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FACULTY OF EDUCATION
Department of English Language and Literature
Teaching Heterogeneous Classes in Practice
Author: Regina Pospíšilová AlenaKašpárková
I declare that I have written my diploma theses myself and listed all the used sources in the enclosed list of references. ……………………………… Regina Pospíšilová
I would like to express my thanks to PhDr. Alena Kašpárková, who kindly assisted my aspiration with this project. Her advice and encouragement while supervising this diploma theses were immensely helpful.
.............1 Competitive Activities.....................................47 2 World Food Day (October 16).......................................2 Pair and Group Activities .........................3.......................................8 1 Mixed-ability/ Heterogenous Classes................................................2........................................................................................44 1 International Deaf People´s Day (September 24).................................................................................................30 6...............................3..............................................2 Lesson notes and evaluation .........................3 Activities According to the Expected Result..................................................................................23 5..............12 3..........................24 5.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 4 The Teacher.............3 Perceptual Styles.................................................2 Activities According to the Number of Students Working Together...................1 Regina Pospíšilová PhDr....23 5....................................23 5....................2..........................................15 5 Teaching in a Heterogeneous Class.......2 The Need for an Achievement..........................26 6..............3....... notes and evaluations.......................................................................8 2 Reasons for Differences Between Learners .29 6................................................3 Clasroom Management in Heterogeneous Classes.................2 Types of Activities Used in Class.......................2................. AlenaKašpárková.....................1 Activities According to the Students´ Roles....................................................................................37 Summary of the Theoretical Part....................2 Differentiated Instructions.............12 3........................................................................................3 How the Theories Combine....................32 7 Teaching Styles...............3.....................................12 3..........................2......................1 Definition and Kinds of Motivation..............................24 5....................................27 6...............................................................................5 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.......1 Individual Activities.......................................................................................................44 1........................................2......................6 Theoretical Part...............................................................................................................................44 1.....................................4 Honey&Mumford Learning Styles........................................................................................................................2........1 Introduction.......2 Psychological Theories Behind Motivation .....2.................................19 5..................................................................39 Specification of the Class Where the Lessons Were Taught....................................................36 Formal Authority ...........................................................................................................................................................2 Multiple Intelligences ..................2..................................1 Lesson plan – 90 min..................Table of Contents Author: Supervisor:..........................................................2...................................................11 3.........37 Delegator..2 Open-Ended Activities.........................................................42 Lesson plans...................................................22 5.6 VAK..................................17 5.......2................1....22 5........................................................2...19 5.....................................3........................11 3........2......................................................2......................17 5.............2.........26 6 Learning Styles.....................................................................................................49 4 ..............................19 5..............................1.............9 3 Motivation............................................................25 5..........................31 6...1 Definition................................................................................3 Setting Tasks According to the Learning Styles of Individual Learners........26 6.......................................................................2 Cooperative Activities...................................1 Homogeneous Groups Within One Class......................21 5............1 The Concept of Individualization...........................................1 Closed Activities..............................................37 Facilitator ......36 Demonstrator or Personal Model...................................22 5.1 The Reinforcement ...................................................
...................................................................................................................................................49 Instructions:..................2............61 4..............78 5 ......................................................................................78 2 World Food Day....................1 Lesson plan – 90 min...........................78 1 International Deaf People´s Day.......................2 Lesson notes and evaluation.......................................................................................59 4 World Water Day (March 22)................................................................................................69 List of Appendices..............................................1 Lesson plan – 90 min........................................................................................................................................2 Lesson notes and evaluation.......55 3..66 5.......................................55 3..........................................2 Lesson notes and evaluation.........66 5......................................................................................................................78 5 Earth Day..............................................49 2..............................................78 3 International Day for Tolerance.......................................................................................................................1 Lesson plan – 90 min..........................1 Lesson plan – 90 min..........................................................................................................78 4 World Water Day................................................................................................................................................53 3 International Day for Tolerance (November 16)..............................64 5 Earth Day (April 22)....................................................2 Lesson notes and evaluation ......................61 4........................................................................
The choice of the field and topic is affected by my practical experience of 6-year´s period of teaching intensive language courses for young adults after they have finished their secondary school education. Therefore. The thesis will be devided in two parts – a theoretical part and practical part. the state form of the school-leaving exam which would unite the level of the knowledge needed for passing this exam is still only a suggestion in the process of testing. The students come to the class from different schools. 6 .Introduction The field of interest of this work is methodology. The theoretical part deals with the methodology and aspects of the issue – i. they have done so at different schools and consequently the level of these students´ English varies greatly. Motivation and its role in the process of learning and teaching are discussed. Firstly. These students tend to show a weaker performance in the class.or more currently ´heterogeneous´ class. English has not been a compulsory part of the secondary school-leaving exam (maturita) yet. specifically teaching mixed ability classes and creating materials for such classes. Their mixed level of knowledge regarding English is among other things a result of two factors.e. even though a part of the students coming to the course have passed the same exam. Such class is in methodology call a mixed ability . thus the students who did not choose English as their exam subject had probably been much less motivated to pay attention to it during the studies. It explains what are the causes of the differences between students´ abilities. The ways of teaching that would be the most appropriate and efficient for mixed ability classes is one of the issues nowadays widely disscussed by the teaching community. Students´and teachers´ as the members of the process are looked at. Secondly. Students´needs and ways of trying to meet them are presented together with several views of learning styles.
g. The lesson plans are accompanied by either completely original or adjusted worksheets and materials. The specific days were chosen with two criterias in mind: firstly I have tried to choose days dedicated to issues which I feel the students´ should be aware of. 7 . As an important part of m the project was to try all the newly created activities in my class.The practical part contains five 90-minutes lesson plans taylored for teaching heterogeneous classes including activities based on the methodology described in the theoretical part. I believe the lesson plans might serve as a source of activities or at least inspiration for other teachers of similar courses. March 22). All lesson plans are connected with days of international dedication (e. comments on how successfully they were realised and if anything should be handled differently are presented. World Day for Water. secondly I have chosen days which come in different months of the year.
on the objectivity of the test (if it is a multiple choice test the possibility of gaining more points not by showing the particular knowledge but by being 8 . Streaming was popular in Britain in the 1960s. to express themselves.Theoretical Part 1 Mixed-ability/ Heterogenous Classes The concept of so-called mixed-ability classes was not originally connected with teaching English as a second or foreign language. the relevance of the division of the applicants depends on other factors as well. However. On the other hand. Setting means the regrouping of pupils based on their ability in the particular subject. What is more. to study or to make progress in learning a language. Mixed-ability grouping means within the same context randomly chosen students gathered in one class regardless of their abilities or achievements in the subject concerned. Their momentary knowledge of the subject is about the same but some may have spent much more time or/and may have needed to make a lot more effort to reach that level than others. As Harlen and Malcolm (1997) explain in their research. Apart from streaming the term setting appears in the same period. e.g. particularly in a language school. From what has been said so far we would say these classes are rather ´set´ than ´mixed-ability ´ as the students who eventually meet in one classroom have passed their entrance tests with the same or very similar outcomes. consequently it became less and less popular in the primary schools and it eventually disappeared during the 1970s and 1980s. Further studies showed that it has negative effects on the students’ performance in the secondary schools. the intended topic of this paper is mixed-ability classes in connection with teaching and learning English as a foreign language. streaming is a term that describes the method of dividing pupils to classes based on the assessment of their general ability. the entrance tests concentrate on the students´ level of English and as such do not provide the teacher with the information considering the students´ general abilities to learn new words. The students in language schools are usually placed in courses/classes according to the results of an entrance test where they have to prove their knowledge of English. The term first referred to what was seen as a contrast to classes where streaming had been performed.
adaptability. We are speaking about the cultural background. initial reaction. intellectual passivity – underachieving (student´s results are lower 9 . the position of the student in the family. mood.lucky having chosen the correct answer and reaching a little higher level is always there) or on the number of courses available at a particular school (if the teacher can divide 30 students into three classes of ten the range of their knowledge within one class will be more similar than if there are only two classes with 15 students each as in the first case the teacher actually has three different levels to choose from while in the second he/she has only two). a student´s negativity towards learning and school generally. general situation in the family and the relationships.). Social psychological causes are connected with the student´s family and school background. persistence and attention span. 24) presents insufficient development of interest. Bio-psychological causes are closely linked with the student´s health and mental conditions. 2 Reasons for Differences Between Learners Beside the facts mentioned above. etc. psychologists specializing in developmental psychology have proved that a human being is formed partly genetically by inheriting genes of his/her ancestors and partly through the environment he/she grows up in and experience. Kohoutek (2006) explains that there are three types of underlying causes: social psychological. As examples of intra-psychical causes of poor class performance Kohoutek (2006. the parent s´view of the importance of one´s achieved education. Temperament itself includes aspects such as the activity level. regularity of sleeping and eating patterns. One of the bio-psychological elements of personality is for example temperament. distractibility. biopsychological and intra-psychical. Another bio-psychological parameter is intelligence. p. Psychology offers its explanation for successful or unsuccessful performance of learners at schools and education generally. and sensory sensitivity. intensity of emotion. The reasons are numerous.
This subject will be discussed more in the chapter on motivation. The definition of attitude is presented on Wikipedia as follows: Attitude :A complex mental state involving beliefs. values and dispositions to act in certain ways.) As the most important element of one´s relationship to learning and school Kohoutek sees attitude. 10 . based on raw talent. On the other hand the teacher is still left with the large field of the student ´s attitude he/she can work on. Aptitude does not seem to be related to attitude.than he/she actually could achieve regarding his capabilities. no matter how little the level of knowledge of the subject in concern varies at the moment the class meet for the first time. We can see here that aptitude correlates with the bio-psychological aspects. To complete the definition of attitude I decided to include the definition of aptitude from the same source as well: Aptitude: The rate at which a student can learn a language. To find two people who are very similar in appearance is possible but to find two people with the same reactions to various mental stimuli is not. All these causes of students´ variant school performance and the extent to which the performance is satisfactory or not. feelings. or in more up-to-date jargon heterogeneous. a gifted student can have a poor attitude. people have different ways of thinking. Attitude affects a student’s ability to learn. To conclude this chapter. but is unrelated to aptitude. Taking all this into account we can only come to the conclusion that in this sense literally all classes are mixed-ability ones. speed of learning etc. the possibility for the teacher to influence the individual student´s family background or aptitude and health condition is negligible. different learning styles. Clearly. were listed so that the reader realizes that the elements affecting students´ outcomes are ample.
selection. Snowman and Biehler (1997) declare that to describe a student as unmotivated is not accurate since anybody who chooses a goal (even if it is avoiding participation in a task) and uses a certain amount of effort to achieve it must be. Such a statement is rather simplified though. A student motivated to study is a student who has found his/her reason to study and the effort the student makes to learn something is in direct proportion with the level of motivation. typically defined as “the forces that account for the arousal. Various researches and works published on this issue describe two different kinds of motivation: extrinsic motivation – the reasons for one´s behaviour and effort to be made come from the outside. the drivers of such motivation being rewards or pressures or intrinsic motivation with the driver being one´s belief that this is the right thing to do from his/her own point of view or in other words the student wants to satisfy his/her own needs.e. if not the crucial one. direction. Within the frame of school environment a reward might mean teacher´s praise or a good mark. bad marks and parents´ disappointment. ´If I do something – succeed in completing a task . that affects the way and speed people learn in is motivation. 1997. according to the definition 11 . and continuation of behavior” (Biehler & Snowman. the more motivated the student is the harder he/she will work to learn. One can be motivated positively (i. p.I will get a reward´) or negatively (i. In the explanation of the extrinsic motivation the word ´pressures´ and ´rewards´ appeared.1 Definition and Kinds of Motivation One of the most important aspects. pressures and punishment might mean negative evaluation. A teacher upon his arrival to the classroom faces a group of students who are highly or mildly motivated or unmotivated to participate in the activities he/she has prepared for them depending on whether the students have or do not have their reasons to learn the particular subject. ´If I do not do something – fail completing a task – I will be punished´).3 Motivation 3. here English.e. 399).
