage. manufacturing. the designing of the product could be brain stormed by several approaches. The firm¶s team consisting of a manufacturing engineer. to consider all elements of the product life cycle from the concept through disposal. How did this contri ute to the success? Concurrent Engineering (CE) is a systematic approach to the integrated. In response. The logic reasons are. production. satisfied by the team members. This approach is intended to cause the developers. Identify the steps the firm took in this project. reduce cost in terms of manufacturing changes and time.
than there is not likely to be resistance. The process of change has now been accepted by most as a way of organisational life. This team was set up to satisfy a particular contract. hence Instron followed to a smoother path of change. as new project groups were formed and others disbanded to meet contract requirement. This was clearly shown. within the company. The complexity of a product can determined the number of disciplines involved and both of these determine the type of infrastructure needed to share information and data. when the team was co located in an area adjacent to the manufacturing facility. This is one of the major factors that facilitated the introduction of concurrent engineering techniques was a change in the culture that the company had been experiencing over the years.Secondly. Hence a good communication network to the respective peoples involved and a good supporting from team members and also from the respective workers. shop floor. Most importantly. The firm also get a favourable support from the respective departments downstream of the design process (manufacturing. Effective communication is very crucial in concurrent engineering which one or more team work together and share information in an integrated product development environment. hence to many cooks will spoil the soup. which was usually the natural part of their working life. The greater the number of people involved in a project or team. The existing communication infrastructure should be properly support the necessary types and volume of information. are vital in ensuring the project could proceed successfully. . whom were open-minded to have a change with high enthusiasm. the communication infrastructure must expedite important information to the respective right people. was slowly emerged as a standard way of progressing such projects. the team applied communication and sharing of ideas. the higher the chances of poor communication to occur. service) and also from the front-line managers. When such change is imperceptible. The firm wanted the employees to accept changes in working environment. The term concurrent engineering is therefore simply as a suitable description for the approach to developing new products that Instron had been naturally adopting. This also showed that everyone in the team could work together.
. Giving the designer an ownership play a large role in the productivity of the employee and the quality of the product that is being produced. The firm had selected of the right project in implementing their concurrent engineering process. The individual engineer is to be given much more say in the overall design process due to collaborative nature of concurrent engineering.This information determines the degree to which information or data from different disciplines can be meaningfully organized and accessed by development team members in order to create a shared understanding of the product and the process involved in developing it. By making this change. The new design techniques that Instron may adopt for concurrent engineering would be the use of CAD. as opposed to an employee that is assigned a task with a little say in the general process. many organizational and managerial changes arise that must be taken into special consideration when the company move towards such a system. The firm realised the usage of concurrent engineering could restored the profitability of anestablished product through the use of innovation. Hence this could easily visualise the end products by the sales and marketing at the feasibility stage and knew that they were all discussed about the same product. Issues such as the early implementation design reviews. enabling communication between engineers. Often this can be a difficult obstacle but is something that must be solved early to avoid later problems. The other benefits have all been due to the approach that the firm¶s management has taken to its new product development (NPD) process. This stems the fact that the engineer has an ownership over their work and tend to work harder and design a more robust product. software compatibility and opening the design process up to allow for concurrency creates a problem of its own. The selection of project is important to ensure that the product to be produce could be adopted to the concept of concurrent engineering. There must be a strong basis for teamwork since the overall success of the method relies on the ability of the engineers to effectively work together. ingenuity and new design techniques by the whole concurrent team. The sales would be realised that the powerful tool which engineering had for design also provided them with a powerful tool in sales. The other factor that induced the success of concurrent engineering is the selection of the right people to lead this process.
