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WHO IS AN ENGINEER?
According to USA President Herbert Hoover, who was an engineer before he became a politician, said: The great liability of the engineer «compared to men of other professions««is that his works are out in the open where all can see them. His acts «..step by step «are in hard substances. He cannot bury his mistakes in the grave like the DOCTORS. He cannot argue them into thin air«..or blame the judge«..like the LAWYERS. He cannot, like the ARCHITECT, cover his figures with trees and vines. He cannot, like the politicians, screen his shortcomings by blaming his opponents«.and hope the people will forget. The ENGINEER simply cannot deny he did it. If his works do not work««he is damned.
A design engineer s responsibility should include assuring the structural safety of the design, details, checking shop drawing. Detailing is as important as design since proper detailing of engineering designs is an essential link in the planning and engineering process as some of the most devasting collapses in history have been caused by defective connections or DETAILING. There are many examples explained in the book" DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FAILURES by Dov Kaminetzky. Detailing is very important not only for the proper execution of the structures but for the safety of the structures. Detailing is necessary not only for the steel structures but also for the RCC members as it is the translation of all the mathematical expression s and equation s results.
For the RCC members for most commonly used for buildings we can divide the detailing for 1. SLABS-WITH OR WITHOUT OPENINGS.(RECTANGULAR,CIRCULAR,NONRECTANGULAR-PYRAMID SLAB,TRIANGULAR ETC) -BALCONY SLAB,LOFT SLAB,CORNER SLAB etc BEAMS- WITH OR WITHOUT OPENIGS.(SHALLOW & DEEP BEAMS) COLUMNS.(RECTANGULAR,L-SHAPE,T-SHAPE, CIRCULAR,OCTAGONAL,CROSS SHAPE etc)
4. FOUNDATIONS. Detailing for gravity loads is different from the lateral loads specially for the SEISMIC FORCES. Apart from the detailing for the above there is a different detailing required for the Rehabilitation and strengthening of damaged structures. We will now dwell on the DETAILING OF MEMBERS FOR THE GRAVITY AND SOME CODAL DETAILINGS AS PER IS CODE IS 13920 AND IS 4326 AS REQUIRED FOR SEISMIC FORCES.
12´ I ¼´dia@12´c/c 1. were used. Was covered by a dimension line.DO¶S & DONOT¶S FOR DETAILING DO¶S-GENERAL 1. . Prepare drawings properly & accurately if possible label each bar and show its shape for clarity. Error occurred because Correct rebar dia.¼´dia@12´c/c Cross section of retaining wall which collapsed immediately after placing of soil backfill because ¼´ rather than 1-1/4´ dia.
2. 4. 5. . 8. Use commonly available size of bars and spirals. For a single structural member the number of different sizes of bars shall be kept minimum. Deformed bars need not have hooks at their ends. Indicate proper cover-clear cover. 3. 6. Show enlarged details at corners. intersections of walls. Decide detailed location of opening/hole and supply adequate details for reinforcements around the openings. The grade of the steel shall be clearly stated in the drawing. 7. beams and column joint and at similar situations. Prepare bar-bending schedule . nominal cover or effective cover to reinforcement. if necessary.
In the case of bundled bars. . 10. such individual splices within the bundle shall be staggered. Make sure that hooked and bent up bars can be placed and have adequate concrete protection. Can be properly placed.Congestion of bars should be avoided at points where members intersect and make certain that all rein. 9. 11. lapped splice of bundled bars shall be made by splicing one bar at a time.
4. . It shall be formed vertically and not in a sloped manner. as far as possible. they shall be . Deflection in slabs/beams may be reduced by providing compression reinforcement. away from the sections of maximum stresses and shall be staggered. DO¶S ± BEAMS & SLABS: 1. as per IS456-2000. The location of construction joints shall be at the point of minimum shear approximately at mid or near the mid points. 3. Where splices are provided in bars.Indicate all expansion. 2. 12. Only closed stirrups shall be used for transverse rein. For members subjected to torsion and for members likely to be subjected to reversal of stresses as in Seismic forces. 13. Were the depth of beams exceeds 750mm in case of beams without torsion and 450mm with torsion provide face rein. construction and contraction joints on plans and provide details for such joints.
DONOT¶S-GENERAL: 1. 3.-for CIRCULAR sections. A min four bars one at each corner of the column in the case of rectangular sections. it is good practice to make secondary beams shallower than main beams. as far as possible .To accommodate bottom bars. 5. 2. Keep outer dimensions of column constant. . Flexural reinforcement preferably shall not be terminated in a tension zone. 1. A reinforced column shall have at least six bars of longitudinal reinforcement for using in transverse helical reinforcement. 4. Reinforcement shall not extend across an expansion joint and the break between the sections shall be complete. 2. for reuse of forms. Do¶s ±COLUMNS. Preferably avoid use of 2 grades of vertical bars in the same element. at least by 50mm.