2. 3.) should be rewarded – the simplest reward being praise. They explain the thought of John W. The problem a teacher faces therefore is the fact that students are motivated to behave in a way dissonant with his/her plan or desire. F. Thus the teacher´s task is to change the students´ motivation direction.2 Psychological Theories Behind Motivation 3. B. through experiments focused on methods animals and men use to learn scientists (esp. To be able to ride out the change it is helpful for the teacher to know the basis of the psychology behind motivation. if certain behavior is punished then the individual would try to avoid such behavior in future. On the contrary. Here I would like to present shortly two psychological theories which have been already applied to teaching. effort etc. a teacher wants to direct students´ motivation towards learning thus learning (a correct answer produced. motivated. The connection between this proved theory and teaching is logical.and the individual is motivated to behave in a certain way. The individual´s behavior is being shaped through a system of reinforcement – a reward or punishment . Skinner) developed and proved a theory that learning is increased by reinforcement – if certain behaviour is rewarded than the rewarded individual tends to repeat the behavior maybe even more willingly and with more enthusiasm next time.2. Atkinson who explored this area in the early 1960s.above.1 The Reinforcement Shortly said. 12 . 3.2 The Need for an Achievement The need for an achievement is another aspect Snowman and Biehler (1997) include in the chapter on motivation. participation.
People with a high need for an achievement are willing to deal with harder tasks as their expectations of success are strong and they are not afraid of failure. The student´s expectations are positive. praise. However each individual has a different level of the need for an achievement. cited in Biehler & Snowman. Yet another way they might opt for is choosing a problem that is so difficult that a failure would not be surprising even for generally more successful individuals with a higher need for an achievement. positive feedback) and one of the positive emotions that accompanies a reward is the feeling of being successful. Imagine a student experiencing success on numerous occasions in a subject – the student´s behavior brings him/her the reward of feeling positively about him/herself thus the student´s self-esteem grows and simultaneously grows the need for achievement. appreciation.g. Atkinson tried to answer the question why some people are willing to tackle more complex or difficult problems than others. 3. so is 13 .John W. A reward is something that brings to a person positive feelings (e. The student seeks more difficult tasks because he/she believes in his/her abilities and the fear of failure diminishes. He came to the conclusion that people have “generalized desire to attain goals that require some degree of competence” ( 1964.3 How the Theories Combine We have already looked into the theory of reinforcement and it has been mentioned that reinforcement might be positive – a reward – to support certain behavior or negative – a punishment – to suppress certain behavior. individuals afraid of not being able to solve what seems to them as a difficult problem successfully would choose not to take the risk and they would try to avoid such situation by choosing a less challenging work or avoiding the situation completely (you can for example imagine a student who tries to escape an expected test by not coming to school on the day when the test is supposed to take place). The difficulty of a task an individual is prepared to fulfill depends on his/her expectation of success.2. By reinforcement a person´s behavior is being shaped. Obviously. 1997).
The negative reinforcement would bring its results. The harder the student works the more he/she learns. The student tries to fulfill a task but fails and as the feeling a failure carries is negative we might consider this a negative reinforcement – punishment. Obviously. if the feeling of not being satisfactorily successful comes on more occasions. it is possible to affect the process by supporting the students in their effort with praise and a positive and encouraging feedback. the same situation might be observed in the other – negative – direction. Next time the student will be more careful with his/her enthusiasm and he/she might opt for a simpler task if the possibility exists or. the more positively a student feels about his/her performance in the subject being taught the more enthusiastic and the more motivated to work hard he/she is. Learning while uneasiness occupies one´s mind is extremely difficult and requires much more mental energy than it would if the same student felt safe and easy – in other words confident about his/her possible achievement in the subject. To sum up what has been written on motivation so far. It sounds very simple and what is important for a teacher. therefore an individual who has experienced failure in lessons of one subject several times without feeling successful in-between will tend to see the subject as an area where he/she will never feel comfortable. For both negative and positive reinforcement in the sense discussed in the previous paragraphs we are of course talking not about a single or exceptional situation as clearly. The whole procedure repeats itself – although I would rather say ´in a spiral´ than ´a circle´ because hopefully the student´s positive attitude and motivation are increasing eventually and so is the difficulty of tasks the student is willing to try to complete. It is important to realize that a students´s attitude towards a subject is related to experience. 14 .the attitude towards the subject and consequently escalates the motivation to work hard and learn because the student wants to be rewarded again. the student might give up trying. the behavior is shaped after a number of similar situations which occur in a row and have in the student´s point of view the same outcome.
I would like to name at least some of them here (Prodromou uses transcriptions which have been corrected only so that they do not prevent understanding): friendly/ explained things/ gave a good notes/ let the students do it by themselves in groups/ We did the lesson together/ got out of us things we know/ talked about her life/ told jokes/ She was one of us.We have said that to learn more easily and with a less struggle a student needs to feel reasonably confident about his/her knowledge of the subject. This is true especially if the teacher is viewed as a person the students identify with and respect. Hrabal ml. Mareš 1979. 4 The Teacher What the teacher is.) The Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence in their Student Evaluation of Educational Quality research asks students to mark the teachers (instructors) on the 15 . is more important than what he teaches. As Helus (Helus. ~Karl Menninger If motivation plays a crucial role in the quality and speed of student´s learning and a teacher is the person whose task is to motivate and who should be competent to fulfil the task then we can easily come to the conclusion that it is the teacher what makes the difference./ did´t push weak learners/ She got close to the students/I wanted him to be proud of me/ They tried to communicate/ She gave advice/ He had a personality of his own/ She made sure everyone understood/ He talked about personal problems/ She was more like a comedian/asked student opinions. 32. 31. p. The specialist on mixed ability classes Luke Prodromou (1996) offers his own research showing what 40 English language students stated to be the qualities of a good teacher. Kulič. there was a dialogue… Prodromou (1996. 56) highlights the confidence might be to a great extent enhanced by the teacher´s belief in the particular student´s progress. A number of researches have been carried out to find out what makes a good teacher and the results of some of them are accessible on the Internet or are presented in literature. pp..
Students are encouraged to participate in class discussions. Instructor has a genuine interest in individual students. Students are encouraged to express their own ideas and/or question the instructor. of course beside the teacher´s knowledge of his/her subject. 16 .scale from 1 to 5 (1 = Very Poor. The fields the students are asked about are following: Learning environment Organization of the instructor Individual rapport of the instructor Examinations in the course Overall evaluation of the course Enthusiasm of the instructor Group interaction of the instructor Breadth of the course Assignments in the course Some of the criteria considering the instructor are: Instructor is enthusiastic about teaching the course. Instructor is dynamic and energetic in conducting the course. Instructor gives lectures that facilitate taking notes. genuine interest in individual students. Instructor enhances presentations with the use of humor. 5 = Very Good). When we compare the ideas and suggestions of the students from the Prodromou´s book and criteria given by the Schreyer Institute we can see that both the lists are very similar – they both stress. Students are invited to share their ideas and knowledge. Instructor´s style of presentation holds your interest during the class. friendliness and humor. availability of the teacher to help. Instructor makes students feel welcome in seeking help/advice in or outside of class. Instructor is friendly towards individual students. dialogue and discussion.
p. a teacher who tries and works hard is not without chances completely as he/she can always motivate students to learn. but on the other hand. People can learn from a variety of sources.202) there are certain underlying basic assumptions regarding learning when we talk of ´individualization´: • • • • • People learn – even the same material – in different ways (this implies accepting different learning styles). We already know that each student is a mosaic of a number of various personal qualities and abilities which are influenced by many factors coming from the student´s life and environment. It has also been said that most of the elements of this mosaic are impossible to be influenced by the teacher.1990. Students come from different backgrounds with different ideas. thus enjoying themselves and learning. expectations and needs. and the lessons which the students fear. it is only one of many possible experiences (which means that a teacher can be a facilitator) A variety of learning activities can take place simultaneously People may have a variety of goals of objectives for learning a second language. dislike or find boring and useless.Friendliness. 5 Teaching in a Heterogeneous Class The interest in individual students is the key to a heterogeneous class satisfaction. Trying to satisfy the class´ needs actually means trying to satisfy the needs of each person present in the class – individualization is the cornerstone. the teacher makes the difference between lessons where the students feel safe and comfortable. humor and respect to the students are vital as the teacher is the one who is responsible for the atmosphere in the class. even if the final goals are the same (it means that the instructional materials can vary) Direct teaching by a teacher is not essential for learning. Generally. The teacher´s personality and his/her own attitude to work and people he/she works with are what the quality of the teaching and learning processes depends on. 17 .1 The Concept of Individualization According to Logan (cited in Sarwar. therefore they should be looked at as individuals and not as a whole class. 5. They are individuals.
