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1988 -03-

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Pe,ll,aKUHHTa aa "ApXeOJIOnIH" npneua aa 06Cb}!{,lI,aHe MaTepHaJIHTe, npencrasena na 6'bJIrapCKH e3HK B 2 eK3. (meiccm u nay-cen. anapam) na MallIHHa (crpanaua OT 30 pena TIO 66 y.aapa) C KaqeCTBeHH aa ornenaraane otipasu, cnucuc ua otip asume (2 ers.) H pe310Me (3 eK3.). Ilpesona na MaTepHaJIIf OT qy}!{,lI, aa 6bJIrapCKH e3HK H npenacsane na MallIHHa penaxnnsra He nam.puraa.

La redaction d' ApXeOJIOrHH accepte les materiaux pour etre examiner presentes en langue bulgare en 2 ex. (texte et ap pareil scientifique), dactylographies (page de 30 !ignes - 66 frappes), accompagnes de figures prop res a etre irnprirnees, liste des figures (2 ex.) et resume (3 ex.). La traduction en bulgare et les textes dactylographies doivent etre assures par l' auteur.

Ha x o p a u a r a

Cpetrspna n03A(JmeHa rjm6YAa om Cmapa Saeopa, IV 8. Hauuonanen apxeOA02U'leCKU MY3eu, Cotbust

Ci-lUM.Ka p;\Crn a H e e a

Sur l a couverture

Fibule d'ar geni doree de Stara ZagoT'a, IV s.

Mu see archeologique national, qat/a .

Photo

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ApXeOJIOfll'leCKII IIHCTaTYT II Myseu npa BAH 1987

c/o Jusautor, Sofia

APXEOAO r-V151

ISSN 0324-1203 roo. XXVIII 4

1987

o r r s s HA APXEOJIOrHYEC/(HJ/ HHCTHTYT 'M MY3EfI OPH B~nrAPC/(~TA AKAREMHJ/ HA HAY/(H~E

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MAPfAPI1TA TA4EBA

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l. TIPOJJ.'bJIlKHTeJIHOCTTa aa ynorpeca aa cpeospnare H '.3JIaTHH C'bJJ.OBe, KOSITO npOH3- THlIa He caao OT TpaHHOCTTa aa OJIaropOJJ.HHTe MeTaJIH, HO H OT BHCOKaTa HM CTOllHOCT, npeB'bpHaJIa rH B C'bCTaBHa lIaCT Ha UapCKH, xpaMOBH HJIH npyra C'bKPOBHW.a.

2. 113nOJI3YBaHeTo aa C'b3.naJJ.eHHTe OT roJIeMHTe aTHHCKH cKYJInTOpH npea V B. np .. H. e, H3S1W.HH 06pa3UH Ha C'b.nOBe C peJIe$Ha yKpaca OT crpaaa na ropearnre H npes CJIe.nBaw.HSI BeK. TOBa SlBJIeHHe, 3acBHJJ.eTeJICTsysaHo B nHCMeHHTe H3BOPH', cauo no ceoe CH e .nocraT'bllHO, sa JJ.a aanpasa HeB'b3MO)KHO H3nOJI3YBaHeTO na BCSlKa nOCTHrHaTa B'b3 OCHOBa na $DpMaTa H yxpacara aa C'bJJ.OBeTe THnOJIOrHSI KaTO cnrypen narapaur eJIeMeHT. HSlMa CHrypHOCT H npH H3nOJI3YBaHeTo Ha JJ.aTHpaw.H napaJIeJIH 1I3B'bH nOCTHrHaTaTa no OTHOIlleHHe aa eJJ.HH apXeOJIOrHlIeCKlI KOMnJIeKC ClICTeMaTHKa ocBeH npn onpeneaxaero aa terminus ante quem; KOHKpeTH3HpaHeTo MOlKe JJ.a CTaHe caxo xpes npyra, CHrypHO JJ.aTHpaw.lI eJIeMeHTH, KaTO aanp, MOHeTH, xepasraxa, xapaxrepaa TeXHOJIOrHSI aa 1I3paOOTKa 1I yxpaca 1I JJ.p.

3. MHorocTpaHHoTo np"JIOlKeHHe na paar JIe}K,l\aHlITe C'bJJ.OBe H ocooeao aa <1>HaJIaTa H oiiaoxoeto B peJIHfH03HaTa npaxraxa H napCKHTe napurecrsa KaTO nap OT nape H sa nape, HO H KaTO npenaaaaaxena sa 3aJJ.rp06HHSI }KHBOT nocyaa B norpeoeaaara C'b3JJ.aBa JJ.on'bJIHHTeJIHH TpYJJ.HOCTH npll JJ.aTHpaHeTO Ha eJJ.HO norpeeeaae, aKO B Hero JIHnCBaT CHrypHO JJ.aTHpaHH onopaa roxxa, Samoro JJ.eHcTBHeTo na .T03H $aKTOp npespsura norpeoeaaero B csoero pOJJ.a csxpomnne C. TPYJJ.HO onpeJJ.eJIHM terminus post quem aa apeaero aa npOH3BOJJ.CTBO aa HerOBHSI HHBeHTap8.

BCHlIKO TOBa MH nasa OCHOBaHHe .na ce HaJJ.SlBaM na npeuaaaocr npu npeanosceuare TYK lIy}KJJ.H H CBOIf JJ.aTHpoBKH casro no OTHOlIIeHHe aa terminus post quem. 3a Tpe30pHpaHeTO Ha Por03eHCKOTO C'bKpOBHw.e Ta3H rpanaua Hail-oow.o e asauapasaaero aa Kepceoaerrr cnen CM'bpTTa aa OJJ.PHCKlISI nap KoTHC I, T. e. CJIeJJ. 359 r. np. H. e.; pasoapa ce, C'bJJ.OBeTe C HaJJ.nHCH HMaT no-paaaa ropaa rpaaaua, onpeneaeaa OT assuapaaaaero My (384-383 r.). 3aw.oTo HMeHHO Te311 C'b,AOBe ca eJJ.HHCTBeHlISlT carypno narnpam eJIeMeHT He caxo no OTHOIlleHlIe na Por03eHCKOTO csxposame, HO If no OTHOIlleHHe aa BCHlIKH: OCTaHaJIH HaXOJJ.KH, KOHTO ru C'bJJ.'bplKaT: rpoo N!! 2 OT MorHJIaHCKaTa MOfllJIa; norpeoeuaero OT AJIeKCaHJJ.pOBO, Jloseunco: AJJ.}KHrbOJI B Cesepaa .1looPYJJ.}I{a (PYM'bHHSI) H C'bKpOBHu(eTO OT Boposo, PyceHCKO.

I'opnara rpannua sa .naTHpaHeTO na caaoTO Por03eHCKO csxposante e TPY JJ.Ha sa onpeJJ.eJISlHe H aKO TpSlOBa JJ.a 6'bJJ.eM KOHKpeTHH, HeS'b3MO)lma aacera nopann JIHnCaTa H.~ CH-

rypaa narapaura eJle~eHTH 3~ MHOrO 01' csMSeTe. B J1HTepaTyp.~r~ no .~p'o6JIeMa ca H3- nOJl3YBaHH'lo.cera· lUiW" HC)' re; 'K8Kl'O me ce OnH1'8M • .na nOK~bKa, :."e.'c~ 1toC't'3TMHOCHrypHH.

n'bp~HHT,. Koiho'!BCe:n8K e no-aanesotea, e HMeta 'C~toK'B1>PXY .l.Sa 01'. poreseacxnre Cb.ll.OBe:. eaH8. <l>naJ1a-Q8rua. ()ea yxpaca, KOSITO no reroro" ce OTHaCSI ic1>M H8H-Te}f{KHTe csnose 01' c'bKpoaHm.c1b·(~,59,g,· rp, .HHB. 'N~ B-480,

, KaT .. ' N~ . 27). Cndpe.!l., .M'SiCToTO na nannaca R rpaBHpaH~oMy C OCTbP npenxer BbPXY C1>.lI.a, pa3.trn'leHOT anaaereacxare aanrracn, aa onpe.!leJJSlM., CaToK KaTO HMe aa npOJi3BO.ll.HTeJlSl HJlB Ha.' HOBHSI c06cTBeHHK, B 'Iimro p'sue e nona.zulaJl Cb.ll.bT". ..uocers BCH'IKH MHeHHSI, H3Ka3aHH B nonyanpna H HaY'IHH nep HO.ll.H If'; HU H3.l1.aHHSI, onpeneaar HMeTO KaTO T8KOBa aa co6cTseHHK,' B, KbrOTOTbpCSIT CaTOK,CH'trbT aa O.ll.PHCKHSI nap CHTaJlK,ynpaBJlSlBaJl ,nbp1KaBaTa .lI.O 424 r. np. H. e., T. e. npea rperara 'IeTBbpT na V s.vnp: H. e:

Kasaaoro aa HMeTO aa CaTOKB1>pXY ycraeTO aa <l>HaJlaTa Come no-roaaua CHrypHOCT MO)f{e .lI.a ce nOBTopH H no OTHOllIeHHe na BTOpHSI Cb.ll. -- YHHKaJlHaTa C1>C CBOHTe XOPH30HTaJlHH xanemopa KaHHlfKa. TYK HMeTO My e 'IaCT 01' TI>Y.lI.eH 3a .lI.ellIH<l>pHpaHe TeKCT-rpa<l>HT, rpasapaa OKOJlO poserara BbPXY .lI.b{[01'O HI Cb.ll.a (nHB. N!! B-542, KaT. N~. 118) . .llonbJlHHTeJIHOTo rpaaapane HaTeKC1'a .: C oCTpile,. a H~ C noaHCOH, KaKTO H MSICTOTOMY I!~KMBaT, lie J1HueTO He e 6HJlO nap. Or .lI.PyraHpllH8, "H~ e HeBb3MO}f{HO TOBa O,npHCKonapCKO:"tde. OT HpaHeKH riPOH3XO.ll. na e 6HJlOHoceH6 01' 'opaHCKH MaHCTOp HJlH. c06CTBeHHK ',(1) H3e'b.ll.a.

BTOPHSIT H3nOJl3YBa'H ;i:tocera .lI.aTHpam eneMeHT e enaa ornusasama ce CbC CBOSITa YKpaca H n03J1aTa por03eHcK8 $HaJla (HHB:

N~ ,B-428, KaT. N!! 2, .lI.HaM. 0,195 M, BHC. 0,04 M). Cb:tJ.bT HMa 6J1H3KH napaaemr B enao norpeoeaae OT CHH,nOC (HHB. N!! 8575 -- <t>HaJla C n03J1aTeH oM$aJlOc) KpaH TeCaJlOHHKS, naTHpaHO Kb?,(510--500r. np: H. e., H B rp06 II,' 601' H'eKpOnOJla I<paH KO}f{aHH, narapan BbB BTopaT8 nOJlOBHHa na VB. np. H.e. (.lI.lia~. 0,21 M, BHC. 0,042 M). BTOPHSlTCb.ll. HMa BbPXY ycriteTo H8.l1.imc na cTaporpbUKn-'-'-.lI.Op'HHCKH ilHllJleKT! A9ANAIAI:: IAPA: TAl: MHrAPOI, trnpeBo.ll. .Ha CBeTHJIHmeTO aa (60rHHSlTa) ATHna (113 Merapa,. "10 AKO npeanosceuare aarupoaKH ca 'BepHH, aenaara ce BH}K.lI.a, 'Ie $HaJlaTa OT K,o>K8HH MO}Ke .lI.a e 6HJla H3nOJl3YBaHa .lI.O 60' r. npe.!lH H3nOJl3YBaHeToH KaTO rpooea HHBeHTa'p: ; CJle.ll.OBaTeJJHO He 6H 6nJIo HeBb3- Mb)f(HO nO.!l06Ha $HaJla, rtpoaaaeaeaa BC'b~ m.OTO arenae, Aa nonanne H B CbCT8Ba ua Por03eHCK(ho,tbKpOl~Hme oute nO-KbcHO. 3a MeH 06(1lfe e nO-BepOSl1;'Ho H3noJl3YBaHeTO na OPHrHH8JIHa <l>HaJIa HJlHMaTJ>HuaKaTo MO}J.eJl sa por03eHcK()To, xomre; TbH ,KaTonpH T03H C'bA 'He. e cna3ellO'C'b0THOmeHHeTO MeJK.lI.Y .lI.HaM,eT'bpa HBHcotni~aTa' ;(t:1~K>{ap~KTePHO cnope,zt JIYllIeH aa V B •. np. 'W.e:iH ,TOllHO B'b3npOH3Be.ll.eHO rrpa $HaJ1ciTa 01' 1\0JKaHlt. Cne.z(OBa-

4

TeJlHO H T03H eneaear He e .lI.OCTaTbtIHO CHrypeH 3a onpe.ll.eJlSlHe Ha HaH-paHHHSI no BpeMe Cb.ll. 01' Por03eH_

11M3 H TpeTO C'bOOpa}f{eHHe, KoeTO npaan cnopea MeH nOIiTH H3KJIIOIIHTeJJH<;t HaJlH'IHOCTTa na csnoae B Por03eHCKOTO csxpoaaute, npoH3Be~eHH npeaa IV s. np. H. e. ,To npOH3TH'Ia OT KYJlTypHO-HCTOPHqecKHTe XapaKTepHCTHKH H8 . H8XO.!J.KHTe C'bC Cpe6'b'PHH H 3J1aTHH csaoae 13 TpaKHHCKHTe' 3eMH npea nepaoaa V -- I I I B. np.i a. e., KOHTO CbM ce OnHT3J18 ;All oOOcHoBa B CJIe,nBamHTe penose.

IV. KYJlTypHO-HCTOpHlJeCKH XOPH- 30HTHB TpaKHH, 01.lepTaHH OT apxedJi()f'HiJecKHTe,Haxo)J.KH OT 6Jlaropo.nHl1MjeTaJlH:

BJlO>KeHaTa TYK H.lI.eSl e .lI.8Ce BH.lI.H MSICTOTO na Por03eHCKOTO C'bkp()BHII(e BbPXY apxeoJlOfH'IeCKaTa xapra na .l1.pe~HOTpaKHikKHTe 3eMH, KoeTO MO}f{e na .lI.a,n:e cpaBHMteJUIOCH~PHH onopaa TOIiKH aa HCTOpHtIeCl<OTO My TbJlKYmtHe. TSI B'b3HHKHa npa T'bpCeHeTO HS napanena epe.!l H3BeCTHHTe sese rp06HH HaXO.ll.KH 01' V---{VB. np -. H. e.,T. e. .apeaero, KbM KoeTO 6eoT}leceHo CbKPOBHtneTO- B rrspnara My ny6- JIHKaUH$I.

Oc'b~eBb1{~a:HeTOHa Ta3H H.lJ.~SI Me H3- !lP'~B~. cn~~~~;~~A~·,~tT.~etJe .'q~o/!Kkl!~IfH fta,,·'naM;emH1l~:'.~e~ ',;;., ,. r "n:~~~~",H3- CJle1;t8altHSlH~flamtSl nonp06~a1'HKllril;' ~ K()HT6 npe.ll.Jl6>KeH"Te )ta~P6BKH ita :~qeJ4~~ npJieMJIHBH; npen cnOMeU8TaTaBeQe JlHnC, aa CTY.lI.HH aspxy H3BeCTHHTe apXeOJIOrH'IeCKH KOMnJleKCH; npen He.ll.OCTaTb'lHOTO see oute rexHOJlorH'IHO H MeTaJlOrpa~CKO 3HaHHe 3a TpaKHiicKaTa TopeBTHKa H oc06eHO.3a HOBaTa poroseacxa aaxonxa, ET03amO 3aKJIioqeHHSlTa, KOHTO npOH3THliaT 01' npanaranero H8, Ta~n ~.lI.eSl, 'HMaT npe.ll.BapHTeJIeH:xapart1¥l'.~ aa 'CeOCMeJISiBaM na ra npe,lVtO>K8ne C8Md3i1- mOTO O'laKB8M, . tie re me ·nopo.ll.stT .nPyrH, noTo'lHH CTaHOBHma,' HO 3amO+OHaMHpaM, 'Ie ca 38.l1.'bJl}KHTeJlHO HeOOXO.ll.HMH npHp~3pellIaBaHeTO na np06JIeMaTHKaTa, 38J10}f{eHa BTeMaTa.

BJlO}f{eHHTe B aereanara Haka pTaTa A8H" HH sa OTKpHTHTe nocera Cpe6bPHH 11' 3Jti"'~1,f HaXO.ll.KHll nanarar CJI,e.ll.HHTecHrypHii ;3~nt(j. tIeHHfl, KOHTOCbM ceOnHTaJla}la~g,.~JJK~~M

HCTOpntIeCKH:. .'. . ,.' -: . ' .•.•.. , •..••. \'

1. fTpea V.B. np. H. e., Kotaro:s1i3hH'Kb8H

npoUb<t>TSlBa.!l"p)f{aBHo~cTPOHTeJlH1f3T' 'npou:ec SbBB'bTl'eUlka.,TpaKu,~; ~pe3'~ip~ckaTa';.1l'bp'~ >KaB8 aa U&peTe TeP,eC,CH1'aJiK H CeBT, liMa 60raTH nIiapcKH"tfOl'p~HHSI. Te ce orxpuear B MOfHJlHH HeKpOnOJIH; nocera H3BeCTHH cauo 01' 3eMH1'e IO}KHO 01' Banxana. Te ca 6eJlSl3aim C norpeoaaen HHBeHTap 01" CKbnH 6POH308H Cb.l1.0Be, a npe.ll.nOJIaraeMHTe BJla.ll.eTMii ~ OT 3J1aTHH nJIaCTHHKH (HarpDJ(HHUH) Ha6pOHHTe H .l1.PyrH 3J1aTHH npemrenr. MHoro OT HaXOnKHTe B Te3H norpeoeaas, KaKTO H 3JISTHHTe

ljJuaJIH OT .uaCKaJI ATaHaCOBO, U3CJ1e,llBa1JUTe OT,llaBaT Ha Bp~3KUTe C AXeMeHU,llUTe UJIU Ha npUC~CTBueTO UM B xpas 'Ha VI U rrspsara 'IeTB~PT aa V B. np. H. e. aa BaJIKaHuTe.

Taxasa norpeeeaas JIUnCBaT B ,llHellIHa Ceseposananaa B~JIrapuSI, xsnero Cpe6pOTO B rpocaare HaXO,llKU U C~KpoBUI.l\aTa He ce ,llaTHpa no-paHO OT KpaSl Ha V U Ha'laJIOTO Ha IV B. np, H. e. npH1JUHaTa TpH6Ba na ce npCH B U30JIUpaHOCTTa aa HaCeJ1S1BaI.l\UTe Te3H 3eMH Tpu6a.'lu, KaKTO H B mmcl:lTa aa uenrpaJIlI3HpaHa uapcxa BJIaCT (none e He,llOK83aHa sacera) TaM npes T03H nepaon, aa KOSITO ca npHC~I.l\H 3JIaTHHTe H cpe6~pHH pUTyaJIHH HJIH 6HTOBH npeauera.

AKO npaeuex, 'Ie HaxOJ\KuTe OT T03H npss, ,,3JIaTeH" Ky JITypHO- HCTOpH1JeCKH XOPH30HT 6eJIe:>KaT nOJIUTH'IeCKOTO e,llHHCTBO nOJ\ B~pXOBeHCTBOTO aa O,llpHCHTe, TO MHoro OT BHOCHHTe npenaera B norpeoeaaara CJIeJ\Ba na ce pa3rJIe:>KJ\aT KaTO nO,llap~nH, KOHTO O,llpHCKUTe nape ca nOJIY1JaBaJIH OT KpaH6pe:>KHUTe rpsuKH KOJIOHHH cpemy J\~JI:>KHMHSI .llaH~K. .upyrH MoraT ,lla npOH3XO:>K,llaT OT ,llaJIe'lHHTe H3TO'lHH 3eMH, KaKBHTO HMa aanpaxep cpen rtonapsuare na CeBT II OT xpas aa VB. np. H. e. cnopen pasxaaa aa KceH$HT. HSiKOH lJY:>KJ\eCTp.aHHH KOJlerH 06HKHOBeHO B~3pa3SIBaT cpemy npaC~CTBHeTO na nO,llotlHH npenxera B nama H3-' JIO:>K6H sa ,llpeBHa'I'a'KY nrypa H H3KYCTBO na TpaKHTe.- Ho KYJITypaTa aa 1JOBeKa ce H3Mepaa He caao COHOBa,. KOeTO cau CH e HanpaBHJI" HOH COHOBa, KoeTO TOH e npH,ll06HJI, 3a ,ll8 3 a,llOBOJlSIB a eCTeTHlJeCKOTO CH 'IyBCTBO.

2. HaxoJ\KHTe OT xpaa na V H HalJaJlOTO

"na IV B. np. H. e. npeanarar npyra KapTHHa·. 3J1aTOTO nOBceMeCTHO H3'1e3Ba H e 3aMeHeHO esc cpe6po. nOCJle,llHOTO .. uapcxo" norpeoeHHe OT .uYBaHJIl.I e OT ~W.OTO TOBa speMeH BHylll~Ba xpas aa enaa CUJlHa Jf.tlH8CTUlIeCK8 JlHRHSI,H8H-BepOSlTHO Ta3H uaTepec, IlpeaecrB8HeTO na pemtrHo3Ho .. nOJIHTH1JecKHSI ueHT~p OT .uYBaHJIH ,'6eJle1KH HeKponOJI~T npa Me3eK, ~UeTO HaH-paHHOTO norpedeaae. e oTc~UJ.aTa enoxa. TYK, KaKTO H BHeKpOnOJIa npa Bpe- 3080 (OTHOBO IO>KHO OT Banxana), ce nOSlBSlB'a'I' .Hap-paHO J\aTHpaHHTe apnHKanHH B T. Hap. 3J3!aPHHeH CTHJI saeaso C1>C ,cpe6'bpHH IjJHaJIH OT "e3HlJecT" nmno JIYllleH, lJHUTO npencraiJHreJtH B TpaKHifcKHTe 3eMH H3CJIe,llBalJHTe e.llH.HO,llYIliHO on p e,lleJl SIT KaTO TpaKHHCKH. Toaa e eJf.HH OT ¢aKTHTe, KOUTO H3MeCTBa ,llaTHpaReTO Ha HalJaJIOTO Ha TpaKHHCK8Ta ,cpe6'bpHS TOpeBTHKa OTBTopaTa n6JIOBHRa na IV B. up. H. e., npe,llJJO:>KeH.a.' OT n. A.JTeKcaH.llpecKY, K~~KpaSI na V H 1I8lJaJJOTO aa Jy.s. . ,·!!)'·~W3,u~3BaHeTO Ha3JI8TOTO OT TOBa speae H

