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CHAP 2 Manufacturing Operation

# CHAP 2 Manufacturing Operation

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08/01/2011

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# BMFA 4463

Delivered by : Khairol Anuar bin Rakiman

2.1 2.2 2.3

Product & Production Relationship Product Complexity Limitations and Capabilities of a Manufacturing Plant Production Concepts Cost of manufacturing Operations

2.4 2.5

Definition of Manufacturing ±Technically ±Economically .

1 Product & Production Relationship Following are considered in determining how to manufacture the products: Simple assembly ±Production quantity Low. high ±Product variety Soft. medium. hard ±Complexity of individual parts ±Complexity of the assembled products Complicated assembly Simple part Complicated part .2.

P (subscript to identify different parts / products) j . PQ relationship can be written as p Qf ! §Qj j !1 Qf Qj = Total annual production quantity of of all parts = Annual production quantity of part / product j.Product Quantity and Product Variety Q : Annual production quantity P: Product variety (total number of different parts / products produced in the factory) So.. = 1...2..

P1: number of distinct products (represents hard variety) P2: number of different models of a product (represents soft variety) ±Therefore P1 P ! § P2 j j !1 .±It may be useful to distinguish soft and hard product variety in some cases.

It produces only cameras and projectors.1 in textbook) A company specializes in consumer photographic products. and in its projector line it offers 2 models. What is the totality of product models offered? P1. In its camera line it offers 15 different models. P22=15 P1 j !1 2 P ! § P 2 j ! § P 2 j ! P 21  P 2 2 ! 2  15 ! 17 j !1 . P ? Solution : P1=2.Example (2. P2. P21=2.

000. Product washer pump housing 6 cylinder engine block Approximate number of processes 1 20 50 . Product Mechanical pencil Bicycle Airplane Approximate number of components 10 750 1.2. Quantitatively: ±Number of components is an indicator of the complexity of an assembled product.000 ±Number of processing steps is an indicator of the complexity of a part.2 Product o plexity Product complexity can be defined qualitatively or quantitatively.

All components require the same number of processing steps (no).Relation between the level of activity in a manufacturing plant and complexity. ±Total number of product units produced: ±Total number of parts produced: Q f ! PQ n pf ! PQn p nof ! PQn p no ±Total number of operations performed: . All products have the same number of components (np). np : number of parts per product no : number of processing steps to make a part ±Assuming P1 = P2 = P The products are all assembled and there is no part purchased Production quantity for each product design is the same (Q).

Determine: a) How many products? b) How many parts?.000 units annually. if it operates one shift for 250 day/yr? (1 shift = 8 hr) . and the average number of processing steps required for each component is 10. The new line consists of 100 different product types and for each product type the company wants to produce 10.2 in textbook) Suppose a company has designed a new product line and is planning to build a new plant to manufacture this product line. The products average 1000 components each. and c) How many production operations will be required each year?. All parts will be made in the factory. Each processing step takes an average of 1 min.Example (2. and d) How many workers will be needed for the plant.

000.000) = 1.000.000 (products annually) b) The total number of parts n pf ! Qn p np= 1000 (each product contains 1000 parts) npf= (1.000.000 (production quantity for each product type) Qf= (100)(10.000.Solution: a) The total number of products to be produced by the factory Q f ! PQ P = 100 (different product types) Q = 10.000)(1000) = 1.000 (parts annually) .

000 operations annually d) Total number of workers required Time required to perform these operations: Total time = (10.333 workers !!! .666.666.000.667 hr/yr) / (2000 hr/yr) = 83.000.000.667 hr/yr Each workers works 8 x 250 hr/yr = 2000 hr/yr Total number of workers is then w = (166.000.000)(10) = 10.000.000 operation/yr)(1 min/operation)(1hr / 60 min) = 166.000.c) The number of distinct production operations nof ! Qn p no nof= (1.