• Rapport – Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines rapport as ´friendly agreement and understanding between people´.Most of the Logan´s assumptions are actually further explained and dealt with in more detail in this work. Furthermore. • Relevance – the context and materials should be meaningful and in terms of context understandable to the learners. The teacher should help the students by setting clearly stated tasks and make necessary materials available. Individualization might be applied in the class through the choice and way of organizing various activities in the class. It should be understood that in the process of teaching and learning the teacher needs to take up the role of a facilitator and the learner should play the part of the active agent. Responsibility. individualized teaching may be performed by paying attention to learning styles of students and trying to satisfy their needs. 1972). B. • Responsibility – this ´R´ implies that it is the learner him/herself who is in charge of the learning. Sarwar adds one more ´R´to this trio – Rapport. He brought this thought in his book Individualizing The Foreign Language Classroom (Newbury House. Relevance. Here is a brief explanation of what the Rs mean: • Reeducation – the re-establishment of the roles of the teacher and learner is in question. The person who originally came with this concept is H. Sarwar (1990) also mentions the ´three Rs of individualization´: Reeducation. The area of the need of positive relationship between students and teachers have already been covered in the chapter on the teachers and it has been touched in the chapter on motivation as well. 18 . These topics will appear in the following chapters. Altman.
1 Activities According to the Students´ Roles Activities that are happening within a lesson could be divided according to the students´ role: Competitive – the results are compared and the best one is a winner. the teacher does not evaluate whose work is better.2. the teacher only evaluates if the task was completed or not. Therefore the competitions might be interesting for this group only as all being on a very similar level and having similar abilities they have roughly equal chances to succeed. if a competitive atmosphere is supported in the class on a long-term basis. tend to be the same. 19 . the weaker ones might become discouraged and give up trying to win as they do not expect they could succeed.5. What is worse. Cooperative – students work together on a task. the results are presented to the rest of the class when finished. in other words who fail. The effect of experiencing failure has been described in the part of this work dealing with motivation. the students will adopt the esprit of “Either I or you – if you then not me” (Helus. Since the competitions are usually connected with the knowledge of the subject in concern. the fact that the winning students tend to be the same at different occasions means that also the students who are not successful. While the stronger students might enjoy competitions.1. the problem is that in a class the same group of stronger students tend to be the ones who end up on the first positions.2 Types of Activities Used in Class 5. 5.1 Competitive Activities Activities including the element of competition are often recommended to increase the interest of students in participating in such activity and to make students work as hard as possible to win.2. Nevertheless.
. Bingo using numbers. 20 . singing or free writing is involved.e. set of adjectives. third etc. However. Bearing in mind we want a student who is not particularly strong in English to win.but not first) which leads to the situation when the group of students who do not expect good results become negligent and the group of students who think they might be successful wish the others are worse. sport etc. Kulič. a student might succeed only if the others fail (become second. Students who are not experts on English but are good at arts would probably appreciate competitions where drawing is crucial to be successful. p. Weaker students would also enjoy group competitions where each group consists of both stronger and weaker students so the stronger students might produce the language needed while the weaker ones might be important for the group by contributing the knowledge..). 20). music. Such activities do not necessarily have to always have these harmful consequences if their concept is altered so that different students have a chance to become winners.Hrabal ml. Basically. and as Helus (Helus. The teacher might for example ask the students to create a poster dealing with a recently taught topic and then let the students decide which is the winning one. We might conclude that competition should be used only in a light-hearted way. we have to make the goal of the competition independent of his/her knowledge of the language. not as strong as themselves. Hrabal ml. This might lead to very good results of the stronger students but on the other hand to a negative atmosphere in the class. it is not the case completely. as a fun activity. Thus the knowledge of a different subject might become vital. Kulič. Mareš 1979. Another type of competitions not only the strong students might win are those in which pure luck plays the vital role such as all forms of Bingo (i. Mareš 1979) claims might bring irritation and stress to the group. verbs etc. There are of course more possibilities where acting. An example of such ´non-English´ competition in English might be a knowledge quiz based on geography.
5.2 Cooperative Activities Cooperative activities might be done either in groups or in pairs. Firstly. A group or a pair might be formed by students with the same knowledge of English (same abilities) or mixed.2. they can relax and work with their partner/s in the same speed as they are used to. they naturally would have the role of coordinators. The advantage of the same level students working together is that they feel comfortable not being confronted by anyone stronger. which is undoubtely highly motivating. Generally. by trying to help and explain they consolidate their own knowledge. Why to form groups of mixed ability students then? According to Harlen and Malcolm (1997) and many others all the students might profit from such arrangement when carried out appropriately.1. their work will be appreciated by stronger students. Actually. explain issues on their own level of thinking and experience which might be more understandable than the teacher´s explanations) and if given a task they can handle successfully. The stronger students are not without benefits in this situation either. The weaker students have partners to help them with difficulties (e. in a friendly atmosphere. working side to side with people who have a wider range of knowledge is inspirational and might lead to the weaker student´s desire to reach the same level as the stronger partners. Secondly. from the preceding text we have learnt that cooperative activities might be a part of the competitive ones if the competition is organized for groups or pairs. which would positively influence their view of themselves.g. 21 .
5. however.2.2 Pair and Group Activities Pair and group activities have been actually already touched in the section on cooperative and competitive activities. so that they show effort and active thinking – thus strengthening what they have learnt.2.1 Individual Activities Individual activities seem the most suitable for students in mixed ability classes for several reasons: they allow students to work in their own pace. exercises in the workbook. I do not think it is a suitable solution as it actually means that the students then spend less time at home occupying their mind with the language and consequently do not consolidate what they have learnt at school that day. The students should be encouraged not to copy from a neighbour. Some teachers let the students work on their homework for next lesson.e. It is convenient for the teacher as he/she does not have to do any extra preparations in advance. they have to rely on themselves. Inevitably.2. 22 . Such students – usually the same group of students – might easily start feeling they are wasting their time by waiting for the slower ones. i. To avoid such situation the teacher should have on hand a contingency plan. e. because the students work in their own speed some will finish sooner than others. Contingency plan might either mean an extra exercise or a follow up activity connected with the one the rest of students are working on such as preparing questions or true/false statements based on a text being read for the rest of the class.5. students are not stressed by better or worse performance of others during the activity and to complete a task the students have to use their own knowledge.2.g.2 Activities According to the Number of Students Working Together 5.2.
e. i. 5. The task might be to discuss a controversial issue and provide reasons supporting one´s opinions or writing an anecdote. letter etc. They are usually connected with receptive skills. An example of such an activity might be cloze tests or marking statements based on a reading or listening exercise true or false.e. closed activities are those where the possibilities of outcome are limited (closed) to one correct answer.2. might be used successfully in a heterogeneous class if the teacher is able to employ all the students.2.2 Open-Ended Activities Open-ended activities are those where the outcome varies from a student to student.2.3. essay.3.1 Closed Activities Shortly put. i. Obviously. speaking and writing are usually the skills to be used. All types. the types of activities given above combine. Some exercises might be carried out as an open-ended group-work with the element of competition and some might be an open-ended task to be worked on individually. though. reading and listening.3 Activities According to the Expected Result 5. make them participate and succeed. 23 . pair to pair or a group to group. Productive skills.5.
Groups of students based on similar level would be more homogenous and easier to teach.5. Not everyone is able to separate mentally from what is happening around and focus completely on his/her task. It is necessary for the teacher to to be able to concentrate on all the activities proceeding at the same time. the smaller the original class the less suitable or the more limiting this idea would be. If not handled properly. Students would also learn to be more self-sufficient.g. another one might need to do a listening exercise. as well as many other things this is a matter of experience and practice. Another aspect that should be taken into consideration is the number of students in the original class. in a class of 24 . Limiting in the sense of variability – e. Nevertheless. The more advanced students could work more independently perhaps faster and do more complex projects together. reading and writing) being taught to all the groups would mean that while one group would work on reading or writing. this situation might cause serious problems with the students´ concentration. However. doing a reading comprehension exercise dealing with sports while hearing a radio programme dealing with the latest films and going to the cinema. listening.g.1 Homogeneous Groups Within One Class The teacher can set the class in groups according to the level of their language knowledge and then prepare different materials for each group. For some teachers difficulties might appear considering the classroom management. All four skills (speaking. This would for example allow the teacher to spend more time with the learners whose level is lower. this situation might be profitable for all the participants under the condition that the students would not feel neglected by the teacher so a reasonable level of their independence would have to be established. Generally.3 Clasroom Management in Heterogeneous Classes There are several ways of making reaching satisfactory results possible for students of all levels present in the class: 5. e. to rely on themselves trying to find out whatever they would themselves or seek help within the group not asking the teacher about everything.3.
Similarly to setting the minimum of the task to be fulfilled. They might be also be given the possibility to choose which seven questions they answer. To be more specific.3. The easiest way of adjusting the tasks in the same textbook for several levels is to set limits to the amount of work demanded from the students corresponding with the levels.2 Differentiated Instructions To meet the needs of students with different level of language knowledge differentiated instructions might be introduced. the teacher would have to actually prepare as many correlative lesson plans for each lesson as many groups he/she would set up in the class which would definitely be very demanding and time-consuming. What is more. 5. dividing them in two groups would limit further division possibilities. e. the teacher can choose parts of some exercises as optional.twenty students divided in two different levels groups the students still have 9 potential partners for pairwork and it is even possible to form groups within one level group. Sometimes the students are asked to write sentences using certain expressions – again the number of expressions might be lowered for some students. on the other hand. setting as optional only the questions he/she thinks might be too difficult for some of the students. There are again various ways of making instructions different according to the students´ abilities.g. 25 . if there are only 10 students in the original class. Not to make the lower level or slower students feel inferior the task might be announced as ´Find in the text answers to at least 7 of the 10 questions given in the book´ That way the students would not feel embarrassed or unsucessful if they are not able to find all the answers and they would also be able to finish the task in time. if there are 10 questions to be answered referring to a text in the studentsbook then the weaker students might be asked to find answers only to 7 of them.
5. I would like to present an overview of several models. All teachers know that students do not learn or remember the same within one lesson. Given identical set of information different people might get to different conclusions.3. 6 Learning Styles 6. Disadvantage might be seen in the fact that some students will opt for the easier way and less demanding choice although their abilities would allow them to choose differently. each consisting of at least two different styles.3 Setting Tasks According to the Learning Styles of Individual Learners It has been described and explained within this text why and how each student is a unique individual with his/her specific needs. 26 . I find it advisable for the teacher to pay attention to the students ´choices and encourage them not to underestimate their abilities or to participate fully in the lesson.The advantage of these options is that the students can decide for themselves what they consider an achievable variation and they can also change it anytime they feel it is suitable or needed without having to let the teacher know. People differ in their personal qualities and abilities. One of the reasons for this is that students have varying learning styles. Reasons for such a decision may vary from missing self-confidence or tiredness to simple laziness. they differ in the way of viewing the world around themselves seeing the same things from their own point. this should happen only in justifiable cases perhaps when the situation occurs repeatedly as the students should be led to be able to assess their own competence and take the responsibility for their own learning.1 Definition The theory of individualized learning styles originated in the 1970s and according to the information on the Wikipedia over 80 learning style models have been proposed. Nevertheless.