~. '.. : .. JJ.O .eJl'ffHHCTHlIe .. c.K8T8 enoxa MO:>Ke na ~~e~1ipiKe C'bC aarydara aa TpaKHikKHTe no-

~~~~~H n031!UHH KpaH Ilaarea, IlpeuecrsaileTO aa ,penHrH03Ho·nOJIHTHlJeCHSI uem-sp, llOJJosetr<?tipe3Ua6J1IO.lleHHHTa no-rope, HaMHpa,;~Ji;c.neJAleTO • ell B npe,ll8,!leHHfI or Keene- 4x>~\ifl&~i~ 'H~ CeBT I I sa OTeJls6B3.HeTO aa

Onpacxara nspacasa (AHa6a3uc, VII, 7, 2) H B nOJIHTHlJeCKHTe 60p6H Me:>K,lly O,llpHCKHTe nape H rexaare napannnacrn npena B~3napaaaaero aa KOTHe I. ApXeOJIOrHlJeCKHTe saXOll:KH OT HalJaJiOTO aa IV B. np. H. e. H npes HerOBOTO ynpasneaae nOKa3BaT e,llHHHO HKOHOMHlJeCKO H KyJITypHO pa3BHTHe B TpaKHHCKHTe 3eMH ceaepno H IO:>KHO OT BaJIKaHa. 3apa,llH HaXO,llKHTe OT Cpe6~PHH C~,llOBe H anJIHKanHH sa BOHHCKOTO CHapSl:>KeHHe T03H HOB XOPU30HT C npaao MO:>Ke ,lla 6~,lle aapexea "cpe6~peH" (asnpexn Ife OT r JIe,llH8 TOlJKa aa nOJIHTHlIeCKOTO II KYJlTYPHOTO pa3BHTHe TOH e nO-CKOpO .. 3J1aTeH BeK" B TpaKHHCKaTa HCTOpHSI)~

4pe3 JJ.apHTeJIHHTe IjJoPMyJIH aa KOTHc, KOHTO ce cpeuiar B~pxy pa3JIH'IHH no <PopMa H yxpaca csnose, HHe paanonaraxe C TOllHH ,llaHHH sa npOH3BO,llCTBOTO HM HaH-06I.l\0 npea nropara lIeTB~pT aa IV B. np. H. e., KaKTO U aa TeXHHTe npoH3BO,llHTeJIH OT TpaKHHcKHTe

. S8H8S1TlJHHCKH ceaauta B IOroH3TollHa TpaKHH. Te JIHKBHJf.HP'BT noceraumare C~MH~!!"HSI, H3Ka3aHH B HaYlJH8Ta JIHTepaTypa, aa B~3MO:>KHOCTHTe na TpaKHHcKHTe TopeBTH no OTHOllIeHHe aa cpeospuara H 3J1aTHaTa MeT8JIOnJlaCTHK8. Ilax re Jf.OKa3BaT TpaKHHCKOTO npOU3- BO,llCTBO na ¢HaJIH, OMHoxoeTa, PHTOHH, 8M¢OPH-PHTOHIf H np., YKp8ceHH C~C CIO:>KeTH H 06pa3H OTTpaKHHCK8Ta H rp~nKaTaMHTOJIOrHSI.

HaM-paHO ,llaTHpaHOTO anrponoaoprpno H3- 06pa)f{eHHe-"MaCKa",e B~pXy Q:>HaJIHTe OT ~orH~aHCKaTa MorHJla H OT Por03eHCKOTO C~KpOBHI.l\e (KaT. N!! 42, 101-103, HHB. N!! B- 479, 576, 592, 585). lIpe3 KpaCHBO yxpaceaara .. 6YKeJIHa" IjJHaJIa (KaT. N!! 42) re ce Jf.aTHpaT K~M sropara lJeTB~pT aa IV B. np. H. e. BM OCHOBa na }J.apHTeJIH3TaljJopMyJia ,,3a KOTHc OT Epracxe". MacKHTe II aa lJeTHpare pOr03eHCKH ¢HaJlH CH npHJlH'IaT " ca npoH38t>,!leHH seposrao OT enna H esuia MaTpnua. Ho ¢Ha..la ,N'g 42.ce OTJ\eJlSl OT OCTaHaJlUTe no H3pa60TK8 -- ,llOKaTO HeHliaTa MaCKae' H3- paeorena BbPXY )lOn'bJIHHTeJlHO noeraaeaacpe~Ha F1.nacTHHK8,· MaCKHTe aa OCTaHaJIHTe tPH c~ u3'1YKaHH HanpaBo B~pxy YM60TO HM. MO)f{e ,!lace. npeanonara, lie 1jJ1IaJIil N!! 42 HMa ~BOH napaneneua ¢HaJIaTa, KOSITO ce csxpaaasa B ~eTpOnOJIUTeHCKHSI MY3eH B' HIO YloPK; TSl e yxpacena C MaCKH aa mepcn, KOHTO ca npnnoeaa K~M C~Jf.a. B npa3HHHHTeHMa3p~Hua OT 6POH3, KOHTO 38~HTSIT npH ,llOKOCBaHe Ha¢HaJlaTa. Ilonoona IjJHaJI8 e 3acBU,lleTeJIC1'BYBaHa Qpe3 rrannac s xpaxa aa AnoJlOH B ,UeJl<l>ll npes 279 r., K~.lleTO eIlonaAHaJIa C npeaaerare, npHHaJ\JIe:>KaJIH aa OCBeTeHHSI ,B KpaSl aa V B. np. H. e. EHJteHTHeHoH . .upyr rrapanen Te3H ¢JuanH HMaT B e.iuuI .cpeespea KanHKC OT rpoouauara B CTaBpynOJIHC (TeCaJIOHHKa), .aatapaa BbB sropara nOJIOBHHa na IVB. np.: H. e.12Kora BnpO'leM aarponoMOP¢HaTa MaCKa e .. aanycnaaa YM6oTO aa tPHaJiwre, sa ,lla yKpacH Jf.~HaTa HM s noac OT

5

i

• 06p. 1. Kapma na naxoiisume C7JC 3AamHU u cpe- 67JPHU C7J008e, u3noA3Y8aHu sa Bamu pane «a C7JKP08UU{emo om Poz03eH: Fig. 1. Carte des trouvailles aoec de recipients en or et en argent, utilises pour la datation du tresor de Rogozen, 1) EYKb08I{U. C7JKp08uU{e om «pa« «a V-Ha'l. na IV 8; np. H. e. U C7JKp08ulu,e om IV 8. np. H. e. 1) Bukjooci, Tresor de la tin du Ve-i-debu; du IVe s. avo n. ere et tresor du IVe S. avo n. 'ere; 2) 'MozllAaHcKa .MOZUAa (Bpauay, Fp0608e M 2 uM 3 om «pas: na IV-Ha'l. na IIIB. np. H. e. 2) Mogilanska mogila (Vraca). Tombes No 2 et No 3 de latin du IVe-debut du l l le S. avo n. ere; 3) Poe03eH.3) Rogozen; 4) FOPHU ll,u67Jp. Kenmcna ssamna mopxea om IV B. np. H. e. 4) Gorni Cibiir. Torque celtique en or du l Ye .s. avo n. ere; 5) JIYK08um. C7JKp08uU{e om IV-Ha'l. na III 8. np. H, e. 5) Lukovit. Tresor du IVe-debut du l l I» S. avo n. ere; 6) TemeBeHCKO. C/JuaAu om epotien uneenmap om IV-II I 8. np. ·H. e. 6) Region de Teteoen, Phiales d'inoentaire d'une tombe du IVe_1 l le S. avo n. ere; 7) BAaouHJI. C7JKp08uU{e C ¢uaAa om cpeiiama na IV-Ha'l. na III 8. np. H. e. 7) Vladinja. Tresor avec une phiale du milieudu IVe-debut du II Ie S. avo n. ere; 8) Paiuoeeue. C/JuaAu om C7JKp08uU{e - IV 8. np. H. e. 8) Radjuoene. Phiales d'un tresor - IVe s. avo n. ere; 9) AAeKcaniipoeo, C/JuaAu om C7JKp08uU{e - IV 8. np. H. e. 9) Aleksandrovo. Phiales d'un tresor - IVe S. avo n. ere; 10) Jlemnuua, C7JKp08uU{e om n/speama nonoeuna na IV 8. np. H. e. 10) Letnica. Tresor de la premiere moitie du I Ve S. avo n. ere; 11) Fpaonuua. C/JuaAa (cAY'lallHa naxootca] - n speama nOAOBUHa na IV 8. np. H. e. 11) Gradnica, Phiale (trouoaille lortuite) de la premiere mottle du IVe S. avo n. ere; 12) Eo-

6

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1

p080. C7JKp08uU{e om pumonu - n-speama nOAOBUHa na IV e. np. H. e. 12) Borooo, Tresor de rhytons "-, premiere mottle du I Ve S. avo n. ere; 13) F7JP'lUH080. Mampul{a om V-IV 8. np. H. e. 13) Giircinooo . Matrice du Ve-IVe S. avo n. ere; 14) B7Jp6ul{l1,·; Fp06eH uneeumap om emopama nOA08UHa «a IV' 8: np. H. e. 14) Varbica. Lnoentaire d'une tombe de la seconde mottle du IVe S. avo n. ere; 15) Cmapocesxa. Fp06eH uneenmap om KPGJ! «a IV-Ha'l. «a III B. np. H. e. 15) .Staroselka. lnoentaire d'une tombe de la seconde mottle du IVe s.s-debu: du l l I e S. avo n, ere; 16) Ceetuapu - Moeusen nesponos om IVIII 8. np. H. e. Cpe67JpeH Ha'leAHUK om IV 8: np. H. e. 16) Soesiari - necropole tumulaire du IVe_IIle S. avo ncere. Un [rental d'argent du IVe S. avo n. ere; 17) Kasapna, Bname« eeneu om zp06 om «pa« 'ita IV-III 8. np . H. e. 17) Kaoarna. Couronne en or d'une tombe de la tin du IVe_llle S. avo n. ere; 18) Bpanuseea. MozuAeH HeKpOnOJl om IV 8. np. H. e. 18) Braniiieoo, Necropole tumulaire du IVe S. ao, n. ere; 19) AOJICUZbOA. C/JuaAu om uneeumapa na uap:

CKU zp06 om emopama nOJl08UHa ua IV 8. np. H. e. 19) Adzigjol. Phiales d'inventaire d'une tombe royale de la seconde moitie du IVe S. avo n. ere; 20) Ilepeenu, Fp06eH uneeumap om emopama nOA08UHa na IV 8. np. H. e. 20) Deroeni. Inoentaire d'une tombe de la seconde moitie du IVe S. avo n. ere; 21) Il anaeopuuie. 3JlamHO C7JKpoBuU{e om Hall. na III B. np. H. e. 21) Panagjurist«. Tresor en or du debut du I I I» S. avo /I: ere; 22) Cmpenua. CKU¢OC om emopoma=-mpemama IIe·mespm na IV 8. np. H. e. u MOeUJlHO noepetienue om C7JU{omo epeue. 22) Strelia. Scyphos du deuxteme-: troisieme quart du IVe S. avo n. ere et inhumation iu-

multure. de la meme epoque; 23), .p,Y6aHAu. MOeUAeH /telcpono/l c n02pe6eHuR om VI 'bo ~PaR na V~Ha~. ua IV 6. np. H. il. 23) DUQanli. Necropole tumulaire avec des inhumations du VIe jusqu'a la fin du Vedebut du IVe s. aQ. n. ere; 24) Bpe3080.· M02U:IIeH He/Cpono/l om emopama naA06UHa na V ~Ha'4;fj(l IV 6.' rip. H. e. 24) Brezooo, Necropole tumulaire. dB. la seconde mottte du Ve-debut du IV-e s. av. n. ei'e;Z5) Po- 306e14. MO?UAHO noepe6eHue &c '!UameH BeHeI4 om KpaR na tV 8. np. H,e.i25) R(NJJf}I!c. Inhumation tumulaire aoee couronne erH}rde la lin (1u,JVl.s. av. n.~re; 26) Ce6rnonoAuc. M02U/leHHe/CpiJnoA.om /Cpa", .Ha· [V~ HUll: na III 6. np, H~ e. 26) .SeQtopolis. N.ecropo(e tumuuureaetaitn du IVe....itllbufdu' Hl« s. av. n.' ere; 27) KC13aH.AT>X. Moe.rzAHO :n02pe6eHUe . ,om JepaR na IV...,..,flaIl. na /I1'~Jl.p. u..«, 27).Kazantak.l~-. humation)<tmulair:e de}a Jin I'lIl:./Ve-de!Juf du I lIe.s •. oo, n, 'ere; M) 1!7>A.ffotu: Tpo6eH uHeeHmap om OICO/lO 400 2. np. H. e. 28) DltJhoki. Inventiiired'une tambe' environ de I' an 4()(} aQ. n. ere» 29) P,QI:~1Lf ·AmaHameo;' C"'lCpolJu~e om mpu S/lamHU ¢ua/lu Om· Y (I. np •. tt-',e;; 29) Daskal Atanasooo, Tre$Qr. de trots phiq1f!sril., or, du Ve s. aQ. n. 'ere; 30) Me3eIC.M02UJ1eH He~pono/r om "paJlHa ¥-Ha".Ha IVIJ. OO'H~aA()mOHa I1IJJ. np. H. e .• 30) Mezek. Necropole.· tuma.laire de.';lu fin du Ve-debtltdu IVe s. jusqu'au debutdu HIe s, aQ.

n. ere .

)KeHCKH (CpB. B-431,46{) }lJlH Mb)KKH (CpB. cKH<Poca.oT Crpeasa) rJlastl, 3a p,a crarae /1.0 KOHueHTpHqH}lTe Kpl>roBe. G HerbpCKHr JlaB}I QT nananopcxarajpaaaa, sceoute He eSlCHO. 3acera 06aQe ,npOTOTHnHTe .ca 'B TpaKHH, H3- pa60TeHH aa 'l'PaKHHCKH uap npes rrspsara nOJlOBHHa aa IV B. IIp .. H. e. BTpaKflij~Ku areJIHeTat3• He eSiCHO. C1;>UlO .. jcora ce nOSl)JSlBa npa cpHaJlHTe yxpacara.or -CM.ecellHopHaMeH,' TH - )KHBOTHHCKH, pacT}lTeJIHH H ·.tfOBellll~U. ,lI.ocera MHeH}leTO· 6e,'leca xapaxrepna aa IOJKHa.PycHSI, : T. ·e. 38 TopeBTHKaTa, Cb3/1.asana . B 1lTe.1}HeTaTa us CeBepo.~OHTHH:CKRTe KOMHlf}l,.,no . C~HTI:Ka nOpl>lfKa.' HflKOJlKO POr03eHC;){H cpHanH 8MaT 06aQe Cl>lQ.OTaKaSa y~paca,(KaT., N! 94~97, 99.-100,'HHB . .N'! 8-4-29, 543; 556,,465, 431, 466). ,,1O>KHopycxare" napaseas. HaOO'iB8T Kl>M IV B. np. H. e., II 1Q'~b~HeroBHfI<Kpait; .n.aTHpa.HHC MOHeTa aa ,AJle1(CaH;ll'bp. I I I MaKe/1.oHcKHU,. .Bb)l.ellI.ute IUKycTBoBe,n;cKH }I /1.pyrH npoYIIBaHHSlcHrYPHO .nte YTOIJHSl1' )l.aTHp08KaTa na Te~1H Cb7. nose, 'KOHTO. OQeBH/1.HOC'b3)l.aaaT MOCTa. Kl>M. CJle.ll.B3Ul}lSl; :KYJlTypHO-HCTop}llleCKH X.OP}l30HT.

,3,,'T03H'tPeTJI XOP}l30H'f, KQ H: TO ce onpenenaor naxonxnre OT KpaSi na IV" H3IJaJlOTO aa III B. np .• ;H; e.,.e CBbp3aM,C npe)l.HmHI.f11 H IJpe3 KOHTHHYHTeTa B pa3BHTHeTO aa cpeespHHTe"anJlHKalUIH, HO e 6eJlSl3aH H C HOBH SlBneHHSij" KOHTO ro npaoeurasar KbM KyJlTypHOToKOHHe Ha paHHoeJJHHHCT}lqeCKaTa enoxa. EnoxaHauapeoT.rpl>KO-MaKe/1.0HcKH npoaa»OlI.., uaCJle/1.}lJlH B;1Ia(.'T'ra aa BeJIHKHSI. sasoe.BlteJlOTHe.n3/1.0 BaBlIJlOH, C "BapBapcKlISI" SKye KbM, .paaaoma H 3naTOTO;3apa/1.H uero eJlHHHTe OOHSIKora ce npHCMHSaJlH aa TpaKHHoxare.uape, aKO C'b,n;HM no cseneaaara aa rpsu,Kine nacarena. Hatuo IIY/1.HO, aKO H TpaKHH:CKHTe.;AHH8CTH, ',(l)lleJlSlllH B lI.'bpJK8SaTa na .[I;H3HM8X CJJ~~23 r., .lI.8 C8 6HJlH arbi tri eiegafltiorum B .eJIHHIICTH'leCKHSI CBSIT' 6J1aroA&peH"e IHMellHQ aa TPaJJ.HI(HSITa B ynorpeoara

na H3S1IUHH C'b/1.0Be H npeaxern oTCJJe6poH. 3J1aTOu. ETo saute enao 6b/1.eIlI.0,do<ftI0IUU:lO" na npoyasauaara na TOpeBTHKaTa'!'tllp1tlra3h' enoxa, nOTB'bp)K/1.eHHe HSlMa ,n;a H3H'e~~:~If~' Koro.npe)l.nOC'MBK8 .sa nO)l.06HO tb~p1l.~ifHe ca H 3J1aTHHTe H'~'cpe6'bpHO-3JIatHUTe npe"'MertlkI OT i MOr}lJlaHCKHSI rp06 N! 2, ,norp~Hftfm' npn: P030Beu. naHarIOpCR~'M';" Ct.KPOBiUi.(~· H·/1.p.II H3pa60TBaHH B TpB'kHRT'ItWWT1f3811.1P HeS!: no uropsvxa HaTpaKH~ClofltnBmjneIFeJU.ir Ha~O/1.KKTe OT T03H, XOPW30H1"; cal'!'::n,de't01lmrer Ha TpaKJiIH:CKaTa xyarypa }I nJto,l'FHa'YJ(1)Jlr()·1, J1eTHa Tpa/1.HU}lSl. B TOBa OTHOIIJ~lhte :i063l1e HM3 . KaKSOOllI.e JlI.a ce T'bPCHH JlOI(a3Ba:"S-~ Olue B natuara }lCTOpHorpacpHSI ce rOBOpIf;3if ,.HOMHHaJiHaTa" cauo ,;MaKe/1.0MCKa." 8:11ae't:' Hal Jhf3HMax B -rpaKHH:CKHTe 3eMH,- 'S'bnpeKlf. IIei. Tfl e· TOJlKOBa MaKe/1.0HCKa, KOJlK01OO e Malt.e-I ,l{OHCKaH BJIaCTTa na CeJIeBICHJ(lI:Te~ B Mana A3}1S1 HJlH aa nTOJioMeHTe B Eruner. IhKoH H3CJIe/1.BallH )l.OpH H36S1fBaT )l.a,n;aTHpa-r· USlKPIf 3a6eJle)KHTeJlHH HaXO,l{KH 0'1' JIH3}1MaXOBO';a-peMe, 3aw.OTOHM H3rJIeJK)l.aT "MaKe/1.0HCKH'iF:,!(PY"; rH rrsx B}I)KlI.aT B pen COUHaJl'HO- HKdHOMll·qe-) CKH S1SJleHHSI B TpaKHSI npeaeJlHHHCTHfl8C1lOara enoxa "npOTOeJlHHHCTHqeCKH'" HJlJf a "e\1fItRH~, CTHqecKH" XapaKTepHCTHKH" MaKap ct(e' Te\ MoraT na ce OTKpHSlT TyX omeno OPIDreTOYKa' KOTHC HJlH B MaKeJ1.QHHSI npn nepJJ.;llKaa:I{.Tro peay JlTaT OT HeKJlaCHlIeCKOTO 'p'a3lfl{llJ.q!! OBi TpaKHiicKOTO H MaKe)l.OHCKOTOo6lI(R~OO'f :-}i

3aTOS3 He 6HBa na ce cbpJ~HM,':lKor~rJli lIYJK.lI.8Ta. 'ncropaorpaeaa TP8KHACKS'NPtOC,S,( rypa ce OTIIHT8 KaTO napadipasa H8Jpp!Iona:BaI HJIHHa MaKe,l{OHCKaTa; xoraro ce He;rt,{}YMRBat npen np06JIeMa, ROH: e ORR notpe)I.'HHK'J)Tr:ir oCbw.eCTBSlBaHeTO aa 'KyJlTypHHTe'B)Yb3Ktt Me)Kl\Y HTaJlHSI}I ceBepHOnOIlTHH:CKOTO ~gpaH:" 6pe)KHe (aanprno OTHomeHHe HB' PWfOHHTer KOHTO JllmCBaJiH B MaKe/1.0H1HI;; K£lSlT006HK"· HOBeHO . ce TpeTHpaKaTO nOCpell.HHK;;3apa,aH aeorpanaveaare Bl>3MOJKHOCTH aa 'MaKe,l{OH-, CK}lSI )l.BOP na np}lBJIHlla Haii"/1.06pw,re ropes> T}I, MaH:CTOp}I H /1.PYfHKyJlTypTpef'epH:~ aa eJIHHHCTHQeCKaTa enoxar'": Crpysa: M}I ce, lie e noursn pen .lI.a nOK8)KeM3HalJelflHeTO aa TpaK}lH:CKaT8 eJlHHHcTHllecKa )l.l>pJK8Ba ; na JIH3Ht1ax. Ha 6aJlKaHCKaT8 xapra HeHHaTal TepHTOpHSI npHJIHlJa Ha nenepyn;a, KaIlH8J13' na npOTOIlHTe".HHHTO xpnne aaBanxaaare H BMaJla A3HSI oseprasar KOHT3KTHaTa 30H3Ha sananao- - H H3TOlfHocpe.ll.H3eMHOMopCKaTa xynrypa npes eJlHHHCTHlJeCKaraenoxa18.. i,'

V. XPOHOJIOrHH na aarpynaanero ·H rpeaopapanero HaCbKpOBHUl,eTO.

Cnopea H3Ka3aH}lTe zocera : CT8HODHlUa .B anreparypaea no np06J1eMa Cl>/1.0BeTe OT Por03eHCKO'l'O Cl>KpOBHllI.e 'npHHa/1.j}1eJKaT sa BP~ MeTa MeJK)l.y nOCJle)l.HHTe .1l.eCeTHJIeTHSl aa V B:; H 340 r .. np.H. e. Ilo-panaara rpaaaua C~ onpenens spea HMeTO.Ha CaTOK Bl>PXy CP/1.q~

sere H q>HaJIaTa C napaaena B CHH~OC H Ko}KaHH, a nO-K'bCHaTa - C orJIe.n Hano6e.naTa aa Cl>HJIHn II M8Ke.nOHCKH Ha.n O~pHCKaTa .n'bp}KaB8 -aa Kepceoaenr.

Hanpaseaare no-rope Ha6JJIO.neHHH nOCTaBHT no.nC'bMHeHHe H .nOpH ooopaar H naere Te3H rpaaaua. Ka3aHOTO Ba}KH C nO-MaJIKa CH.lJa 38 no-paaaara nara, asnpexa lie TyK OCHOSaTeJIHOTO C'bMHeHHe B'b3HHKBa no iaae npHIIHHH. Ilspeara BH}K.naM B .nOK838HOTO npOH3BO.nCTBO na KonHH no H3pa6oTeHH npe.nH .neceTHJJeTHSl opHrHH8JJHH Cpe6'bPHH C'b' noae, a sropara - B He.nOKa38HaTa Bee OI1\f Bp'b3Ka na KOTHCOBHJI.nHHaCTHlleCKH, .nOMe TepeCOBHSI; nOCJIe~HOTO C'b06pa)J(eHHeMH ,Ilsaa OCHOBaHHe na CMJlTaM, lie H CJIe,A e.nHa 6'b.new.a .npeunaua .naTHpoBKa aa HSlKOHC'b,AOBe K'bM V B. np. H. e. ,TSlXHOTOOpHC'bCTBHe B Poroseacxoro C'bKpoBMW.e w.e MOEe-, '.u.a ce CMHT8 sa HanbJJHO ~JIyqaiHO. B fiona8Ha TOBa snposea rosepar H peaYJI1'8THTeOT KYJJTYPHOHCTopHlleCK8Ta CTp8mIPHK8llHSI, aanpaaeaa no-rope, nO"OTHoweHHeH8 H8XO.nKHTeOT .cpe- 6'bPHH H 3JJ8THH C'b,AOBe. Is noxaaaa, IIpe3 nonnacaaaresa KOTHC C'b.nOBe H TeXHHTe napaJJeJIH B poroseacxara H npyrare H8XO.nKH OT TOBa speae, lie Poroseacxoro csxposame HSiMa 06W.H xapaxrepacraxa c m.psas xopH'30HT; lie B OCHOBaTa na TOBa csxpoaauie rue TpJl6Ba .na ce T'bPCH C'bKPOBHUlHHll8Ta na Kepcednenr H KOTHC, CTaHaJJa MaKe,llOHCKa nJlSr'lKa npes 341-340 r. Ta3H nJIHIIKa ce e YBeJIH1I8B8JJ8 CJJe.u. nooenara aa Cl>HnHn I I Ha.n CKHTCKHH uap ATeH npea 339 r., HO HHKOH KOTHCOBH C'b.nOBe ca OCT8HaJJH B .ll06py~aHCKHTe seMH (A~HrbOJI H BOpOBO) KaTo06- MeHHH nonapsua C HOBHTe IPHJJHnOBH C'bJ03- HHllHu. TOBa TB'bp.neHHe He H3KJIJOIIBa aaxa- 3aHOTO OT Ha. BeHe.nHKOB 06HCHeHHt', lie nannacaaare KOTHCOBH C'b.nOBe ca CTHrH8JJH 11.0 Te3H ceBepHOTpaKHHCKH 3eMH K8TO nO.ll8p1>llH OT CaMHJI KOTHC20, HO H3BecTHO' ':e'bMHeHHe 6y.nH C'bKPOBHW.HHJlT xapaxrep na HaXOJlKaT8 OT BOPOBO, C'b.n'bp}K8Ula JJHncBaw.IJTe B Poro- 3eH PHTOHH, naa-xapaxrepaara peranas na TpaKHHCKHTe uape.

Bnaronapeane aa H3BOlOBaHaTa OT TpH-

6aJJHTe n06e,l{a H8.n Cl>RJJHn II npa aasp'sutaHeTO My CJJe,l{ CKRTCKHSl noxon, sa KOHTO HM3 R nHeMeHH H3TOIIHHllH, HerOBaT8 nJJSlIIKa C KOTHCOBaT8 xasaa .oCT8Han8 B TpH6anCKltTe npe.neJIHlIl. Ho noxora> C T03H asnpoc ce CTHra .no T'bpCeHeTO aa nocaenaara .n8Ta sa Pore- 3eHCKOTO C'bKPOBHW.e - BpeMeTO aa HerOBOTO .Tpe30~Hp8He.

B' TOBa OTHoweHHe npennosceaara B JIHTeparypara .naTa, 340 r. np. H. e., e CHJlHO araxyexa . .LJ.OPH H3JIO}KeHaTa TyK aarepnperauaa aa C'b.n6aTaHa CbKpOBHW.ero .na ce OTXB'bpJJH npa 6'b.neUlB'te npoY'IB8HHSl, .nOpH csmara c'bA6a AaCnOJIeTHllanpaBeHoTO Ha6J1JO.neHHe, lie cpea poroaeaexare-csseae TpSl6Ba Aa HMa H raxasa 'OT paHHoeJJHHHCTH'Iecx'ST3 enoxa (T. aap. K'beeH IV BeK), 8M3 none eARH C'b.n,

8

KOHTO e .nOCTaT'blleH, '33 ,l{a OTJlO}KH npeano}KeHaTa nara na Tpe30pHpaHeTO C HJlKOJJKO .neCeTHJleTHH. TOBae 6J1JO.lI.Q.TO C H306pa}KeHHeTO-"eMMeMS" aa XepaK1>JI H Ayre (KaT, .N2 4, HHB • .MB-464). Hapexox csaa 6J1IO.nO, a He <pHaJla, 3aUloTO TOR npeJtctaBJlSIBae.nHO BapH3HTHO pa3BHTJleHa IPUa.l.aTS,IIHHT9 xapaxrepea eJIeMeHT. .n'bH&to CY.MOO,' e orersmfJlO KaTO MSlCTO 3apenetpH~.yl(]J,aca aa xpsrJIa nJJOCKOCT, T. Hap. eM6J1eM3. ,lJ.olleH ce e CTHrHaJlO cnopen JIyweH Qpe3' P~&QiHeTP . ira ,,6YKeJlHaTa" IPHaJJa. T03H BH.nC'bAOBe' noay'lHnij , .nBOH~O . AlIHO; .!tOKaTO Ha,B'bH1llH8T8 nJJOCKQCT ce e 3ana3.HJJa crapara yxpaca 01' paCTMTeJlHH, C.nJIHO CTHJlH3.HpaHH opHaMeHTH B HHC1>K pent$. B'bTpeWHOTo.n'bHOe nOJlYIIHJlO 6ora-raYKp8ca. B JlHTepaTypaTa no np06neMa ce.ndl;C?II~.~,.,IJ~ I1pa3HHHaTa Me}K.ny naere .n'bHa 6HJla H3n'b;llDeJla.·CMeTaJJ HJIH cxoaa, HO He ce H3J1CHSlBaHe06xO)llRMocTra OT ABOiiHOTO .n'bHO. O'leBH,AIfO TH 'He' e B1)3HHKHaJl8 OT crpeaeaca na ce BJlO}KH caMOC!,?SlTeJIHa yxpaca H8 A'bHOTo OTB'bH, HHalleH~i6H oteTibn88JIa no H3- JlUleCTBO HopH8MeH11fH8 B'btpeWUGTO.ntf0. Cnopen MeH npHIIHHaTa Mo>ke,Aa ce-rspca B }KeJIaHReTO na MaHCTOpa HJIH aa nOTpe6HTeJISI .na 6'b.ne TH ,,03BYlleHa" nO,l{06HO na cnoxenarara no-rope <pHaJia C nepCHHCKHTe rJIaBH, T. e. Me}l{AY nsere A'bHa MO}Ke H na e HMaJIO n'bJlHe}K·3apa.nH cTa6HJIHOCT, HO TOH He e 6HJI nJl'bTeH, OCTaBaJlO e MHCTO H sa npHJlTHO 3B'bHTHUlHTe 6POH30BHSp'bHlla. BJlIOAOTO OT Poroses HManapaJleJJH, npOU8x<>X€JlaIl\W OTI1,.8- JIHJlH npe.nHHR H3TOKu . .LJ.aTHpalleTOHaHTa~ JlHHCKHTe C'b,AOae C penepaa : yxpaca xecro npH6S1rBa .no' nOMOUlTa na T. Hap. KaJleHCKH Kep8MHIIHH IPHaJlH, sa .na 06J1CHH nOJIBaTa HM. B TOBa OTHomeHHe por03eHCKHHT C'bA, OTH08O MO}Ke All nOCJIY>KH KaTO onopa B AHCKycHHTa no npo6JIeM8,AaJlH Cpe6'bp"Mft pea.u C'b,l{OM' npenxOHUll1' "Ke~HqHIf"; ';MR,T 06p8THO' ...... T6lCa qep"M:lH01' inoCJIt,nRMft 06p83nH ...... O'i''IHTSAKU pe.n HCToPHllecKH*TOSlTeJJCTBa H KyJlTYPHO-HCTopHllecKH IPeHoMeHH OT Ta3H enoxa, e rpynao na npneaa, lie Te3H cpeospIfH 6JIIO.na C8 ce nOJlBHJIH CJIe.n K'bCHHTe KaJJeHCKH <pHaJiH. Bnpoxea K'bM paHHOeJlHHHCTHlleCKaTa enoxa H nO-TOllHO - K'bMK'bCHHSI IVa. np. H. e., H800'lB.1lH PeJIE:<PH8T8:YKpaca' sa

poroseacxara eM6JJeMs. .

Cnopen MHTa sa AJlea,AHTe Ayre6HJla ,ll'bw.epSl na TereHCKHSI uap AJleit 3a)la H36erHe (JpeaCKa3aHHeTO; 'Ie T5Irne POAR CHR, KOHTO 1I1ey6He CHHOBeTeMY, AJleHHanpaBHJI .n'b" UlepH CM }KpHlla aa OOrHHHTa ATHHa, KaTO no T03H HallHH JI 06peK'b.1I H8 6ea6paIlHe. Ho B MHTOJlOrHllecKHTe p83Ka3H 06HKHOBeHO He e no CHJlHTe aa CM'bPTHHH 'IOBeK .na OTMeHH 60- }KeCTBeHHSI npOMHC'bJI. TpSl6BaJJOe .na ce C.'YIIU raxa, lie Xepaxsa, npenn nozsara CH B ABrHeBHTe OOOPH, .na MHHe npea 3eMHTe na AnenH nOT'bpCH rocronpueacraoro My. Ore,l{ elJ.RH somes nap TOH HanpaBHJI Ayre MaHKa ua C80H CHH Tene¢. KO:iiTO H3n'bJlH,HJI TparHII-