Furthermore. whereby they encounter that some staff were still uncertain about the changes in the authority of the designers and the staff also unfavourable towards the changes in the design process and some are still with notable exceptions. first group is called as a passive resistance. loss of personal contacts. loss of key individuals and also higher management overhead. some staff also commented that µthey don¶t know how they ever worked without it¶ when the team was co-located to a new area adjacent next to the manufacturing facility. more pressure was imposed on them which are selected in the initial stage of the project and these people given higher workload.3. this group of people is call as undermining the initiative. This group of people is those who do not show reluctance to apply the new ideas even through they are attend to all groups meetings. Thus. Thirdly. They can be grouped into 3 groups. they were nod in agreement in the meetings but at the end they still carry out the work same as before. The main adverse has been identified among their staff who react towards the changes into concurrent engineering and senior manager staff were selected as champions to find out the cause with the objective of overcoming the resistance to change that existed. there is staff which is do not opt with what the company do but they also reluctant to help the company in contribute concurrent project. Besides that. Secondly. whereby this people who will undermining the initiative. This show a psychological impact of fear to change and unwillingness to accept the risk associated to it. Instron find out that there is some resistant exist among their staff in this pilot project when the firm began to undertake a change which is executed a programme to institute concurrent new product development. How mi ht the main adverse effects e identified and countered? Due to highly transient and adverse changing environment in design and manufacturing process. Due to this reason there would further worries to the company such as reduced of product performance. They also need to compromised design . through overstating the apparent problems. They are called as active resistance. Instron need to counter the above adverse effect. there is some resistant was anticipated and expected to be happen in Instron.
hen the idea for new products has obtained from the basic product research analysis. 6) . that is firstly. buyers. whereby the company need to take two decisions. hen executing the new product manufacturing or design. Instron did brainstorming session with the manufacturing engineers.solution for sake of manufacturability. members of the shop floor. Figure : Conceptual model to support C Cross Functional team in C Implementation ( adad. In operational process there is some problem encountered. Instron allow errors to be happen earlier in the design processwhen the project isstill in feasibility study. they will move forward to the concept development and testing. they will do idea screening in order to eliminate the unnecessary concepts and design when designing the product. t this stage. To overcome the counter effect. they will develop the marketing and engineering detail to make sure that their product is marketable and value for money. suppliers and additional design engineers. The selection of the right project is needed in order to make them easy to demonstrate the concurrency and the selection of the right people who is prepared to be open minded and have some enthusiasm for the changes. where idea can come from any per on¶s but the s most important is idea can be workable. Once the screening done. In this pilot projectthe unqualified manufacturing engineer giving major input in the design which is causing the role of engineering manager be threaten This the effect of team work. By doing this Instron can save their production time and cost. to find a new and innovative ways to improve the product. the selection of the right project.
This team was showing some co-operation acting between them which is essential in order to get best results. . In fact. This will help them to come up with robust redesign of the product and telecommunication between the each department even faster. Apart of this. Instron also decentralise team in order for them to take decision rather than reverting to top management. a marketing engineer and a draughtsman. Moreover. it is considered good practise to have one or more production planner stationed for adoptability of production and feasibility of manufacture. a designer engineer. application of new technology such as building design software. a small multi functional team was formed which is consists of manufacturing engineer.Likewise. Instron has come up with a strategic to organise a cross group communication between the design team and production team where the project team was co-located in an area adjacent to the manufacturing facility purposely for easy communication and sharing ideas between them as shown in the above table figure 1. Collaborationproblem solving within the functional departments also help them discuss more detail and any dispute in decision making can be sorted out fast. They also provide training and enough manpower resources in their company for the staff to adopt the changing working environment with new people. Instron claim that this pilot project was a successful project to them and this concurrent engineering will be implemented in their other projects. By the encounter this adverse effect. CAD design and computer networking also encountered the adverse effect caused by the rapid changes in production and design of the product.
is there need new tools to support the process to achieve new environment. It no point have a fast process with advance technologies if products manufactured does not meet these standards y Tasks ± Firms need to make sure how there are going to brake task to smaller group. what mi ht usefully e done to ensure that other projects are similarly successful? Normally to introduce concurrent engineering in a project. This is what done at Instron. by having one person from each department to work in a concurrent process as team of producing a product. If a similar way of workin is to e more widely adopted. y Time ± How is the company is going shorten the time for a project by including concurrent engineering. These forces are technologies. time. firms need to look at its current product development environment.4. which project team will be defined as small team. y Technologies ± Firms need to identify if the current technologies is enough to develop a new systems. and talent. Firms need to make sure that the technologies used will make the product marketable and built will the industry standards. Firms need to determine the metrics for improving the project or products in a development cycle time. defined it and manage it effectively especially when the task increase in complexity. This is need to identified a systematic approach that will shape a product development process. The firm attri uted the success to the choice of project and the people selected to carry it out. tools. tasks. There are five fundamental forces to be considered before the firm is to determine if concurrent engineering is going to help those products. The firms need make sure that the task process would continue improved its efficiency from a standard process. Firstly. . y Tools ± Firms need to identified the current tools is sufficient enough to change the environment. This is to test if the company is in the right direction towards a sensible plan in implementing a concurrent engineering environment to the future projects. firms will start with a pilot project first. Firms need to determine few factors before it can decide to implement concurrent engineering to many other products. This will be a different picture when firms decide to initiate the transition for concurrent engineering in bigger scale or other new products.