"Is this student smart?" but rather "How is this student smart?" 6. There are seven different ways to demonstrate intellectual ability described in Gardner´s book Frames of Mind. 1 Visual/Spatial Intelligence is the ability to respond to visual stimuli. 2 Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence is the ability to use language and words." In fact. The learning styles theory implies that how much individuals learn has more to do with whether the educational experience is suitable and aimed toward their particular style of learning than whether or not they are "smart. These people are articulate and they like reading and writing. use logic and numbers. According to multiple intelligences theory.This approach to learning emphasizes the fact that individuals perceive and process information in very different ways. but individuals also differ from one another in the forms of these representations. 3 Logical/Mathematical Intelligence is the ability to reason. These students recognize patterns a connections between them. called LdPride. To understand or learn 27 . as the Funderstanding claims in their definition of Learning styles. educators should not ask. Colours are of great significance. their strengths. to understand written and spoken utterances. A website on learning difficulties. brings quite complex information on the topic of learning styles and multiple intelligencies. and the ways in which (and ease with which) these representations can be changed. not only do all individuals possess numerous mental representations and intellectual languages. People who use visual (spatial) learning style prefer using pictures and images to learn and remember information. And according to the Highland Schools Virtual Library´s enter on multiple intelligences Learning and Teaching should take Account of Multiple Intelligence two more were added later: Naturalistic and Existential Intelligence.2 Multiple Intelligences This idea was conceived by Howard Gardner.
Games that involve communication with other people. Music invokes strong emotions. board games are welcomed by such students. They like to discuss the learnt issues. They like physical exercise and they do not want to sit for a long time. People with this learning style use their body and sense of touch to learn about the world around. These people are private. Such students are able to concentrate very well on their current topic. These people are great communicators. introspective and independent. 4 Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence is the ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully.information they like to classify and group the information. 5 Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence is the ability to produce and appreciate music. They prefer learning in groups or classes or with the teacher directly. They are interested in ecology and environment. It has been alleged that two more intelligencies have been added eventually: 8 Naturalistic Intelligence students with this intelligence developed are curious about plants and animals. These students like problem solving. They are able to make distinctions and recognize patterns in the natural world. 7 Intrapersonal Intelligence is the ability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. Typical for these people is gesturing while speaking.They prefer working on their own. 6 Interpersonal Intelligence is the ability to understand others. They also enjoy explaining new items to others. They also understand their role in the relationships with other people. These people perceive sounds rhythm and patterns. 28 .
They need written instructions. they attend to philosophical topics of death and purpose of life. Following verbal instructions is feasible for them. He/she does not only need to listen as the aural learner but more important is to be able to disscus things. Various tapes and studying CDs are useful particularly for this type of learners.9 Existential Intelligence these learners reflect on meaning of life.org/) : 1 Print Modality (a print orientated learner) This is a learner who likes to see things written to be able to learn and remember them. He/she finds it easy to get the hold of things on the first reading of material. Small groups and discussions are stimulating for such a learner. talk to other or even to self. Seven different perceptual modes of meeting the information are distinguished (they are described in detail for example on this web site: http://www. 4 Visual Modality (a visual learner) 29 .learningstyles. 2 Aural Modality (an aural learner) This is a learner who learns well through lectures as he/she remembers ideas presented verbally. 6.3 Perceptual Styles Perceptual learning styles refer to the means of extracting information from the world around through the five senses. enjoy role-plays and dramas. This person loves reading and often takes notes which for him/her is a process that help him/her to learn easily. They also like to talk. 3 Interactive Modality (an interactive learner) Interactive learners learn best through verbalization.
They benefit from the use of pictures. i. Their concentration is poor when visual or auditory presentations take place in the lesson. brainstorming.Such learners learn by seeing and watching. Smells increase their learning. 7 Olfactory Modality (an olfactory learner) These learners learn best through the sense of smell and taste. Movement helps them to concentrate. graphs. 5 Haptic Modality (a haptic learner) The sense of touch is the crucial one for these learners. They like to have time for 30 . They often have a vivid imagination. for example giving presentations. visual learners do not talk much and they might often stare. project work. passive situations such as watching video. creative situations. They also like to trace words and pictures. 6. which looks at the problem from a different point of view is the one of Honey and Mumford (1992) They identify four kinds of learners: 1 Activists – learners who favor experiencing. These learners prefer cerebral activities. games and simulations. They gesture a lot and want to move when learning. They like a ´hands-on´ approach to learning. 2 Reflectors – learners who like to think carefully. problem –based learning and activities that might be described as extrovert.4 Honey&Mumford Learning Styles Another division of learning styles. demonstrations and all types of visual arts and media. teamwork. Typically. Smells and tastes have special significance for them. 6 Kinesthetic Modality (a kinesthetic learner) Kinesthetic learners learn by doing. Artwork and tasks requiring manipulation are what these students are usually good at.e. They associate particular smells with memories. It is extremely difficult for them to keep concentrated when a lengthy listening is included in the lesson.
simulations. focus of information. 4 Pragmatists – the practical students. logical ideas.com . They want to see the links between theory and practice and they enjoy learning skills and techniques with obvious practical advantages. Painstaking research is not a problem for them. films etc. Their typology is known as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.personalitypathways.5 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator One of the divisions of students´ learning styles based on personalities was designed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter. Obviously. Test is available for example on www. listening to or reading about well-argued.preparation before participative activities. For more information see Wikipedia. Isabel Briggs Myers. Four dimensions (preferred speed of interpersonal response. reasons of action and speed and approach to problem solving) are presented as four dichotomies: 1 Extraversion (the need to talk things out) – Introversion (the need to think things through) 2 Intuitive (being able to see the big picture) – Sensing (seeing the details) 3 Feeling (concern for people) – Thinking (concern for logical implications) 31 . an extravert student´s preferences with regard to activity type would differ from those of an introvert student. Real problems and realistic case studies are stimulating for them. 3 Theorists – experts on generalizing. They enjoy structured situations with a clear purpose. They want to understand and participate in highly complex situations and they need to be able to question and probe assumptions. 6. Learning styles are of course influenced by the students´ personalities. Demonstrations. with a practical bias are favored by these learners.
Sensing. there will be more attention paid to them in the following text. Thinking and Perceiving would be marked as ISTP.6 VAK VAK model is based on perceptual modality. incredible eighty models consisting of at least two styles exist. the way we process information (based on the way we think. 6. Intuitive students want variety and spontaneity while the Thinking students may not like spontaneous questions. and remember information). Yet the basic and the most commonly used model is to be introduced: the socalled VAK. VAK is its less detailed version. We have also come to understand that the styles might be examined from various points of view such as an individual´s personality (based on the way we interact with our surroundings).4 Judging (love to come to conclusions) – Perceiving (staying open to suggestions) These eight characteristics combine and when describing a person the initial letters are used. tips for teachers collected from several sources are presented. solve problems. As it has been already mentioned in the text. Similarly to the learning styles above. there are types of activities favored and resented by the particular groups of students: While the Extravert students would rather talk to others about their ideas and do a pair or a groupwork. As the words ´introversion´ and ´intuitive´ both start with ´I´. We have read brief descriptions of a few of the frequently mentioned models. 32 . More precisely. As the principles of VAK model are referred to in the practical part of this project. thus it is very similar to the Perceptual styles model. ´iNtuitive´ is abbreviated to ´N´. A person who embodies Introversion. Additionally. We have seen four models of how learning styles are distinguished. the Introvert students might not enjoy such activities at all. or perceptual modality (based on the way we use our senses). etc.
videos. The dominant style defines the best way of treating new information.are used to determine the dominating learning style. All learners combine these three sensory receivers to obtain information. videos and other . posters. find treating written language difficult and prefer charts. Vision. graphs. demonstrations. and Kinesthetic .Within the VAK learning style the three main sensory receivers – i. one of them is usually dominant. To help these learners teachers could: • • • • • • use charts. Visual-linguistic learners prefer learning through written language. such as reading and writing tasks. pictures etc. on the other hand.ewb. Visual-spatial learners. illustrations. draw or otherwise create visual representations of use inductive (discovery) techniques as often as possible. They are able to remember information from a text they have read perhaps only once and they like to write down directions. there are two subchannels to visual learners – linguistic and spatial. As a website on VAK learning styles www. Auditory. Visual Students with a visual learning style profit from a lesson which include mainly materials they can see or watch. It is important to say that different tasks might be predominantly tackled by different styles by one learner. This capitalizes on the visual-spatial learner's pattern-finding strength. however.ca in its handout VAK Learning Style Inventory suggests. presented a concept as a substitute for some written assignments 33 .sfw. These learners remember information transferred into images and pictures and it is easier for them if the information is already presented in that way.e. use the board and flip charts to show what will come and what has been supplement textual information with illustrations whenever possible show diagrams (time-lines) and then explain them allow the student to construct.
• • teach the student to visualize words and concepts. show the students how to create mind maps. 34 .
vocabulary. While listening they like to take notes and when reading they like to scan the material first and only later concentrate on details. To help these learners teachers could: • • • • • use activities that involve moving have the students write on the board give frequent breaks for stretching include drama techniques. and tactile. They might find necessary noise disrupting. To help these learners teachers could: • • • • • • begin new material with a brief explanation of what is coming and then conclude let the students work in groups or pairs to discuss their ideas teach inductively – elicit as much information from the students as possible let the students not only read but also listen at the same time create or simply find suitable tapes and CDs for the students to listen at home have the students make speeches and presentations with a summary of what has been covered within the lesson Kinesthetic The website www.ewb. again alleges two subchannels: kinesthetic. have the students role-play and do simulations have the students create and use cards with information (e. Oral components might include taped lectures. When they are supposed to solve a problem they like to talk about it with other learners or with the teacher. connected with movement. Such students will remember heard and discussed data.sfw.Auditory Auditory learners learn best with oral components included in the material being used within the lesson. connected with touch. questions and answers) 35 . listening. They tend to lose concentration if there is little external stimulation or movement.ca noted above.g. videos etc.
not only students have their styles of work but teachers do as well. However.psu. perceptual modality and information processing). as people generally tend to proceed with whatever they do in certain ways (affected by their personality. learning and technology http://tlt. 36 . 7 Teaching Styles Four basic teaching styles are recognized: • • • • Formal authority Demonstrator or Personal Model Facilitator Delegator This approach to distinguishing different teaching styles is based on the personality of the individual teacher. The teacher does not make an effort to create a relationship with the student and he/she does not regard with a great importance whether the students build relationships with each other. Obviously. The four teaching styles are on a website of The Pennsylvania State University dealing with research on teaching.• play games We have had a look at different styles of learning. extravert students with high interpersonal intelligence might find this way of teaching unmotivating and impersonal.edu/suggestions/research characterized as follows: Formal Authority This is a teacher-centered style. The main concern of this type of a teacher is providing and controlling the content of what the student learns.