HHTe npe.n;CKa3aHHSI na opaxyna. nO-K'bCHO eJIHHHCTHlJeCKHTe BJIa.n;eTeJIH na Ileprau, ATaJIH.n;HTe, 3anOlJHaJIH .n;a nayiuaaar, lJe Tenerp 6HJI ~XHHSlT MHTHlJeH npapo.n;HTeJI (BepOSlTHO, 38 na ce OKalKaT He nO-MaJIKO .n;OCToHHH OT MaKe.n;OHHTe, npereanapauia, lJe npOH3JIH3aT OT Xepaxnanare). MHThT nopa 6HJI npecssnanea aa nO-MaJIKHSI <pPH3 aa OepraMCKHSI anrap KaTO PO.n;OCJIOBHa nerenaa aa ATaJIH.n;Hre. HSIKOH CTaHOBHlll.a no narepnperauaara Ita 6JIIO.n;OTO C Ayre H3nOJI3YBaT HMeHHO T03H HCTOpHlJeCKH «paY-T, aa aa 06B'bplKaT csaa c Ilepraa H MaJIa A.3HSI. C'b.n;'bT 06alJe BHYlllaB3 nO-CKOpo npyrn H.n;eH xpes rpaBHp3HHSI oseBH.n;HO OT caMHSI Maikrop TeKCT npen r JIaBaTa aa Xepaxsx H naa Ta3H na Ayre: AvrH AHAAAH, KoeTO npeseneao OT craporp snxa 6H TPSl6- Ba.TJo.n;a ·03HalJaBa ,,(ToBa e) n:eHcTBHTeJIHO Ayre.t'Axo CB'bplKeM cuenara C TeKCTa C nonceHH npnuepa OT H306palKeHHSI aspxy npesnorp suxa Ba3H, 6H TpSl6BaJIO na npueaex, lJe H306palKeHHeTO BH3Hpa MOMeHT OT CueHHlJHO nponsaenenae: aa .n;a 03HalJH HMeHHO T03H onpeneneu MOMeHT, Xy.n;OlKHHK'bT e nOCTaBHJI TeKCTa, a He, sa na nOCOlJH KOSI e H30(,pa3eHaTa lKeHCKa <pHrypa. TOBa CTaHOBHlll.e B'b3HHKBa H OT H3BeCTHSlTa B aHTHlJHaTa Tpa.n;HUHSI 3a .n;paMaTHlJHH npOH3Be.n;eHHSI na ECXHJI, CO¢oK'bJI If EBpHnH.n;, nOCBeTeHH aa Ayre H aa rparen:HSlTa B .n;Bopa aa AJIea.n;HTe. K'bM sanaseaare EBpHnH.n;oBH <pparMeHTH OT rparennara "Ayre" HanOCJIe.n;'bK 6e .n;06aBeHo H HOBO .n;OKa3aTeJICTBOU•

nonYJlSlpHOCTTa HB TpHMaTa rparaun e 6HJla TOJIKOB::t rOJHIMa, lJe npea IV B. np. H. e. TeXHHTe rparenau ca 6HJlH npepaoorenn OT npe.n;cTaBHTeJISI aa Cpe.n;H03THlJecKaTa KOMe.n;HSI EB6YJI, a MelK.n;y 1f3BeCTHHTe 3arJlaBHSI qmrypHpa H "Ayre". n'bpBOTO BnelJaTJIeHHe OT por03eHcKHSI penedi MOlKe .n;a nonsene, lJe cueuaTa e JIHUJeH3 OT TparH3'bM, HO npH e.n;H3 aBTonCHSI e SlCHa, MaKap H He ycnsna, csnpoTHBaTa na Ayre npenn HaCHJIHeTO aa Xepa-

1 nHCKYCHftTa no AaTHpaHeTO Ha rp06HHuaTa OT Bepraaa, 06J1BeHa OT epYAHpaHHJI if H3CJle.llOBaTeJl npocjl. AHAPOHHKOC KaTO rpoeaaua aa cE>HJlHn II, see ome npOA'hJl>KaBa. MH03HHa sese C OCHOBaHHe rosopsr "Ia Hell KaTO sa "T'hii aapesesara rpoeaaua aa cE>HJlHn II". B>K. nanp. HanOCJIeA'hK y M. P fro m mer. Italien-Makedonien-Kleinasien. Interdependenzen spatktasstscher und friihellenistischer Toreutik. - JdI, 98, 1983. B H3J1e3J1HTe npeAH OTKpHBaHero aa rpoeaauara H3CJ1e,!lBaHHlI B'hPXy rp susara H MaKeAOHCKaTa TopeBTHKa (K'h.lleTO MHorO 'IeCTO aBTopRTe He06ocH08aHo BKJlIO'I8aT H HaxoAKH, npoasxoxaaum OT TpaKHiicKH1e seaa) HMa MHoro Ha6J1IO.lleHHlI H aHaJlH3H 8'hPXY pa3BHTHeTo aa C,.HJla H opHaMeHTHxara, Te 'IeCTO nporaeopesar aa aarnpanero aa npeaMeTHTe OT BeprHHCKaTa rpoeuaua npeaa 330 r. np. H. e. -- AaTa, KOJITO 8 eBponeiicKaT8 HCTopHorp8~HH ce npaeaa KaTO Ha'laJlO aa paHHOeJIHHHCTH'IecK8Ta enoxa. TOBa nporaaopesne ce npeM'hJl1JaBa06a1Je OT asropare B H3.llaHHRTa caen ny6J1HKYBaHeTO aa rp06HHuaTa. CpB. R. A. H i g gin s. Greek and Roman Jewellery, 1961; R. S t ron g. Greek and Roman Gold and Silver Plate. London, 1966; Silver for the Gods. 800 Years of Greek and Roman Silver. -The Toledo Museum of Art, 1977; Treasures of An-

2 Apxeoaorna, 4, 1987 r.

K'bJl. K'bM craaomnuero sa EBpHnH.n;OB npoTOTHn aa cueaara aaaescaa H nonYJlSlpHOCTTa na EBpHnH.n; -B m.pacaaara aa <l>HJlHn II H Anexcanm.p II I, KaKTO H HE'rOBOTO TBOplJeCTBO, CB'bp3aHO C 'MaKen:OHCKHSI J(BOp. He e 6e3 3HalJeHHe npu6npe.n;eJlSlHeTO na nponaxona KaKTO aa por03eHCKHSI C'b.n;, TaKa H aa pa3BHTHe ro aa penerpaara yxpaca B'bpXy cpeospHHTe csaose, TB'bp.n;eHHSlT HanOCJIe.n;bK MaKel{OHCKH npOH3XO.n; aa T. Hap. xerapcxa lJalllH C MHTOJIOrHlJeCKH ClOlKeTH OT III B. np. H. e.2li Bnposea TyK OTHOBO .n;OCTHraMe no HYlKlI.aTa OT H3S1CHSlBaHeTO aa 06JIHKa H xapaxrepacraKHTe aa TpaKHHcKaTa KyJlTypa npes paHHOeJ1l-fHHCTHlfeCKaTa enoxa.

3a C'blKaJleHHe nuec pasnonaraae C ace ouie nenocrarsvno Jl.aHHH H sa C'b.n;6aTa na TpH6aJlCKaTa .n;'bplKaBa aa CHPM CJIe.n; 335 r. np. H. e. Harepnperauaara na C'b.n;'bplKaHHeTo, aanpaseao TyK, aa OTKPHTOTO B 3eMHTe H Poroaeacxo C'bKpOBHme. noxasa, se TO npenCTaBJlSlBa .n;'bJIro C'b6HpaHa KO.iTeKUHH. 3a onpe.l\eJISIHe H3 BpeMeTO aa rpesopnpanero My OT peuraaatuo 3HalJeHHe ca C'b.n;'bplKalll.HTe ce a Hero csnose 01' TpeTHSI KYJTTypHO-HCTOpHlJeCKH XOPH30HT, .l\OKa3aHH TyK cavo xpea 6J11O.n;OTO C eM6J1eMa. Haxonxare 01' csmus XOPH30HT B MorH.TJaHCKaTa MorHJIa nOKa3BaT apsaxara MelK.n;y nsara apXeOJIOrHlJeCKH KOMJIeKCa H C TpH6aJICKHSI .n;HHaCTHlJeCKH .n;OM Ha CHpM28. OrTYK cnensa H ocooeao BalKHOTO aa rpaxuacxara HCTOPHSI 3aKJllOlJeHHe, lJe rpa- 6a.'JcKHTe BJJa.n;eTeJIH ca C'bXpaHHJIH BJIaCTTa CH H cnen noxona aa AJIeKcaH.n;'bp MaKe.n;oHCKH B TpaKHSI npes 335 r. np. H. e. B CblO3HH HJIH nO-CKOpO BaCaJIHlI OTHOllleHHSI C JIH3HMax. n'bJlHaTa JIHnCa na CBe.n;eHHSI B H3BopHTe

...

aa napyurasaue na Te3H B3altMOOTHOllleHHH

n03BOJlSlBa zta caspsca Tpe30pHpaHeTO JIa Por03eHCKOTO C'bKpOI3Hme C n'bpBOTO H3BeCTHe aa BoeHHH .n;eHCTBHSI na TpH6aJICKa 3eMSI aamecreaero na xenrare npes 280-279 r. np. H. e.27

dent Macedonia. Thessaloniki, 1978; The earch for Alexander. An exhibition. N. J., 1982; R. A. Hi gg ins. Macedonian Royal Jewellery. - Studies in the History of Art. Washington, 1982; B. Bar r - S h a r r a r. Macedonian Metal Vases in Perspective: Some Observations on Context and Tradition. - Studies in the History of Art. Washington, 1982.

I Cnea ny6J1HKauHHTa B'hPXy Poroseacxoro csxpoanute B en. nH3KYCTBO". 1986, 6, B HaWH eaceaaesHHUH H cnHcaHHH 6l1xa ny6J1HKYBaHH MHeHHH H CTaHOBHma, csspaaaa C KYJlTypHO'HCTOpH1JeCKaTa xapaxTepHcTHKa aa C'bKPOBHllteTO, C HaAnHCHTe B'hPXy cpHaJlHTe HAp. MHoro OT THX Be1Je 6Hxa H3KaaaHH aa opraHH3HpaHHTe OT HHCTHTYTa no TpaKOJlOrHSI K'bM BAH .llHCKYCHH.

Hapen C resa MHeHHH, HJlKOH OT KOHTO ca npeonoJlHHH sese OT nO-HOBHTe Ha6J1IO.lleHHH aa caaare aaropa, B HaY1JHaTa KHH>KHHHa no np06J1eMaTHKaTa ce nOHBHxa caxo ABe CTaTHH aa A JI. $ 0 JI. nOJlHTHKa H xyarypa aa .llpeBHa TpaKHH. - np06J1eMH na KYJIrypara, 1986, 4; O.llPHCKH H TpH6ancKH uape OT porosencxare naanaca. -- Bexone, 1986, 4. Ha cnoxenaTHTe .llHCKYCHH aa aamxrax MHeHHeTO CH, 'Ie Canox, H3BeCTHHHT OT H3BopHTe CHH aa O.llPHCKHH nap CH-

9

raJIK, He e CB'bp3aH C HMero CarOK B'bpXY nsa or por03eHCKHre csnose; lJe cr.xpoaamero, xoero cnop en MeH C'bl\'bp)Ka nacr or lIJI5IliKOCaHara C'bKPOBHW;HHL\a aa Kepcerinerrr lIO apeve ua lIOXOl\a na <PHJIHlI I I B TP3KHH, e nerrocpencraeno CB'bp3aHO C lIOJIUrUlJeCKHre C'b6HTHlI ua BaJIKaHHTe npes nrop ara nOJIOBHHa na IV B. lip. I-l. e. (xoero CJIel\Ba l\a ce p asrinp a aa BCUlJKH L\UTHpaHH lIO-I-lal\OJIY l\aTH). Ha TOBa HCTOPHlJeCKO T'bJIKYBaHe na C'bKpOBHw;eTo e nOCBeTeHa H crarnara MH "TIp06JIeM!! H CTaHOBHw;a lIO HCTOpUlJeCKOTO T'bJIKYBaHe aa POr03eI-lCKOTO C'bKpOBHw;e". - VITIp, 1986, 12.

3 Hapen C TOBa HMa H l\pyrn HCHCHH 06Cl0HTeJICTna , l\'bJI)KaW;H ce lIO-CKOpO na cy6eK1HBI-l!! cpaKTOp!!. Cp en rnx OT ocoriena Ba)KI-lOCT aa ouennnane na apxeonomnecxara cpena e JIHlICara na CBel\eI-lHlI aa p aarrpel\eJIHHeTO na csnonere B J1.BeTe I-laXOl\KH, KO!!TO 6Hxa nonxpenann cr auouauiara lIO lIOBOl\a, npel\H3B!!KaJI rpesopapanero.

4 B)K. VI3KycTBo, 1986, 6. CTaHOB!!w;eTO MH, H3- JIO)KeI-lO B Ta3H lJaCT, e 060CHOBaHO B CTaT!!HTa MH B HCTOp!!lJeCK!! npervren, 1986, 12. K'bM 060CI-lOBK!!Te 6ux l\06aBHJIa H napaJIeJIH OT !!crop!!lIra Ha H)l\eHCKO- 1'0 L\apCTBO OT xp a a aa VIII-VII B., cnenennrrra s a KOHro l\'bJI)Ka na KOJIeraTa G. Foerster OT VIepycaJIHMCKHH MY3eH.· CTaBa l\YMa aa w;eMneJIH e spxy l\P'b)KKUTe Ha C'bl\OBe.3a B!!I-lO HJIH 3eXTHH, OTKpHTH B lJ& T!!PH L\apCK!! CTonaHCTBa. Te c'bl\'bp)Kar aHaU.HTe 1 mlk, KO!!TO ce p aavnrar r axa: ,,3a (na) uapn 01' (HMe n a cenuuiero}"; re HMaT nap anenn !! l\0 IV B. np. H. e. B)K. A. E. R a i n e y. Wine from the royale vinegard. - BASOR, 245, 1982, 57-62.

Cnopea BeJITeH ct.nonere C Te3H w;eMneJI!! ca rrpoH3Be)Kl\aHH OT lJaCTH!! r pr.avap«, HO L\apCKH CJIY)KHTeJI, KOHTO p aanoaaran C npel\OCT3BeH!!1I My OT uapCKaTa al\MHH!!CTpaL\!!ll rtenar, nOCTaBlIJI L\<lPCK!!H 3HaK aspxy c snoaere, CJIel\ TOBa re 6HJIH asnuauraun B lJeTHpHTe HMeHHH, KOHTO oCHrypHBaJIH npexpanara

n a L\apCK!!Te xpenocm. :

o TIp!! lJeTeHero aa Hal\nHcli Ie ·C HMerO·Ha KOTHC B POl\!!T. nane»c aa ce np!!C'bel\HHHBaM K'bM H3Ka3aH,!!Te nexe MHeH!!ll, nouesce rH CMlIraM s a ,el\!!HCrBeHO B'b3- MO)KHH. Pa3JIHKaTa B'b3HHKBa B rnrtonortoreckoro 01'l\eJIllHe a a rean nanrmcn, KOHro nanp annx B'b3 OCHOBa na c'bl\'bp)KaHHerO !! n a MHcroro HM at.p xy csnosere. MaJIL\!!Ha ca CKJIOHHH otiaxe l\aB'b3llpneMaT npcsona

aa r-p suxaranyva IIAil: KaTO "p06". BHPHO e, lJe AJIeKcaum.p II I MaKel\OHCKH e 3aCBHl\eTeJICTBYBaH KaTO IIAn: aa AMOH B Er nncr, HJIH ll'bK, 'Ie e TPYl\HO ~a C!! npencraanu p06, KOHTO HOCH uapcko. HMe,. Ho B p ofioBJIal\eJICK3Ta npaKT!!Ka Ha EJIal\a n PHM ~MeHYBaHero aa poria llO HMero na uer oanu r ocnonap erm.pne- WHPOKO 3aCB!!l\eTeJICTBYBaHo, sa na ce npnanasar TYK HOBH l\OKa3aTeJICTBa. Ta3H np axrnxa llPOl\'bJI)ICaBa H B n.1JaHraL\HOHHOro P06CTBO na 6JIH3K,OTO MHHaJIO ,B AMepHKa. K'bM nOCOlJeHHTe B' VIcTop'1i4ec'KH, nper.nen,

1986, 12, l\OKa3aTeJICTBa aa 'yI,lOTpe6.ara Ha IIAIl: llO OTHOllleHHe aa p06, Moral\a iJ,06aBH H HOIjU ll030BasaHUll Y TIoJIH6!!H (XXX, 25, 1 )I <;JI,) aa 600uapcKH p06H (IIAI~m::) B AHTHOXHll npes II' B. B. np. H. e.

6 P. A I e x and res cu. Le groupe de tr e-

sors thraces du nord des Balkans. ,- Dacia, 27, 1983 (I); 28, 1984 (11).

7 B)K. caeaeuaara yH. L n.sch.e y s , Die Phi ale.

Miinchen, 1938. CpB. llO-HOBaTa p aspaeorxa Y G i-

s e I a Ric h t e r. - AJA, 1958.

B TIpHMep aa TaKHBa nor.peoenns ca HaXOl\KHTe OT A):()KHrbOJI H MOrHJIaHCK3T3 MOrHJIa (rpoti N'g 2). AJIeKcaH):(pecKY ):(aTHpa a,zUKHrbOJICKOrO norperieuue B'bB arop ara llOJIOBHHa na IV B. IIp. H. e. H .r o H:;lnOJIc 3YBa KaTO OCHOBa na XpoHO'JIOrHlITa en aa cesepuorpaxnacxa-re C'bKpOBHw;a, HO cpHaJIara C nOCBeTHreJIHHH Ha):(nHC 3a KOTHC H ):(Bara HaKOJIeHHHKa rOBopllT sa C'bKpOBHW;HHlI xapaxrep ,·na ,: lI"Orpe6aJIHHlI HHBeHTap. Ouie llO-HCHH' ca neruara ';nprrMOrHJIaHCKHlI rp oe N'g 2, narnp an zrocera HaH-06w;0 K'bM nrop ara lIcOJIOBHHa aa IV B. np. H. e. 8 Hero nap en C cpnaJIHTe C nannnc s a KOTHC HMa npenaern, npnnannescauut crropen lIocTaHoBKHTe aa X HrHHC H CTPOlir K'bM paHHO-

10

eJIHHHCrHlJeCKaTa ettox a - HaKOJIeHHHK'bT lJpe3 HHkp ycraua a're npn OlJHTe, 06eL\HTe spea llOJIYMeceUHTe-,. BHCYJIKH H 3JIaTHHH BeHeL\. BeHeL\, enaa oescnopna per annn CJICl\ nepr ancxara HaXO):(Ka, He e H3BeCTeH B Tp axns npenn paHHOeJIHHHCTJ1lleCKaTa enoxa. Tor aaa T0!1 e 3aCBHl\eTeJICTBYBaH B nor peoeanero OT P030BeL\, Kanapua H B'bB cppecKHTe na rp06HHI~HTe oTKa3aHJI'bK H Cneuiapn. CpB. 6eJI. 11.

9 8)K. M. T a lJ e B a. TIp06,1eMH H CTaHOBHw;a'

no HCTOpHlJeCKOTO T'bJIKYBaHe n a Por03eHCKOTO COKpOBHw;e. - VITIp. 1986, 12.

10 8)K. Treasures of Ancient Macedonia, No 45. 11 He e He06xol\HMO na ce L\HrHpaT H TYK lIy6JIHKaL\!!HTe n a llOCOlJeHHTe B x ap rara C'bKpOBHw;a, KOHTO Morar ):(a ce navepnr B cn. "VI3KycrBo" 1986, 6, H B CTaTH5lTa n a TI. AJIeKcaH):(pecKY. TYK ca H3ll0JI3YBaHH llpe):(H BCHlJKO l\aTHpOBK!!Te Ha nOCJIe):(HH5l, KOHTO C OCHOBaHHe xop ar-np ar MHoro J(aTHpoBKH B naurara acrop aor p atpna. MOH ca xopexuaare rrpu MOrHJIaHCKaTa MOrllJIa (B'b3 OCHOBa aa Ka3aHOTO B 6eJI. 8) H na HaqeJIHllKa or Cseurapn. TIoCJIe):(HH5lT HMa MHoro noneve 06W;H 6eJIe3ll C HaXO):(Kll OT IV B. IIp. H. e. (ocooeuo C'bC cxnrpoca OT CTpeJIlJa), OTKOJIKOTO C HaXO,!(KaTa OT Tperiennure, -rpes KOllTO e ):(aTHpaH.

12 8)K. Treasures of Ancient Macedonia, No 280. 13 He e !!3KJIlOlJeHO na ce OTXB'bPJIH B6'b):(em;e rasp,!(5lHOTO TyK m.psencrao a a TpaK!!HCKaTa TopeBTHKa no ornoureuue noasara n a aHTpolloMOPCPHH5l 06pa3 (He cpllrypa), T'bM KaTO Poroseacxoro csxpoaame HeC'bMHeHO ure npouenu narnpoaxara H ua nsxon 01' HaxOl\KIITe B Malce):(oHll5l. 3a TOBa CH raspneune HMaM npennnn H craaosnurero na ,n. P a e B C ,K n. EJI!!HHCTlllJeCKllTe xynoacecrsean sanaarn B CKHTHlI H Tpaxns. - VI3KycTBo, 1985. Cnopen Hero arrrponoMO~CPHHlIT 06pa3 B CKHrCKUTe llaMeTHllL\H ce lIB5lBa ensa npes cpenara n a IV B. np. H. e., a B TpaKH5l TOM

e no-paHeH. .

14 3a MOHeraTa na AJIeKcaH):('bp II I MaKe):(oHcKH, C K05lrO ce narnpa H3BeCTHaTa cpHaJIa OT COJIoxa B)K.

BAA, 1913, 186. .

10 ,n. TI 0 nOB. TIpOYl(BaHH5l B'bpXY TpaKHHCKar a pen ar a n, I I. Ilapurecrsara H yr-ourennara. C'!>KPOnuuiara H nonap sunre. - fCY VI<P, 76, 1983, c. 198., 16 3a llpnHa,!(JIe)I(HOCTTa HM K'bM Ta3ll enoxa CpB. 6eJI. 8, 11.

17 8)K. P fro m mer. UHT. cs-r.. KOHTO T'bPCH 065lCHeHHe aa MaKe):(OHCKOTO nocpennusecrao B nanparenara OT. AJIeKCaHl\'bp I II MaKe}l.OHCKll llJI5IlJKa CJIe):( 6llrKaTa np n Fp annx B KPOTOH rrpea 335 r. (crrop ezt cnenenae aa TIJIYTapx), KaKTO H B'bB cpHHaHCOBHTe B'b3MO)KHOCTll aa MaKe):(OHCKHlI ):(BOP H aer oeara npnrer arenna cuna aa Jlnaan, Anenec H npyr n 113- T'bKHarH npel\CTaBHTeJIH na rp'bL\KaTa KyJIrypa 01' nropara llOJIOBIIHa ua IV B. IIp. H. e.

18 3HalJeHHeTO n a J1H3llMaxOBaTa ):('bp)KaBa, npes sp aana B csoe nt.rpeunro Mope XeJIecnOHTa, T03!! MOCT s a KyJITypHH B3aHMOBJIHlIHHlI Me)Kl\Y VI3ToKa H 3anal\a na Cpe):(!!3eMHoMoplleTo, rerrspaa me no.nylJaBa' 3aCJIY)KeHa OL\eHKa. 8 Ta3H HaCOKa 3aCJIY)KaBa ):(a 6'b):(aT'cnoMeHaTH KaTO OCHOBaHHe 3a TB'bp):(eHHeTo 60p6HTe n a J1H3HMax aa 3aBJIal\,lIBaHeTO na MaJIa A3H5l, no apexe na KOHTO pa3MHHaTa na L\apCKH no):(ap'bL\ll e 3acBll):(eTeJICTBYBaHa 01' KpaH):(YHaBcKHTe 3eMH ua r ercxnn uap ,npoMHxaMT ):(0 llJIaHHHaTa Tas sp, Cpen T5lX He 6HBa na ce aatipasn CBe):(eHHeTO aa CllL\HJIHHCKH5l rapan ,nHOHHCHH I I, lJHHTO' 60raTCTBa 6llJIH nacnenenn OT rnp ana aa Xepaxnea TIOHTllHcKa Me)K}l.y 322 H 306 r. np. H. e.; TO ce H3nOJl3YBa 06HKHOBeHO cauo aa nnrep rtperaunara ua C'b,!(OBeTe OT TIaHarlOpCKOTO csxposmne. He 6HBa atrponev na ce aa- 6paB5lT H no-crap nre, aenpex-scnann Bp'b3KH H B3a'HMOBJIH5lHH5l Me)K,!(y TpaK!!HCKOTO II axeMeHll):(CKOTO H3KYCTBO.

19 Ilo-rronporiaa 060cHoBKa na raan anrepnperaL\HlI npes cneneuaara B aHTHlJHllTe H3BOPll B)K. B CTaT!!5lTa MH B Hcropnvecxn nper.aen, ·1986, 12.

20 VI. 8 e H e ):( H K 0 B. Hannucnre m.pxy rpaI{IJHCKHTe cpHJJI!!. - ApXeOJIOrll5l, 1972, 2.

21 Hasopnre ca C'b6paHH H nnrepnpernp ana or

F.' Pap a Z 0 g lou. Srednjobalkanska p1emena

u predrimsko doba. Sarajevo, 1969; B. G e r 0 v. Zum Problem der Wohnsitze der Triballer. - KLIO, 63, 1981.

22 N. N a c hod. Die Silberschale aus Tarent in Bari. - RM, 33, 1918; H. L usc hey. Op. cit.; Silver for the Gods, No 36 - emblem from a dish, repported to be from Nihawand, Iran; Treasures from Ancient Macedonia, No 181 - two silver disks from Derveni (grave A)(?)

23M.Vlckers, O.Impey, J.Allan.

From Silver to Ceramic (The Potternter's debt to Metalwork in the Graeco-Roman, Oriental and Islamic Worlds. Oxford, 1986.

14 A. N au c k. Traglcorum Graecorum fragmenta. Lipsiae, 1889, p. 436 sqq, No 264-281; W. L u P p e. Die Hypothesis zu Euripides' "Auge". - Archiv fiir Papyrusforschung, 29, 1983.

Ilil U. Sin n. Die homerlschen Becher. Hellenlstische Rellelkeramik aus Makedonien. - AM, 7, Beiheft, 1979.

lit TIapaJleJIH aa porosencxnre $HaJlH c peJleq,HH lKHBOTHHCKH H aHTponoMopq,HH H306palKeHHH (ocaen aa YM6oTO) nancaar B MOrHJlaHCKHTe rp060Be H TOBa

MOlKe na aoseae )1.0 3aKJIIO'leHHeTO, ue poroaencxare csaoee ca rpesopapaaa CJle,1l; TU. OT npyra crpaaa, narapaaare caea cpenara H )1;0 xpas aa IV B. np, H, e. C'b,ZlOBe, KOHTO H«'bMHeHO ca npOH3Be,ZleHH B TpaKHiI· CKH areaaera, nOKa3Ba 3ana3BaHeTO aa TpaKHilcKaTa cpeespna TopeBTHKa H cJlen Mal C)I;OHCKOTO aasoesaHHe aa O,1l;pHCKaTa ,lI,'bpiKaBa H HeilHHH uenr-sp B IOroH3TO'lHa TpaKHH. TOBa e cnopea MeH Hail-CHrypHOTO )l;OKa3aTeJlCTBO 3a npO)l;yK~HHTa Ha TpaKHilcKHTe aTe· JlHeTa npes IV B. B TpH6aJlCKHTe npeaeaa,

17 MSBopHTe H aareparypara sa C'b6H rHHTa BlK. y M. T a 'I e B a. K'bM nOJlHTH'IerKaTa HCTOPHH na .llpeBHa TpaKHH (III B. rrp, H. e.). - fCY HcI>, 75, 1982. C 'b m a T a. MCTOPHH aa 6'bJlrapCKHTe seMH B apesuocrra. LJ. II. C., 1987 (no,1l; neear),

Hacroamara CTaTHSI 6e npenanena sa rrexar npes

M. OKTOMBPH, 1986 r. ETo aamo TyK He ca 06C'b,1l;eHH, HHTO n'bK e BseTO OTHoweHHe K'bM CTaHOBHID;aTa, ny6J1HKYBaHH B HaWHTe nepsoaasaa HS,1l;aHHH, na JI. Ornenoaa-Mapnnoaa, r. MHXailJloB H MB. Mapa- 30B. ABTOP'bT e CTOPHJI rosa B rJl. II na KHHraTa "TpaKHilcKoTO C'bKpOBHID;e 01' Por03eH", npe,1l;CTOHID;O H3.l1.aHHe na BAH.

Donnees archeologiques pour la datation du tresor de Rogozen. Problernes et point de vue

M. T ACE V A

(R e sum e)

L'artlcle fait partie de I'etude de I'auteur sur Ie tresor thrace, nouvellement decouvert de village de Rogozen, qui se trouve dans Ie territoire des Triballes. On fait analyse du milieu archeologlque de la touvaille et on propose une interpretation archeologique des donnees, renlermees dans les vases de Rogozen, L'exposeargumente et complete a I'aide de sources archecloglques les points de vue de I'auteur sur l'origine, la chronologie et la thesaurisation du tresor, bases sur I'Interpretation des sources historiques et des inscriptions sur les recipients, qui sont deja publies (d. Problemes et points de vue au sujet de l'Interpretatlon bistorique du tresor de Rogozen - HTIp.,. 1986, 12). L'auteur y propose pour la premiere fois la stratification des horizons culturels historiques du debut du v« jusqu'au debut du IIIe s. avo n. ere en Thrace, basee sur les vases de metaux precleux, dej a decouverte. Dans lar ticle est .formulee notamment I'argumentation archeologique de ces horizons.

Le premier horizon conditionnellement appele .. d'or" est caractertstique du gouvernement de la dynastie odryse de Teres; sa fin est liee au polnt de

. vue archeologtque avec les dernleres Iunerallles .. royales" a Douvanli, tandis qu'au point de vue po· IiUque - avec I 'accession au trOne de Cotys [er en 383-382 avo n. ere. Les trouvailles de cet horizon, selon I'auteur, manqUent presque exclusivement dans I'ensemble archeologlque de Rogozen.

I.e deuxieme horizon appele condltlonnellement "d'argent" est determine au moyen des inscriptions avec Ie nom du meme souveraln Kotys Ier. Les monuments archeologiques de cet horizon prouvent I'epa· nouissement de la puissance politi que et economique de l'Etat odryse de Kotys ler.

Le.trolsleme horizon se rapport a I'epoque du gouvernement de Lysimaque en Thrace, La transition en est difficilement perceptible - les phenomenes socio-economiques et culturels de I'helleriisme en Thrace se manifestent ou bien sont . deja prepares sous le regne de Kotys Ier.

L 'analyse complexe des donnees hlstoriques et archeologiques, concernant Ie tresor et les complexes archeologiques, relies avec lui, autorise a determiner la chronologie de son amassement pendant tout Ie IVe s. avo n. ere. L'analyse d'une eeuvre d'orfevrie - Ie plateau decore d'une scene mythologique (un moment du my the . d'Heracles et Auge) corigea Ie terminus ante.quem (340 avo n. ere.) de sa thesaurisation, prop osee dans I'historiographie .

. D'apres I'Interpretatlon des donnees du tresor, sa partie Iondamentale devrait representer le butin de Philippe de la conquete de l'Etat odryse, 6te par les Trfballes au cours del'an 339. Le seul renselgnement connu avec lequel on pourrait relier la the· saurisation du tresor dans les terres des Trlballes, est la campagne des Celtes ~ ,travers les terres des Getes et des Triballes en 280-279 avo n. ere.

