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Quantum Dots[1]

Quantum Dots[1]

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Published by Vivekananda Sharma

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Published by: Vivekananda Sharma on May 01, 2011
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QUANTUM DOTS Semiconducting nanocrystals of particle size in the range 1nm-10 nm which have quantum confinement of electrons and

holes in 3-D are termed as Quantum dots. Crystals of size greater than 10nm are called bulk semiconducting material. [eg: 1.Elemental Semiconducting materials like Si, Ge 2. Compound Semiconducting substances like CdS, CdSe , ZnS, ZnO, GaP etc] Quantum confinement effect This effect means electronic energy levels are quantized like an atom and will happen only if the particle size is below 10nm and such particles can be called artificial atoms (Quantum dots).Above 10 nm the particles does not show quantum confinement effect and the energy levels are not quantized .Such materials are bulk materials.(not nanomaterials) [In nanoscience - size of the particle to be a nanoparticle depends upon the nature of the substance. In semiconducting substance , < 10 nm is the nanoparticle size. In other materials it may be different] As Quantum dot size decrease from 10nm the electronic energy level separation will increase. Energy absorption shift to shorter wave length or higher energy and its properties also change. For bulk material, particle size decrease will not effects its energy level and is continuous (not quantized). Quantum well , Quantum wire and Quantum dots are the application of particle in 1-D , 2-D and 3-D box respectively. Electronic energy levels are quantized in these structures. In Quantum well electrons are confined in 1-Dimension. ie electrons are free to move in two dimensions. So quantum well structures are two dimensional. In Quantum wire electrons are confined in 2-Dimensions. ie electrons are free to move in one dimension. So quantum wires are one dimensional. In Quantum dots electrons are confined in 3-Dimensions. ie electrons are not free to move in any dimension. So quantum dots are zero dimensional. Quantum dots have lot of applications in optoelectronic devices, Solar cells , biological labeling etc.

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