Naturally. Dividing teachers in these four groups is probably the most frequent way to characterize teaching styles. Facilitator This approach is student-centered. I believe that teaching styles also depend on the teachers´ own learning styles. active and collaborative learners would work well in this environment. might subconsciously conclude that what he/she feels is the most suitable for him/her would automatically be the best for others. Delegator Similarly to the latter one. Much of control and responsibility for learning is placed on individual students. a teacher whose dominant learning style is the visual one would tend to bring to the class and make use of various kinds of visual materials. The same would be true about an auditory teacher or about a teacher whose learning style is Print Modality. or any person for that matter. In other words. The students are to take the initiative to complete various tasks.Demonstrator or Personal Model Also a teacher-centered style but with more attention paid to the students. The teacher demonstrates and models the skills and process that the students are expected to use/ learn and than assists the students with putting the knowledge in action. However. Independent. this is a student-centered approach. Students are very often asked to work in groups or independently. Any teacher. Qualified teachers themselves have experienced all stages of educational system from the kindergarten up to university and they apparently have been successful students. This style encourages all students to participate and it is possible to meet the needs of students with various learning styles. The teacher is the one who facilitates the process. they probably have discovered the way of learning most suitable for them – their learning style and corresponding learning strategies. The 37 .
attend with pleasure. possibly too demanding and eventually the students may start disliking a subject they would otherwise. with a different teacher.potential danger in this situation regarding teaching is that if for example a teacher strongly favors working with written texts. 38 . Therefore it is important for a teacher to be aware of the different preferences regarding learning styles and to try to satisfy the needs of all of them. The lessons might seem uninteresting. all the students who do not would be disadvantaged.
The role of motivation in the process of learning has been emphasized and psychological theories that back up and explain the importance of motivation have been presented. We have been acquainted with the aspects observed when defining learning styles (personality. As I see the way the individual students learn as a significant aspect to be taken into consideration while teaching. a large part of the theoretical half of the theses has been devoted to learning styles. perception).Summary of the Theoretical Part At this point I would like to sum up what has been covered in the theoretical part of this theses. differentiated instructions according to the level of 39 . information processing. The term ´heterogeneous classes´ has been introduced instead. i. A short chapter on teaching styles has been included. We have looked at how people differ and what the causes of the fact that each individual is unique are according to psychologists.e. As a teacher is the one who the learning process and motivation of students largely depends on. one chapter of this work deals with the teacher´s personality and approach to students and teaching. Brief descriptions of six models of learning styles have been introduced. We have understood that the original meaning of the term ´mixed ability´classes slightly differs from how it is used in nowadays methodology. In the practical part I would mainly like to present several lesson plans for teaching in a heterogeneous class. Types of activities used in the class divided according to several criteria have been listed and their suitability or possibility of adjusting them for heterogeneous groups of students have been discussed. I would like to use the ideas for teaching in such class introduced in the theoretical part.
various kinds of activities described earlier. according to the learning styles (namelyVAK . 40 . auditory. kinesthetic).knowledge.visual.
Each lesson plan includes activities suitable for heterogeneous classes as they have been described and explained in the theoretical part of this project: activities with differentiated instructions according to the students´ level of knowledge of English or the students learning styles. List of lesson plans: • • • • • International Deaf People´s Day (September 24) World Food Day (October 16) International Day for Tolerance (November 16) World Water Day (March 22) Earth Day (April 22) 41 . human rights etc. poverty. the need to bring the pupils and students to think about these topics is reflected in the cross-sectional topics listed in the national curriculum. The argument supporting this choice is the growing importance of people´s awareness of the global issues such as the enviroment. The lesson plans are complemented by evaluation of the lessons which have actually been taught. After all. The choice of the days to pay attention to was made to cover various topics from the world of the hearing-impaired people to the global problems such as the clean fresh water scarcity. open-ended activities and closed ones.Practical Part Introduction The practical part consists of lesson plans based on international observance and significant days. pair/group work and individual activities.
Another reason the students presented was that they simply wanted to improve their English. It is therefore advisable not to take results of only one test as a dogma. For several students the differencies between the number of points reached for the individual styles is so little that it is impossible to tell which style they prefer.level B1 or B2 From a written assignment the students were given as homework at the beginning of the school year I understood that for most of the people the main reason for attending the course was that they had tried but were not accepted at university the previous year and wanted to try again. 8. Optional Exam .). as it has been said in the theory. The important fact is that the results differ from a student to student.50 a. Monday to Friday Number of students – 24 Students – most of them 19-20 years old.Specification of the Class Where the Lessons Were Taught Course description: Place– a private language school Course – a language course for secondary school graduates Length – 1 school year (September – June) Frequency – 4 lessons a day (2 x 90 min.m. Students´ learning styles according VAK test: Visual: Auditory: 7 students 9 students Kinesthetic: 11 students The test (see Appendix 6) has 16 questions. students might have different preferences for different tasks. What is more. students who passed maturita the previous year. usually to be able to communicate while travelling or to have a chance to get a better job in future. 42 .30 – 11. which means that the class really is a group of people with various approaches to information and it is neccessary to use a number of types of activities.
It seems that variety together with a good rapport with the students are the best conditions for designing lessons where everybody finds something interesting for him/herself. All of them listed very similar reasons for the conclusion: being able to do what they prefer. 43 . all the students think it is better to work in pairs.From a questionnaire I gave my students earlier in the school term (see Appendix 7) I found out that apart from two who feel insecure all the students want to work with a partner whose English is better or at least the same as theirs. One student made an interesting remark where she explained that when a student can actually choose what he/she wants to do. therefore variety with the teachers´ effort to care for all the students and their needs is one of the keys to teaching heterogenous classes. being able to choose what they feel good at. Nobody said he/she liked working on their own. For the above described reasons I tried to create the lesson plans to include as much variety as possible. Only one student said it did not matter to her. Two students chose working in groups. All the students viewed the choice very positively. not having to fullfil tasks that seem to be boring or too difficult. They all feel they profit from the co-operation with a more advanced peer as better students are easier to communicate with and they can also explain to the weaker students anything that the weaker ones do not understand. Answers to the question about preferred type of activity regarding the number of students working together were again very similar. they do not spoil the activity for others by being angry or bored. The last but not least important question encquired about the situation when the students are given the opportunity to choose a task.
2) Brainstorming to introduce the topic: International Deaf People´s Day(3 min) Procedure: 1. After two minutes I ask individual students what they have written and write some examples on the board. The students have 2 minutes to write a list of special days (International days) they can think of. I explain that today (24th September) is the International Deaf People´s Day 3) Discussion.Lesson plans. The studentss decide if they want to work in a pair or work on their own.1 Lesson plan – 90 min 1) Brainstorming to introduce the concept of special days(6min. 2.) Procedure: 1. I tell the students: -Think of examples of things you do every day without any difficulties but that might be a problem for a person who cannot hear -write them down. I put the pictogram (see Appendix 1. writing a list(10 min) Procedure: Pairwork/Individual 1.After the studentss have finished I ask them for examples and write some of them on the board 3. notes and evaluations 1 International Deaf People´s Day (September 24) 1. 44 . 2.1) on the board and ask the students what they think it means (international sign of Deaf/Hard of hearing) 2.
I ask the students to write three sentences beginning with ´I´ 3.e.4)Pairwork / Personalization (12-15 min) Procedure: 1. I ask ´How can you do it?´ (I elicit possible ways e. drawing or miming) 2. When the partner thinks s/he knows what the student is trying to say. Group B (a little bit weaker students than group A) – look at the pictures I have given you (see Appendix 1. Group C (the weakest group) – match the pictures and tips. there are groups of three students: one from group A. what you have to bear in mind when you communicate with a deaf person. The groups work on the same topic but with different instructions. The students form new groups with one person from each of the previous groups. (see Appendices 1. i. s/he writes the sentence down and the miming student checks whether s/he really understood.g.3) 6) Groupwork in mixed groups A+B+C(10 min) Procedure: 1. 5) Groupwork – How do you communicate with deaf people?(15 min) Procedure: I divide the students in three groups according to the level of their English – I prepared the lists of students working in each group beforehand. They compare their answers I tell the students: -Look at the pictures together -B starts and says what s/he thinks the picture means 45 . I ask the students to imagine they want to communicate some information to a deaf person.2) and try to write down the tips for communication with deaf people illustrated in the pictures. The task is to communicate the sentences to the partner miming them. Instructions: Group A (the strongest students) – brainstorm. discuss and write down tips for communication with deaf people – what is important. one from group B and one from group C 2. writing.2 and 1.
4). too 8) Pairwork – speaking (5 min) Procedure: As the previous activity was a mingle. the students now go back to their places and talk to their neighbour I tell the students to go back to their places and tell their partners what they have heard from the other students.-C gives the correct answer -A says if there is the same or a similar tip in his/her list 7) Reading and speaking (15-20min) Procedure: Each student gets a short text on a piece of paper. I pre-teach/elicit the meaning of the words lip-reading. They should tell their partners what they think was the most interesting and surprising 9) Fun – end-of-the-lesson activity (if there is still time) – manual alphabet Procedure: Students get a copy of the manual alphabet (see Appendix 1. listen to his/her interpretation of their text. look up any words you need to understand the text and ask the teacher if you are still not sure you understand it -Read the text again and try to remember the information -When you finish find another student who has finished as well and tell him/her what you have read about. Each student reads his/her text and then reports it to other students.5) and try to learn to ´spell´ their name 10) End of the lesson I say Thank you and good bye in the sign language´ 46 . manual alphabet. The text includes an interesting piece of information connected to the topic of the whole lesson (see Appendix 1. sign language I tell the students: -Read your text.