11

Vl306pa3HTeJIHH nporpava na TpaKHHCKOTO H3 KYCTBO B paHHH51 eJIHHH3bM

T1ETbP IJ,AlJ,OB

fIpe,UCT3B3T3, K051TO ,U3B3T "H.JTH3,U3T3" H ,,0,UHCe51T3" OTHOCHO He6HB3.JTOTO 60r3TCTBO OT 3.JT3TO H cpe6po H3 Tp3KHTe,ce H.ITlOCTpHp3 CTOKpaTHO OT H3XO)lKHTe, OTKpHTH npn Bb.JTIJHTPbH (1924 1'.), )lYB3HJ1HH H Ilanarropnure (19?9 1'.), JIYKOBHT (19.53 1'.), J1eTHHU3 (1963 1'.), BP3U3 (1965 1'.), 5IKHMOBO (197~ r.), Boposo (1974 1'.) H cer-a YHHK3.JTH3T3 H3XO,UK3 npn Por03eH (1985/6 1'.). B'leTH 3ae,UHO, Te3H CbKpOBI1w,a C3 e,UH3 CBeTOBH3 ceH3311H 51.

IIoTBbp,llI1X3 ce 11 pa3K33HTe H3 Xep0,UOT 33 oco6eHOCTl1Te H3 TP3Kl1HCKHTe MOrH.JTH IJpe3 OTKpI1TH51Ta B JI.YB3H.JTHH, Me3eK, K333H,TbK H CBew,3pH. fIPH TOB3 oT6e.JT513B3Me C3IVIO H31iB3IKHHTe OT T51Xl.

H3H-336e.JTe)KI1Te.JTHHTe H3XO,UKI1 OT 3.JT3TO 11 cpe6po C3 Cb3,U3,UeHI1 B ,UeceTH.JTeTH51T3 npenn 11 C.JTe,U A.JTeKC3H,UbP Be.JTHKH. )lBeTe rp06HHUH - K333H.JTbWK31'3 11 CBew,3pCK3T3, C3 P3H-

• 06p. 1. I'potiuuuama n pti Ceeuiapu . Fig. 1. Le tombeau pres de Suesiari

HOe.JTHHFC r71qeCKH. Ilpenuer na CTaTH511'a e 1'3311 enOX3, OKO.JTO 300-a1'a rO,UHHa rip. H. e., K051TO ce X3p3KTepH3Hpa H ,UOMHHHpa C npHC1oCTBHeTO na J'bPUH're B Y.epHOMOpl1eTo. 063- qe, K3KTO nOKa3BaT MHoro 113C.JTe,UBaHH5l, OT neTOTO CTO.JTeTl1e H3C3M TpaKHHcKHTe 06.JTaCTH I1MaT KOHTaKTI1 He caMO C rbpUHTe. Oc06eHo TeCHI1 ca Bpb3KHTe 11M C nepCHHCK3Ta H CKHTCKaTa KY.JTTypa.

Flpes sropara nO.JTOBHHa na qeTBbp1'OTO CTOJleTHe TpaKH 51 nrpae BeIJe enna nocpenmrIJeCKa pO.JT51 B npenaaanero na cpopMa.JTHH e.nelV!eHTH, KOI1TO ,UOKYMeHTHpaT Bpb3KH 11 CbC 3ana,Ua: nanp. C fa.JTH$1 H KbM xpas H3 IJeTBbPTOTO CTO.JTeTl1e C ETPYPH$1 H 10IKHa HTa.JTJ1512. Ue.JT na H3.JT0IKeHHeTO e KpHTHIJeCK01'O H36.nlO,UeHHe, CBbp3BaHeTO aa pa3.JTHQHH QYIK,UH e.JTeMeHTH C MeCTHH H KaK OT Ta3H CMeCHua ce ,U061ma e,UHO HOBO U51JlO. JI.pyra uen na TOBa H3CJle,UB3He e OTHOBO ,Ua ce onnuiar 06eKTIne, ,Ua ce H3TbKHaT CTPYKTypwre HM 11 ,Ua ce ,u:ecpHHHpa HaQHHbT aa T51XHaTa yncrpeoa.

12

1

Haa-nanpen tue ce cnpex na nanrpooaara MOrHJIa B Csemapn (06p. 1)3. no nocoxa na .lI.paMoctt~(jTKPll't<~f(jJ.l.>Ha.ll,~iJ;Ha aKOJIO nsa MeTpa BJlCOK~ceretJtta" 30H8 ()'1' ··tYPOBH CJIOKOBe ce 01iepTaBaT.)J.Bao.'bIIBOSH.llHHCBa.ZI8, 3aTOOpeaa . or nsa TH1.uiaHa C rpH)KJIM'BO o6pa6aTeHH KaM'bHH. J1eBlfSlT CBO}l e vrro-rcnax OT }lCCHHSI. BC'blll,HOCT ce xacae aa xse pa3JIHlIHa rOJIeMJ,iK8Mepn, Ka'fO-KWfJlaBH8'ra Ba,ll.fI aa-

npaBChe}lHH ,lI.HpeK~~H KOplf}lOp •. ,', '

B'.· H3rpa)K,llaHeTCr na B~9Jla .c(3a6eJHI3BaT oCOOeHOCTH: apxHTp~BHHSlT~ 6.llQ~·c <pPH3 OT 6YKpaHHH, P03eTH "~.,IHJ:¥lAfl,ltRHe CbOTBeTCTBYBaHapaMKHTe aa Bpa1'aTa, ~r,C'bIII.O H aa THMnaHa Ha,ll. Hero,BJIOK'hT e R<bc H TaM He H3n'bJIBa U.SlJl8T8 UlHpnH8 na nOJIYl'p'bra. Bparara 'He e B cpeaara, a MaJIKO 11{) Ha}lSlCHO. 113fJle}K,lt8, . apXHTpaBHHSlT OJIOK e nO-BHCOKO nocraaea, OTKOJIKOTO e HY)KHO, H TOM ce BPfl3- sa B apxnrpassara 30Ha. Bcsumocr e,ll.HH TaK'bB III.YPu. HaBpaT8Ta Tpfl6Ba ,l!.a xpena H HOCH 6JIaKOBeTe HaTllMnaHa HaJ1 Hero, ,llOKaTO TYK apXHTPaB'bT H3rJle)KJ18 K8TO se JIH e CJIO)Ken npea USlJIaTa 30Ha aa CTeHaTa. Oseaaaao Ta3H BXOJIHa <l>8CaJ1a HMa nosese }leKop8THBHO, OTKOJJKOTO<PYHKUHOHaJIHO npeJ1H83Ha-

lIeHHe. ,

U.SlJFaTa :apXHTeKTypa ce saxapa B'hTpe B MOrHJIara . .llBeTe rp06HH KaMepH ca 6HJIH noKpHTH OT HaCHna BeJ1~ara CJIe,ll narpe6eHHeTO. Te ce tlHCJI$T, rasa )J,a ce Ka)Ke, K'bM BCHliKO OHOBa"Koe'l'O eTpSl6BaJIO ,lla 6'b)J,e CKPHTO OT nornena. rQ.lJ~MaTa u:epeMOHHSI. H3 norpe6eHHeTO Ma)KeM ;Aa CH S! npencraaaa, KaTO en nOMOfHeM C enacaaaero H2I. XepoJ10T (5.8):

OnJIaKBaHeTO na nOKolhWKa, )KepTBOnpHHo.UleHHe1'O, caea. T.ol$a ;tIHPUl&tBOTO C naeae H MY3HKa, HaCHnBllHeTO lUhMQr!f~aT8, Ma)Ke 6H aa lIaCTH, 8 He,"ija I~SlJI04 H aaxpaa C'bCTe3aHHSlTa C Harpa)J,H.Mo)Ke 6H e HMaJIO H J1PYfH My3HKaJIHH, arOIlC\JIHH HJlH soeaaa arpa H npe)J,CT8BJIeHHsJD. CJIeJ1 TpH )J,HH 3aB'bpIlIBaJIH oopenare H HaCHn'bT nOKpHBaJI BCHIIKO. MorHJIaT8 ce npeap-smaaa B e)J,HO BelIHO )KHJIin,ne 3anOKOHHHKa aaeJ1HO c Heffita1a nesaa ~aMHa H K8MepH1ecaciaHaJiH B'bTpeIlIHHnOMeI1(eHHSI. Ilpeaa roaa TeCaCJIYJMHJtH'KaToe)J,HH Br'J1KynHCH aa uepeMOHHaJIHOTO 'npa3HeHCTBO . .llaJIH Ta3H6JlOK . C p03e'fk H '6YKpasHH aa nxona, MAtt> e rasa rpH)KJiHBOYKpaceH, HSlMa$YHKUHsJta )J,a e IiOCT8seHTSM, 3a,lla o60rsTH cnoMetiaTHTe KYJIHCH? Jla.nit H JIHnCBalll,aTa cera nopra C'bIII.O He e OHJl8" e.lJ.Ha . CneUHaJIHO H3- paeorena lIaeT or Ta3H ocooeHO )J,eKopaTHBHa

<pacaJ1a? A3. MHCJISI,lIe TOBa e !ra'KH. '. .'

RoA e norpe6aH B' Ta3HrpOOHHua, HHe He 3HaeM8• Fpoesr e6HJI orpa6eHolL\e npe.3 anTHQHOma. APXeoJI03HTeCaHaMepHJlH B nnere xaxepa roJteMH p83pYUleHHS! H MaJlKo. )J,pe6. HH HaXO.!lKH. CK'bt10ueHHHTenpe}lMeTH, M01Ke 6H OT3.'1aTO Hcpe6po,eaOHJiH Belle orpa-

6eHH. '

Hoce'rHTeJISIT BJIH3an'bpBO B nOIITH xsanpaTRO nouemeane (o6p. ? a). B,lI.HCHO e BXO-

.lI.'bT na CTpaHHIIHaTa xanepa, IIHMTO nO-MaJI'bK cson ce BR1KJ1a cera DTB'bH. no ,KOpH.lI.Dpa nanpaso ce CTH!:_a .110 tJIaBHaTa KaMepa. HeMaara ro.aevaaa H nHIII.HOCT 51 npencraasr KaTO HaH-rJIaBHOTO noaeureaae. Ilonosere ca noCTJIaHli e pa3JIll'I'i~a rOJIeMH..lI.o6pe H3.!lHJIaHH lIJIOIIII.

HeTDlIHDCTHTe H aCHMeTpHHTe, Ha6J1IO}laBaHH npa B'bHIlIHaTa <paC8.!la, BH)K.!laMe H B'bTpe. Iloaemenaara He ca e'bBCeM KBaJ1paTHH, 'br JIHTe ensa J1H HSlK'bJ1e. c:a non npas 'bt'bJI, BXO.ll.OBeTe ca H3MeCTeHH or npaaara OC. 'Bparara H rrposopeusr aa I CTpaHHIIHaTa xasrepa ca KpHBH II MaJIKO HaMOHeHH (06p. ? 6). TOBa HM YIIY}lBa, aauioro 6JIOKOBeTe auaxe ca J1DOpe 06pa60TeHH. TOBa ea HeTOIIHOCTH H HenpaBHJ1HOC'IH,' KaHTO He TpSl6Ba na ce rperapar xaro rpyoocra aa pa6DTaTa,a aapovao H C'b3HaTeJIHD DCTaBeHH raxa, m.npexa lIe HDCSlT YCJIaJKHeHllfl C'bC ceoeCH: nO-MbIIHO e uanpaxep na ee eTpOH e.llHH CBO.!l, xoraro CTeHHTe He ca npaaosr-snnn. TYK caxo nccouaaxe Te3H KOHCTaTaUHH.

r JIaBHaTa xauepa npasa aa BceKH noceTHTeJI CHJIHD BnelIaTJIeHHe (06p. 3). CHJIHD e BJIHSlHHeTO aa apxarexrypara, CTeHHTe ca yxpaceaa C'bC CKYJIOTYPH H C )KHBonHC B JIIOHeTa (06p. 4). B TpaKHikKHfi KYJITypeH xpsr Ta3H xaxepa e YHHKaJlHa. Han eJ1Ha 30Ha OT oprocrars DT oxoao e.ll.HH MeT'bP ca nOCT8- BeHH na CTeHHTe necer CTOS!llI,H )KeHCKlf <PHrypa B crpora peADUa, BCH'IKH J10CTa MaCHBHH H H306pa3eHDB'bB' B~COK peJIe<P: lIeTHpH ca na lIeJIHaTa CTeHa, nD'tpU-H3. CTeHHTe DTJIHBO H .lI.HCHa. Te H3n'bJIBaT UHJIOTD rtoMelll,eHHe C TeXHHTe 6HeIl).1l aa D'IH'· B,lI.HfHaTH aarope J10CTa )te6eJIHp'bue,' TB'b'p,lle rOJIeMIi H rpy6H JIHu.a,a C'blll,O. If. C TeXHHTe apHaMeHTa.'1HH, JIHCTDBHJ1HH saaspureaa na pOKJIUTe C BOJIYTH. I('bM TOBa HJ1BaT H rrscrpare naCTeJIHH OOH - lIepBeHO,CHHbO H Ka<pSlBO, aa JIHua, POKJIH H DpHaMeHTH. EJ1Ha HeKaHeJIHpHHa MOHHHCKa nDJIYKOJIOHHAeJIH lIeTHpHTe <PHrYPH Ha }lBe H TflC'bIl).O TaK1i.Heee HaMlipaTOIIHa B MaTeM8- T~q~~Ta, .cpeaa ]J8cTfRi!lTa: .llpyrwre )J,Be cTe.HH ijMar no.nYKOJIOHlf, Q6a~eB)J,opHHCKH CTH;,', KOHTOHe H3JlH8aT~1\ ~UOK'bJIHaTa 30Ha, a 0.'1' -nona. Ha,ll'peJIe<PH8Ti:l30Ha ce HaMHpa eJlHH J10pHikKH <PPH3 or TPHfJIH<pH If MeTOnH, KOHTO He ca e.ll.miKBO IlIHpOKHH oro 'br JlOBH TPHfJIH<pH. Baecro 'brJ1o.BH K0J10BH B 'brJIHTe H8lIeJiHaTa crena ca MOHTHpaHH KOH30JlH C opeJl, npe)J,CTaBeH pen~HO. Te "3n'bJ1BaT MSICTOTO, HO nosese ancar, OTKaJIKOTO nDJ1nHpaT TeJKeCTTa aa apxHTeKTypaTaHaJ1 TSIX.

JIIOHeTa eH3n'bJIHeH OT ennacuena C roJIeMH, HapHCYBaHH C HaJle6eJIeHH JIHHHH <pHrypa, 1(0HTa ca rope-nony CllMeTpHIIHO nape.!leHHll OTrOBapSlT na naparaxcara aa )KeHCKHTE' qmfYPH)J,OJlY (06p.4). B cpenara CTOH H3- xaseaa napaxna eJ1Ha)KeHa C .lI.'bJlro OOJIeKJIO H nO.!lHaCH C BHCOKO B,llHfHara p'bKa BeHeu Ha e,ll.HH e3J1alI npen HeH. Hanseo OT eanaxa CJIe~BaT .lI.BaMa Op'bJKeHOCUll, a Ha}lSlCHO OT )KeHaTa

13

a

8

• 06p. 2a) Fpotinuuama npu C8eU{apU (nnan], Fig. 2a) Le tombeau pres de Soesiari (plan); 6) Fpotinuuama npu Ceeuiapu (exoo K7iM cmpunuuuama «a"tepa) 6) Le tombeau pres de Soesari (entree vers ta camera laterale}; 8) Empupus, 'Iepeempu, "Tomba delle Croci" (ruuuc}; e) Etrurie, Cervetri, "Tomba delle Croci" (plan); e) Arupui«, Opoona: .Jiippogeo di Ordona" (nxan]; e) Apulia, Ordona: "Hippogeo di Ordona" (plan)

ca napenenn enna CJIe,n npyra HeHHI1Te CJIyrHHH. Mb.IKeTe ca B H3TOl[HO 06JIeKJIO, nbpBH5IT C Mel[ 11 xorme, a npyrns r C llIJIT. Ili.paara OT ,nbJIrOnOJII1Te .lKeHH B,n5ICHO ,nbP)K11 enno canm.xe C sepnacxa 11 enno oiiaoxoe. Bropara ;ll.bP)K11 cann'sxe C OTBopeH nOXJIynaK. nOCJIe,nHI1Te nse npHCJIY)KHHl[KI1 ce 3aHI1MaBaT C e,nI1H rOJI5IM Cb,n 11 nOCTaBKaTa My. KOH5IT e noope r-nenan, C noncrparaaa rpusa 11 C ,n06- pa 103,na. KOHHI1KbT cezm na sepseno noxpnBaJIO B KJIaCI1l[eCKa noaa na e3,nal[ C xt.ca npnxecxa 11 KbC XHTOH, C nor.nen, HaCOl[eH KbM )KeHaTa H C B,nHrHaTa pbKa KbM He5I, a TH e

14

6

o

r-----'; I j.

~ (.,.. .

I I I ~._·,.-I

I I

I _ ..

...... ~-.

C BH,n aa 3HaTHa nennorpopka, He 1'0 nor.neacna, a r.nena HaCTpaHI1 11 113BbH cuenara.

Ilon <pl1rypaJIHaTa )KI1BOnI1C na JIIOHeTa, npen CTeHaTa, e 611JIO aauepeno KaMeHHO .nerJIO 11 <pparMeHTI1 na enna e,nI1KYJIa7• Hue H5IMa ,na 3aC5IraMe cera Te3H 06eKTH, a me 06bpHeM BHI1MaHHe na ar.npoca. KaK e 611.'10 Bb3MO)KHO B I'ercxa TpaKH5I OKOJIO 300-aTa r. np. H. e. ,na ce Cb3,na,ne e,nHO HOBO U5lJIO OT TaKa pa3- JII1l[HI1 eJIeMeHTH aa apxnrexrypara, cxy.nrrrypara 11 )KHBOnI1CTa. KOI1 HMnYJlCH H KOI1 BJlI151HI151 ca HrpaJIH TyK POJl5I? 3amo 11 no KOH Hal[I1H ca 611J1H npnern Te311 Ol[eBI1,nHO l[Y)K,nH BJII151HH5I8?

fp06HI1UH no cxeuara ,nPOMOC, npennsepue H rnaaaa xaxepa ce cpeiuar l[eCTO B TpaKH 51. B Tara peB09 ce Ha6J1IO,naBa ct.iuo 113- MeCTBaHe OT OCTa, HO nOMemeHH5ITa ca nape,neHH enno san npyro. CTpaHHl[HaTa KaMepa B Cneuiapn He e 06Hl[aHHa sa TpaKI15I. He e 0611l[aeH l;f CBO,nbT10. B TpaKH5I ce ynOTpe651-

3

4

• 06p. 3. Fpotinuuama npu Ceeuiapu (e aaena «auepa}, Fig. 3. Le tombeau pres de Soestari (la camera principnle]

• 06p. 4. I'potiuuuama npu Ceeuiapu cmenonuc . Fig. 4. Le tombeau pres de Scestari (peinture murale]

16

BaT 06HKHOBeHO nJIOCKHHT nOKpHB, Q>aJIlUHBHHT KynOJI H ztp., HO He nOJIYIJ:HJIHH,n;PHtJHH CBo,n;OBe. Te3H CBO,n;OBe ce cpemar nO-tJeCTO B MaKe,n;OHHH, MO>Ke 6H OTTaM ,n;a e nouina H,n;eHTa sa Ceeniapa. B MaKe,n;OHHH rp06HHIJ:HTe ca auase crporo CHMeTpHtJHH H 6e3 CTpaHHtJHH KaMepHll. 11 Te HMaT apXHTeKTypHO paasaeHeHH Q>aca,n;H, HO TaM HHK'b,n;e He ce cpeuia apXHTeKTOHHtJHaTa yxpaca na CTeHHTe B'bpXY BHCOK peJIeQ>, KaKTO B Csemapa. 06w.0 B3eTO, KOHCTPYKIJ:HHTa B Csemapa He ceo cpema HHTO B MaKe,n;OHHH, HHTO B CKHTHH, a TOBa 3HatJH HHK'b,n;e B C'bCe~HHTe paHOHH.CaMO e,n;HHHtJHU B3aHMHH eJIeMeHTH ce cpemar TYK-TaM. CBemapa npe,n;CTaBJIHBa eana HOB a KOM6HHaIJ:HSI OT xereporemra tJY>K~H eJIeMeHTH, nOBe1feTO OT KOHTO ca npeHeceHH OT ~OCTa aaJIetJHH 06- JIaCTH.

CTpaHHtJHH xauepa, acnaerpaa B nnaaa U nOMew.eHUHTa ce cpeiuar C'bW.O B ETPYPHJl H IO>KHa I1TaJIuSi (06p. 2 B, r)12. B rpooaauara B Calf .ll>KOBeHaJIe npa Baeza e OTKpHT np030peIJ: Me>K,n;y aBe C'bCeaHH rp06HH xaxepH13• Bt-rpeuraa nOMew.eHHH C I<OJIOHH H apXHTpaB ca n03HaTH OT e,n;HH XHnoreH OT aexponOJIa MYCTaQ>a Ilaura B AJIeKC3HAPHpU, pa3- nOJIO>KeHa C'bBCeM aaspas aa TOraaaWHHSI e.7JHHHCTHtJecKH CBHT. Te ea ooalfe (Sea >KeHCKH Q>HrypH, noceuia apxnrexrypara Ha.A TSiX. «l»HKTHBHH xapearaaa ce aaxapar B npH6JIH- 3UTeJIHa aHaJIorHSI caxo B rpOOHa-ra KaMepa B JIetJeUi., Kapearaaara TaM e C'bW.O C KaJIaTOC aa r JIaBaTa, 06JIetJeHa C ,n;'bJI'bf nennoc, HO TlI e H306pa3eHa B KJIaCHtJeCKaTa rp'bIJ:Ka cxeMa oes B,lIUrHaTH p sue aarope. JIHncBaT H JIHCTOBHTeBOJIYTH, KOHTO npH rp'bIJ:KHTe npHpo,n;HH 6o>KecTBa rrpexaaasar BaOJIHaTa CH 'IaCT B KJIOHtJeTa H 3MHHI•. 11. Mapa30Be H3CJIeaBaJI ceMaHTHKaT8 aa Te3HQ>urypH B KYJITYPHU 06J1aCTU H B )10-.II,(1,'.C"","" p>n,nY1ifJ.

Or AaJIe1fJ:lu UV.fUt\;C{1l csmo H oc06eHHTe KOHTO Hue n03HaBaMe C."O H:lIl(jo.n'IKQ,"m~HJ.eJ)8 OT IO>KHa' I1TaJIUSi •• Bspxy aasa OT AnYJIHSllII, cera B Bapu (06p., 5), OTKpHBaMe aHaJlOrHH CDC cpeaHaTa rpyna Ha >KHBOnHCTa B Csemapa (06p. 4). Bspxy ny6- .1HKyBaHHSI xparep OT Tpeanan, KOHHHK'bT B napanaa esna ce aaxapa B cpenara Ha CIJ:eHara, E,n;IIH MJIa.l1.e>K My nO.l1.HaCSI aeneu B csmara noaa • ..uBaMaTa ca CB'bp3aHU C norpeoanaas CIO>KeT aa 1I306pa)KeHlfeTO B e~HH HaHCKOC. «l»JlaHKHpaw.UTe rH BTopOCTeneHHH Q>HrYPH ca OTB'bH. jlaJlH e.l1.HKYJIaTa, naxepeaa B Cseutapa, HMa HlIKaKBO nO.l1.06Ho 3HatJeHHe, KaKTO ua aasara OT )lOJIHa I1TaJI HSI , He 3HaeM,' ,HO aepoarao e raxa H M. 4H'IHKOBa ro aarassa. OT >KIfBOnHCTa aa e.l1.MH rp06 B Kanya20 ce BH>K.I1.a KOHHHK C napaaao B.I1.HrH8TlI npeMu xpaxa na KOHSI, KOHTO roli H3.11.HB C'bUJ,O KJIa,CMtJeCKa noaa (06p. 6).

TYK e Ba>KHO .I1.a ce noxaace KOJIKO pa3JIHtJHM M ,n;aJIe'lHH ca BJIHSlHMSITa B'bpXY IJ:eJIHSI KOMnJIeKC B Cseuiapa. fP'bIJ:KOTO BJIHSlHHe e npo-

16

• 06p. 5. Kpamep e Bapu, Macinagrasse call. Fig. 5. cratere a Bart, Macinagrasse call

• 06p. 6. cfJpeC/Ul na eou« zp06 e Kanya. Fig. 6. Fresque d'un tombeau a Capoue....

JlHtJaJIO OCBeH B HSiKOH cpQpMaJlHH ,n;eTaHJlH H 'IaCTH aa apxarexrypara, -oute B'bH <lJPH3a C 6YKpaHHHTe aa sxona na rp06HHI1.aTa (cpasneHUH HMa H B xpaxa aa ..ueMeTpa H nepraMOHlII). Or'.llPyr8 crpaaa, B Cseuiapa KOHCTaTHpaMe e.7JeMeHTH OT )laJle'lHH 06J1aCTH OT xpaa na eJIHHHCTUqeCKHSI CBHT, aanp. OT ETPYPHH, OT ,llOJIHa I1T8JUfH H AJIeKCaH.I1.pHSI - OT Make.ztoHHSI e eaac nOJlYIJ:HJIHHAPU'IHHHT C80.I1.. Oceo- 6o.l1.eHH OT TSlXH8T8 rrspeoaaaaana' B38HMOCB1>P- 3aHQCT, ~~". MeldeHTH ca H3nOJI3YBaHH B HOaa 001J.{HOC1\, ~()~OOHO na CnOJIHH.

AKO p83r.ite.ttaMtf'Q~~~HH n'bT)KeHCKHTe CKYJInTYPOH .,q,HrYPll·(06.f!:·,' 3), "CDC crporara CH C.I1.'bp>KaHOCT H, • <Wo~T8;1J~a noaa re COOTBeTcTBYBaT B U3BeCTHaiCT~eH.Ha, rpsuxara cxeaa aa KopHTe.HoTeX_BH.I1.HH nOJIH H BOJIYTH .u.a>Ke HnpH,.",,:,' ,,', ",';'MHeHorn 60>KeCTBa ca 'IY>K,n;H eJIeMeH'TH~i.11~aHeTO aa p'bIJ:e.Te C'bC CneIJ:H<lJHtJOOTOnOJit1lKeHHe na ~JIaHTa ce cpema KaTO eJIeMeST B H3- TO'lHOTO H3KYCTao, aanp, B nepCenOJIHC, HO re HMaT e.l1.HH csoeoepaaea KO.l1. - HeBHHarH ca CB'bp3aHH C <lJYOKlt~UITa na HoceHe22• Cpew.aMe rH " npn CeH3anHOHHOTO KeJI1'CKO JIer JIO OT XOX.l1.0P<IJ B'bB BlOpTeM6epr(Wp. 7 H 8)23. TaM >KeHH C KaJl81'OC, ,Ha rJtaB8T8 HOCHT C MHrHaTH psue H C OO'bPHaT~"'Jl8Jlll.JlerJIOTO Ha KeJlTCKHH BJla.l1.eTeJl. Ta3H pa60Ta C npaBo ce CB'bp3Ba C npOToTHnH B ETPYPHH. ETPYCKOKeJITCKH, B3aHMHH Bp'b3KH H npaoopasa OT Flpenna A3HSI ce cpeuiar 'IecTO H HecJIY'IaiiHO B TpaKHiicKOTO H3KYCT8024• K'bM T03H B'bnpOC HHe w.e ce B'bpHeM OTH080.

HO rvrena HaB'bH 01' CIJ:eHaTa, a He K'bM eaaasa. B.I1.UrHaTaTa My .I1.eCHHIJ:a e ornpanena K'bM nes, HO He B3HMa peaJIHO seaeua. TOBa canosa, a He .I1.eiicTBHst. I1.HJI8Ta CIJ:eHa CO~'bp>Ka ,BMe CTeHHH B e.l1.HH 06w. CHrHYMK8pTHfJHOCTUJUl3H-

paH 3HaK .,BHCOKOnO'lHTaHHe". "

KOH.HlIK'bT, .KoATO ce.u.H aa ,H3TO'IOO,ce.u.JI026, H3r Jle>K.I1.a e a6cJIY>KaaHOTJIlIBO 01'06- JIe'leHH no H3TOtJH8 MO.l1.a npHCJly,)KHHIJ:H211, HO TOR ce HaMHpa 3aeAH()CKOH$I. CMMa X'LJIMHCT 'repel{, .R.aKTO T~K"~,a. Me(TI{OCTH ee npe.u.aaaTBTP1>~Jt.Te ,. ~pa1KeOHH. OKOJlO >KeHaTace,~aMJt.paT66n~'IeHH no rpoIJ:KH oopa- 3ellH ,I1.BHJKelJ.{H ce nOrp'bUK3 cxexa CJIyrHHH, KOHTO .I1.'bp>KaT npe.u.MeTH, n03H8THOTHOBO OT r'bpIJ:HSI, HO BCHqKU CTOSIT na ealla H3TO'lHa paxna OT rana aa H306pa3eHUTe B peJIeQ>HTe B nepCenOJIHc27 • ..ua>Ke caxo H OT Te3H npOTHBOnOJIO>KHOCTH MO>Ke .I1.a ce BH.I1.H KOJIKO HCliO H 06MHCJIeHO ce npOTHBonOCTaBSIT KOHTpaCTH,

5

6

3 ApXeOJIOrlllI, 4, 1987 r.

17

• Otip . 7. Jleeno am 6POH3, nasepeno 6 XOXOopc/J, Btopmeutiepe. Fig. 7. Lit en bronze trouoe a Hohdorj, Wurtemberg

• 06p. 8. Jleeno am 6POH3, uauepeno 6 Xoxiiopd: (oemaan), Fig. 8. Lit en bronze trouoe a Hohdor] (detail)

KaK Cb3HaTeJlHO ce xpt.crocaar IJ:Y)K,llJI eJleMeHTH.

Karo peKBH3HT B rOJl5lMaTa cueua BH)K,UaMe npeaaern, KOHTO ce npeap sutar B aTpH6YTH H KOHTO ca yrroTpe651BaHH BbB BceKH,UHeBHeTo, HO Te3H npennern ca 6HJlH rrOCTaBeHH npu rroKoHHHUHTe B rpooa: OPb)KH5I, MHoro 3"'1aTHH H cpern.pan csnose, KOHe npen rp06a2B, BeHUH29 H T. H., HO, pasonpa ce, He BCHIJ:KH 3ae,UHO. J1HrrcBa nanpaxep nanra HJlH PI'!TOH aa nnene, aKO xaaara e TaM. Taxasa JlOrHIJ:Ha nOCJle,UOBaTeJlHOCT B H306pa3HTeJlHH5I perrepToap He e TpaKHHCKa 'lepTa. TyK 1'51 He 6Y,UH HHKaKbB nnrepec, sauroro B cuenara He ce

18

onHCBaT peannn ,UeHCTBIHI HJlH Cb6HTH5I, a ce nOK33BaT H5IKOH 01' BaJlH,UHHTe B TpaKHHCKOTO ooiuecrso CHMBOJlH sa can H paur .

TOIJ:HO raxa e 11 C )KI1BOnHCTa B Kaaaan'surxara rpoouaua. TyK BI1)K,UaMe KaK ,UeMoHCTpaTI1BHO e ce,UHaJla 3HaTHaTa ,UBoHKa. TaKa KaKTO ,UB3MaTa ca CBbp3aHH OIJ:e611HHO e,UI1H C npyr-, 're ce npesputuar B e,UI1H uenrpanen CI1MBOJl Ha B3al1MHa rrOIJ:I1T 11 06lll,0 COUHaJlHO BI1- COKOnOIJ:I1TaHHe. Ct.uio uenrpanno, npennasnaIJ:eHO sa rry6JlHKaTa e 11 BnJlI1TaHeTO na ,UBeTe p sne. HaH-Ba)KHI15IT 3HaK na 11306pa)KeHl1eTO, KaKTO B Cseurapn, e B,UHfHaTaTa p'sxa C BeHeua. OTJl5IBO H ,U5ICHO ca ,U06aBeHH no e,UHa pennua BTopOCTeneHHI1 cpHrYPI130• MHMHKa, 06JleKJIO, HaKI1TH, a TyK H Me6eJlH, CBbp3BaT 11 Bb3BHIllaBaT ,UBOHKaTa B cpenara. BI1HO H 5ICTI15I 113r Jle)K,Ua, 'Ie ce nO,UHaC5IT OTJl5IBO aa Mb)Ka, a TOaJleTHI1Te rrpHHa,UJle)KHOCTI1 aa )Ke-

7

8

nara OT,lJ,HCHO. H B T03H CJIYllaH Te3H aetna He ce nO,lJ,HaCHT peaJIHO, T'bH KaTO BCHIlKO OH OHJIO H3JIHIlIHO: :lKeHaTa e Belle aaxaseaa c BCeB'b3MO:lKHH OH:lKYTa H e OOJIelleHa pa3KOIlIHO, a~'b:lK'bT Ce,lJ,H npen nperrsnaeaa C HCTHH Maca H ,lJ,a:lKe ,lJ,'bp:lKH Belle H llalliaTa C BHHO B necaauara CH. AKO cueaara ce aarepnperapa KaTO oaHKeT B KJIaCHlleCKHH CMHC'bJI, roraaa ce BH:lK,lJ,a HCHO, Ile C'bnpY3HTe He censr C'bBcex no rp'bUKH31 H He ca 3aeTH (Y nponenypara na H,lJ,eHeTO, a BCHIlKO HM ce HOCH caao aa noKa3, KaTO ce ,lJ,eMOHCTpHpa H300HJIHe KaTO naIlHH na :lKHBOT, a C TOBa ce H3T'bKBaT H npereaUHH aa nparezcaaaae aa BCHIlKH Te3H CTOHHOCTH. KaKTO B Csentapn, TaKa H TyK ce BH- 3yaJIH3Hpa e,lJ,HH H300P OT cnexr-spa na uepeMOHHaJIHH ,lJ,OKa3areJICTBa 3a COUHaJIHa HepapXHH H BHCOKa seer. B H300pa:lKeHHSlTa OT Ka- 3aHJI'bK ce HaOJIIO,lJ,aBa no-aasaa enaa JIYKC03Ha KOJIeCHHua H ,lJ,Ba paCOBH KOHH aa esna, KOHTO e HY»<:HO na ce ,lJ,'bp:lKaT OT CJIyrH. BeeKHMy CTaBa HCHO, se npHTe:lKaTeJIHT aa BCHIlKH reaM aetna pasno .. nara C KOHHPH, op'b:lKe~ HOCUH, ¢aH¢apHCTH. Ho aexa nOBTopIlM, cueaara neonacea )lelicTBflH, TH e ,lJ,eMOHCTpaTHBaa H npasa OlleBH,Z{HH, or enaa crpana, sacra or eOUHaJIHanf CTOHHOCTHa CHCTeMa32, a, OT npyra, nO,lJ,HaCH TeMH H C'b,lJ,'bp:lKaHHH na ropecnOMeHaTHTe 3HaTHH uepeMOHHH. Te3H uepeMOHHH HHe MO:lKeM ,lJ,a CH ra npe,lJ,CTaBHM C'bBcea peaJIHO. Te ca OHJIH nposeaena rrpea apeMe aa norpeoanaare rspacecraa npen rpoomniara. Orsacra TOBa na creaonaca ce BH:lK,lJ,a C'bBCeM HCHO: ¢ampapH ce Ha,lJ,YBaT, KOHHH C'bCTesaHHH ce npHroTOBJIHBaT, C'bCTesaHHH C )lByKOJIKH ce ,lJ,eMOHCTpHpaT B MaJIKHH KOHueHrpnsea xpt.r aa KynOJIa. BoeHHHTe· cueaa aa rasaaa aa npenasepnero B Ka3aHJI1>IlIKaTa rpooaaua ,lJ,a:lKe H ,Z{a HMaT HCTopHlleCKH nOBO,lJ, csuio He ca peaJIHO npencraseaa. HaIlHH'bT na H300pa:lKeHHeTO rosopa nO-CKOpO aa pHTyaJIHH OHTKH, aa varpaaa npe,lJ,CTaBJIeHHH npen caxara rpoeauua, na IlHHTO crena cueaara e HapHCYBaHa. H. BeHe,Z{HKOB yoe,lJ,HTeJIHO 00- MHCJIH )"bJIKYBaHeTO aa cuenare B T03H CMH-