Lap splices shall be not be used for bars larger than 36mm dia. 4. 5. Except where welded. USE OF SINGEL BENT UP BARS(CRANKED) ARE NOT ALLOWED IN THE CASE OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE STRUCTURES. Shall not be bundled. their contribution towards shear resistance shall not be more than 50% of the total shear to be resisted. Bars larger than 36mm dia. 6. . their diameter shall not exceed the diameter of the column bars by more than 3mm. Where bent up bars are provided.3. Where dowels are provided.
The building plan DX-A3 is one in which the client asked the architect to provide opening all round. The building plan DX-3 shows the slabs in different levels for the purpose of eliminating the inflow of rainwater into the room from the open terrace and also the sunken slab for toilet in first floor. Refer the 3d elevation .DETAILING OF SLABS WITHOUT ANY CUT OR OPENINGS.
9´ for sunken slabs.Different shapes of slabs used in the 6´depression for OT & buildings. Portico slab in elevation 19¶-6´ 5¶wide corridor all 9¶-6´suare opening round Portico slab in plan Portico and other rooms roof slab in plan .
differences. . of 0. It is advisable to not to use 6mm bars as main bars as this size available in the local market is of inferior not only with respect to size but also the quality since like TATA and SAIL are not producing this size of bar. of 0. SLABS: It is better to provide a max spacing of 200mm(8´) for main bars and 250mm(10´) in order to control the crack width and spacing. slabs and columns as per codal provisions should be followed.Minimum and max.2% is to be provided for the compression bars in order to take care of the deflection.reinforcement % in beams. Variations than the floor slabs.24% shall be used for the roof slabs since it is subjected to higher temperature. A min. This is required to take care of temp. BEAMS: A min.
The stirrups shall be min. . The hooks shall be bent to 135 degree .size of 8mm in the case of lateral load resistance .
CANTILEVER BEAM crack INCORRECT Ldt CLOSE STIRRUPS Ldt/2 Ld/2 Ld Ld/2 CORRECT .
NON PRISMATIC BEAM crack INCORRECT Ldt CLOSE STIRRUPS Ldt/2 Ld/2 Ld/2 Ld CORRECT .
5d 300 d 2#extra bars Slope 1:10 Hanger bars CORRECT .GRID BEAM GRID BEAM INCORRECT Close rings 1.5d 300 1.
5d 300 d 60degree Hanger bars CORRECT Main beam .Details of Main & Secondary beams Secondary beam Main beam INCORRECT Secondary beam Close rings 1.5d 300 1.
5d d/2+d/2Cot(t) CORRECT .BEAM d 1/4OR 1/5 SPAN INCORRECT Ld Ld LINE OF CRACK d/2 t t d/2 1.
Continuous beam continuous beam Span/4 Span/4 Span/4 Span/4 Span/4 incorrect Span/4 Span/4 1.5d 1.5d correct .5d 1.
08L2 L2 L1/4 L2/4 20% 0.15L2 L2 .CONTINUOUS BEAM SPAN/4 SPAN/4 SPAN/4 .08L1 CRACK 100% CRACK CRACK 100% L1 INCORRECT 100% 20% L1/4 .1L1 100% 100% L1 CORRECT .15L1 .08L1 .
NONPRISMATIC SECTION OF BEAM CRACK D D D INCORRECT CLOSE RING D D CORRECT CLOSE RING D .
CANTILEVER BEAM PROJECTING FROM COLUMN COLUMN INCORRECT NOT LESS THAN 0.25Ast COLUMN CORRECT Ld/3 .5Ast NOT LESS THAN GREATER OF 0.5L OR Ld 50mm Ld 0.
SLOPING BEAM CRACK Ld Ld CORRECT .
HAUNCH BEAMS CRACK CRACK L INCORRECT Ld Ld CORRECT Ld L/8 TO L/10 L L/8 TO L/10 Ld .
STRESSES AT CORNERS C-COMPRESSION T-TENSION C t C t CRACK RESULTANT TENSILE STRESS FOR ACROSS CORNER(ONE PLANE) t c RESULTANT TENSILE STRESS FOR ACROSS CORNER(DIFFERENT PLANE) CRACK t c .
SHEAR AND TORSION REIN.10dia is required when depth exceeds 450mm(0. INCORRECT n d Skin rein. IN BEAMS Stirrups taken round outermost bars spacing<=x1 <=(x1+y1)/4 <=300mm Min 0.1% of web area distributed equally on two faces) D 100 to 200mm y1 D-n>500mm D/5 x1 b CORRECT .2%bd to control deflection as well as for seismic requ.
INCORRECT 2/3d d Ld CORRECT Ld Extra ties .CANTILEVER BEAM WITH POINT LOAD Shear rein.
INCORRECT opening crack crack OPENING IN WEB OF BEAM d/2 Closed stps for d/2 Ld OPENING IN WEB OF BEAM CORRECT opening d/2 Closed stps for d/2 .