I let the students work with their neghbours as the day is very close to the beginning of the school year and the students do not know at this time each other very well. Their neighbour is probably the one they know the best so they do not find it difficult to mime in front of him/her.1. I had to help them a lot as having spent so much time preparing the lesson and reading through information on the topic I did not realize that what is apparent to me is not at all apparent to the students. ad 5 & 6) This activity was for the students extremely difficult – I unfortunately did not realize that the topic is not at all familiar for the students. after the time limit is over. although the texts 47 . It was probably the most difficult and time-consuming part of the preparation of the lesson. if used with 2 minutes´time for thinking and writing even the slower students are able to bring up their ideas. The stronger students seemed to enjoy this activity. which in combination makes finding the matches quite difficult. However. asks some of the weaker students first. Although when I was planning this activity I thought any three sentences the students write would be possible to be expressed through miming. In conclusion this activity took too long. In this case it worked.There was also a problem with the matching of pictures and sentences: some of the pictures are ambiguous and some are not clear at all. ad 7 & 8) I tried to find for this activity as interesting information as possible. 2) In this part I used brainstorming which is actually not very suitable for mixedability classes as it does not usually give the slower students chance to contribute. ad 4) I chose to include miming in this lesson plan as it perfectly fits the topic and it allows even the students who do not for various reasons feel comfortable speaking to express themselves and to communicate. on the other hand. I then decided to limit the sentences by setting the beginning with ´I´ as it makes the activity more personalized.2 Lesson notes and evaluation ad 1. especially if the teacher. ad 3) Here I let the students decide if they want to work in pairs or they want to work on their own as each person has different preferences in this regard.
some of the weaker students found it extremely challenging. the instructions were to tell other students about the text after one has finished – it actually gave the weaker students the opportunity to spend as much time reading and looking up new words as they needed.were really short and I even adapted the vocabulary used in the texts. The students who did not manage to read the information and pass it on could use the time when the rest of the class conversed for reading and then simply speak about their text within the following activity. 48 . ad 9) An enjoyable and light-hearted activity to finish the lesson which all students seemed to enjoy. However.
1) printed on sheets of paper but the copies are folded so that the students cannot see the written information (1 copy for a pair or a group of three – so that everybody can see it) and ask them to describe what they can see in the picture. The students have the pictures in front of themselves.´ will come up) 3) Introducing the topic WORLD FOOD DAY (2 min) Procedure: I show the students the logo (see Appendix 2. Instructions: .´ will come up) 2) Brainstorming – pairwork to let students think of the possible topic (5 min) Procedure: 1.what kind of problems and difficulties do these people have in their lives? (I expect expressions like ´illnesses.) Procedure: I give students cut out pictures and magazines with relevant pictures bookmarked and ask them to tell me what words come to their mind when they see the pictures and I write some examples on the board (I expect words like ´poor. 49 . hunger. Then I let the students unfold the copies to be able to read the signs and tell them that this is another international day we would talk about in the class. not enough food…etc.look at the pictures again .2 World Food Day (October 16) 2. I ask them for examples and write them on the board next to the words from the first activity. hard …etc.1 Lesson plan – 90 min 1) Brainstorming based on pictures as a lead-in (5min. 2. They discuss possible answers to my question (↓) and note them down. terrible.
e. Instructions: -within your group make a list of the last words you have on your sheets of paper -now you have 5 minutes to write sentences to explain how the word FOOD and the other words are connected 50 . I put examples on the board and tell the students to make a list of the last words they have in their group – i. After the time limit they read the sentences to the other students in their group to share ideas. I set a time limit here (approx. They think of a word they associate with the word FOOD and write it underneath.4) Associations – writing (30 min) a) Procedure: Individual/ groupwork – I divide the ss in bigger groups (there should be about 7 people in each group). 5 min. Each students gets a sheet of paper with the word FOOD written on the top. They fold the paper back so that only their word is visible and pass the sheet on to the next student in the group.) not a number of sentences so that each student can write in their own pace. there are about 7 words in each group I let the students choose words and ask them to write sentences to explain how the word FOOD and their word is connected. instructions: -look at the word written on your paper -what does it make you think of? -write one word under the word FOOD -fold the paper back so that you can only see your new word and pass the paper to the person on your right -look at the new word and do the same thing as before b) Procedure: I write on the board the word FOOD and ask the students to give me examples of words that appeared as the last ones on their sheets of papers. I let them repeat it till their own paper comes back to them.
e.train We use trains to transport food.4) 51 .youtube.g. Then handouts with the text Compassion Through Experience (see Appendix 2. I let the students look up any words they do not understand in dictionaries. 6) Video (5 min) Procedure: The students see a short (4min) clip showing the event Broken Bread they have just read about and including more information on the topic of world hunger and poverty.com/watch? v=njgH_TI8ONY&feature=related) 7) Graded individual work (10 min) Procedure: 1. I let the students read the text. If there are any early finishers I ask them to try to create questions for other students based on the text. There are 10 gaps to be filled in by one word each.(after time limit) read your sentences to the other students in your group 5) Reading (10 min) Procedure: I ask the ss if they know any organization or event that help people who are in this difficult situation. food . they have to choose the correct one (see Appendix 2. they have to decide which word goes where (see Appendix 2.2) are distributed to each student. (http://www. I tell the students they are going to work on a gap-filling exercise based on the clip they have just watched and tell them they can choose the level of difficulty themselves (A being the easist one. They are asked to watch and listen carefully. If there are not any early finishers I ask all the students a few comprehension questions myself. . B middle difficulty and C the most difficult).3) B – students have a list of the missing words in mixed order. A – students have for each gap two words. I ask if they know what the word ´compassion´means and what they think the title might mean.
I distribute the sheets accordingly Instructions: -Look at the text – it is a transcription of what you have just heard in the video -complete the text 8) Groupwork in mixed groups A+B+C (5min) Procedure: Students get in mixed groups and compare their answers.freerice.5) 2.C – in each of the ten gaps the first letter of the missing word is given (see Appendix 2. Then they watch the video again and check the answers.com . 52 . 9) Fun – end-of-the-lesson activity As an important part of the lesson is a clip from the Internet we will spend the lesson in the computer class. We all try the website www.
after the time limit is over. On the other hand. b) This part of the activity includes free writing and students work on their own with words they choose themselves so it allows all students to participate and work in their own pace. especially if the teacher. It worked well and students produced a number of sentences. To prevent the activity from being too long I suggested letting the students think and simply passing the paper further on as it did not really matter how many expressions appeared on each paper. it seemed an enjoyable activity.2. hunger. asks some of the weaker students first. some of them more complex. ad 1) & 2) In this part I used brainstorming based on pictures. 53 . one took place in the usual classroom and the other took place in the IT classroom. some short. It took slightly longer than planned as some students found it difficult to think of associated items. ad 4) a) Although it was a bit difficult to explain and a student who had understood my instructions was eventually asked to explain the task in Czech. Similarly to the first lesson (International Deaf People´s Day) used with 2 minutes´time for thinking and writing even the slower students are able to bring up their ideas. In this case it worked. This caused some difficulties because the class is small and it is almost impossible to move around.2 Lesson notes and evaluation As a part of the lesson is based on a clip presented on the YouTube server. This fact together with the fact that it is an open-ended activity (there is no correct or wrong answer in associating) makes it a suitable activity for a heterogeneous class.). and even funny so we ended this activity in laugh. not enough food…etc. Whe I asked the students about possible difficulties these people face they really came up with the expressions I had hoped for (illnesses. there are 15 computers so all the students can easily get an access to one (there are over 20 students in the class) and use it. the lesson had to be broken into two parts.
ad 7) Within this activity the students were asked to choose the difficulty of the task according to their abilities. it was great for all the visual and audio learners. I would love to use more videos like this in the class in future. it was because they found the text accompanying the clip quite difficult. What is more.ad 5) in the IT classroom The text for reading was not easy for the students but as we did the reading in the classroom with computers they could look up the words they did not understand in the online dictionaries which sped the reading up. Unfortunately. in this case. ad 6) It was great that we were able to use the computer room and I could the students let watch the clip. 54 . I think that it was the point where the students got really involved in the topic and it was one my goals. I think it is partly because the students are not used to this kind of decision making and partly. they are a perfect source of teaching material. although understandably nobody chose C.
• the practice of treating one person or group of people differently from another in an unfair way • unwillingness to accept ways of thinking and behaving that are different from yours. 55 .e. I tell the students to imagine that their little brother or sister want them to explain what the word ´tolerance´ means. men and women . religion. or violence against them. I ask the students to try to list in pairs topics and places these words are connected with the three terms on the board (e. because they belong to a different race from your own. 2.3 International Day for Tolerance (November 16) 3. sport…) 4. I ask the students to write down their explanations.( 5 min) Procedure: 1. I explain that today (16th November) is the International Day for Tolerance. I elicit the word tolerance .1 Lesson plan – 90 min 1) Matching words and definitions. ) 2. work. racism. discrimination and intolerance.g. discrimination. I ask the students if they can think of a word or words that would be opposite to racism. 3. After few minutes I ask them to compare them with their neighbours and I write some of the explanations as examples on the board. school. I elicit the words being defined – i. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. sexual orientation. intolerance 3.After 2-3 minutes I ask the students for the ideas and write them on the board 2) Short writing to introduce the topic: Tolerance (10 min) Procedure: 1. I write on the board 3 definitions • unfair treatment of people.
racism in football. All the students watch Emily faces racism http://youtube.g.com/watch?v=K8GM3YOqFnY (3 min. They compare their version with another pair to check. of the clip are enough for the students to understand the topic and be able to react). monitor and help if necessary.1).com/watch?v=jwpO-nnFY9g&feature=related (10 min. discrimination or intolerance from the news. I put on the board: When ?/ Where ?/ Who?/ What happened? and ask the students to tell their partner. The students get a cut up version of the text The World and We (The World AreWe.. 3. but about 4 min. they read the parts and put the text together. 56 . includes e. I walk around the class.3) Speaking (10 min) Procedure: I ask the students if they remember any cases of racism. both on the topic of racism. 5) Video (15 min) Procedure: I tell the students we are going to watch two videos. 4) Ordering a jumbled text (15 min) Pairwork 1. After watching each video I ask comprehension questions to make sure the students understand what is happening. European racism http://youtube. I ask the students if/what they found surprising in the text. 2.see Appendix 3.) -a story of a girl whose parents threaten to break their contacts with her unless she stopps seeing her boyfriend who has a different colour of skin. Tiery Henry speaking about being insulted by fans.
You do not like the idea. The students decide which video was more interesting for them. A comes to tell you he/she has a a boyfriend/ girlfriend who is from a different community. Answer the questions yourself. your parents are not very happy about the idea and they are trying to dissuade you. try to explain to him/her why you think his/ her behaviour is unacceptable speaking: You were asked to make a research among students about their awareness of racism. Try to think of the questions you would ask them. b) for students watching European racism: • • writing: write a letter to one of the racistic fans. together with another student/ other students who have chosen the same clip. The students can choose what they are going to do.6) The videos follow up activities – activities according to the students´ choice (25-30 min) Procedure: 1. The tasks to choose from: a) for students watching Emily faces racism: • writing: write a letter to Emily´s parents. student B) you are a parent of A. They watch the chosen video again. 2. List possible problems to A and try to make him/her to change his/her mind. 7) End of the lesson According to how much time students have at the end of these activities. they can either watch reactions and related videos to to the clips they watched before or I give 57 . • speaking: (the students have to be able to find a partner with the same choice) student A) prepare to tell your parents that you have found a boyfriend/ girlfriend who is from a different community. 3. Any vocabulary/ understanding problems are clarified. You really want to stay with your partner. tell them what you think and what they should do. Try to persuade your parents.
them scrambled quotations on tolerance. 58 .2) They unscramble them and decide which one they like the most.(see Appendix 3.