C'bJI33• - ,

HHe ce ,lJ,HCTaHUHpaMe OT KJIaCHlleCKHTe HHTepnpeTaUHH na )l{HBOnHCTa aa KaSaHJI'bIlIxara rpoeaaua. Texanre HOMeHKJIaTy.pH H OOHCHeHHH C nouourra aa rp suxara HKOHOrpa$HH OCTaBHT T'bKMO 3aTOBaOTKpHTH B'bnPOCHS4, aautoro H300pa:lKeHHHTa B Ka3aHJI'bK H Csemapa He ca rpsuxa II He MoraT na ce rperapar C'bC C'bruHH aayxea JIHCTpYMeHTapayx. Karo TpaKHHcKH TBOPOH Te HMaT npyro c'b,lJ,'bp:lKaHHe: caaonpeacraasae aa 3HaTHHH nparexcarea H3 rpotiauuara, MaHH$ecTaUHH na COUHaJIHHTe CHMBOJIH aa ooraTcTBo H BJIaCT. Hexa ,lJ,a rn nOBTopHM: pa3KoIlIHH oaHKeTH, nepCOHaJI (,lJ,a:lKe H IlY:lK,lJ,eCTpaHeH), JIYKC03HH KOHe, yxacrae c ycnex B arOHH H soeaHH OHTKH. H ztaere rpooHHUH nOKa3BaT KOJIKO KOHceKBeHTHQ B TpaKHH Ue.1IH nporpaxn na H300pa3HTeJIHOTO H3KYCTBO ca OHJIH nOCTa-

BHHH B cJIY:lKoa sa Ta3H nocryanpama penpe- 3eHTaUHH36• B, THX He ce onHCBaT KOHKpeTHH C'bOHTHH HJIIt"' ,lJ,eHCTBHH, KaKTO B rp'bUKOTO H3KYCTBO, He ce ,pa3Ka3BaT MHTOJIOfHlleCKH HCTOPHH ,lJ,a:lKe H roraaa, xoraro ce H3nOJI3YBaT csorsernn IlYiK,lJ,).r 00pa3UH H MO,lJ,eJIH. HesaBHCUMO OT ,lJ,HHaMHKaTa rra HHKOH OT,lJ,eJIHH apTHKyJIaUHH cuemrre H $HrYPHTe ce JIHllIaBaT OT ,Z{BH:lKeHHe, npeapsutar ce nO-CKOpO B no- 3HpaHe H CTaTHKa.

Iloxasaaara TpaHC¢apMaUHH na IlY)I{,lJ,H npoHBH na H3KYCTBOTO B e,lJ,Ha ¢aPMYJIa aa CTaTHKa C uen COOCTBeHa penpeaenrauas MO:lKe ,lJ,a ce H3HBH oute nO-HarJIe,lJ,HO C npHMepH.OT TaKa BHCOKO pa3BHTaTa TpaKHHCKa TopeBTHKa.

E,lJ,HH npaxep e Ilaaanopcxoro C'bKPOBHrue. MO:lKe OH T03H cepaas C HerOBHTe ,lJ,eBeT sacra nee KOMnJIeKTeH. C'b3,lJ,a,lJ,eH e B TpaKHH H nOIlTH e,lJ,HOBpeMeHHO C rpoOHHUHTe B CBemapa H Ka3aHJI'bKS6: e,lJ,Ha rOJIHMa $HaJIa,

,lleTHpH pHTOHa B'bB <PoPMa na :lKHBOTHHCKO npOTOMe, TpH pHTOHa KaTQ :lKeHCKa rJICIBa H enaa aM<Popa, KOHTO C OTBopHTe aa ,Z{'bHOi'O CH e npHcnocooeHa KaTO pHTOH. rOpeonHcaHHHT naxan na KOHTaMHHaUHH HaOJIIO,Z{aBaMe ,lJ,a:lKe H npa <PoPMHTe aa C'b,lJ,OBeTe.C'b]lOBeTe C ,lJ,ynllHuH sa H3THIlaHe (pnTOH") C ¢apMa na :lKHBOTHHCKa rvraaa HJIH npOTOMe aa :lKHBOTHO n'bpBOHallaJIHO He ca HHTO TpaKHHCKH, HHTO rpuuxa. TeXHHTe npOTOTHnH npOH3XO:lK,lJ,aT OT Ilpenaaa H3TOK. Ho caxo e.n.HH-e,lJ,HHCTBeH eK3eMnJIHp OT naHarlOpHrue- PHTOH'bT C npOTOMe aa K03eJI, HMa THnHIlHaTa pHTOHHa ¢aPMa aa por. Ilpa C'bKpOBHrueTO CeHaOJIIOnasa :lKeJIaHHe, ,lJ,a:lKe H OT C'b,lJ,OBeTe C ¢apMara aa :lKeHCKH rJIaBH, ,lJ,a ce aanpasar PHTOHH, KaKTO H pasxoumara aM¢apa c aXeMeHH,lJ,CKH ,lJ,P'b:lKKH ,lJ,a ce npeaspae B PHTOH37• Pa30Hpa ce, Ile aa TOBa e HMaJIO C'bOTBeTHH MO;neJIH OT ,lJ,aJIeIlHH OOJIaCTH aa aHTHIlHHH CBHT. HHe no- 3HaBaMe rJIHHeHH aM¢apH C IlYIlYPKH Ha ,lJ,'bHOTO OT A3'bpoeH.lI.:lKaH38. AMaH,lJ,pn nYOJIHKYBa C'b~O enaa cpeospaa aM¢apa OT CHHone39• Ha ,lJ,'bHOTO aa naaanopcxara aM¢apa HMa nynxa, orpopxean KaTO aer-spcxa rJIaBH. Mo:lKe OH H TaM na e HMaJIO CneUHaJIHO saxpeneaa llyIlYPKH. HHe BH:lK,lJ,aMe KaK enaa nasa C rpsuxa ¢oPMCI ce cHa6,lJ,HBa C aXeMeHH,lJ,CKH ,lJ,P'b:lKKH H no npnxepn OT ,lJ,aJIeIlHHH nOHTYC ce npHcnOCOOHBa KaTO pHTOH. no T03H HallHH UHJIOTO csxpoamne OT Ilauanopame 'ce C'bCTOH caxo OT PHTOHH, C H3KJIIOIleHHe na ¢HaJIaTa. TOBa carypao e OHJIO :lKeJIaHHeTO aa anpecara H cHrypHo e OHJIO 3aBHCHMO OT OOHllaHTe Ha TpaKHTe ,lJ,a nHHT npena BCHIlKO OT pHTOHH. MO:lKe, pasoapa ce, npa ,lJ,BeTe ,lJ,ynKH aa aMrpopara-parca na MHCJIHM H sa OOHllaH aa noOpaTHMHBaHeTO'O. AKO npHTe:lKaTeJIHT e OHJI rpsx, Te3H KOMoHHauHH ca HeMHCJIHMH. A,lJ,peCaT'bT aa raxa ueHHHH cepsaa OT Ilaaanopaute naace caxo C TOBa ce H3HBHBa KaTO TpaKHeu41•

Pa3JIHIlHHTe C'b,lJ,OBe ce cOUHa~H3HpaT KaTO KOMnJIeKTeH cepaas csuro H spes pa¢HHHpaHO oOMHCJIeHH MOTHBHH B3aHMOBp'b3KH • .up'b:lKKHTe

19

aa PHTOHHTe BbB <PapMa aa ~HBOTHHCKa raasa ca MO.IlMHpaHH KaTO J1bBOBe,a KaTO CqlHHKC - .Ilpb:lKKHTe na .>KeHCKHTe fJI8BH. DPH TSlX, 06- paTHO, OT.IJHBHHSlT OTBOP .IlOJ1YHa, llUlSITa e J1'bBCKa rnaaa, a KaTO r JIaBH aa C<pHHKC ca H3pa60TeHH npn :lKH80THHCKHTe PHTOHH anJ1HK8UHHTe .IlOJIY na .n.pbJKKHTe. 06alfe TOKMO rJ1aBH na J1bB H aa C<pHHKC KpaCSIT noprara B PMe<PHOTO H306pa)KeHHe aa aM<PopaTa, KaKTO me BH.IlHM nO-.IlOJIy. A npn Ta3fI aM<popaPHTOH BHHOTO Teqe npes YCTaTa Ha HerbpCKH rJ1aBH, 8 aer-spcxare rJ1aBH ca TOKMO MOTHBbT na roJISIMaTa <pHaJIa. Te3H MOTHBHH B3aMMO' Bpb3KH ca THnHqHO TpaKHiicKH. HHe TOKY-III.O ru npOCJIe.IlHXMe npa KOM6HHal~HHTe na rpsuKH C H3TOqHH MOMeHTH B J1S1BaTa H .IlSiCHaTa qmrypHa penaua B crenonaca aa CBeIlJ,apH. B TpaKIUI, KaKTO H· sa npyra MeCTa,ce pa- 60TH no e.Ilua .Il06pe 06MHCJ1eHa. H OCb3HaTa H306pa3HTeJIHa nporpaxa.

Ilpa rpo6HHUHTe H npn Cb,l(OBeTe HHe H3- , Be)K.IlaMeTeMaTa OT crpyxrypare na BbHIlIHara pasrxa KbM H306pa3HTe"lHHSI HM peneproap, no 06m.onpH3HaTOTO TOJIKyBaHe aa yxeHHTe Ha pHTOHa C rJIaBa Ha MeH ca npe.IlCTaBeHH no.n.BH3HTe aa Te3eM H Xepaxt.n B enaa CHMeTpHqHO pa3nOJIO)KeHa cueHa42• Kax .IlBaMaTa MJIa.n.H repoa no6e>K,l(aBaT cspaara H 6HKa - rosa e e,l(Ha 6e3KpaMHO qeCTO cpeuiaaa MHT0J10npIHa HCTOPHSI S rpsnxore H3- KYCTBO. TYK TSI noxasaa caao eaaa rJI06aJIHO npaera THnH3aUHSI, HeIlO.IlBH)KHa xep8JI.IlHxecxa cxexa, C KOSITO ce BH3yaJIH3Hpa sesHHSlT MOTHB "n06e)K.IlasaHC aa npoTHsHHK". <PpoHTaJ1HaTa J1bSCKa MyuyHa nan paMOTO aa Xepaxt,n e e.IlHH 'IeCTO ynorpecasa» llIa6- JIOH S TpaKHMCKOTO H3KYCTSO, e.IlHa eM6JIeMa, raxa KaKTO H USlJIaTa cueaa e KaTO eM6JIeMa.

"npHCb.IlaTa aa Ilapac" na nropara nasa C r naaa aa MeH4S ce aassa CbBCeM HSMeHeRa -::npeSbpHaTa e S e.n.HO CT8THqHO H306pa.>KeHHe aa rpyna OT 60rOBe B crpora CJlMerpHnU. Ho H C Ta3H cueaa ce peracrpnpa COUH3J1Ha Mepa'pXHSI, na KoeTO CJIY)KH csmo H Ha,Z{nHCB8- HeTO aa (0)KeCTSeHH HMeHa: e,Z{Ha MaTpOHaJ1Ha )KeHa (Xepa) H e,Z{HH MJIMe)K (UapHc-AJ1eKcaazrsp) ca pa3nOJIO)KeHH na TpOHOBe S cpenara na cueaara. MJIa,Z{HTe 'z{eBoMKH (ATHHa H Xepa) I'H <pmlHKHpaT KaTO IlepH<PePHH <pHrypa. HSlJIaTa KOMIl03HUHSI (:JIY)KH sa nOKa3 aa enna H,Z{HJIHSI B ,Z{sopUOBa 06CTaHOBKa.

Ha pHTOHa C raasa aa OBeH45 60rbT nHOHHe He e npencrasea, KaKTO B rpsnxara MHTOJIOrHSI, C Apaanaa, a C enaa scena aa HMe Epaona. 11 Ta3H cneaa e nsrpaneaa S crpora CHMeTpHSI. Te ,Z{BaMaT8 oopasyaar eaaa TOp)KeCTBeHa .n.BoiiKa B cpenara, a TaHUYBaruHTe ,Z{eBoiiKH nOCTaBSIT KOMIl03HUHOHHaTa paaxa, TOBa He e H306pa)KeHHe aa rnana, He e He- 06Y3'z{aHOTO JIY,Z{YBaHe B .n.HOHHCOBCKa KOMnaJiHSI, He e MHTOJIOrHqeCKH pasxaa, a e cueaa na TaHUbopKH npen 3HaTHH SJIa,Z{eTeJIH B nJIaKaTHO npe.n.CTaSHTeJIHa <PaPMa. 11 spea Ta3H CHMeTpHQHa KOMn03HUHOHHa opraaasa-

20

UHSI ee H3TOKBa HepapXHSI, Bb3SHIlIaBaHe Ha UeHTpaJ1HHTe<pHrYPH H nO,Z{'IHHSlBaHe aa nepa¢epHHTe KOMnOHeHTH.

Bspxy TesH apHCTOKpaTH'IeCKH csnose

'Ipes YMeCTHO H3nOJI3YB8He H~ MHTOJIOrHqeCKH HMeHa ce nOKa3BaT rOJIeMH nphBH3H, UHTHpaT ce CTpyKTypH aa 06m.eCTBOTO, aa ,l(a ce nonseprasr csuteapexeaao nepM3HeHTHH oomecrBE'HH npereauan,

B HOBOHaMepeHaTa n03J1aTeHa cpeospua

KaHHqKa OT Por03eH N!! 155 (06p. 9 a)46, cueaara B ropHHSI CMHC'bJ1 e JIecHopa30HpaeMa. JI.aJIH ce xacae sa H306pa)KeHHe' aa BeH'z{H,Z{a HJIH ApTeMH'z{a, OCTaBa BTopOCTeneHeH asnpoc, H aHTHQHHSlT Ha6J11O,l(aTeJI enaa JIH ce e 3aMHCJ1S1JI sa 1'OBa. l1306pa}KeHHeTO aspxy T03H . C'l>,Il ce HapCJK,Z{a 6e3 nporaaopesae B onaca-

HHTeCTpYKTVPH: llHsyaJIHaTa ,Z{eKJIaMaUHSI e eM6JIeMaTa . "CHJIa H ,npeo,llOJUIBaHe", H3Ka3aHa C MeTa-<PopaTa ,;JIOB H nJIftqKa". 11 TyK ce BH)K,Z{a C'b3HaTeJIHaTa H.n.06p~ OBJIa,llftHa KOHTaMHHaUHSI aa H306pa3HTeJIaU eJre~eIrrH •. n03HaTH HH OTlIaCTH 01' 113ToKa, OT1faC'fH OT F-OPUHSI.

Ilonooea e H c,JIYllaSiT C'bC cpeospnara xaHHIIKa OT Por03eH .N'!! 154 (06p. 96)47. TopesT'bT H3pa60THJI aa CTeHaTa na csna S peaep H B rpoaaa cepas llIaMOHa "fOJ1S1M repon B ,Z{aJIeqH8, qY>K,Z{aCTpaHa". ToA no6e~,Z{aBa C'bC CBOSI 6o$.n.yraH-rpH<PoH, nJISI'IKOCBa KOHe HHa,l(BHi.\8OffBCHHlKeuc.KH speroae (aMa30HKH). TOBaTYK e.e;u,nHKOj{ (~), a nepasxaaaama cueaa. 5Ic~oeH3n~,aHeTQ.uarp'bU-

KHSI MHT sa Xepa.K'bJI. .

Ilpn rperara KaHHlIKa oN'! 157 (oop. 9 B)48 CTOSIT 60roBe (AnOJIOH H BeH,Z{H,Ila-ApTeMH,Z{a) penpesenraraaao aa ceMaHTHqHOTO BH3yaJ1Hsapaae Htl <PaPMYJ1aTa "BJ1aCT HM 3SSlP H npapona", B OO)KecTBeHaTa crpepa ce H3,l(HraT KBa'z{pHrHTe C KpUJIaTH KOHe H C KOJIecHHqapKU. ~ 06p'bIIJJjeMa onrmca BHCOKHSIT peJIe<P n03BQJI~Ba H306paB{eHHeyo 'z{a ce npesopHe B opsaxear. .C-weJI8 H.1J'bK BJIftBO H KJIOHqe B,l(SlCHOM3pKHpaT OCHOBHHTe C<PePH na npaponara: "cIlJIopa H $aYHa".

OTHOBO Xeparcsn e UeHTpaJIHaTa <pHrypa B H306pa:lKeHHeTO aa <pHaJIa N!! 4 (o6p. 10),. Ha Haii-penpe3eHTaTHBHoTO npoH3Be,Z{eHHe aa HaXO,Z{KaTa OT Poro3eH49. B Ta3H cueaa ce npe,Z{asa ,Z{06pe n03HaTaTa Ha pa3JIHQHH MecTa pa3JIHqHO narepnperupaaa reaa aa nereaaara aa Asre, KOSITO TbKMO 3aTOBa aa <pHaJIara OT Poroses e OT rOJISIM anrepec, 3am.OTO aa aes ce BH.lK,Z{a THnHQHO TpaKHHcKaTa npepaeorKa. KaKTo rp'bUKHTe MaHCTOpH nOBTapSlT Ha TeXHHTe oraenaaa 01' 6pOH3 MOTHBa no enaa 06ruo pasnpocrpaneaa cxeaa, raxa H TpaKHiiCKH}lT ropear npacrroccoaaa oopaseua no CBOH HaIlHH: e,Z{HH .n.OCTa nHSlH rpaxaeu ce 3aHHMaBa C enaa 3HaTHa, HaKHTeHa TpaKHHKa. B KOHTpaCT K'bM rpsuxare npepaoorxa aa TeMaTa Xepaxsn TyK e nosexe aaer C naseaero aa paSHOBeCHe. OTKOJIKOTO C TOBa ,Z{a ,l('bpna Asre K'bM ceoe CH H ,Z{a if CBaJISI npexara, a TH noCKOPO ro no.n.nHpa. TOM e qOpJIaB, He TaKa

a

-----

9

8

• 06p. 9. a) Kauuiaca M255 om Poeosen, a) Peti t broe No 225 de Rogozen; 6) Kanuntca M 254 om Poeosen; 6) Petit broe No 254 de Rogozen, 8) Kanuiaca M 257 om Poeosen, e) Petit broe No 257 de Rogozen

cpecaH KaTO Ha rpbUKHTe orne~8na H BHnbT My CTOH B npOTYIBOpeqHe C HaKI1TeHaTa My naprnsopxa. nOJIqepTaBaHeTO na nHHHCTBOTO, qOpnaBOCTTa, naCHBHOTO ~bPlKaHHe na MblKa, orpynsanero C HaKHTH na xcenara ca pa3nHKHTe KbM rpbUKOTO npenaB8He Ha pa3- Ka3a 3a H3HaCHnBaHeTO Ha ABre. Te H3TbKBaT Ta3H rsopoa KaTO TpaKHI"IcKa. TOBa 6J1lo~0 HY! npe~CTaB5I HaH-~06pOKaqeCTBeHOTO rperupane H8 Ta3H reva H e eJI.HHCTBeHOTO C Ha~nHC

AvrE. 11 TOBa BY! opnearnpa B Ta3H nOCOKa:

Ha~nHCH Ha MHTOnOrHqeCKH HMeHa, KaKTO TyK, HMa nOqTH pe~OBHO na eTpYCKH or neza.na, ~OKaTO na rpt.uxnre or-nenana rH H51Ma. Taxaaa nonxpena na naME'TTa sa MHTOnOrHqeCKHTe HCTOPHII qpe3 I-Ia~nHCH e 6Hna HylKHa caao B 06.naCTH C ner-spcxo nace.nenne. Ha TpaKHHCKaTa cjmana Ha~nHCbT II C'1Q}KeTbT OTp3351BaT npnopureraara CbiUHOCT H npenaC51T npencrasenara cuena 01' cpenara H3 rpaKHHCKaT8 apHCTOKpamH! B MHTOnOrHqeCKa cdiepa. BI13ya.nH3HpaHeTO ua pasxaaa aa XepaKb.ll H Asre npecnensa TyK CbBceM npyr a uen, OTlCOJlKOTO B rpt.uxnre H306palKeHH H.

21

MaTepnaJl'bT no Te3H B'bnpOCH c'b6pax J-Ia ztpyro MHCT050.

TaKHBa 11306pa)KeHHH KaTO paarnenannre TyK J-IHMaT 3a ueJI ,na pa3Ka3BaT rp'bUKI1 MHTOBe, MaKap H ,na e HCeJ-I MHTOJlOrl1qJ-IHHT HM KOHTeKCT. Te nO-CKOpO onHCBaT CTaTYCI1, BI1- 3ya,IIH3HpaT HepapXHH, J\HKTYBaT HOPMH, B'b3- BHwaBaT B 60)KeCTBeHH crpepn. Ta3H ,nI1KUHH MO)Ke na ce J\OJIOBH H B CueJ-IHTe OT Cseutapn 11 Ka3aJ-IJI'bK H no H306pa)KeHH51Ta at.pxy csJ\OBeTe.

PeJlecpHOTO H306pa)KeHHe B'bpXy aMcpo-

paTa-pHTOH OT Flauarropnuie (06p. 11), MHCJ1H, He TpH6Ba J\a ce T'bJIKyBa KaTO pasxaa ua rp-suKH MI1TOBe, m.npexn qe lfMa pennua I"'bPUH3- - MH, HO H TaM ca BI13yaJIH3HpaHH C T51XHa nOMOllI, HOpMH H pHTyaJIH aa TpaKHHCKOTO 06llI,eCTBO.

Ha rn.pso M51CTO, J\a OTnpaBHM nornen K'bM "fIpa3HHqHa'Fa nopra" K3TO CMHCJleH uenr-sp na H306pa)f{eHHeTO. K. KOJleB rosopu sa spara na rpooaaua H a3cnOJ\eJI51M C H51KO.TlKO J\On'bJlHHTeJlHH 0651CHeHH51 HerOBOTO CXBauiane'". Flpen rpoonnua-ra ca 6HJlH npOBeJ\eHH norpeoannu pnryana C MY3HKa H nrpa.

Bparara B CI~eHaTa B'bpXy aMcpopaTa-pHTOH e ,neHCTBHTeJlHO npa3HHqHO yxpacena (06p. 11). Ha ropnare 'brJlH ce HaMHpaT eM6JIeMHH anJlHKaUHH B'bB cpopMa Ha KpH.TlaTH JI'bBCKH r JlaBH, a nony ca KJleKHa.TlH CCPHHKcoBe . .IlBeTe XOpH30HTaJIHH rpeJ\H HMaT KHMaTHOH KaTO ,neKop, a paMKHTe ca KaTO HOHHHCKH KOJIOHH. MaJlKaTa cpHrypa na e,nHH c.nyra, KOHTO r.nena npes orsopa, e J\aJ\eH aTpH6YTHBHO na CHrHyMa "BpaTa"52. T03H cHrHYM .Bpara" ct.oourasa lIUlCTOTO H spevero na npencraaennre C'b6HTHH -- npeJ\ rp06HHqHaTa cpaca,na, npe,nH T51 ,na 6'bJ\e 3aCHnaHa OT MOrHJIaTa.

B'bB sp'ssxa C TOBa npencrasa aa enna cpacana nasa T. Hap. rpoo aa <PHJlHn MaKeJ\OHCKU B'bB Bepruna, KOHTO AH)lPOHHKOC OTKpH npenn HHKO.TlKO rO)l.HHH53. TaKHBa BpaTH C no-npocra H3pa60TKa ce cpeiuar qeCTO B MaKe)l.OHUH, nanpauep Te3H OT Da.TlaTHua54 H.TlH OT JIaHraJ\ac55, K'b)l.eTO ca aanaaenu nsa Me)l.aJlbOHa OT 6p0H3, eJ\lIHH5IT npeJ\CTaB5IllI, r .naaaTa Ha Me,nY3a, ,npyrHHT JI'bBCKa rJIaBa. TaKana npara e aanaseua OT TpaKHHCKaTa rporianua npn Me3eK56. Ilpes eJlHHH3Ma BpaTH ca 6H.TlH ynoTpe651BaHH OT r'bpUHTe KaTO KYJlHCH npH npeJ\CTaBJleHH 51 , nO-K'bCHO C'bllI,O OT PHMJI51- HHTe, KaKTO BaHUMaH nOKa3Ba57.

DopTaTa BOJ\H K'bM eJ\Ha TpaKHHCKa rp06- nnua, K051TO npeJ\H3BHKBa npencrasa sa uepeMOHHH, nO)l.06Ha na ormcanara no-rope npen cpaCa)l.aTa na rpotinnuara B Caeuiapn. <pHrypnara cuena OTJlHBO na sparara asr.neacna rearparma (06p. II). KaTO Wa6.TlOHH, napenenn enna ,no npyra B CTepeOTHnHH n03H, pasvaxBaT MeqOBe qeTHpHMa Mb)f{e, 06.TleqeHH B K.llaMHJ\H. MeqOBe C J\P'b)f{KH B'bB cpopMa na nTHUH (MaxaHpH)58 C3 THnHqHH aa rpaxnre. KaTO KpaHHa cpHrypa eJ\HH MY3HKaHT HaJ\YBa e)~H3 MaJlKO KpHBa syp.na, naaauia pHTMHTe Bep05lTHO na e,nHH soenen TaHU. HerOBHHT

22

• 06p. 10. C/JuaAa M 4 om POe03eH. Fig. 10. Phiale No 4 de Rogozeti

HHCTpYMeHT ce paannvaaa OT npaBH51 l! noT'bH'bK cannnnr na r'bpUHTe59. Bt.npexn qe ca OqeBHJ\HH rp-sumrre CTHJlOBH eJIeMeHTH, H3- pasenn B npeJ\cTaB5IHeTO na cpHrypHTe B TaHUOBa nosa, cuenara He e nanpanena no rpt.uKH MaHl1ep H B reuara H5!Ma HI1llI,O rp'suxo. Hape)l.eHHTe eJ\Ha J\O )l.pyra cpHrypH C norJleJ\ HaB'bH OT cueHaTa He ce CB'bp3BaT C'bC C'bceJ\HI1Te cpHryplI, H5IMaT ornourenne 1I K'bM sparara. fJIaBHHTe cpHrypH B creaornrcnre OT Ka3aHJI'bK l! Csemapu rJIeJ\aT C'bllI,O HaB'bH. Toaa opnearnpaae na cpHrypl!Te K'bM Ha6J1I-OJ\aTeJIH He e rpt.uxn HaqHH na nsoopaxcenne, )l.OKaTO B TpaKHHCKaT3 TopeBTllKa TO e C'bBCeM 061IqaHHo. He Hil yuynsa, qe MHorOTO zoceraWHH MlITOJlOrHqeCKH T'bJlKYBaHl!51 na Ta3H aMcpopa60, KOJIKOTO H OCTpOyMHll )l.a ca, BHnarn OCTaBHxa Hel13HCHeHH B'bnpocH. 3aCT'bnenara TeMa "TpaKHHcKH TaHU C MeqOBe" e nOJ\06Ha na 1I306pa3eHllTe BoeHHH 6l!TKH B nponoca na Ka3aHJI'bWKaTa rpooanua.

K'bM Ta3H reva HH BOJ\H H cpaanennero C'bC cnOMeHaTOTO HOBOOTKPHTO JIerJIO Ha eJ\HH KeJITCKH ananere,n, naxepeno B Xoxnopdi, BI-OpTeHM6epr (06p. 7 H 8). !KeHcKH cpHrypH HOCHT paMKaTa Ha JlerJlOTO C B)l.HrHaTll p'bue H 06'bpHaTll )l.JlaHH, KaKTO xcenure OT xavepara B Cseutapn. AHa CTeHaTa na pavxara e H306pa- 3eH C rpasnpann JIHHllll TaHU na M'b)KKH CPllr-ypn C MeqOBe nO)l.06HO na avrpopara OT Tlananopmne (06p. II).

TyK tue ce B'bpHeM K'bM m.npoca aa qy)KJ\HTe HMnYJlcHH ccpepH l! BH3yaJleH KOHTeKCT B 1I3KYCTBOTO na TpaKH5I. 3a xereporennocrra na Te3H BJlH51HH5!e nncano J\OCTa. Ornocno Cseutapn ce oxaaa, qe OCBeH H5IKOH cpopMa.TlHH )l.eTaHJlH, KaTO 06J1eKJlO H H5IKOH peKBH31ITH, 3aHMcTBYBaHH OT f'bPUH5I, aaxcna pOJI5! ca

10

11

• 06p. 1 J. J1306pa;J!Celwe na asubopama - pumott om Il auaeiopuuie, Fig. 11. La representation de lamphore - rhyton de Panagjurikte

nrpana '-Iy)K)J.H eJleMeHTH OT )J.aJle'-IHl1 paHoHH I-Ia eJlHHHCTH'-IeCKH5I CB5IT, KaKTO H HMnYJlCH OT IO)KHa HTaJlH5I HJlH ETPYPH5I. EHX HCKaJl na 06bpHa BHHMaHHe H Ha H5IKOH eTpycKHUH3MH, KaKTO H )J.a cnovena aa HaJTH'-IHeTO aa KeJlTCKH <popMaJlHH eJleMeHTH.

XY)J.O)KeCTBeHO yxpaceaoro JlerJlO OT

Xoxnoprp e KeJlTCKO (06p. 7 H 8)61, 06a'-Ie TO nOKa3Ba Bpb3KH H C ETPYPH5I, OT rOJl5lM HHrepec ~a Hac ca ranuyaamare Me'-IOHOCUH, KOHTO B T03H CJlY'-IaI"1 6e3 CbMHeHHe H3nbJlH5IBaT e)J.HH noenen TaHU (06p. 17), OTJl5IBO H )J.51CHO re ca cjvlaHKHpaHH OT no ezma aoeana KOJleCHHua, e)J.HH BH)J. KYJlHCHH peKBH3HTH npn H3nbJlHeHHeTO na enna xy JlTOBa uepeMOHH5I. PaMKHTe na <pHrypHTe OT Ilananopmue naBaT BJl5IBO CBHpa'-IbT na 3YPJl3, a B)J.5ICHO nparara (06p. 11). C Ta3H a HaJlOrH5I HCKaM )J.3 06bpHa BHHM&HHe, ne H306pa3eHHTe cuemt ca cpaBHHMH H '-Ie xY)J.O)KeCTBeHllTe BJlH5IHH5I ca e)J.HaKBII.

TpaKHHCKH5IT TopeBT ynoTpe651Ba B aM-

<popaTa-pHToH OT Ilauanopnme He caxo rpj.uKH TI1T10JlOrH'-IHH eJleMeHTH, HO ct.tuo KeJlTCKH H eTpYCKH. Ilpnexra '-Iy)KJT,H H306pa3HTeJlJ-IH nporpaMH, KoraTO Te My )J.ona)J.aT 3a TOBa, KoeTO HCKa na H3Ka)Ke: na Cb06Ill,H 06ll~eCTBeHH co- 6HTH5I no npencrasara H )Ke.rraHHeTO na anpecaTa. BOeHHH5IT TaHU TYK e TpaKHHCKH. Ho csunrre H306pa3HTeJlHH eJleMeHTH ce BH)K)J.aT ouie no-nenocpencraeno, OTKOJIKOTO na KeJlTCKOTO .ner.no na eTpYCKH ypnn OT 6pOH3 C T3H-

UYBaIll,H Me'-IOHOCUH, H KaTO BoeHHH 3peJlHIll,HH TaHUH csmo H na enna nasa OT ETPYPH5I B Kap.ncpye (06p. 12)62. Ilapanent.r C aasara e O'-IeBHneH. T03H KYJlTOB TaHlL C OPb)KH5I 06a'-Ie e pa~npOCTpaHeH B ETPYPH5I H ropHa HTaJlH5I oute B apX3H'-IHO BpeMe63• TpaKHHCKH5IT TopeBT npeHaC5I MOTHBa H H3nOJl3YBa BpaTaTa KaTO ceMaHTHl!eH 3HaK. Ct.utespeueauo T5I naaa HHCPOPMalLH5I aa M5ICTOTO, BpeMeTO H pasxoura na apHCTOKpaTH'-IeCKaTa 06CTaHOBKa, KaKTO KOJleCHHUHTe na JI(-'r JlOTO OT Xoxnoprp.

Cuenara na .ll:BaMaTa, 3aeTH CbC ce6e CH, Mb)Ke OT)J.51CHO Ha BpaTaTa HOCH CMHCbJla Ha 1'e3H nJlaKaTHH H306pa3HTeJlHH cb06Ill,eHH5I (orip. 11). CaMOCT05lTeJlHO KOMnoHHpaHa, T5I oT6eJl5l3Ba enHH npyr aKT na uepeMOHH5ITa - ranaenero no np0664 KaTO Ba)KHa '-IaCT na norpe6aJlHOTO xcepraonpnaourenne. EP3)J.3TH5IT Mb)K C T05Ir3T3 )J.bP)KH B pt.xara CH )J.p06a, KOHTO e raxa HapHcYBaH, KaTO '-Ie JlH ropearsr npen O'-lHTe CH e HMaJl n03Ha1'H5I erpycxn 6POH- 30B np06 OT OHa'-IeHlL3 (06p. 13)65. 5ICHO e, -re ITO speae na paHHH5I eJlHHH3bM HMeHHO ETPYPH5I e pO)J.HHaTa na anrypnre H xapycnexCHTe. E)J.HH xapycnexc CTOH nO)J.06Ho KaTO aaums ranaren no )J.p06 na e)J.HH HTaJlHHCKH cxapaoea B EepJlHH (06p. 14). H TOH, nonnpaa na roxra, e ct.cpenorouen B r.nenanero na llP06a66• I1MeTo .xapycnexc'' e HqIlHCaHO no eTpYCKH B nOJleTO no qmrypaTa. Tp5l6Ba )J.a oroenexca, '-Ie na rp-suxnre l3a3H JW06bT H ClLeHHTe C ra)J.aeHeTO HMaT CbBceM )J.pyr BHJT, H cb)J.bp)KaHHe67•

Cuenara C aBrypa aa aM<popaTa OT Ilananopmue e llBycjmrypH3 (06p. 11). )J(peUbT C

23

24

13

14

16

4 ApXeOJlOfMlI, 4, 1987 r.

• 06,0. 12 a, 6) Empuctca asubop a B Kap ncpije:

eoene« manu. Fig. 12 a, 6) Amphore etrusque a

Karlsruhe: danse militaire

.06p. 13. Mooe» na op06 am 6POH3, Ilueuenua. Fig. 1 J. Modele de poumons en bronze, Piecenza .06p. 14. Hmasuucsu csapare«, Bep nun, Fig. 14. Scarabee itallique, Berlin