BEAM COLUMN JUNCTION-EXTERIOR COLUMN INCORRECT 2´max CLOSED STPS U TYPE BARS Ld IN TENSION-Ld CORRECT .
SPLICE DETAIL FOR COLUMN COVER CLOSE TIES @S/2 SLOPE 1:6 S-SPACING INCORRECT CORRECT .
CLOSE TIES CLOSE STPS SPACIN <=75mm CORRECT .CLOSE TIES 3NO.REDUCTION COLUMN BOTH SIDES INCORRECT SLOPE 1:8 FROM BEAM BOTTOM SPLICE 3NO.
TERMINATION OF COLUMN BARS INSIDE BEAM INCORRECT Ld CORRECT .
END REGION CORE* SPACING OF LATERAL TIES <=100mm BEAM COL.CORE HAS TO EQ REGION-BEAM-COL JN-EXTERIOR BE CONFINED BY CIRCULAR OR RECTANGULAR TIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH END REGION SPACING OF LATERAL TIES <=d/2 COL.*COL. JUNCTION-EQ REGION END REGION INCORRECT SPACING OF LATERAL TIES <=d/2 CORRECT BEAM COL. JUNCTION-EQ REGION .
In columns . In columns Spacing of shear rein.COLUMN DETAILS IN EQ REGIONS incorrect First stirrups 50mm from beam face END REGION-h/6 or D or 450MM whichever is greater correct END REGION h b D d END REGION END REGION Spacing of shear rein.
FACE CORRECT A=L1/3 A=L1/3 A=L1/3 Ld stp@maxd/2 2d 2d stp@maxd/2 2d Stirrup spacing=d/4 or 100mm or 8dia which ever is the least .EQ-REGION-CONTINUOUS BEAM INCORRECT 50mmmax CONTINUOUS BARS NOT LESS THAN ¼ AREA OF BARS AT COL.
FOOTING-DETAILS(INDEPENDENT) INCORRECT COLUMN BARS NATURAL G.L STARTER BARS COVER TO STARTER Lb 3´ SIDE COVER Ldt Min.300 Ldt CORRECT COVER50mm IF p.c below or 75mm .c.
INCORRECT TYPICAL REIN DETAILS OF HAMMER FOUNDATION BLOCK CORRECT Ld Ld .
SECTION OF TRENCH INCORRECT CRACK CORRECT Ld Ld Ld .
STAIRCASE-WITH WAIST SLAB INCORRECT Extra bar Ld(min) Ld(min) Ld(min) CORRECT .
Alternate 1 Main bar Main bar .SLABLESS STAIRCASE Dist.
SLABLESS STAIRCASE Main bar L=horizontal span Alternate 2 A=0.25L .
0 752.0 564.0 COMPRESSION 301. 8 10 12 16 20 22 25 28 32 TENSION mm 376.0 376.0 1316.0 940.0 1504.DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF BARS FOR A CONCRETE GRADE M20 &STEEL STRENGTH Fy=415 SLNO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 BAR DIA.0 827.0 REMARKS APPROXIMATELY USE 50Xdia FOR TENSION .0 1175.0 752.0 1034.0 1203.0 940.0 470.0 451.0 602.0 1053.
Staircases. 4. 1. In the above statements if my senior colleagues and ACCE members can find different method or any new detailing system it will be of immense help not only for me but to other young engineers who should learn in wright ways and not wrong lessons. 5.helical staircase. Hope that I have enlighten some of the detailing technique for the most commonly encountered RCC members in buildings. Retaining wall structures. Shear wall. 3. strap foundation etc. 2. cantilever type etc. 7. central beam type. Folded plates. . 6. silos. shell structures-cylindrical shells. Different types of foundations-raft. walls. pile foundation.CONCLUSION: Before concluding I will show some more details drawn in autocad exported in wwf format As there is no time to elaborately explaining .the following topics are not covered : Flat slabs. Liquid retaining structures. Deep beams.
HANDBOOK ON CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND DETAILING-SP:34(S&T)-1987. SIMPLIFIED DESIGN-RC BUILDINGS OF MODERATE SIZE AND HEIGHT-BY PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FAILURES BY DOV KAMINETZKY. TWARD BOARD MANUAL FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES. 6. By D.USA. . 5. 3. DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND DETAILING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES.REFERENCES: 1.S. 2. 7.PRAKASH RAO. 4. MANUAL OF ENGINEERING & PLACING DRAWINGS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES(ACI 315-80 MANUAL OF STANDARD PRACTICE ±CONCRETE REINFORCING STEEL INSTITUTE.
REINFORCED HAND BOOK BY REYNOLD. IS:456:2000 12. 11. . IS:4326. IS:1893:2000. 9. IS:2502-1963 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR BENDING AND FIXING OF BARS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT.8. 10.
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