That is why I thought a clip with football players might raise their interest in the topic. I cannot claim the source as I got this text as an e-mail in Czech without any copyright information. as it was time-consuming to write them and also I needed a lot of space on the board for other activities and it would have been useful to be able not to erase some of the information but keep it somewhere for the whole lesson. Unfortunately. that one of the information they found surprising. I translated the text to English as I found it really suitable to be used in the class. the text would still serve the purpose of making the students realize that there is no place for racism. The truth is I did not check the corectness of the numbers but in my opinion. poster or on a foil to be put on on the OHP. However. The only drawback of the Emily faces racism clip that I was afraid of was that it is actually a text accompanied 59 . was how little people live in the same conditions as themselves. The text was not difficult and full of interesting information. ad 4) I would say the students got really involved in this activity. although most of the students did not remember the cases exactly (they did not know where the cases happened or the names of the people involved) the speaking filled the requirement to bring up real examples. ad 3) It would have been profitable to bring some pictures from the recent newspapers. It also gave the students more possibilities regarding the follow-up activities. which actually happened.2 Lesson notes and evaluation ad 1)&2) These activities went very easily – the only think I would do differently next time is that I would have the definitions written in advance on a flip-chart.3. What I also found positive was the fact. I know from the previous lessons that the boys in the class are all interested in football and some of them play in their local teams. I also found the topic of relationships a sensible alternative and it seems that the choice was correct. discrimination and intolerance in the world with its diversity. ad 5) I have chosen two videos to make all the students interested. even if the numbers were not exact.
the text with the music are compiled in a very moving way. It seems to me that they vote for speaking rather than writing because it seems to them that they do not have to make so much effort as for writing. the written assignments appear at the university education and very rarely before that. so this was not a problem after all. Generally. They are not used to sorting out thoughts and ideas through writing and students find it too demanding. Positive was that they all seem to appreciate the choice they were given and they kind of naturally made groups they found comfortable to work with. Fortunately. 60 . The groups were made more on the basis of being friends then being on the same level of English. I am afraid that this is specific for the students in the Czech Republic – they are not used to writing. A bit disappointing element of this lesson plan was that none of the students actually chose the writing. students are not asked to write about various issues within the primary and secondary education.with music.
co. I ask the students to close their eyes. (washing. I let them listen to a relaxing CD with the sound of rain in the rainforest. I ask them to work in pairs and try to write down as many forms of water as they can think of. How often do you ………………? How many times a day do you…. 3. I write any interesting vocabulary that comes up on the board again. 2) Speaking (10 min.? Can you………………………….stm) it is about 300 l/day in Europe and 600 l/day in USA.bbc. brainstorming (12 min) To introduce the topic and create the atmosphere Procedure: 1. cooking…) and how much water they think they use daily. relax and listen. After 2 or 3 min. 2.1 Lesson plan – 90 min 1) Listening.4 World Water Day (March 22) 4. I will tell the students after the quiz that according to the BBC website (http://news. taking a shower. I ask the students to complete these questions so that they are related to water.After a while (a minute) I ask them to tell me what are all the sounds they hear. I elicit the word ´water´from them and ask them what do they associate with water.) Procedure: 1.? Have you ever……………………? Do you like………………………? Do you and your family…………? 61 . The last step of this introduction for the students is to discuss and write in pairs what is water used every day for in their lives. I write a few of their suggestions on the board.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3747588.
To present the facts and figures to the students in a context. Before we start with the actual quiz I put on the board three columns ● agreeing ● disagreeing ● expressing opinion and we shortly revise appropriate phrases 2. The students are given one copy of the World Water Day Quiz (see Appendix 4. the answers are hidden in very short texts.pairwork(8 min.) Procedure: 1. The students should walk around the class with their quizes and their task is to match the answers with the questions 1-15 and write the letters identifying the correct answers in the boxes and check if they have chosen correct answers in their quiz. 3. 62 . not simply give out the answers. While the ss are working on the quiz I will tack the short texts on slips of paper around the class. 3) Quiz .2).g. about 3 lines each (see Appendix 4. Some of the facts are interesting (e. 4) Quiz – reading and matching to check the answers (20 min) Procedure: There are 15 questions in the quiz. I explain that today (22nd March) is the World Water Day.Have you got…………………….1) per pair. i. The quiz questions and answers are taken from several sources with the aim to raise awareness about the problem with clean and drinkable water. The answers are marked A-O. The students are to find the answers for themselves in a text.e. they discuss the answers. A half of the world´s fresh water lies within the boarders of Canada.? 2.) and some are chosen to shock a bit (Every 14 seconds a child under five dies because of using unsafe water.). I put some of the suggestions on the board and students ask each other their questions and try to find out more details.
too. The options to choose from: • • create a World Water Day crossword (start with the crossword. 63 .3) and with your partner discuss and answer these questions: MAPS: What are three (or more) key ideas being presented in this map or graph? What are three (or more) pieces of numeric data that you find surprising or significant? Make three statements comparing or contrasting two or more pieces of data from your map. (Learning About Water Access Through a Service-Learning Fundraising Project) 6) End of the lesson The posters are displayed and the students look at them.5) Students´ choice task (30 min. The crosswords might also be used in any of the following lessons for revision by the whole class or as an extra activity for fast-finishers. in pairs or in a group. they might comment on them. one of the problems identified on this map? note: This task is taken from the Do you knowH2o? website. then add the numbers and clues) create a mind-map/ poster with vocabulary connected with water (decide first what categories of words and what words you want to include.) Individual/Pairwork /Groupwork In this part of the lesson the students will have an opportunity to choose a task they find the most interesting and they choose if they want to do it individually. What do you think can be done to solve. remember you can also draw pictures to illustrate the words) • choose one of the maps (see Appendix 4. or make progress toward solving. If there is still enough time I copy the created crosswords and the students try to do them.
I offered the student a possibility to change 64 . I asked the students for examples of the completed questions and. That way all the students finished at about the same time. The only problem I usually in a situation when the students are really interested in something they start speaking Czech to be able to express their opinion quickly and precisely. as I had noticed that some of them were discussing the questions with their neighbours while completing them. On the other hand. Originally. I wanted the students to check the answers around the class in pairs as well but I realized later that a copy of quiz for each student would be better and more practical. Unlike in the lesson on International Day for Tolerance there were some students for each task. in this case I was pleased the quiz had the desired effect. ad 3)&4) The students´ reactions to the questions revealed that they really found the questions interesting and shocking as it had been meant.i. All the students seemed to identify the correct answers without difficulties.2 Lesson notes and evaluation ad 1) The beginning of the lesson went exactly as I had planned it and the students within the brainstorming suggested exactly the words I had expected them to.4.e. 5) The students chose their tasks. ad 2) The students were supposed to complete seven questions with their own ideas. I adjusted the instructions a little when I saw that some of the students are almost finished while others have difficulties: I asked the students to finish any five questions. I told them to ask the questions the ´neighbour on the other side´. One of the weaker students did not seem to be doing anything (this student is not very communicative but he chose to do the task involving reading maps and disscussing the information with a partner) and I thought the task was too difficult for him. the one they had not discussed it with. ad. Each of the students had their own copy of the test and walk around the class reading the short texts. I usually ask them in a ´funny´ deep voice to ´Speak English please´ and then walk around and ask the pairs questions in English. I think this pat of the lesson went very well and what I find positive here is that the students were actually able to read about two pages of text without realizing it and without finding it boring or difficult. which makes them answer in English.
Problem of this part of the lesson was timing as the 30 minutes I had planned for this activity were not enough for the students to finish their work. look them up in a dictionary and make a list of the expressions with their translations. he still was not working as his partner he expected to work with was disscussing the questions with another person. I decided to let the students finish the work the following day. I was very pleased when he actually really started working on this task and till the end of the lesson managed to produce a list I could then place on the notice board. I decided to solve the situation by offering the student totally different task – to look through the short texts. 65 . highlight all the expressions connected with water. However.the task but he refused.
66 . I write the words on the board again and ask the students which of them they think are connected to environment and its protection. Reuse. Then I ask the students to listen to the whole song and write down words or parts of the lyrics they have understood. How? Do you reuse anything else at home? What? How? Are there bins for recycling near where you live? For what materials? What do you and your family recycle? 5.) 3.1 Lesson plan – 90 min 1) Listening – a song (8 min) To introduce the topic song Earth Song by Michael Jackson (see Appendix 5. I let the students listen to a short part of the song and ask if they know it. After the song finishes I write the words the students suggest on the board and ask the students what the song is about. 3. They have two minutes to do this. I tell the students that today (Aprill 22) is the Earth Day. 4. 2. I explain that the three Rs stand for Reduce. I ask individual students for examples of answers to the questions. and you do not create waste.1).) Procedure: 1. (e.g. 2. I put these questions on the board for the students to discuss and ask each other in pairs: What should people reduce to help the environment? You can reuse clothes. you do not have to buy new. Procedure: 1. repair – if you repair things. 2) Speaking ´RRR´(12 min.5 Earth Day (April 22) 5. Recycle. I ask the students to think of words starting with ´RE´ and write them down.
The students have to keep track of their money. (Within the questions they are also asked to remember several things – I will ask them again later during the lesson.) 2. 2.3) Reading (15 min. The surer they are. I let the students bet.3) Each student needs a pen and paper.2).) Procedure: 1. At the beginning of the game each student has imaginary ₤10 for their betting. the best possibility is to have the statements copied on a foil and use OHP. note: There is a way to see how many students guessed correctly: Each student needs 3 cards. They write the sum on the top of their paper. They read the text and answer the questions. 67 . 4. check if everybody has done so and give out the answer. the more money they bet. 3. one with a B and one with a C written on the card. When the first statement is shown the students decide which possibility they think is correct. We check the answers together. however. c. The others lose the money they have bet. b. Students get copies of Why Do We Recycle text (see Appendix 5. There are 10 statesments the students need to complete with correct possibility chosen from three: a. Before the correct version is revealed all the students at the same time pick a card with the letter according to their choice. The students who have chosen it get twice as much money as they bet.(see Appendix 5. write it down and next to it write a sum they bet according how sure they are about the answer. The statements can be read by the teacher or written on the board one by one. The winner is the student who has the most money at the end of the game. 4) Lottery . one with an A.competition (15 min) Procedure: 1.