• 06p. 15. Ctcapatieu am KapHeOA, Jlonoon-s-XeptiK'OA u Xep uec, Fig. 15. Scarabee de carniole, London - Heracles et Hermes

• 06p: 16. Cxaoasea am KapHeOA, OKC¢OpO - XepaK"6A u Amuna. Fig. 16. Skarabee de carniole, Oxford - Heracles et Athena

TO 111 a 110K33Ba I1a e)lHH MJla)leM, ct.mo C TOHra, HO L 06YBKH C )lbJlrH Bpb3J{H, nporia BHM)Ia ce, se MJI3,lJ,HHT e sacernar, TOM roBOplI. I'onopnara MHMHKa ua pt.xara My saeMa near-spa Ha H306paME'HHe'lO. Pr.uere B cpenara E<1 cuenara ca enuo TIHlHqHO KOMI103HUHOHHO Cpe)lCTBO B TpaKHMCKOTO H3KYCTBO. Harrpnvep ,lJ,BeTe BnJleTeHH p sue B cpenara na crenonnca B K333HJlbK H p-sxara C seneu B uenr-spa na JlIOHeTa B CBeIll,3pH (o6p. 4). T3I{J1Ba KOMI10311UHOHHH cpencrsa HMa, pas- 6Hpa ce, H B r-p-suxrrre naMeTI-IHUH, HO sa naillaTa 3BrypHa rpyna TopeBTbT e HaMepHJI 3a nO-Y)l06Ha H 3aTOBa e I1pe)lnoqeJl eTpycKaTa C'XE'Ma, T33H, KOHTO BHM)laMe na eTpYCKHH cKopa6eH OT xapneo.n B .DOH,lJ,OH (06p. 15)68. TyK )lB3MaTa cb6eceJ\HHUH CT05!T na enna TepE'HHa JlHHI15!, KOHTO e MapKHpaHa OT opnaMeHT. Y'pe3 xepxynecosna 603)lyraH 11 xpn.naTI1Te 06yBKI1 Te3H cjmrypl1 ca xapaKTep11311- pann OT reMorparpa KaTO Xepaxt.rr H Xepxec. TIPH cpaaueanero na Ta3H rpyna c H306paMe-

15

25

• 06p. 17. Cmenonuc e Tapssunun "Tomba degli Auguri" - KYAmOea meamp anna cuena. Fig. 17. Peinture murale a T'arquinies "Tomba degli Auguri" - scene theatrale culiurelle

HHeTO 01' Ilanarropmne (orip. 11) MO)J{e ,Ua ce xaxce, qe BbnpeKH pa3J1HKaTa B rexnuxara, He cauo Kmm03IHl,HOHHHTe, HO H CTHJ1HHTe CXO,UCTBa ca OqeBH,UHH. OPH e,UHH npyr CKapa6eH 01' KapHeOJ1 01' OKC¢Op,U69 B nOCTaHOBKaTa Ha ¢HrypHTe H BbB ¢opMHTe Ha MyCKy.narypara ce nao.monaaar oiue nO-TeCHH CTHJ1- HH Cxo,UCTBa (06p. 16). Ha Hero reMOrJ1H¢bT e CKHIl,HpaJ1 no ct.uiara cxeva (Xepvec=-XepaKbJ1) e.ll.HH pasroaop Me)J{,Uy Xepaxt,n H ATHna. Topesr-t.r na aM¢opaTa 01' Flanariopmne H306pa3f1Ba OqeBH,UHO BMeCTO Xepvec e.ll.HH rpaxneu na KOHTO TOH B~'leCTOKpHJ1aTH can,UaJ1H nOCTaBH 06yBKH C ,UbJ1rH Bpb3KH H BMeCTO KepHKeHOH - roara. OqeBH,UHO eTpYCKHTe peMHHHCIl,eHIl,HH B TpaKHHCKOTO H306pa)J{eHHe ca KaKTO CTHJ1HH, raxa H HKOHorpa¢CKH.

TyK He CH nOCTaBHMe 3a Il,eJ1 TbJ1KYBaHeTO na KYJ1TOBaTa cuena C ,UBaMaTa TpaKHHIl,H H ranaenero na ,Up06 B TpaKHH, HO CMHCbJ1bT na Ta3H cuena e OlJeBH,UeH: ranaeuero KaTO uepeMOHHaJ1Ha xacr na 06pe,UHHTe )KepTBH ce ct.orimasa BH3yaJ1Ho. To ce qHCJ1H KbM qeCTO cnoMeHaTHTe 06Ul,eCTBeHH pHTyaJ1H H B xpas na xpamuara KbM TOBa, aa KoeTO Il,51J1aTa 3J1aTHa avrpopa e npennasnavena.

Ha crapara no Moe MHeHHe B5IpHa pHCYHKa na UOHqeB (06p. 11) ce BH)J{,Ua KaK TpaKHHCKH5IT ropesr, KaKTO qeCTO ce Ha6Jl1o,UaBa, yncrperiaaa 30HaTa, Kb,UeTO e saxpenena 'uPb)K-

26

xara, KaTO cpencrso aa nOCTaB5IHe na KOMno- 3HIl,HOHeH aKIl,eHT. TOqHO non 'upb)J{KaTa ce HaMHpa BpaTaTR. T5I MO)J{e ,Ua ce TbJ1KYBa KaTO MeTaCpOpHqeH 3HRK H KaTO peaJ1HOcT. I'pynara C ner ¢HrypH OHarJ1C,U5IBa BJ151BO nepeMOHHaJ1- HOTO cb6HTHe .Boeaen TaHIl, C TpaKHHCKH Menoae", a B,U5ICHO npe,UCTaB5I 3a6eJ1e)J{HTeJ1HaTa cuena na ",UBaMa 3aMHCJ1eHH repon ranaar no ,Up06". BCHIIKH J1Hna ca xapaKTepH3HpaHH KaTO TpaKH70, a CIl,eHHTe HMaT rearpanen xapaxrep'".

E,UHH aHaJ1H3 aa ,UbJ160KH5I CMHCbJ1 na H306pa)J{eHHeTO .Bpara" B TpaKH5I 6H 6HJ1 Ba)J{eH, HO TyK He e M5ICTOTO aa TOBa. 3a raxa aapesenara ,,<PHKTHBHa spara" B erHnT0J10- rH5ITa H eTpYCK0J10fH5ITa csmecrnyaa BelIe orpovna J1HTepaTypa72. 3a,UOB0J151BaM ce C e,UHH-e,UHHCTBeH npHMep naK 01' H3KYCTBOTO B ETPYPH5I. TOBa e nponyrara "ToM6a ,UeJ1H Aar ypn" B TapKBHHH5I (06p. 17)73. HapHCYBanara spara ce navnpa B ,UeHCTBHTeJ1HaTa H ¢HKTHBHaTa BH3yaJ1Ha OC Ha rp06HHIl,aTa. 3araTHaTa e H enna ¢HKTHBHa H3MepHOCT, qpe3 K05lTO BpaTaTa ce fJ1e,Ua KaTO pa3,UeJ151ill,a MeTa¢H~HqHl1 crpepn rpannua. Cuenara OK0J10 He51 e rearpa.nna. ABrYPHTe H TyK CT05lT 01' ,UBeTe CTpaHH na noprara, 06J1elleHH B ct.unrre KOCTlOMH KaTO TeaTpaJ1HHTe MeqOHOCIl,H na aM¢opaTa B Kap.ncpye (06p. 12). H re, KaKTO TpaKHTe, ca He nO-MaJ1KO 3aMHCJ1eHH. 01' ,UBeTe CTpaHH aa nparara ca npe,UCTRBeHH CIl,eHH 01' pHTyaJ1HH nrpu, npencrannunr CbCTe3aHHH no speae Ha norperiannu Tbp)J{eCTBa.

TyK ca pa3rJ1e,UaHH Ma.1KO npuaepn -

17

~Be rp06HHUH H HHKOAKO Cb~a OT 3AaTO HAH cpe6po, HO re HH nOKa3BaT, lie He cauo lfpe3 HOBH HaXO.llKH, a H xpea npyr HalfHH aa Ha6mo.lleHHe ce OTKpHBaT HOBH Rb3MOJKHOCTH na nnrepnperauas. TpaKHH e 6HAa orsopena aa HaH-pa.snHlfHH KyATypHH BRHHHHH, H.llBaIUH OT HaH-.llaJIeQHH 06JIaCTH aa ]OraB_aIIlHHH CBHT.

Ta3H CTaTHli C"b){"bPJKa HOBH Hali.1II0,lleHHlI B"bB apssxa C MOliTa nyi5.nHK8UHlI 3ae){HO C X. Xsoxep H JI. 1lI H a ·li,llep B "Archiiologischer Anzeiger" (1985), If C JI.llIHaA){ep B ,Antike W41t", 1986. )loKJIaJUI ItpaMJ{HTe na ta3H TeM8THKa aanacaxrrpes ecesra aa 1986 r. B"bB BHeHa H npH,,<1>HIIH· ni:mOJlCKHTe Ce,llMHIl;H" B TIJlOBJUlB. Pe3YJITaTHTe me H3J1113aT OT nesar . C"bOTBeTHO B ,,Mltteilu.ngen des Bulgarischen Forschungsinstitutes in Osterrelch" (6ea 06p.) H B "PuJpudeva", 1987. BeHqKH ropecnoaeaara nYWrnKari,HH ca iaa

HeMCKH e3HK.. "

HOBHTe 06M1iCJllIHHSI H ){OIT"bJIHeHHlI HliMawe,lla 6b,llaT B"baMOJKHH 6ea pasroaopare H ),{HCKYCHHTe C penaua KOJlerH, OT· KOHTO.-HCKaM-·H3pHqHo·),{a cnoxeaa M. qHiIHKOBa, H. MapaaoB, A. )1;HMHTPoBa-MHJlqeBa H JI. feTOB. TIoMOm nOJlyqHX H. OT crpasa na P. CTaHeB8. Ha BCHqKH HCKaM H Tyx M 6naro)'{apll. fopeclTOMeHaTHTe nYWrnK81l;HH C"b){"bpJKaT no-oounrpen HayqeH anapar, TYK as Il;H'l'HpaM CaMO C"bBCeM He06xo),{HMar8 H· ){On'bJIHHTeJJHa aareperypa,

1 HOBH TpY){OBe onpeaenar MeCTOJKHTeJJCTBOTO HB TpaKHTe: A. <1>0 JI H T. C n H p H){ 0 HOB. HCTO-

fHqeCKa reorpact>HlI aa TpaKHHCKHTe naexeaa ao :

II B. np. H. e. (1983); T. C n H p H){ 0 HOB. HCTOpasecxa reorpatPHlI na TpaKHHcKHTe naexeaa ){O III B. np. H. e.,ATJlac (1983). Como H 0606masamH TpY){OBe onHCBaT HCTopHlITa H KYJlTypaTaHa TpaKHTe: f. M H X a Ii JI 0 B. TpaKHTe (1972); I. V en e d ik 0 v, T. G era s s i rn 0 v. Thrakische Kunst (1973); Chr. Danov. Altthrakien I (1976), Bd, II (B nesar), A. F 0 I, I. Mar a z 0 v. Goldene Fiihrte Thrakien (1977); R. E. Hod din 0 t t. The Thrakians (1981); M. 0 P per man n. Thraker (1984).

1I 1(0HTaKTH c KeJJTHTe: . A. F i s C her. Bei tr, zur AItertumskunde Kleinasiens, Festschrift K. Bittel (1983). 191 ff.; H. L usc hay. Thraklen als Ort der Begegnungder Kelten mit der iranischen ,MetaHkunst ibidem 312-329 passim.; P. Z a - zo ff, C h. Hoc k e r , L. S c h n e ide r. Zur thraklschen Kunst im Frtihhellenismus. - In: Archiiologischer Anzeiger; 1985. 596 ff. passlm.; P. Z a z 0 f f, L. S c h n e ide r, Thraklen im Frfihhellenismus. Eigenstiindigkeit und Abhiingigkeit ein~r antiken Kultur im Spiegel ihrer Ku.nst. - In: Anhke Welt, 1986, 4, 13 ff.; I. V e ned 1 k 0 v. Celtes ou Thraces. Studia in honorem V. BeSevliev (1978), 315-324; M.)1; 0 Map a),{ c K H. Kenrare na BaJIKallCKHlI nOJIyocTPOB (1984). KOHTaKTH K"bM Erpypaa H nOJlHS HTaJlHlI; P. Z a z 0 f f. C h r. Hocker, L. Schneider, ibidem 633.

3 Tp06HHIl;aTa npa CBem.aPH: M.q H q H K 0 B a. fp06HHuaTa OT Csemapa. - H3KYCTBO, 1983, 4, 18-27; A~ <1> 0 JI. Bropa rO){HH8 reraxa. - H3- KYCTBo.1983,4,3-5; H. Map a 30 B. 3a ceMaHTHKaTa na H306paJKeHHJlTa B rp06HHll;aTa or Ceemapa, - H3- KYCTBO, 1984, 4, 28-38; M. C i c i k 0 va. Decouverted'unetombe royale thrace, --:-. Archeologla, 1984,Mai,p.17-23; P. Z a z o i I, Ch. Hocker, L. S c h n e i de r. Op. cit., 595-643; P. Z az 0 f f, . L. S C h n e ide r. Op. cit •• in: Antike Welt, 1986, 4, 3-21; P. Z a z 0 f f. Bildprogramme der thrakischen I( unst i m Frfihhellenlsmus. - Mitteilungen des Bulgarischen Forschungsinstitutes in Osterreich, ,1987 (1m Druck).

, B. G 0 sse 1. Makedonische Kammergraber

(1980), p. 68, npeanoaara, qe tPacaAaTa aa MaKeAOHCKHTe rp06HHuH e MOJKeJla ){a ce BHAHcaMO npea apeMe ua crpoesero H aa IIO'rpe6aJlHHTe uepeMOHHH. 06ase He MOJKe H 3aMaKeAOHHH aa ce KaJKe xaxe 6HJla npoBeAeHa caMaTa uepeMOHHH.

Ilpavepnre nOKa3BaT KaK lfyJK.llIi eJIeMeHTH ca 6HJIH KpHTHIIHO H36HpaHH, Cb3HaTeJIHO yrroTpe6HBaHH J{ C»HCJIeHO H3flOJI3YBaHH npn Cb3- zasaaero na B~3yaJIHH cpencraa, KaTO ce H3TbKBaT TpaHH9, CTOHHOCTHTe H HopMHTe, npennncana OT Tp"aKHHCKHTe COUHaJIHli CTPYKrypn.

I BJK. CTaTHliTa na H. Be H e a H K 0 B. I(oli e norpeeaa s -Kaaaamuncara rpoeauna, - H3KYCTBO, ,1986, 8, c. 2 ca., B KOllTO,TOii cnoaesaaa B"b3MOJKHOCTra 6HTKHTe B )'{PO'MOCa HaKa3aHJI"bK ){3 ca .cueaa na "HSlKaK"bB TaHU HJlH BoliHHWKH MHM".

6 T03H B"bnpOC orae ce AHCKYTHpa: A. 4> 0 n, BTO'pa rOAHHa 1!feTHKa". - HCKYCTBO, 1983, 4, c. 5" npeanoaara TaM-.uap, P. Z a z 0 f f. C h. Hoc k e r, L. S c h n e ide r. Op. cit., p. 597 - 3aMOJKHH ropIIH CJlOeBe.

7 E){HO BTOpO JlerJIO e 'lIaMepellO' Ha· H3TOqHaTa cTeHa,BJK. M. q H q H K 0 aa, Fpooaauara OT CBemapa. - HSKYCTBO', 1983, 4,_ c. 20.

" Cnenaoaxanan na TeMaTIi: P. Z a z 0 f f, C h, H 1) cke r , L. S C h n e ide r. Op. cit., 597 if. PerHOHaJlHH BJlHBHHlI: H. Map a 3 0 B. BJlHlIHHe H caMo6HTHOCT HJlH Hpan H TpaKHSI. - TIpH, 1975, 3, 54~61; I. Mar a z 0 v. Influences et originalite ou I, Iran et la Thr ace. - Thracia,4, 1977, 15-32; JI. 0 r H e HOB a - M ap H HOB a. BJlHlInne TeXHHKH BblnOJIHellHlI npa O<j>opMJIeHHIl CTHJlH H MOTHBOB B TopeBTHKe cPpaKHirll;eB H CKHtPoB. - St Th, I, 1975, 127-138; H. L usc hey. Thrakien als Ort der Begegnung der Kelten mit der iranischen Metallkunst. - In: Festschrift K. Bittel (1983), 312-329.

D Tarapeao: B. M H K 0 B. - fHM. 8. 1942, c.29 CJI. oep. 12 H 13; I. V e ne d i k 0 v, T. G e ra s s im 0 v. Thrakische Kunst (1973), p. 52, Abb. 27.

10 3a 6"bqBOBH)'{HaTa cPopMa na MaKe){OHCKHTe rp06HHUH BJK. B. Go sse f. Makedonische Kammergriiber (1980), 15 if. 3a MaKeAOHCKHTe rp06HHIl;H csmo H: J. Mil I e r. ~ In: B. Bar r-S h a r r e r-E. N. B 0 r z u. Macedonia and Greece in Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Times. Studies in the History of Art 10, Kongr, Washington, 1980 (1982), 153 ft.; S. G. Mil l e r, Hellenistic Macedonian Architecture. Its Style and Painted Ornamentation (1972).

11 Ilnanoae aa MaKe){OHCKHTe rp06HHuH: B. G 0 ss e I. Op. cit., p. 30, Taf. II u. III.

12 3a ¢'opMHTe na erpycxare rp06HH xauepa:

F. P ray 0 n. Frflhetruskische Grab- und Hausarchitektur, 22. Ergh. RM (1975). TIo){06eH nJIaH:

Cevetrl Tomba delle Croci, ibidem 104 Abb. 23a (O(Ip."2B); S. G i ul ia n o. Tomba Costa, ibidem, 105 Abb. 2 a. BJK. C'LmO HJ. P. ·01 e son. The Sources of Innovation in Later Etruscan "Tomb Design (1982). 3a nJIaHOBe aa xanoreare B IOJKHa HTaJlHlI BJK. J. L. La m b ole y. MEFRA 94, 1982, 91 ff. 145 f. Abb. 4 - Hipogee d, Ordona (06p. 26).

13 TIp030peu na rpooaara KaMepa UpH San GloveHale (Bieda): R. Her big. Jdl 44, 1929. 237 Abb, 10, bw. n F. P ray 0 n. Op. cit., 39 H.

14 1(0JlOHH H apxarpan B AJleKcaH),{pHlI: P. Z azoff, Ch. Hocker, L. Schneider. Op. cit., p. 633 Anm. 177.

16 1(0peaTHAH: G. Ban din e I I i, Au so-

n i a 8, 1913,9 ff. Abb. 4. -EAA IV (1961) 523 Abb. 615 s. v. Leece (Bernardini). )1;pyrH npaxepa O'T IOJKHa HTaJlHlI BJK. M. q H II H K ° B a. fp06HHuaTa OT Caemapa. - H3KYCTBO, 1983, 4, c.24 6eJJ. 14.

16 P. Zazoff, Ch. Hocker, L. Schneide r -. Op. cit., p. 637 Anm, 203.

17 H. Map a 3 0 B. 3a ceMaHTHKaTa na H306paJKeHHlITa B rp06l1Hll;aTa= OTCBemapH. - H3KYCTBO. 1984, 4, c. 28 CJI.

18 <lJHJ,ypanllH KanHTeJJH C 0PJlH: E. V. j\\ e r C k- 1 i n. Antlke Figuralkapitelle (1962) 221 ff. 53 Nr 135-137 Abb. 137.

27

18 TIoA06Ha nearpaana rpyna KaTO aa >KHBOnHCTa B Caemapa na eAHa saaa B Bapa (06p. 5): A. D. T r end a II-A. Com bit 0 g lou. The RedFigured Vases of Apulia II (1978) Taf. 162, 3; M. q H 'I H K 0 B a. Fpoeaauara 0'1' Csemapn. - HsKyCTBO, 1983, 4, c. 20 06MHCJIH, laJlH e,AHKYJIaTa B Caemapa MO>Ke na ce rJIeJJ;a KaTO enna 1(aCT aa ~acaAa, CHMBOJIHSHpal.l.\a axoaa K'hM rpoea.

20 KOHHHK'hT 01' Csemapn aa eaaa rp06HH1(Ra ~pecKa B Kanya (06p. 6): W. J 0 han now sky. in: Atti del II. Convegno di Studi sulla Magna Grecia. Le genti non grece della Magna Orecia, Kongr, Tarent 1971 (1972) 375 ft. Taf. 95. B>K. C'hI.l.\O TYK 6€'JI. 28.

21 3a MOTHBa rHpmlHAH H 6YKpaHHA 0611(0: A. E.

N a pp. Bukranion und Guirlande (1933). - Chr, Borker, AA 1975, 244 ff. - H. v. Hesberg, RM 88, 1981, 201 ff. Xpawsr aa neMeTpa B Flepraxoa: D. B 0 h t z. Das Demeter-Heiligtum, AvP XIII (1981) 40 ff. Abb. 8. 9 Taf. 27.52.

u 3a MOTHBa na BJJ;HrHaTHTepbue: H.M a paSOB. 3a ceMaHTHKaTa na Hs06pa)J{eilHHTa srp06HHuara 01' Csemapa. - MSKYCTBO, 1984, 4" 31 (TaHU). 061.1.\0 no TeMaTa: H. D em i s C h. Dle. erhobenen Hinde. Geschichteieiner Geblirdein der-bildenden Kunst (1984). "

IS J1erJtOTO 0'1' XoxJJ;OP~ (06p. 7 H 8): Katalog Ausst. Stuttgart (1985) Nr. 21 Abb. 109. 112-114. 166. J. B I e I. Der Keltenffirst von Hochdorf (1985) 92 ff. insb. Abb. 54. 57 Taf. 25-31 (farbig).

14 ETpYCKO'KeJ1 rCKH BsaHMOBp'bSKH B>K. 6M. 2. 26 Ceaaa OT naar caHSBeCTHH or pafiOHHTe aa cKHTHTe:From' the Lands of Skythians. Kat. New YOrk-Los Angeles (0. J.) Nr. 112 Taf. 24. - Or des Skythes. Kat. Paris (1975) l{)0 f. Nr. 133. - Gold der Sky then aus der Lenlngrader Eremitage.

Kat. Munchen (1984) 190 f. Nr. 105. '

18 OpHeHT3JICKO 06JIeKJIO B>K. rp'bKO-nepcHficK3 reMa:P.Zazo-ff, Chr.Hl)cker, LSchnei-

de r. Op. cit. 618 Abb. 22.' 625 Anm. 138. '

27 Paana: Xep.' I, 62: B. F eh r.MarbWPr, 1969, 42. E. S t r 0 in men g e r. Filnf Jahrtausende Mesopotamien (1962) 113f. Abb. 231.3a p3MnHTe B anansaa sa TIepcenOJIHC B>K. H. H. v. d. Osten,' Die Welt der Perser (1956) Taf. 51. 60-62.

as TIorpe6eHHR H3 KORe; . R. R 0 I I e in: Festschrtlt R. Pittionl I (1976) 756 ff.-- Dies .. Totenkult der Sky then I (1979) 96f[A. Man c e v J c. Thracia,5, 1980, 118. - B>K -. C'bI.l.\O H A',eo'Jl. MSKycTBol983, 4,p H M.qif 'I H K OD a,RJj:K''I'aM, c. 20,06p. (rHHItHA NorHna). TI~ HaHOtIl!Te cK8T6 pesYJITaT aa ~pecy;pa: .T'.Z~ z; 0 ff~' ca. H oe~: e r, L. Schneld·iir, 0p"clt.622'_Anm. 124. B>K. C'hI.l.\O TyK 6eJ1. 20. _

28 BeHUH: K. B a u s. Der Kranz in Antikeund Christentum (1940) 146 f. M. B 1 e C h. Studien zum Kranzbei den Grlechen (1982) 160 ff. HaXO.ll.KH na BeHUH B B'hJIrapHR: A' <I> 0 JI. H3KYCTBO. 1983. '4,5; M. BeHe,ltHKoB. -ApXeOJIOfHR, 1966, c. 10 06p. I. 3a yn<n:pe6aHa BeHIliHtlK. B. -G'o sse 1. MakedonlscheKammergraber (1980) 291 Anm. 390.

so T,!Ba ,ltBynoC01(HOpasnpe.ll.¥SlHe sa ~HrypHTe HSiMa nafillllleJIH B paHHOeJlHHHCTH1(ecKoTo HSKycTBO na r'bpUHR, cpema ce 06a'le B Mana A3RR,B>K. P. Z azoff. Ch. Hl)cker,'L.Schnei~er. Op.

cit. 624- Anm. 131. c'

31 06H1(aiiHHSlT rp'bUKH Ha1(HH e na-ce xpaHSlT,JIe>KeAn lIa nern(). HSMe>K.lI.Y raxa Hape1(eHHTe "TotEmmahl-Reliejs" HM3 caxo pe}U~H,lI;eTailJIHH C'bOTBeTCTBHR: Eo P f u It 1 u. H. Mob i:u·s. Dieostgriechischen Grahteliefs II (1979).) - R. N. T hI) ng e s - S t ring a r is AM 80. 1965, I. ff. - J. Borchardt. IstMitt 19, 1968, 186 H.

32 3a paryaaa -KaTO iflOPMa aa 06l.1.\ecTBeHH 8saHMo'- 1I.eiiCTBHR B}I{. P. Zaz(}ff,Gh.Hl)cker, L.

S c h n e ide r, Op, cit. 616 f.Anm. 100. '

83 Hnrepecea H Ba>KeH e cera aHaJlHS'bT aa M. B eH ea H K. 0 B. Koil e norpe6aH B',KaslIlto1l'llmKaTa rpodaaua .. - MSKYCTBO, 1986, 8, . 2..;..g, KtlA~o ')ie~HHHpa TeMHTe sa >KHBOnHCTa TaM KaTo:"CeBT III

28

KaTO uapcraea nOKoAHHK CDC CBHTaTa CH" H "TIJIeHRBaHeTO na AraTOK'bJI". TIPH aropara TeMa 06aQe MOlKe JJ;a He 6HJIH aaoepaaeaa AeACTBllTeJlHH 6HTKH, a TaHIlH KaTO 60eH "MHM". TaKHBa TaHUH onHCBaT Tal\HT (4, 67) H Kceaoeoar (6, I, 5). \

14 Harepnperauas aa r naBH8(~a cueaa aa rpo6- aauara B KaaaHJI'bK KaTO norpe6aJlHO napmecrso:

B. M H K 0 B. AHTH1(HaTa rpoennua rrpa KaS8HJI'bK. C., 1954; n. TI. n H M H 'I' P 0 B. ApxeOnOrH1(eCKH OTKpHTHR B B'bJIrapHR. C60PHHK, 1957, c. 88; A. B a C H JI H e B. I<a3aHJI'bWKaTa. rpooanna. C., 1958; M. C 0, n ce v a. Apparitionet Developpment de la peinture monumentale tbrace. -Thuda 1, 1972, 288; L. S h i v k 0 v a. Das Grab-mal von Kazantllk (1973)78 ff. - I. V e ned i ko v-To G e ra ss i m 0 v. Thrakische Kunst (1973) 57; T. Ila H 0- B a~JJ. r e 'I' 0 B. Tp8KHi%cKaTa rpoenana npa KaSaHJI'bK. C., 1978, c. 89: C ht. Dan ov-T. I van 0 v. Antike Grabmilerin Bulgarlen (1980) 75. B>K. C'bI.l.\O H L. 0 g n e nov a ~ Mar i nova. Thrada IV, 1977, 18t Anm. 16. KiM rexara 061.1.\0: J.-M. Dent z er. Le motifdu baaquet couchedans le ProcheOtient et Ie monde gree du VIle au IVe siEkle avant J .c, (1982) .. MHTet>nperaUHR KaTO cBarlleH npaSHHK:

D. B. Tho m p son. AJA 60, 1956, p. 295. KaTo Xaepoc Faaoc-a uapcxara HAeOJlOrHJl: M. Map aSOB. K'bM ceMaHTHKaTa aa creaenacsre na KasanJI'hWKaTa rpooaana. - MSKYCTBO, 1978, 7; 21 CJI. CeBT I I I CDC csnpyrara H CBHTaTa CH: M. B e H e .It HK 0 B. Koil: e norpeeaa B KaSaHJI'bWKaTa rpoenana. - MSKYCTBO 1986, 8, 2 CJI.

- 86 TaKa npH P. Zazoff, Ch.Hocker,

L. S c hn e I a e r. Op. cit. 623 cf.Ha6nlO,ltaDa ce KaK B nocneAIJo BpeMe B HCTopHRTa HaJlHTepaTYpaT3, CJIeJJ; TOBa BHSKYCTBOse.actIlOTO H cera Be1(e H B apxeoJIOfHRTace o6p'hBta Oco6eHO BHHMaHHe- Ha peJ1aUHJlTa TBop6a-HafinlO,lI;aTe.II .H .•... C'l>OTBe:t'HHTe oTHOWeHHSI aa C'hsJJ;aTeJtR K'hM c06cTBeHoTOnpoHsBeaeHHe. E.tlfH npaMep OT aenpecrasao paC'!'JlBtllT8JlHTepaTYpa no HeMCKH eanx . e aHTI)JIOfHRTa W. J( emp;,,'D~ Betrachter 1st! m Bild. Kunstwissenschaft urtd" ~ezepthJnsisthetik (1985), KOIiTO C'bJJ;'bp>Ka CTaTHHHa P83JtHi!HH S3CRr8'I.I.\H -resa B'bnpOCH TeMH.

, a8 CepBHS'bT OT Flaaarsopaure: B. S v 0 bod 3- D. Go n C e v. Neue - Denkmaler antiker Toreutik (1956) 118 ff., E. S l m 0 n. Der Goldschatz von Panagjuriste -eine SchOpfung der Alexanderzeit, Antk 3, 19&0, 3 If., H. Bell e'JtH K 0 B. FlaaarKlPcKOTOc'r.KPOBHIUe. -C.~ 1962, - 1. V en e d ik'?v. Der:GoldsehaW:'v~PalJ~lt!1'iste (tOOl). -:G6Mder 11i{aker. K.at, HlldesijtiHrf'{lgao)-IOO fl, .... M. 0 pp,e r m a-n:n;-'T!traker'(I984) 16&'.ff.-Hspa-

6o'!'eH e J~ Tpa~HJI, BlK. TyK (SM, 41. ' .

37 H.L usc hey. Thrakien als Ort der Begegnung der Kelten mit der iranischen Metallkunst, in: Festschrift K. Bittel (1983) 326 Nr. A 17 _.;.; aa-

pH'la aM~opaTa axeMeHH,lI;CKa. ,

88 rnHHeHHTe aM<liopH ca 6HJlH HaMepeHH npa KaBKaSKHR MHHre'layp, B>K. T. M. r 0,.11 y 6 K H Ita. o SOOMOP~HOil: KepaMHKe H3' MHHre'lfaypa. -- MarepHaJlbHaSi II:yJIbTypa Asep6ail,ll;)J{aHa, II, BaKY, 1951, 06p. 15-16, TaKa UHTHpaHH npa K.KOJl e B B MMIOB 1979, 5, c. 135, B>K. TaM C. 130 oop. - Ia, B>K. C'bI.l.\O H H. Map a SOB. PHTOHHTe B apeana TpaKHR. C., 1978, C,, JOO H o6p. no. ,,-

81AMq,opa ciT Caaone: P~:A rna n-dr y. Antk2, 1959, 48,Taf. 24. 3O,4,BlK. H'I<. i(oif:e B,UH1;. l:'hq., 130~. 16 H .H. Mapa s-o ~,nlrr; c'1.1f., nirK TaM.

40 JlBaOTBopa H no6paTHMRBaHero: A. A. TIepe A OJlb C K a R. - cA 1966, I, 42 CJI.; A. M. Xll9 Ii HOB. 06b11(ail noOpaTJiMCTBa y CKH<I!OB. - GA, 1971, 1:4f 3;1. Venedlkov-T. Gerass i m ov.Thrakische Kunst (1973) 66; B}I{. R; K 0- 1 e v. Pulpudeva I, 1974,184 ABB. 2, H M. Map aSOB. PHTOIiHTe B JJ;peBHa TpaKHR., C., 1978, c.l08 en,