and must commit and agree themselves to consider other team members decisions. because in general project management is satisfying customer requirement. Every time managers need determine new vision for a project and constantly emphasize on the vision while project is implemented. Secondly. The 4 dimension is explained as follow: y Or anization: In an organization. y Communication Infrastructure : A firm to emphasize on concurrent engineering environments need to have good communication with linking people. ideas. Managers must create. firm can bring the 4 dimensions into equilibrium. Information come from every dimension. This is ideal either for conventional system or a concurrent engineering that need to focuses on customer requirements and most requirements are viewed. The shape of these dimension will continues balance and shift depending on type of project and the current market forces. processes and feedback relating to communication infrastructure . the teams members need to make sure that information is translate well to the action related that need to take. ensuring there is a long term supply of talent. Managers need to play a big role by keeping employees satisfied and empower them by working with the project vision.y Talent ± Firms need to make sure that they got talented employees to work effectively and with a great concern. Vision is important so for every team member to work on right track. and product development. This is to make sure that team members aim in achieving success does not elongated to other direction. make sure that they are meeting the requirement and the project meets industry standards too. Firms need to determine their customers that they want to focus. Firms need to make sure that by demonstrating concurrent engineering. communication infrastructure. y Requirements: This dimension is the most important. there will be managers and team member who will be working on one project. specifications. This 4 dimension are organization. This team must assume authority and responsibility for their design decisions. requirements. Normally correct visions bring success to a projects.firms need to make sure having a vision for implementing concurrent engineering environments that would help a company¶s product or project to grow. as this factor that influence customer acceptance. empower and support the project with the team members with different disciplines based on the size of the project. The two .
Firms need to make sure managers are evenly distributed in different teamto avoid disputes in decisions making and working together. .vital standards that the firms need to exercise are planning strategies and the planning Standpoints. This because certain managers are asks to work on a project in a concurrent environment. When a project involved with many members. This method develops allot of reference to other project in the future review for continually improve The fourth points. there should not be any seniority among team member. Company need to make sure more training or exposed needed especially on conceptual and practical knowledge in concurrent engineering. and fear to change. As implementing concurrent engineering many projects. The firm need to make sure psychologically impact of it employee that are willing to accept risk associated to it. company need to good budget. y Product Development: For the product in a project that firms want to use in a concurrent concept. This will also be a standards help drive and energise the other dimensions. As different person have different capacity and style in adopting CE in a new programs introduced. they will behave more seniority among otherteam members during giving decisions. that need to be done is taking care risk. Thefirm that want to success in CE need also do to ensure larger project to be success. as this can soar the entire project in concurrent environment. These managers will be in fear of losing power they tend to control and domination over project important decision such on the design and planning phase. Normally knowledge need to be constantly improved by going for more training and practice. company needs to give time to different individual in term to see results either from of the person or the project. This is where employee need to works as teamwork concept with different occupational line and practice concurrent engineering environment. Financial is an important factors for firm that wants to success in concurrent environment. company need to prepared budget for this. the firms need make sure its products has a stable outline with integrated vision of the project or product developed earlier. Firms that wants to introduce concurrent engineering in large scale projects need to involved many team members or big function groups for a different product in one large scale project.In order to make success. This can be from design conception to manufacturing and support consent.
. Hence with these points. we ensure that firm can improve in implementing concurrent engineering for many project including large scale of PPI. communication is the main function in communicated and to make a project to finish faster especially using electronic communication such as email. 3G or GPRS in communicating between members.especially for their communication equipment and software. In concurrent engineering.
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