(the objects include an old CD.com) where I have found guides to be green in various areas.) Procedure: 1. which is not usable as a ruler anymore) • Write 120-150 words about who you think is the greenest person in the family and why. green. (How friendly my lifestyle is to the environment. When I see that most of the students have finished I tell all the students to stop and and not to worry if they have not managed to do all the ten situations. 6. a plastic bag. 7. I ask individual students for their suggestions.5) Reading and matching (20 min. They can discuss it in pairs. I ask them to try to write it in pairs. outdoor sports. Look at the objects I have brought to the class and think of a way how to reuse the objects. I put on the board this question: How green are you? and ask the students if they know what the question means. The students unfold the handout. They fold the handout in half so that they can see only the ´How to green your…´ part. 6) Task according to the students´ choice (20 min) The students can: • • Create a wordsearch with Earth Day and Environment words. (see Appendix 5. a polystyren dish that frozen meet is usually sold on.treehugger. We check the answers and I ask the students if they still remember the answers from the Why Do We Recycle text. I ask the students to think of one way to make their gardening. read the second half and match the halves of the suggestions. 3. an old 30 cm ruler. 5. Include also information about yourself: do you do anything to help the environment? What? or Why not? 68 . pet etc.) 2. a ´credit card´ that I have received in a commercial letter and never activated. I tell them there is website called ´Treehugger´ (www. The students get one handout You Can Be Greener. a plastic bottle.4) 4. a tin.
The song is also available on www. This game is not my idea. The positive thing about this paticular ´environment´song is that the students could understand the lyrics very well.5. ad 4) We use this kind of game to revise grammar when the students see a sentence written on the board and should decide if it is correct or not and bet on their answer. That way everybody has a chance to be successful. What is more.com acompanied by a video suitable for this topic. 69 . I heard about it from my friend about two years ago. This time actually one of the weaker students won as he took risks with betting. ad 3) When I was looking for a text that could be used for reading in this lesson I wanted to find some about the Czech Republic as I thought it might be more interesting for the students. etc. I decided to use this activity as we always have fun even though the topic usually is grammar rules. one with a tick and one with a cross. ad 2) The students suggested words such as ´reliability´. ´repair´.2 Lesson notes and evaluation ad 1) Although most of the students knew the song. It took almost 20 minutes which I of course appreciated as all the students were speaking in the second part where questions were given.this activity actually was made up to elicit this word. The whole speaking activity took longer than 12 minutes. the knowledge is not what plays the main role here. The argument for doing so was that it is not translated by anyone. I did not expect the students to know ´reuse´ or to remember ´reduce´ but I thought someone might bring the ´recycle´ as it is very similar to the Czech expression adn it is closely connected to the topic. I am afraid it will be better to use a song that would be more up-to-date.youtube. the winner must be lucky as well. ´represent´. They only have two cards in this particular case. I decided to use this text in the end. Nevertheless. it is the real language and that the vocabulary range was within the frame of comprehensible input for the students I teach. More facts would have been even better. and also ´recycle´.
All ideas counted if the group could explain them. 70 . I encouraged the students to be creative and imaginative. This activity was originally meant especially for the kinesthetic students as they could work with real things. The groups had 10 minutes to think of as many ways to use their object as possible before it is thrown away to the recycling bin. touch them and move them. The group who thought of the most was the winner. As for the information from the reading.ad 5) All the students were able to think of some more or less original ideas. The activity went as expected. ad 5) We unfortunately had only about 12 minutes at the end of the lesson so I decided to put the students in groups of 3 and divided the objects There were 6 groups and 7 objects so each group got one. only two pairs of students did not remember the answers.
for some of the students English might have been somewhat of a minor concern in the previous year or years. It means that there are completely new students every year. The goal was to compose lessons that would be interesting. which itself carries the notion of a mixed group. For the past six years I have been teaching at a language school. The reasons why I chose to do so are explained in the following paragraphs. To make the lessons enjoyable for all the students I applied the methodology of teaching mixed-ability/ heterogenous classes. My ambition was to create lesson plans where I would not use usual textbooks but other materials. Apart from this. The students come to the class from different schools. some at the secondary school. found and adjusted to the needs of the students in my class. As it has been explained in the theoretical part. which makes up to four-years´ difference in the time of their experience with English. when I meet them they all have been taught by a number of more or less successful and qualified teachers. 71 . Additionaly. Materials that I have created. although a part of the name of the course is ´aftermaturita´ course. for some of them started learning the language at the primary school. namely a one year intensive English course for students who finished their secondary studies the previous year. Therefore. useful regarding the topics and enjoyable regarding the type of activities. There are usually about twenty students who create a group which for many reasons might be labelled as a mixed-ability/ heterogenous one. all this together with other aspects plays a role in the learners approach to the subject in question.Conclusion When I was trying to decide about my project I knew I wanted to work on something I could practically use in my own class. the students also have different personal history of learning English. here English. it does not automatically mean that all the students chose English as their maturita subject as it is not obligatory yet. What is more. whom the students have had various relationships with.
Thus a part of the theory covers types of activities used in the class and one extensive chapter contains information about different learning styles. It is followed by the theory behind the uniqueness of individuals by listing and explaining the reasons why each human being differs in many ways from another one. To meet the students´ needs and to teach to the students´ satisfaction the teacher has to be aware of students´ preferences in learning. motivation and its crucial role in education is the reason why to make an effort to meet the needs of all the students in the class. The one whose role is to motivate is the teacher. When we started learning about the methodology and techniques suitable for heterogeneous classes during our methodology courses here at the university. a student who feels stressed or uncomfortable is not motivated and does not learn as much as somenone who is enjoying him/herself. Actually. I decided that it was exactly what I needed to make the lessons interesting and more accessible to all the students in the class. One chapter was devoted to motivation as a key factor in teaching and learning. To say it in a simple way. 72 . Preferences might result from the student´s personality (e. To be able to create such materials I had to find out more about this issue. thus a part of the theoretical section deals with the teacher´s personality. learning styles).g. Theoretical Part In the theoretical part the origin of the term ´mixed-ability´ classes is described. a competitive student would enjoy competitive activities. The term ´students preferences´ generally means types of activities the students find more pleasurable than others.I think the reasons listed in the preceding paragraphs should be a sufficient justification of why I view my class as a mixed-ability/heterogeneous one. an introvert would choose individual rather than a group activity) or from the way he/she perceives and processes information (i.e.
Practical Part For the practical part I have chosen to create my own materials. I have already pointed out several times that the course I teach is an intensive one with the number of lessons a week amounting to twenty, i.e. four lessons (actually two double-periods) a day. Consequently, there is enough time to be spent not only following the studentsbooks but also exploring additional topics and activities. Moreover, such activities and materials are always welcomed by the learners as a kind of animation of the lessons. At first, I considered creating materials concerning holidays and festivals in English speaking countries as a somehow logical topic. Having realized how much has been already created, published and presented not only on the Internet but also in various books, and how many materials the students must have come across during their studies, I sensed that it would be advisable to think of something different. Eventually, international observance and significant days seemed to be the solution. I made a decision to pay the attention to these days and not to the holidays and festivals for several reasons. One reason has already been explained above. As another reason I see the fact that English is not tied only to the culture of the countries where it is spoken as the first language anymore. Learning English does not necessarily mean learning about the Anglo-Saxon culture because English has become an international language. People working in multinational companies all over the world communicate in English, even though they are not actually working in an English speaking country and even though for none of them English is their mother tongue. Yet another argument supporting this choice is the growing importance of people´s awareness of the global issues such as the enviroment, poverty, human rights etc. After all, the cross-sectional topics listed in the national curriculum reflect the need to bring the pupils and students to think about these topics. The practical part thus consists of lesson plans based on international observance and significant days. The lesson plans are complemented by evaluation of the lessons which have actually been taught. Each lesson plan includes activities suitable for heterogeneous classes as they have been described and explained in the theoretical part of this project: activities with differentiated instructions according to the students´ level
of knowledge of English or the students learning styles, competitive and cooperative activities, pair/group work and individual activities. For myself this project brought immense profit in two ways. Firstly, with the support of the theory I studied to be able to write this work, I applied the methodology in practical teaching. Although I had aspired to approach each student individually before, giving students differentiated instructions or a number of tasks to choose from was a new and inspiring experience rewarded by the students appreciation. Secondly, to find the materials for the lesson plans I relied on the Internet. Numerous hours spent searching various websites ment reading websites I would otherwise most probably never visit and thus my knowledge of the issues investigated for the lesson plans have widened incredibly. I also discovered the Youtube server for myself and my students as an invaluable source of real life English with videos that represent a vast amount of materials suitable for both visual and auditory learners. What is more it is easily accessible for all and the students can watch the same clip as many times as they need to understand. In conclusion, I hope that the whole project and materials that have been created within this project might be found useful by any teacher teaching at either the same type of course as the one I teach (i.e. one-year intensive course) or at any secondary school. The lesson plans do not necessarily have to be taught as 90-minute lessons, it is possible to choose and adapt only parts or single activities.
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3: Gap-filling – group A (a text with gaps) Appendix 2.1: International symbol of deaf/hard hearing people (a pictogram) Appendix 1.3: Tips for communication with deaf or hard hearing people (a table of 10 tips) Appendix 1.3: World Health Organization maps (3 maps) 5 Earth Day Appendix 5.5: Manual alphabet (pictures of individual letters formed by hands) 2 World Food Day Appendix 2.2: Why do we recycle? (a text) Appendix 5.List of Appendices 1 International Deaf People´s Day Appendix 1.2: Compassion Through Experience (a text) Appendix 2.2: Quiz answers to be cut up (a text to be cut up) Appendix 4.4: Short texts (9 short texts to be cut up) Appendix 1.1: The World and We (a text to be cut up) Appendix 3.2: 10 rules when speaking to people with hearing loss (pictures) Appendix 1.2: Quotes about TOLERANCE (mixed up quotes) 4 World Water Day Appendix 4.5: Gap-filling – group C (a text with gaps) 3 International Day for Tolerance Appendix 3.4: You Can Be Greener (a handout with a table) Appendix 6: VAK Questionnaire (questionnaire) Appendix 7: Students´ Preferences Questionnaire (questionnaire) 78 .3: Earth Day Recycling Lottery questions (10 questions with a key) Top Green Facts (a text) Appendix 5.1: World Water Day Quiz (15 questions with a key) Appendix 4.1: Earth Song lyrics (a text) Appendix 5.4: Gap-filling – group B (a text with gaps) Appendix 2.1: World Food Day 2007 logo (a picture) Appendix 2.
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