4.1. As ce OOHOBaBaM aa npe,ll;no.no)J{eHHeTO, 'Ie naHarlOpcKHHT cepaas e HSp'a6OTeH B ·TpaKHR. TOSH $aKT cera ce nOTB'bp}l{,lI;aBaH OT aaxoasara OT Porosen, B>K. sa6eJte>KKaTa P. Z ;'a' z 0 f f. Mythos oder Ritual? Zum Amphora-Rhytorr von Panagjuriste.

Pulpudeva, 1987 Anm. 1 (B nesar), Flosexe apryMeHTH, BlK. P. Z a Z 0 f f,C h •. H 0 C ke r, L. S C h n e ide r 609 mit Abb. 8-11. B TpaKHH, pa60TKJlHHuaHa eneHH3HPaHH _ TpaKHiiu.H Hr'!>pUH:

E. S i !D. 0 n. Antka, 1960, 6 Anm. 15. OCTPOB Tacoc: H. C a h n, Die Gewichte dec Gohlgefiil3e, Antk -3, 1960, 28. B MaJl083HlkKHII rpa,ll JIaMncai!::

L Ve ned i k 0 v ~ T. G era s s i mn v. Thrakische Kunst (1973) 67, H ·M. Map as OB, UHT. C'lt'!. 109.

41 BlK. B. Sv 0 bod a-D. Con c e v, Neue Denkmaler antiker Toreutik (1956) 130 if. Abb. 3. 3a XepaK'JoJI BTpaKHH Ii CKKl'KlI BlK. TyK 6eJl. 50. '3S V 0 bod a - Con C e v. Jbidem 132 Abh. 5. " TaSH crpora CHMeTpHH e. '1YQa . aa paHHOeJ1HHHCTHqeCKOTO KapTHHHO HSKyCT~o,BlK. P. Z a z 0 f I,

eh. H 9 C k e r,L. S c h ne ide r. Op. cit. 613 Anm. 85,Hanp()THB TH e ~HqaAHa B CKHrCKHtepeI'llOHH, DaK TaM,. 615 Anm. 93. . .

" S v 0 bod a-C 0 n C e v. Ibidem 131 Abb. 4.

" Cpe61tpaa xaaa Nil 155 OT Porosen (oop. 9a):

B. H H K 0 .II 0 B. KaHHTe OT Poroaeacxoro csxpoBHiUe.- HSKYCTBO, 1986,6, c. 26 ca., c. 22 (pHcYHKa), c. 24 (UBeTHa cHHMKa), c. 51 (saraaor): A. F 0 1- B. N i k 0 I 0 v-R. F. Hod din 0 t t. The new Thracian Treasure from Rogozen, Bulgaria (1986) 18. 59~(UseTHa CHHMKa H pHcYHKa). 3a opaaxearaaHHTe CHCTeMK aa csaosere OT Porosea BlK.H L. S C h n e ide r. Figur und Ornament in der thrakischen Blldsprache des 4. Jhs. v. Chr.: Zum Schatzfund von Rogozen, Pulpudeva 1987 (B nexar), 3a 4lHaJiaTa Nil 4 (oop. 10): P. Z a z 0 f f. Ein thrakischer Herakles. Zur Phiale von Rogozen, - 106Haeea C60PHHK sa MBaH BeHe.ll.HKOB, 1987 (B nell ar).

&7 Cpe6'bpHa xaaa N9 154 OT Poroaea (06p. 96):

H H K 0.11 0 B, UHT. CDq., C. 22 (pHcYHKa), c. 24 (useraa CHlnnta). c.51 (KaT8J1Or);A_ F 0 I-B. N i k 01 0 va. F. If 0 d d in 0 t t. Op. cit. 58 (cHHKKa H PHcYHKa). MHT'bT Ha XepaK'LJi B TpaKHH BlK. 6en. 50. H. Map Ii aOB. AMaSOHKaTa H caMOAHBaTa. - B:

MHcz, - 1. C. ,1985. -

" Cpe6'JopHa KaHa Nil 1.57 OT Por03eH (06p. 9B):

B. H H K 0 JI 0 B. UHT. C'bq. c. 23 {pHcYHKa). c. 25 (u.BeTHa cHHMKa), c. 58 (KaT8JIOr); A. Fo I-B. N ik 0 10 v-R. F. H 0 dd j not t, naK TaM 18. 60

(.cHRMKa). _ _

. ft cz,HaJlara OT PoraaeaNt 4 (oep, 10): B. H H K 0- Jl 0 B. UHT. CM •• C. 9 H_ 10 (}J.eTailJlHa CHHMKa), c. 46 (xaraaor); A.F 0 I-B. N i k 01 0 v-R. F. H 0 ddin 0.1 t, nax T8M 32 (uaeraa cHHMKa), 34 (xaraaor); Z 8 ~ 0 f f. Ein tbrakischer Herakles. Zur Phiale von Rogozen. - B: C60PHHK sa HBaH BeHe.ll.HKOB, 1987 (B nesar).

60 MOllTa CTaTHH sa XepaK'JoJI H Asre BlK. 6eJJ. 49.

XepaK'JoJI H HerOB3Ta lKeHCKa asaanopa e B TpaKHACKaTa raopca C'bBCeM ApyrOBqeHHTepnpeTHpaHa, OTKonKOTO aa rp suxare oraeaaaa, sa KOHTO csmo ca xonapaaa esmare sepcaa aa csmara TeMa. Te ryK ca npacnocoeeaa K'bM MeCTHHTe TpaKHlkKH npeacraaa, C'blilO H B CKHTCKHTe paAoHH ce H36HpaT OT peneproapa na AeJJaTa na XepaK'JoJI caao resa, KOHTO C'bOTBeTCTBYBa-r_ aa JlOl_{anHHTeH3,HCKBaHHH H. MoraT C'bOTaerao Aa ceripeAcTClBlIT KapTHHHO, BlJC. D. S. Rae vski j. Anthropomorphe Motive in der Kunst Skythiens, Altertum 27,1981, 26 if. BlK. C1>lIlOIl .u.. C. P a e B C K H A. Osepxa H.lI.eOJlOrHH .CKH4Jo-caKcKHx 'naexea. M., 1977, c. 167 CJl. K'bM $eHoMeHa npacnOcoollBaHe BlK. H HOBaTa paeora aa H. B e H e .lI. HK 0 B. KOH e norpeean B KaSaHJI'bWKaTa rpooHHll;a, - HSKYCTBO. 1986, 8, c. 2 ca.: Hs06palKeHHeTO npencrass CeBT III H csnpyrara MY na rpaneaara KaTO rpaKHHUH, HO B KapTHHHaTa cxexa ua rpsaxare T. Hap. "Totenmahlreliefs". BlK., H. Map as 0 B. CIO>KeTH OT rp'bIJ.KSTa MHTonorHII B naMeTHHUH na TopeBTHKaTa or ApeBHa TpaKHlI. - B: TpaKHHcKH nereH.lI.H. C., 1981, 151-167.

11 K. K 0 JI e B. TpaKHAcKOTO 'naaanopcxo 3JlaTHO C'bkPOBBlile. - TPUHSI, 1976, 3, 172 CJl.; 1(. I( 0- 1 e v. Scenes thraces sur I'amphore-rhyton du treSOl' d'or de Panagjuriste, Pulpudeva I, 1976, 184 fl.

61 Iloprara H nopraep'sr, aparara H Bparap'bT. npHHa,lVlelKaT e.ll.HH K'bM apyra, npeacraaaasar eARHCTIJO. BP8TapllT e ome u B enoca aa Hmap n83aq1>, aa sparara, . TOBre nerosara poas, BlK. J. I( r 0 I 1. Gott und Holle. Der Mythoe vom Descensuskampfe (1963) 195 H., 207 if. .

. 113 BeprHHa;M .. 1\ n dr 0 n i cos. Vergina, The

Royal Tomb's and the anci-ent city (1984) 101 (UBeT-

Ha cHHMKa). .'. .

M fp06'bT aa Ilaaaraua: L. H e u z e y-H. D a umet. Mission arche<>logiQ_ue de Macedoine (1876), 226-233 Taf.15.16.21° B. Go sse 1. Makedonische I(ammergriber (1980) 204 ff.

55 fpo6'bT npa Jlaaraaac: T h. Mac rid y. JdI 24. 1911, 196 Abb. 5. 199 Abb.8 (spars); B. Go ss e I, ibidem 142 ff. u. 147 if. (BpaTa H 6POH30BH

annRKH). .

18 Bpara OT rpotianuara MaJlTene .lI.O MeaeK:

B. cz, H .II 0 B. Kynoaaare rp06HHUH npn MeseK. - HAH XI,1937, c. 21 06p. 22; K. Ko lev. Scenes thraces sur I'amphore-.rbyton du tresor d'or dePanagjuriste, Pulpudeva I, 1976, 188 Abb. H B Caemapa ca aaxepena TpH xpana aa rropra, BlK. M. q H 'I HK 0 B a. Tpodnauara OT Csemapa. - HSKYCTBO, 1983, 4, 20 6eJJ. 10.

17 Tearpaann cueaa C spara KaTO xyaaca: 1(.

Wei t z man n-E- G. T urn e r. Antk 24, 1981, 33 n. TaL 8.9.

~ 18 MaxaApa: 1(. K ole v. Op. cit. 195 Abb. 8 (Meq or )lYBaHnHA), BlK. TaM H H3BopHTe, BlK. c-smo H J. G. P. Best, Thracian Peltasts and their Influence on Greek Warfare (1969).

59 CaJlnHHrC aa I!>HanaTa sa OJlTOC: Beazely, ARVP 55, 16. - A. "Bruhn, Oltos (1943) Abb. 14.

80 )locerawHH T'JoJIKyaaHHSI, nanp, KaTO "AXHJl aa OCTPOB CKHPOC"; B. S v 0 bod a, D. Con c e v. Neue Denkmiler antikerTOreutik (1956) 149 ff. - D. Z on t s C hew. OerGoldschatz von Panagjuriste (1959) 14 f ... CtmeMTEi cpemy THBa": E. S i m 0 n, Der Goldschatz von Panagjuriste- eine SchOpfung der Alexanderzeit, Antk 3, 1960, 11 ff. - M. D aI u mas. Antk 21, 1978, 23 ff. - Gold der Thraker, I(at. Hildesheim (1980) 187; H. Map a SOB. PHTOHHTe a apeaaa TpaKHlI. C., 1978, 106 CJl. "Y6HAcT-BOTO ua HeOnTOJleM". G. R 0 u x, Antk 7,1964, 30 if. -H. Hoffmann BlK • .lI.My. " KOMOC": J. G. G r iff it h. JHS 94, 1976, 148 ff."Teseii H EAHn":

J. G. F. Hind in: Ancient Bulgaria, Symposium Nott!nghan (1983) I 153 ff. "fa.ll.aeHe sa .Ilpoo": H .. H 0 f fm an n. RM 65, 1958, 134. ~ G. R 0 U x, Op. cit. .. TpaKHiicKH soeaea TaHU" H "fa.ll.aeHe sa .lI.p06"; 1(. I( ole v. Pulpudeva I, 1974, 184 ff. - P. Z az 0 f L Pulpudeva Hl87 (B nexar].

61 Xoxaopo: Katalog Ausst. Stuttgart (1985) Nr. 21 Abb. 109. 112'-114. 166. - J. B i e I. Der Keltenfurst von Hochdorf (1985) 92 ff. insb. Abb. 54.

57 Tal. 25-31 (farbig). _

Ot AM410pa aKapacpye Coop. 12): 1(. S C h a u e nbur g. Festschrift fur Bernhard Neutsch (1980) 439 ff. Taf. 1. - J. G. S z i 1 a g y i. 'lmpletae modis saturae', Prospettiva 24, 1981,7 If. Abb. 15. 16.

. t3 KynToB TaHA COp'blKHH B ETPYPHlI: R. B 1 0 C k.

Mel. 70, 1958,7 ff. ~ J. H e ur g 0 n. La vie guotidienne chez les etrusques, 114 f. 3a6eJJelKHTeJJHH peayzrara sa TeMaTa; BlK. J. G. S z i 1 a g Y i. Op. cit.: HSBOPH oraocno rea'rpaanare arpa B ETPYPHli. Ha aaaara e aaoepaseaa "danza ormata" C KYJlTOB

xapaKTep. •

" I'aaaeae na .lI.poo: H. H 0 f f man n. RM 65, 1958, p, 134. - L. B. van der M e e r, Iecur Placentinum and the Orentation of the Etruscan Haruspex, BaBesch 54, 1979, 49 If. (Abb. 20 - cueaara OT Flaaartopame). Taaa .CTaTHH e BalKHa sa paapemenaero aa nsnpoce. Til C'b.ll.'bplKa aasopure H HylKHHTe cpaaHeHHlI C .lI.pyrH Hs06palKeHHSI OT ETPYPHli.

10 )lp06'JoT OT Ilaasenua (oop. (3): M. C r i s t of ani. Die Etrusker (1985) Abb. - van der Meer ibidem Abb. 1-5.

ee Xapycnexc (oop. 14): Karneol-Skarabsus AGD II Berlin 110 Taf. 53 u. 49, 147 (TaM 06HCHeHHB aa

29

.!IYMaTa Natis=e Haruspex). - P. Z a z 0 f f. HdArch (1983) 305 Anm. 213 Taf.90, II. - van der Meer op. cit. Abb. 11.12. A3 cera C'bM csrxacea c BaH nep Mep, 'Ie xapycnexcsr .!I'bPJKH ~pooa, He enaa nTHI.(a, K3KTO aa no-pane 01lX aapaaa,

87 fP'bIlKH Ba3H CDC CI.(eHH "fa.l(aeHe na .!Ip06" ca C'bOpaHH npa: J.-L. D u ran d-F. Lis s a rag n e. Hephalstos 1, (979, 93 ff. Taf. 1-3, B>K. C'bI1{O H van der Meer. Op. cit. Abb. 14-18.

68 CKapa6eil OT xapaeoa B JIOH.!IOH c XepaK'bJl H Xepxec B pasroaop (06p. IS): P. Z a Z 0 f f. HdArch (1983) 234 Anm, 102 Taf. 59, 9.- Ders., Etrushkische Skarabaen (1968) 72 Taf. 24, 103.

69 CKapaoeA OT xapaeoa B OKCCPOp.n c Xepaxsa H ATHHa B paarosop (oop. 26): P. Z a Z 0 f f. Etruskische Skarabiien 72 Taf. 24, 102.

70 K. K. K 01 ev. Pulpudeva I, 1974, 196 f.

T'bJlKYBaHe Ha cueHaTa KaTO BoeHeH TaHU, B>K. 6eJl. 62 H 63.

71 T1I HMa rearpaaea xapaxrep, B>K. 6eJl. 57 H 63. 71 3a raxa napeseaara ,,41HKTHBHanopTa", H306pa- 3eHa Ha apXeOJlOrH'IeCKH naMeTHHUH B ETpypHR, B>K

F. P ray 0 n. Friihetruskische Grab- und Hausarchitektur, 22. Ergh. RM (1975) 102 ff. An m. 562. H3Me>K~Y MHorOTO SHa'leHH1I (nanp. pesepaaa noxel1{eHHR sa.l( aparara aa O'laKII1IHH norpeeeaaa, .l(OMawaara nopra na nOKoAHHKa, spara K'bM OTB'b.!lHHR CBRT) HMa H CXBal1{aHHR KaTO B'bHWHa spara aa rpOOHHI.(aTa:

P. Rom an e II I. Tarquinia; (Itlnerarlo Nr. 75, 1940) 26. - M. M 0 ret t i___,;A. Zan e II i. Tarquinia (0. J.) 96. Harepecna e cera paeorara aa S. W j e b a c h. Die iigyptische Scheintur. Morphologische Studien zur Entwicklung und Bedeutung der Hauptkultstelle in der Privat-Grabem des AIten Reiches (1981). - Peaana nOJle3HH 3a6eJle>KKH HMa , C'bI1{O H npa J. K r 0 I 1. Gott und Holle. Der Mythos vorn Descensuskampfe (1963) 194 ff., 207 if., B>K. C'bI1{O H TyK 6en. 52.

73 Tornba degJi Auguri: S. S t e i n g r ii b e r.

Etruskische Wandmalerei (1985) Taf. 18. Ba>KHa e CTaTHSlTa aa J. G. S z i I a g y r, Op. cit. B:H<. 6eJl. 62, B K01lTO e C'bOpaH MaTepHaJl'bT 3a TeaTpaJlHHTe HrpH B ETPYPH1I.

Programmes representatifs dans l'art thrace de la haute epoque hellenistique

P. CACOV

(R e s urn e)

Le but du present article est de decouvrir Ie lien mutuel entre elements etrangers et locaux dans un ensemble nouveau - I'art thrace. L'auteur analyse de ce point de vue Ie tombeau de Svestar! qui' represente une nouvelle combinaison d'elements heterogenes de traditions etrangeres (grecque, Italique. etrusque, maeedonienne), La scene plttoresque est delinie comme slgne de "haute consideration". Les personnages traites a la maniere grecque sont ranges sur une rampe d'est. La meme idee est traitee egalement dans la peinture du tombeau de Kazanlak, La preference envers Ie rhyton, exprl mee dans le tresor de Panagjuriste montre que son proprietaire etai t un Thrace. Dans Ie duel d'Heraclesavec la biche et de Thesee avec le taureau de I 'un des rhytons est

represente Ie theme eternel "victoire sur I'adversaire". Dans les compositions sur les autresrhytons, I'auteur decouvre une hierarchie rigoureuse: dans un petit broc de Rogozen avec une declamation visuelle des themes "force et triomphe", exprlme-par la metaphore "chasse et butin "et dans un autre - "Ie heros en pays etranger'' (Heracles et 'Ies amazones). Dans la phi ale avec Augias et Heracles que I' auteur considere etant thrace, on voit un Thrace ivre s'amusant avec une Thrace noble. Ainsi les programmes representatifs dans I'art thrace n'ont pas pour but de conter des mythes grecs, mais de decrlre des situations, de representer des hierarchies, .de dieter des nor mes, L 'auteur attire I 'attention specialement sur Ia semanti que de la Irise de I 'amphore de Panagjuriste.

THnonorHH H ~aTHpaHe Ha paHHOpHMCKHTe cpH6ynH OT lQ)({Ha 5bJIrapHH

EBfEHH5I fEH4EBA

Cl>HOYJIHTe, KaTO tIaCT OT OOJIeKJIOTO, nonJIeLKaT na aenpexscaara npoxenn B 3aBHCHMOCT OT Mo,naTa H CTHJIa Ha ,na,neHaTa enoxa. Ta3H TSIXHa ocooenocr ra npHtIHCJISIBa K'bM e,nHH OT HaH-TOtIHO narapanare apxeonorntIeCKH H3TOtIHHUH. TOBa BaLKH B rOJISIMa CTeneH H 3a paHHopHMcKHTe ~HOyJIH, npH KOHTO

30

pa3Hooopa3HeTO Ha ~opMHTe n03BOJISIBa ,na ce npOCJIe,nH T5IXHOTO THnOJIOrHtIeCKO pa3BHTHe.

B HaCTOSIlIJ,aTa CTaTHSI ca H3nOJI3YBaHH 87 ~HOyJIH, HaMHpalIJ,H ce B'bB $oH,noBeTe aa MY3eHTe B rpan CO~HSI, nJIOB,l{HB, Xacxoso, Crapa 3aropa, I\a3aHJI'bK, CJIHBeH, 5iMOOJI, Byprac, Baaroearpan, CaH,l{aHCKH1. Ilose-

lIeTO OT THX ca CJIYlIaUHH HaXO~KH 6e3 ~OCTaTbllHa ~OKYMeHTaUHH 3a MHCTOTO H aaxaaa na aaxnpaae. Bt.npexa TOBa re npe~CTaBJIHBaT narepecen MaTepHaJI aa H3CJIe~BaHe nopana HHKOH oc06eHOCTH B CbCT3Ba, npoueHTHOTO CbOTHOIlleHHe H ~aTHpa8eTO, OTJIHlIaBamH ni OT ~H6YJIHTe B ~pyrHTe PHMCKH npOBHHUHH.

PaHHopHMCKHTe ~H6YJIH ce nOHBHBaT ome npeaI B. np. H. e. H ca B ynorpeoa ~o cpenara na III B. na H. e., xoraro 6HBaT H3MeCTeHH OT YHH~HUHpaHHTe sa USlJIaTa PHMCKa HMnepHH KbCHOPHMCKH THnOBe. Or TeXHHlIeCKa rJIe~Ha TOllKa Te ce ~eJIHT Ha ~Be rpynH -e~HO~eJIHH H nay ~eJIHH. Ilspnara ce CbCTOH OT ~H6yJIH, H3pa60TeHH OT enaa 6pOH30Ba HJIH }KeJIH3Ha TeJI, na KOHTO xpea H3BHBaHe e npanaaeaa ~pMaTa na JIbKa, npY}KHHaTa H nrJIaTa. Bropara rpyna 06XBama ~H6yJIH, csCTOHmH ce OT ~Be lIaCTH -- JlbK H npuxpenea KbM Hero OT~eJIHO H3pa60TeH npY}KHHeH HJIH nrapaupen MexaHH3bM aa 3aTBapHHe aa arJIaTa. TOBa e Hau-pa3npOCTpaHeHHHT HallHH aa nanpasa na ~H6YJlH npes pHMCKaTa enoxa.

Cpen ~H6YJIHTe OT TpaKHH npeoonanaaar 6POH30BHTe, KoeTO e xapaxrepno H aa ~pYrHTe PHMCKH TIPOBHHUHH. HaU-'lIeCTO cpeuraaaar HallHH 3a H3pa60TKa Ha 6POH30BH ~H6YJlH e xpes OTJlHBaHe BbB ~pMH. Hssanenara OT ~pMaTa OTJIHBKa e 6HJIa orvrascnaaa H yxpaCHBaHa. HrJIO~bP}KaTeJlHT e 6HJI ~OnbJlHHTeJlHO H3BHBaH, aa na ce uanpaan nervro aa HrJIaTa . .llpyr HallHH aa H3pa60TBaHe ua 6POH- 30BH ~H6yJIH e spes H3BHBaHe, aa 6pOH30BaT3 rea, aa ~a if ce npnnane HCKaH,aT3~pMa aa JlbKa.

Xapaxrepno aa paHHopHMCKHTe ~H6yJlH e, lie BCHlIKH BH~OBe, O~PMHJlH ce non BJlHHHHeTO aa KbCHOJIaTeHCKHTe ~H6yJlH, ca aana- 3HJIH npY}KHHHHH MeXaHH3'bM aa 3aTBapHHe aa nraara. OCTaHaJlHTe BH~OBe HMaT urapaapea MexaHH3bM, KOUTO 3a npbB TIbT ce nOHBHBa npa ~H6yJlHTe THn Aucissa.

Cnopen nponsxoaa, ~pMaTa na JlbKa H H3'IHHa na H3pa60TKa paHHopHMCKHTe ~II- 6yJIH OT IO}KHa BbJIrapHSI ce ~eJISlT na ner rpyna. Ha3B3HHSlTa aa rpynnre ce nOKpHBaT C KJlaCHlIeCK3Ta KJIacH(llHKaUHH aa O. AJlMrpeH2, npaera aa OCHOBHa npn pa3rJIe>K~aHeTO na PHMCKHTe ~H6yJlH. OCBeH aa rpynn ~H6yJlHTe ce ~eJISlT aa THnOBe H BapHaHTH. B paxKHTe na rpynHTe H THnOBeTe e npocnenea npOH3XO~bT H pa3npOCTpaHeHHeTO HM, a cpe~ BapHaHTHTe e YTOllHeHa TSlXHaTa XPOHO' JIorHSI.

I'pyna I. CMJIHOnPo<t>MJIMpaHM qmoy JIM.

TOBa e enaa OT aan-pano ~aTHpaHHTe rpyna PHMCKH ~H6yJlH, npOH3JIH3alll,H nenocpe~CTBeHO OT KbCHOJIaTeHCKH 06pa3UH. THnOJIOrHqecKH Tece pa3BHBaT OT ~PMH CbC c.n0}KHO npO~HJIHpaHe aa JIbKa KbM no-on poCTeHo.·B KOHCTpYKTHBeH acnexr TOBa ca

~H6yJIH, CbCTOHllI,H ce OT ~Be lIaCTH C npY}KHHeH MexaHH3bM aa saraapaue na HrJIaTa. E~B3 cpen HaU.:.,KbCHJne THnOBe -ee cpeura uiapHHpH3Ta KOHCTPYKUHSI.

PaHHHTe ~OpMH Ha CHJIHOnpO~HJIHpaHHTe ~H6yJIl1 ca pasnpocrpanenn B DaHOHHSI, HopHKyM, PeUHSI, .llaJIMaUHH, MH3HSI. E~HHHlIHH eK3eMnJIHpn ce cpeuiar H B TpaKHSI. DO'KbC' HHTe THnOBe HMaT JIOKaJIeH xapaxrep H ce orpanasaaar B pasnpocrpaaeaaero CH ~O MH3HSI, TpaKHH H ,lI.aKHSI. Jlancara aa panHHTe THnOBe B ,lI.aKHSI nOKa3Ba, lie Te ca H3' JIe3JIH OT ynorpeoa oute npes I B. H3 H. e.

I'pyna I ce CbCTOH OT 4 rnna ~H6yJIH: -- $H6yJIH C ~Ba npo$HJIHpaHH npbcTeHa BbPXY JIbKa (06p. 1 6, B);

-- $H6yJIH C eJtHH npO~HJIHpaH npscrea BbPXY JIbKa (06p. 1 a, r, ~, e H 06p. 2 a--e); -- ~H6yJIH C ~pMa aa KOTBa (06p. 2 }K, 3);

-- ~H6yJIH C BHCOK HrJIO~bP}KaTeJI (06p.

3 a, 6, r, ~).

THn Ill. T03H THn ooxaaura ~H6yJIH C nsa npo$HJIHpaHH nptcrena BbPXY JIbKa, aacypea HJIH paMKOB HrJIO~bP}KaTeJI H npy}KHHeH MexaHH3bM aa 3aTBapHHe aa nraara. THnOJIOfHqeCKH ~PMHTe C azcypen nr JIO~bP}KaTeJl ca no-pamra (06p. 1 B); OTKOJIKOTO Te3H C paMKOB HrJIO~bP}KaTeJI (06p. 1 6). <I>H6y· JlHTe C ascypea nr JIO~bP}KaTeJI ce cpeuiar lIeCTO B' CeBepOH3TOllHa DaHoHHH, HOPHKYM" PeUHH, a na aanan ~OCTHraT ~o PeUH. HaMHpaT ce lIeCTO B JIerHOHHHTe aarepa B PeUHH, xoeTO n03BOJIHBa ~a 6b~aT ~aTHpaHH no BpeMeTO na TH6epHH (14--37)3. HaU~CHJIHO ce, pasnpocTpaHHBaT npes 20-Te--70--re rO~HHH na I B. na H. e., 3aCTbneHH nO-KbCHO OT $H6YJlHTe C paxxoa HrJIO~bP}KaTeJl (06p. 1 6)4. DOCJlek AHTe ca cpeuiaaa HaH'lIeCTo B ,IOr03ana~Ha DaHOHHH, rJIaBHO 06J1aCTTa Kpau DTYH H JII06.TJHHa, HO ca HaMHpaHH H B HOpHKyM, PeUHH, ,lI.aJlMaUHH H 4exHHD• ,lI.aTHpaHH ca OT ynpasneuaero na TH6epHu (14--37) ~o xpaa na I B.8 Han-xt.caare HaXO~KH na T03H BHA $H6yJlH ca OT TaexaHM, HaMepeHH C MOHeTH Ha TpaHH (98--117)'. T03H THn ~H6yJlH e xaoro pH~KO cpeuiaa B TpaKHH, H3BeCTHH ca cano 2 eK3eMIMHpa.<I>H6YJl8Ta OT rp06 2 na MOrHJla I B MepHqJIepH e OT 60raTa rpooaa HaXO~Ka, ~aTHpaHa npe3 II H OTlIaCTH npea III B.8, KoeTO nOKa3Ba, lie Te3H ~H6yJIH ca 6HJIH B ynorpeea H npes IIB._

THn 112. T03H THn 06xBaIIla ¢H6YJIHCe,l.ijfH npo4>HJIHpaH npscren Bipxy JIbKa H CHJIHO pasiuapeaa fJIaBHlIKa nan n;pY}KHHaTa, C paaKOB HJIH aacypea HrJlO~bP>Ka:TeJI, KOHTO B noKbCHHTe BapHaHTH e iaeue nJIbTeH. MexaHH3' MbT na saraapaae aa araara e npY}KHHeH. Te npOH3XO}K~aT OT K'bCHOJIaTeHCKHH THn $H- 6yJlH Ornavasso, npa KoeTO THXHOTO THnOJIOrHlIeCKO pa3BHTHe e BbPBSlJlO OT CHJlHO npo¢HJIHpaHe Ha JIbKa H paMKOB HrJlO~bP}KaTeJI KbM pe~YUHpaHe Ha npO~HJIHpaHeTO H H3nbJI' sane aa HrJIO~bP}KaTeJIH·. Cpen 4>H6YJlHTe OT IO>KHa BbJIfapHSI He ce cpeuiar HaH-CTapHTe

31

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32

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CKU OKp'bZ. Fig. 1. Fibules paleoromaines -- groupe I«: a) Brezooo, departement de Ploodio, 6) Mericleri, departement de Haskooo, 6) Sofia, z) lieu de decouverte inconnu, a) Altos. departement de Burgas, e) Kalugerooo, departement de Haskooo

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,5 Apxeonoras, 4, 1987 r.

I

II

3) Il noeoue, Fig. 2. Fibules paleoromaines - groupe I«: a) lieu de decouverte inconnu, 6) Ajtos, departe-, ment de Burgos, 8) Meriiileri, departemetit de Has-: kooo, e) Botunec, departement de Sofia, iJ) -Stara Zagora, e) Ajtos, departement de Burgos, {JIC) Suhindol, departement de Sofia, 3) Ploudio

4>oPMH C paMKOB HfJIO.ll.'bp)KaTeJI. HaH-paHH"re cjm6YJIH OT TpaKHSI "MaT ascypen HfJIO.ll.bP)KaTeJI C 2 HJIH 3 npasosr-snna orsopa (o6p. 1 a, f), HO H re ca MHOfO PSl.ll.KO cpemann, H3- BeCTHHca caao 2 eK3eMnJISIpa. Harepecao e na ce oroeneaca, 'Ie ejm6YJIaTa OT Bpe30Bo, nJIOB.lI.HBCKH OKPbf (06p. 1 a), npnaaanesor K'bM BH.lI., pasnpocrpaaea caMO B sananaare npOBHHUHH na PHMCKaTa HMnepHSI, K'b.ll.eTO ce 'pa3JIHlJaBa sanaaen H H3TOlJeH BapHaHT na T03H BH.lI.. fl>H6YJIaTa OT C. Bpe30BO npaaanne)KH K'bM aanaaaaa BapHaHT, lJHHTO HaXO.ll.KH ce rpynapar B 06JIaCTTa aa H3TOlJHHTe AJInH H IO)KHa repMaHHSI. H3B'bH Ta3H TepHTopHSI ca H3BeCTHH caMO .lI.Be HaXO.ll.KH -- OT nOSIHa B PYM'bHHSI H OT PHMCKHSI KaCTeJI AJIMYC B Ceaepaa B'bJIfapHSlIO• fl>H6YJIaTa OT BpeaOBO e rperara HaMepeHa H3B'bH 06JIaCTTa aa H3TOlJHHTe AJInH . .llaTHpaHeTo na resa ejm6yJIH ce onHpa Ha HaXO.ll.KHTe OT PHMcKHTe KaCTeJIH B PeUHSI, ·KoeTO nasa OCHosaHHe .lI.a 6'b.ll.aT OTnecenn K'bM rrspsara nOJIOBHHa aa I s. sa