. i) Technological processing capability e. volumes. manageable set of products. e. technologies.A factory practically does not produce everything itself (requires vendor to supply necessary components) . A machine shop cannot forge steel ii) Physical size and weight of the product e.Focused factory: plant which concentrates on a limited.2.Bases defining manufacturing capability of a plant. concise.g.g. A plant capable of producing 1000 specific products annually cannot manufacture 2000 pieces of that product per year. A plant without heavy-duty cranes may not handle heavy products iii) Production capacity (plant capacity) Definition: Maximum rate of production per period that a plant can achieve under assumed operating conditions.g. markets.3 Li itations and apabilities of a Manufacturing Plant . .

handling time of the product (T h) and tooling (T th ). ±It is the reciprocal of the production time (Tp). . Rp ! 1 Tp ±Production time involves the effects of setup time (T su )and batch size (Q) (in case batch production). actual processing time (To ).2. Production oncepts ±Number of products / parts produced per hour (Rp).

Production Rate (Rp): ±Operation cycle time (Tc) Time that one work unit spends being processed or assembled. T su in min ±Production time in batch production Tb Tp ! Q . Tc To  Th  Tth All are expressed as min/pc. ±Batch processing time (Tb)(in case of batch production) Tb ! Tsu  Qtc Qin pcs.

±Production time in job shop production is same with batch production. ±For quantity mass production: (Q is significantly high) Tsu / Q } 0 Therefore p ! ! 1/ T Rc :operation cycle rate of the machine ±For flow line mass production: (Q is significantly high again) The station with the longest operation time: Bottleneck station Tc Tr  max(To ) R p ! Rc ! 1 / Tc Tr: time to transfer work units between the stations (expressed in min/pc) .

Production Capacity (PC) (Plant Capacity): ±Maximum rate of output that a production facility is able to produce under a given set of assumed operating conditions (shifts and workdays). PC ! nSHR p PC expressed in units/wk n: number of work centers in the facility S: number of shifts per period (expressed in shift/wk) H: operation time of work center (expressed in hr/shift) Rp: hourly production rate (units/hr) .

acquire new m/c. All machines are producing 100% of the time There is no bottleneck ±Solutions to increase the production capacity over short term Change the number of shifts Change the number of work hours per shift long term Increase number of work centers ( utilise unused m/c. hire more workers) Increase production rate by improvements in processing methods or technology.±Assumptions in the model: It is assumed that units are processes uniformly through the work centers. Reduce the number of operations by combining or integrating them (automation) .

Average production rate of each machine is 17 unit/hr.Example (2. Solution: P ! nSHR p ! (6)(10)(8)(17) ! 8160 units/week . The number of hours per shift averages 8. Determine the weekly production capacity of the lathe section. all of them assigned to the production of the same part.3 in textbook) The turret lathe section has six machines. The section operates 10 shift/wk.

±Utilization is generally expressed as a percentage. machine. labor. . U ! Q / PC Q : Actual quantity produced in a given time (expressed in units/wk) ±Utilization can be used for any productive resource (plant. etc.Utilization (U): ±The amount of output of a production facility relative to its capacity.).

5 % Alternatively.5 % . H= (1000 units) / (20 units/hr) = 50 hr U= 50 / 80 = 0. the machine produced 1000 parts and was idle the remaining time. calculate the time spent to produce 1000 units.625 = 62. a) Determine the production capacity of the machine b) What was the utilization of the machine during the week under consideration? Solution: a) PC= (80)(20) = 1600 units/wk b) U= 1000 / 1600 = 0. 5 days) at full capacity.625 = 62.Example (2. During a certain week.4 in textbook) A production machine operates 80 hr/wk (two shifts. Its production rate is 20 units/hr.

± Commonly defined in terms of MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) and MTBF ( Mean Time Between Failure). ± Two approaches in calculation of availability: A MTBF  MTTR MTBF A MTBF MTBF MTTR .Availability (A): ± Measure of reliability of an equipment.

if availability of the machines: A= 90 % and utilization of the machines: U= 80 % Solution: PC ! UA(nSHR p ) Pc ! UA(nSHR p ) ! (0. Determine the weekly production capacity of the lathe section.Example (2.8)[(6)(10)(8)(17)] ! 5875 units/week .5 in textbook) The turret lathe section has six machines. Average production rate of each machine is 17 unit/hr.9)(0. The number of hours per shift averages 8. The section operates 10 shift/wk. all of them assigned to the production of the same part.

TO BE CONTINUED ! .

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