H. e.lt

fl>H6YJIHTe C npaBO'bf'bJIHH OTBOPH aa HfJIO.lI.'bp)KaTeJISI (06p. 1 f) ca pasnpocrpaneaa B Ceaepaa HTaJIHSI H H3TOlJHHTe AJInH. HaHcrapare HaXO.ll.KH ce .lI.aTHpaT OT paHHHTe aoenHH JIafepH aa PeHH H ropen .llYHaB npes noCJIe.ll.HHTe .lI.Be .lI.eCeTHJIeTHSI Ha I B. np, H: e.12

fl>H6YJIHTe C npaeosr-saaa OTBOPH na HfJIO.lI.bp)KaTeJISI ca 3aCTbneHH OT ejm6yJIH C TpH HJIH naa KPbfJIH orsopa (06p. 1 n). OT TpaKHSI e H3BeCTHa caxo eaaa nonocaa <pH6yJIa -OT AHTOC. CBoHTe aHaJIOfHH TSI HMa B naHoHHSI H HopHKYM, K'b.ll.eTo aa .pa3JIHKa OT OCTaHaJIHTe PHMCKH nposHHUHH npeooaanaaar nO-KbCH H MaCHBHH 4>oPMH . .llaTHpaHH ca npe3 40-Te-- 70-Te fO.ll.HHH aa I B.13 Ho nO.ll.06HH <pH6yJIH ce cpeuiar H B .llaKHSI (TypHY CeBepHH), KoeTO nOKa3Ba, 'Ie ca 6HJIH B ynorpeoa .lI.O xpas na I B. H .lI.a)Ke B HalJaJIOTO aa I I B.14

HaH-MHof06poHHH S IO)KHa B'bJIfapHSI ca K'bCHHTe aapnaara aa T03H THn C n'bJIeH HfJIO.lI.bplK'aTeJI. TOBa ca MaCHBHH ejm6yJIH C fOJISIM lJeTHpH'bf'bJIeH ar JIO.ll.bp)KaTeJI, CbC CHJIHO npo<jJHJIHpaH crspuam npscrea BbPXY JI'bKa. KpalJeTO' saaspuraa 06HKHOBeHO C MaJIKO. TonlJe (06p. 1 e). T03H BH.lI. <jJH6YJIH e PSl.ll.KO cpeniaa na cesep, B raJIHSI H H3B'bH fpaHHUHTe aa PHMCKaTa HMnepHSI, HO e MHOfO pasnpocrpanea B D.YHaBcKHTe H OaJIKaHCKHTe PHMCKH npOBHHUHH, a ocoeeno B .llaKHSI H YKpaHHa10. HaXO.ll.KHTe OT PYM'bHHSI -- OT .llpy6eTa H MHCHSI, ca .lI.aTHpaHH OT cpenara aa I B.lII IlaaoaCKHTe <jJH6YJIH ca 3H3lJHTeJIHO nO-K'bCHH OT BpeMeTO aa Becnacaan (69--79) .lI.O MapK ASPeJIHH (161--180)17. no T03H HalJHH nepno.lI.'bT Ha H3nOJI3YB3He Ha T03H SH.lI. <jJH6YJIH ce sarsaps Me)KD.Y cpenara na I B. H xpaa aa II B.

tJeTB'bpTHSIT sapaaar na CHJIHOnpo<jJHJIHpaHHTe <jJH6YJIH C e.ll.HH npbcTeH BbPXY JI'bKa e MHOfO THnHlJeH sa 6aJIKaHCKHTe nposaa-

34

• 06p. 3. PaHHopuMCKU ¢u6y.1u - zpyna I: a)., l1eWAm, Bl/peaCKU OKP?JZ, 6) HeU36ecmHO MecmOHaxo3IC oenue, 6) A amoc, SypzacKu OKP?JZ, e J HeU36ecmHO ueomonaxoocoenue, d) HeU36eCnmO uecmonaxoxoenue. Fig. 3. Fibules paleoromaines - groupe Ier: a) Debelt, departement de Burger, 6~ lieu de decouverte inconnu, 6) Altos, dipartemeni '4e Burgos, e) lieu de decouoerte inconnu, a) lieu de decouverte inconnu

UHH, npean BCHlJKO sa MH3HSI, TpaKHSI H .llaKHSI. Xapaxrepaanpa ce C MaJIbK np screu, nOHSIKOfa cauo Y.ll.e6eJIeHHe B'bpXy JlbKa H TpH'bf'bJleH ar JIO.ll.'bp)KaTeJl (06p. 2 a, 6, B). fl>H6YJIaTa OT rpoo 1 aa MOfHJla II OT MepHlJJIepH (06p. 2 s) e cpecspaa, 3HalJHTeJIHO nocTapaTeJIHO H3pa60TeHa, C MaJIKa nOJIYUHJIHH.lI.pHlJHa nJIOlJKa, noxpaaauia npY)KHHaTa. Ha 6a3aTa Ha fp06HHSI HHBeHTap TSI e .lI.aTHpaHa BbB sropara nOJIOBHHa aa I B.18 Ho pasnpoCTpaHeHHeTO na T03H BapHaHT aa CHJIHOnpo<jJHJIHpaHHTe <jJH6YJlH e HaCT'bnHJlO npes II B., KoeTO ce noraspscraaa OT lJeCTHTe HM aaxonxa B .llaKHSI.

K'bM neTHSI BapHaHT npnnanneacar <jJoPMH, npn KOHTO npo<jJUJIHpaHeTO na JI'bKa ce C'bCTOH OT MaJlKO Y.ll.e6eJIeHHe. CelJeHHeTO na JI'bKa e KP'bfJIO HJIM nOJIYKp'bI'JlO (06p. 2 r, .lI.). T03H BH.lI. <jJH6YJIH ce cpeuia npenn BCHlJKO S 3eMHTe na cesep OT tJepHO Mope, Kb.ll.eTO aaa-aepoarHO ce e 04>oPMHJI. Jlo-psnxo ce naanpa B .lI.YHaBCKHTe 6aJlKaHCKH npOBHHUHHIII. T03H sapHaHT Ha CHJIHOnpo<jJHJIHpaHHTe <jJH6YJIH e HaH-TpY.ll.eH aa .lI.aTHpaHe. Cpema ce 3aeD.HO C D.HCKOSHTe ascypaa <jJH6YJIH, D.aTHpaHH npes BTOpaTa nOJIOSHHa aa II B. H .lI.a)Ke npea II I S.20 CaMO npn pasxornorre B THHoCYJI ca aaaepean C MOHeTH aa KJIaB.lI.HH (41--54) H Arpnnnaa'", HO S cJIYlJaSi CTaBa ssnpoc sa CtWH~eH KOMnJIeKC C no-mcrsr nepnon IIa csmecreysaae. 3aToBa TpSl6Ba .lI.a npaexeu, 'Ie XPOHOJIOfHlJeCI<HTe rpaHHUH aa nnrepecyaa~HSI HH sapaaar <jJH6YJIH ca BTop3Ta nOJlOBHHa na II B. H HalJaJIOTO H'] II J B.

K'bM THn 112 MO)KeM na npHlJHCJIHM H 4>H- 6YJIaTa OT AATOc--BaHHTe (06p. 2e), KOSITO npareacasa pasumpena raaanxxa HaD. npy)KHHaTa, KPbf'bJI npscrea aspxy JIbKa H D.'bJIfa npyxaaa OT 14 HaBHBKH. Ta3H 4>H6yJIa npHH8D.JIC}KH KbM MHOfO pa3npOCTpaHeHHH' B Cesepaa H Cpeaaa Espona BHD., KoATO PJlD.KO ce cpenra H B naHoHHH, KbD.eTO e CMSlTaH sa HMnopT OT ceBep22. TaKHB8 <jJoPMH B 4exoCJIQBaKHH ca D.aTHpaHH OT HaqaJIOTO D.P cpe.lI.a~.a aa II B.23 fl>H6YJIaTa OT AATocno BCHKa eepoarnocr e CbW.O HMBOpT H MO}Ke ].{a CBHD.C1i~JICTBYBa sa KOHTaKTHTe C nneueaara aa ceaep OT rpaHHUHTe aa PUMcKaTa HMnepHH.

THO 113. fl>H6YJIHTe BbB <jJopMaTa na xoraa ce OTJIHqaBaT fJIaBHO C MaCHBHOCTTa CH

H C D.BaTa CTpaHHqHH U3paCTbKa, KOHTO HM ~ npaaaaar Ta3H 4>oPMa (o6p. 2 *). Tesa 4>H- 6yJIH ce cpemar rJIaBHO B 6aJIKaHCKHTe npoBHHUHU, pHD.KO B naHoHHH. ED.HHHqHH ex- 3eMBJIHpH ca H3BeCTHH H OT rOJIHMaTa yarap-

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CKa HH3HHa24• )laTHpaHH ca C noaourra aa MOHeTH OT BTOpaTa nOJIOBHHa aa I I B -: .i{O cpe,IJ;aTa aa III B.2IiMHOfO secro Te3H 4>HOYJIH ce cpemar aCesepaa B'bJIfapHH, fJIaBHO B xpaa,IJ;YHabcKHTe PHMCKH rpanose,

K'bM T03H THn 4>H6yJIH TpSl6Ba ,IJ;a ce npalIHCJIH H 4>H6YJIaTa OT )l)KeH,IJ;eMTene B UJIOB,IJ;HB (06p., 2 3). nO!Jx>pMa TSl ce pa3JIHlIaBa 3HalIHTeJIHQ, HO C M3.ClIBHOCTT,a CU U CDC CTUJIa na H3pa60TKa ce ,IJ;06JIH)KaBa JlP 4>H6YJIHTe B'bB 4>opMaTa na KOTBa. TaKHBa 4><>PMH ce cpeuiar lIeCTO B naHOHHSl, )laJIMaUHH, CeBepHaJfTaJIHSl U HOPUKYM, KaKTO U B tIexoCJIOBaKHH26• Te ,IJ;06pe OTfOBapSlT aa CTHJIa, xapaxrepen aa xpas na II H HalIaJIOTO aa III B.

THn 114. CHJIHOnpo4>HJIHpaHHTe 4>H6yJIH C BHCOK HfJIo,IJ;'bp)KaTeJI ca HaH--K'bCHHlIT xpoHOJIOfUllecKU THn, U3KJIIOlIUTeJIHO xapasrepen sa TpHTe 6aJIKaHCKUnpoBHHUUH MV3HH, TpaKUSl U )laKuSi. CaMO e.ztHHUllHue}(3eMllJlSlpU ca U3BecTHU OT naHoHuSl21• Tun 114 HMa ,IJ;Ba

sapaaara. ,

n'bpBHSlT BapHaHT ce xapaxrepnaapa C ,IJ;'bJIfa npY)KHHa, MHOfO'bf'bJIHO ceseaae aa JI'bKa U C e,IJ;UH UJIU ,IJ;Ba npscreaa B'bpXy aero. npY)KUHaTa e nOM'bp)KaHa OT ,IJ;BeCTpaHHllHU paxeaa (06p. 3.6). nOHSlKOfa Te3U 4>H6yJIU HMaT urapaapaa KOHCTPYKUUSI aa UfJIaTa (06p. 3 a).

K'bM BTOpHH BapHaHT npHHa,IJ;JIe)KaT 4>H- 6ynu c llIapHHpHa KOHCTPYKUHH Ha UfJIaTa H CnJIeCKaH B MaJIKa nnoxxa JI'bK Ha,IJ; urapnapa, 3a <jm6YJIHTe OT MH3HH, TpaKHH H )laKHH e xapaxrepaa H3BHTaTa B ,IJ;bra HrJIa, ,IJ;OKaTO CbW;HTe 4>H6YJIH OT naHoHHH ca C npaaa HrJIa. nO,IJ;06HH 4>u6yJIH ca H3BeCTHH OT MHoro naXO,IJ;KH B PYM'bHHH, K'b,IJ;eTO ca ,IJ;aTHpaHH B III B. B Ilaaoaua csunrre 4>H6yJIH ca ,IJ;aTHpana B cpenara aa III B. Bb3MO)KHOe ot)a'le Te,IJ;a cenosaaaar H no-paso - B xpas aa Il B., noaeise ce cpemar qeCTO c npOBHHUHaJIHOpHMCKHTe KOJIeHqaTH qm6y JIH28.

KbM rpyna I e "pH'IHCJIeHa H e,IJ;Ha HeTBnH'IHa sa TpaKHSl cpH6YJIa OT Aihoc (06p. 3 B). TSl e BKJIIOqeHa TyK nOpa,IJ;H CHJIHO npocpHJIHpaHHSI en JI'bK, KOHTO, nparescasa e,IJ;HO pe6po no cpenara, yxpaceao c BpH3aH opaaMeHT H ,IJ;Be peopa, pa3,IJ;eJISlw,H xpasero OT JIbKa. )lBe nO-MaJIKH prop a YKpacHBaT xpas na xpasero. ct>H6YJIaTa e C urapnapaa KOHCTPYKUHSl aa HrJIaTa. T03H- SH,IJ; qJH6yJIH e xapaxrepea sa 3aHa,IJ;HHTe npoBHHUHH, Kb,IJ;eTO aaa-secro e yxpacea C eMaHJI.Ho,IJ;06HH 4>H- 6yJIH pH,IJ;KO ce cpemar B H3TOqHHTe PHMCKH npoBH1HJ.HH. n03HaTH ca HaXO,IJ;KH OT PYMbHHH, ,IJ;~TUpaHH B I H OTqaCTH BbB II B.29 T03H BH,IJ; 4>H6YJIH, yxpacexa C eMaHJI, B 3ana,IJ;HHTe npoBHHUHH e ,IJ;aTHpaH npea sropara nOJIOBHHa aa II B. H ~allaJIOTO na III B.30, KoeTO cs,IJ;eHKH .no KOHCTPYKUH5ITa, e no-peanuo H sa ,IJ;aTHpaHeTO aa T03H BH,IJ; B TpaKHSl.

I'pyna I I. <pH6yJIlf C H3BHT JI'bK.

. Xapaxrepaare xepra rra Ta3H rpyna ca -npe,IJ;HBCHqKO npOCTHHT, Henpo4>HJIHpaH, ,IJ;'broBH,IJ;HO H3BHT JIbK B nOBeIJeTO '.CJIyqaH C npaaobrbJIHO cexeaae H nOllTH BHHam c urapunpna KOHCTPYKUHSl na HrJIaTa. Pa3JIHqHHTe THnOBe cpH6YJIH OT Ta3H rpyna HMaT pa3HOpO,IJ;eH npoH3XO,IJ;, HO ca 06e,IJ;HHeHH OT 06W,OTO sa UHJIaTa rpyna ,IJ;'brOBH,IJ;HO H3BHBaHe aa JIbKa. Ha6JIlo, ,IJ;aBaT ce csunrre TeH,lI.eHUHH aa pa3BHTHe, KaKTO H "PH I rpyna. ct>H6YJIHTe, KOHTO ,IJ;OCTHraT ,IJ;O TpaKHH OT ,IJ;pyrHTe npoBHHUHH, B HaqaJIOTO ce npOH3Be)K,IJ;aT CbrJIaCHO nbPBo06- pa3a, KaTO nOCTeneHHO 6HBar BH,IJ;OH3MeHHHH, 06pa3YBaHKH HOBH BH,IJ;OBe, lIHeTO pasnpocTpaHeHHe ce OrpaHHtIaBa B MH3HH, TpaKHSl H )laKH5I. CaMO OT,IJ;eJIHH eK3eMnJISlpH ,IJ;OCTHraT ,IJ;O OaHOHHSl. TaKHBa cpH6YJIH ca ,IJ;aTHpaHH 3HaIJHTeJIHO nO-K'bCHO OT TeXHHTe rrspsooepa3H.

I'pyna II ce ,IJ;eJIH na 5 rnna: r,.\ _

- cpH6YJIH THn Aucissa (06p. 3 e, )K, 3);

- cpH6YJIH, npOH3XO)K,IJ;aw,H OT THn Aucissa

(o6p. 4 a, 6, B, r, .n.);

- 4>H6yJIH C'bC 3aBHTO xpase (06p. 4 e, 3);

- 4>H6yJIH BbB <PoPMa na KJIelll.H (06p.

5 a, 6);

- cpH6YJIH, yxpacenn CbC sannereaa TeJI B'bpXy JI'bKa (06p. 4 r).

THn I Ill. ct>H6YJIHTe THn Aucissa ca e,IJ;HH OT HaH-paHO pa3n03HaTHTe PHMCKH 4>H6y.nH otue B 1881 r. OT O. Taumep. Te ce OTJIHtIaBaT C nJIOCbK H3BHT JIbK, C npascsr-saao ceseaae. Ilpes cpenara aa JIbKa MHHaBa peaepno pe6- po, YKpaceHO C BpSl3aH opHaMeHT OT npaBH JIHHHH HJIH TOllKH. Kpasero aaaspuma C TOnIJe. I1fJI8Ta e C urapaapaa KOHCTPYKUHSl, .aaa ,I_<9S1TO ce aaxapa MaJIKa nJIOIJKa C aannnc Aucissa, HfdeTO aa KeJITCKHSI npOH3_Bo,nHTeJI aa Te3R cpR6YJIH31 (06p. '3)K, 3). OCB~H C TO- 3H aannac ce cpeuiar H cpH6yJIH C ,IJ;pyrH nannHCH, Hore no npaBHJIO HMaT .n.pyro celleHHe na JIbKa, HaH-llecTO KpbrJIO. ct>H6YJIHTe OT T03H THn nOHSIKora HSlMaT Ha.n.nHCH, a npyr BH,IJ; yxpaca B'bpXy npennara nJIOIJKa32• Te ce nOSlBSlBaT HaH-Hanpe,IJ; B Cesepna I1TaJIHSI, KaTO aa uerrrsp aa TSlXHOTO npOH3BO,IJ;CTBO e CMSlTaHa Siscia. OTTaM re ce paanpocrpaaaaar B USlJIaTa PHMcKa RMnepHHH .n.a)Ke aa eesep OT HeHHHTe rpaHHUH33. HaH-TOIJHH CBe,IJ;eHRSl

• 06p. 4. PaHilopuMCICU f/JU6YAU - epgna l/e:a) JIosen, XacIC06Cf(U OfCp<U, 6) TpaHQI(08O, CAU6eHCfCU OfCP7JZ, 8) Xpucmo /.1aH080, nAOeOU8CICU OfCpU, e) l.famassa, Cmap03azopcKU OKP'6Z, 0) KylteBO, f/ MOOIICfCU 'OfCP7JZ, e) l.famaAfCa, CmapoaazopcfCU OfCP7JZ, :JIC) Cmapa 3azopa, 3) B'OIIZape80 , BYPlacfCU OfCpU. Fig. 4. Ftbules paleoromaines;-groupe lie: a) Lozen, departement de HaskOfJo, 6) Tronakooo, departeme.nt de Slioen, 8} Hristo Dtmooo, departement de PlovdlV, z) Catalka, departement de Stara Zagofa, 0) Kune- 00, departement de Jambol, e) Catalka,, departement de Stara Zagora, :JIC) Stara Zagora, s) Bdlgarevo, departement de Burgas

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3a THXHOTO naTHpaHe HH naBaT rpOOHHTe Ha· XOnKH OT HeKpOnO~HTe Ha rHYOHaCKO H OpHaBaCO, K'bneTO q)HOY~HTe THn Aucissa ca nasrepeaa C MOHeTH sa ABrYCT, CetIeHH B nepaona OT 18 r. np. H. e. no 15 r. OT H. e. Caao B enHH c~YtIaH <pHoy~a OT T03H THn e aauepesa C MOHeTa aa THoepHH, cexeaa B lQ-ll r. na H. e.34 Te3H <PHOY~H ca MHoro THnHtIHH aa BpeMeTO Ha K)~HeBo-K~aBnHeBaTa nHHaCTHH, a THXHOTO H3~H3aHe OT ynorperia MO)Ke na ce naTHpa no BpeMeTo Ha qp~aBHeBaTa nHHaCTHH. CbII.J.eCTBYBaT naHHH ooase, tIe Te ca ce cpemana H nO-K'bCHO - npes II B. Hanpauep HaMHpaHH ca cpen HaXOnKHTe OT PHMcKHTe KaCTe~H no ~HMeca B Fepuanas H PeuHH35. Csmo raxa H B C~OBaKHH nOnOOHH <PHOY~H ca narapaaa B xpas aa r B. H HatIa~OTO na II B.38 3a H3nomYBaHeTO HM npes II B. CBRneTe~CTBYBaT H HaXOnKHTe OT K))KHa B'b~rapHH, K'bneTO T03H THn <PHOY~H e aaxepen B ABrYCTa Tpaana, OCHOBaH B HatIa~OTO aa II B. B TpaKHH ce cpeutar H q)H6Y~H OT T03H THn C Kp'br~O H~H OBa~HO CetIeHHe Ha ~'bKa (oop. 3 e). KaKTo nOKa3BaT nOceraIIIHHTe H3-, c~enBaHHH, He ce 3aoe~H3BaT pa3~HKH B naTHpaHeTO na <PHOY~HTe C npasosr-saao H xpsrvro cexeane aa ~'bKa.

THn II/2. qpHOY~HTe, npOH3XO)KnaII.J.H OT

THn Aucissa, ce cpeiuar MHOro. tIeCTO B B'b~rapHH H PYM'DHHH. HMaT H3BHT n~OC'bK ~'bK H Ma~Ka npaBO'br'b~Ha n~OtIKa Han IllapHHpHaTa KOHCTPYKUHH na arnara. YKpaceHH ca C BPH- 3aHH ~HHHH H xp'srxera (orip. 4 a, 0, B, n, )K). Te ca noope n03HaTH OT PHMcKHTe ~arepH B .LlaKHH, KaTO .LlPyoeTa Pasapa, TYPHY CeBepHH H np., H ca narapaau B'bB II B.37 Pa3~Hsaaar ce nsa aapaaara aa T03H THn. n'bpBHHT OT THX HMa npaaosr-saao ceseaae na ~'bKa H ce OT~HtIaBa c H3BeCTHa npoH3Bo~HOCT B'bB <PapMaTa aa caMHH ~'bK (oep. 4 a, 0, B). BTOpHHT BapHaHT ce xapaxrepasapa C xpsrao H~H noayxp'srno ceseane na ~'bKa (oep. 4 n, )K). qpH6.y~aTa OT Crapa 3aropa (06p. 4)K) ce OT~HtIaBa c ronexare CH pasaepa H nOCTa n'bk rOTO xpaxe. TH e naTHpaHa B rrspsara noneBHHa na r B.38 HneHTHtIeH exaexnnap e H3- BeCTeH H OT PHMCKHH narep B Konaueaa (Aprec), KoeTO CBHneTMCTBYBa, tIe Te3H <PHOY~H ca 6H~H B ynorpeoa H npes II B.39

THn II/3. qpHoY~HTe C'bC 3aBHTO xpase HMaT n~OC'bK ~'bK H Ma~Ka npY)KHHa OT 4- 5 HaBHBKH. Kpasero e H3BHTO aarope H 3aBHTo. B cnapana. Te3H <pH6Y~H npoaaxoacaar no BCHKa BepOHTHo.CT or TpaKHHcKHTe xamnarCKH <PHOY~H. Pasnpocrpanean ca aa Ba~KaHCKHH noayocrpos. Ha ceseposanan nocrarar no. Briegtlo" (oop, 4 e, 3). OT K))I{Ha BsnrapHH HMaMe 10 exaeannnpa. BCHtIKHTe re, C enao H3KnlOtIeHHe, ca HneHTHtIHH no. <PoPMa.

, Pa3~HtIaBaT ce cavo no. yxpacara B'bpXY zrsxa.

XpOHo.~orHHTa aa Te3H <PHOY~H He e YTo.tIHeHa nopanH ~Hnca Ha no.ope naTHpaHH HaXo.nKH. EnHHCTBeHO <pHoy~aTa or rpoeaaua 1 aa MOfH~a VII B qaTa~Ka, Craposaropcxa oxp sr,

38

Mo.)Ke na snece H3BeCTHa TOtIHOCT B narnpaHeTO, ssnpexa tIe Ta3H <pHoy~a He e THnHtIHa - xpaxero e H3nHrHaTo. H H3BHTO B'bB BHn na ~e6enOBa IIIHSI (oop. 4 e). qpHoy~aTa e HaMepeHa B rpo.o C ooraT HHBeHTap o.T OpOH30.BH csnose H MOHeTH, HaH-K'bCHHTe or KOHTo. ca OT speaero na ra~oa (68-69). Ilopann roaa ue~HHT HHBeHTap e naTHpaH B'bB BTopaTa no.~o.BHHa ua I B. OT H. e.41

THn II/4. 3a npoasxona aa <PHoY~HTe B'bB <PaPMa na xneutn (oop, 5 a, 0) C'bm.ecTBYBaT nse reopnn. Ennara npennoaara, 'Ie npoas~H3aT or K'bCHO xamnarcxare q)HOY~H, pasnpocrpaaeaa B H3TOqHHTe A~nH H Cesepaa HTa~HH, Ko.HTO ca OH~H B ynorpeea npes n'b~'br nepaon or speae H HaHHKo.H a~nHHCKH repena ce cpeuiar saenno C paanopnxcxara terra sigillata" . .LlpyraTa reopas npeanoaara, 'Ie npo.H3~H3aT or TpaKHHCKHTe xamuarCKH <PHOY~H. Iloraspscneaae na Ta3H reopaa e aaxonxara or MeCTHo.CTTa rOCHHa Ilnanana, K'bneTo. e naxepeaa <pHoy~a B'bB <PaPMa aa K~eII.J.H C ensocrpaaaa npY)KHHa, xapaxrepna aa TpaKHHCKHTe <pH6Y~H.

qpHoY~HTe B'bB <PapMa aa xneuta ce OT~Hsasar no. CBo.SlTa Ko.HCTPYKUHSI. Te ca nByne~HH, npa KOeTo. ar nara e npnxpeneaa K'bM ~'bKa qpe3 o.OHKHo.BeH HHT, pasn.recxan or naere CTpaHH. BHn na xnetua HM npanasar napaCT'bUHTe B npenHaTa tIaCT Ha ~'bKa H Hr~aTa. OT K))KHa B'b~rapHH HMaMe ner exsexnaapa, npOH3XO)Knam.H, C enao H3K~IOtIeHHe, OT Ma~KH CMHm.a • .nHnCBaT no6pe narapaaa rpoenn Ko.Mn~eKCH .

qpH6Y~HTe B'bB <PapMa aa K~eII.J.H ca pasnpo.cTpaHeHH B'bB BCHtIKH npo.BHHUHH Ha PHMCKaTa HMnepHH, cpetuar ce H H3B'bH HeHHHTe rpaaaua. .Llo.cera He ca H3BeCTHH HaxOnKH cauo or .LlaKHH. HaH-MHo.roOpo.HHH ca Te3H <PH6Y.1IH B Cesepaa HTa~HH, H3TOtIHHTe A~na H na Ba~KaHCKHH noayocrpoe. X poaonornara na Te3H <pH6Y~H He e narrsnao H3HCHeaa. HaMHpaHH ca B rpo6HH Ko.Mn~eKCH 3aenao C MOHeTH aa Tpaaa (98-117), Ko.MOn (180-192), MapK ABpe~HH (161-180), KoeTO 6H npennonarano, tIe ca vnorpeosaaan rrpes II B'43 B naHoHHH T03H THn e naTHpaH B'bB

• 06p. 5. PanHopuMcKU ¢U6YAU - epyna II: a) Jlec- 11.060. CO¢UIlCfCU oKp'&e. 6) C6ulleHepaiJ. XacK06cKU ostne: PaHHopuMCKU ¢u6Yllu - epgna II I. IV. V. 6) neuseecmuo MecmoHaxo~Hue. e) JIIOIIun. fiMOOIlCKU ofCp'&e. iJ) Bypeac. e) Mepu't/Iepu. XacK06- CKU OKpU. :xc) KUpU.II060. Cmapo3ll20pcK.U oICp'&e. s) Aamoc, BgpeaclCu oKp'&e. u) l(pgean. KlOcmeHiJuIICICU olCp'&e. IC) Co¢UR • .II) Cmapa Baeopa, At) BoIIRP060. XacIC06CICU olCp'&e. H) lllI3apiJ:xculC. 0) Bomynef{. coq,uaclCU oK.p'&e. Fig. 5. Pibules paleoromaines - groupe I1e: a) Lesnooo, departement de Sofia. 6) SQilengrad. departement de Haskooo; Fibules paleoromaines - groupe I Il», IVe. Ve; 6) lieu de decouverte inconnu, e) Ljultn, departement de J ambol, 0) Burgas. e) MeriCleri. departement de Haskooo, fJIC) Kirilooo, departement de Stara Zagora. s) Ajtos. departement de Burgas, u) Drugan. departement de Kjustendtt, IC) Sofia • .II) Stara Zagora. M) Boljarooo, departement de Haskooo, H) Pazarditt; 0) Botunec, departement de Sofia

5

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I

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I • I

I
I ~ T
B I
l I
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6 z -.
/
I
I - ~
( I
I
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I
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e •
I
3 H .

. 0

39

II H II I B.44 06a1Je JIHnCaTa aa <}lHOY JIll B'bB q,opMa na KJIe~H B .llaKHSI, KaKTO H C'b~eCTBYBaHeTO na Me>K,l{HHHH q,oPMH Me>K,l{Y TpaKHRCKHTe <}lHOYJIH H Te3H B'bB <}lopMa Ha KJIe~H OH~MOrJIO Aa np~nOJIara e~HO no-paHHO noSlBlIBal{~- npea '1 B. OT H. e.

r:-:'fHn' 11/5 .. cl>H6YJIHTe, yxpaceaa C'bC 3a-

II, J,."

nJ1~Ha TeJI B'bpXY JI'bKa. KaTO KOHCTPYKLl.HSI

HaWhJIHO orrosapsr aa rpynaTa<}lHoYJIlf c H3~T JI1!K: HMaT nJIOC'bK JI'bK C npasosr-saao CelJ'eHHe:If. __ urapaapaa KOHCTPYKLl.H5I HB HrJIara, Pa3JIH1J3BaT ce no. yxpacara OT apTHCTH1JHO npennereaa T'bHKa TeJI B'bpXY JI'bKa. Or IO>KHa IhJIrapHSI ca H3BeCTHH caxo nsa eK3eMnJISIpa. Ilpn T03H OT rpOOHHLl.aTa B MOrHJIa VI 0'1" '4aTaJIl5a B'bpXY OPOH30BHSI JI'bK e sanaereaa cpeospna TeJIi(06p. 4 r]: BTOPHSIT eK3eMnJISIp e OT rpon 22 aa MorH.tIa I B Xacxoso. TOR e_ napaooren OT Me,l{ H e CHJIHO KOPQ3HpaJI. cl>H6YJIaTH 6T '4aTaJIKa, aauepeaa c 60raf rpoeea HHBeHTap H MOHeTa aa Becnacaaa (69-79), e ,l{aTHpaHa B xpas aa I B:II; (flH6yJIaTa OT Xacxoso e narnparra HB oa3aTB aa rpooHHSI HHBeHTap B'bB II B.48 no T03H Ha1JHH <}lHoYJIHTe OT THn 11/5 ce OTHaCSIT K'bM xpaa na I H II B. AHaJIOrHH aa Te3H <}lHOYJIH ,l{ocera He ca H3BeCTHH. npe,l{nOJIO>KeHHSlTa, 1Je npoasXO>K,l{aT OT HSiKOH THnOBe rp'bLl.KH <}lHOYJIH He ca H3MepHJIH orne CBOHTe .lI.OKa3aTeJICTBa.

I'pyna III. TIpoBHHll.HaJIHO-pHMCKH KOJIeHQaTH qm6YJIH.

Xap3KTepHH 1JepTH na Ta3H rpyna <}lHOYJIH ca H3BHTHSIT non npaa 'bf'bJI MaCHBeH JI'hK, urapaapaa KOHCTPYKLl.HSI na HrJIaTa. OCTa, B'hPXY KOSITO e npaxpeneaa nrnara, e CKpHTa BcpeUHaJIeH L1.HJIHH,l{'bp, HaA KOHTO ce HaMupa nOJIYKp'br'bJI rpeoen. HrJIo,l{'bp>KaTeJISIT e cpasHHTeJIHO BHCOK (TaOJI. V 3, 4, 5). npOBHHL1.HaJIHO,pHMCKHTe KOJIeH1JaTH <}lHOYJIH ca MHOfO paanoonpaann no <}lopMa. B pa3.'HIIHH BapHaHTH re ca pasnpocrpaaeaa KaKTO B aananaare, ,TaK,~, H B H3T01JHHTe npOBHHLl.HH aa PHMcKaTa -HMnepHSl47• Cpentar ee C'h~O H sa repeaare cesepao OT '4epHo Mope48• -Bsnpexa Ha3BaHHeTO CH Te ce pa3JIH1JaBaT OT KOJIeH1JaTHTe <}lHOYJIH, paanpocrpanena aa rcesep OT PHMcKaTa HMnepHSI". MHeHHeTO, 1Je npoaaaL1.HaJIHO-pHMcKHTe <}lHOYJIH ce pa3BHBaT non BJIHSlHHeTO na "BapBapcKHTe", HSiMa norssp>K.lleHHe B HaXQAKHTe. H3B'bH rpaannare na PHMCKaTa HMnepHSI ca 'Hal.lHpaHH cauo B '4exOCJIOBaKHSl60 HYKpaAHa. TIpou3XO>K.llaT HaH-BepOSlTHO OT CHJIHOnPoct>ifJlHpaHUTe <tJH6y~ JIH. OCBeH -TOBa rrpareacaaan.urapaapaa KOHCTpYKUH_SI aa HrJIaTa, Hen03HaTa npa <}lH6yJIHre; plt~npOCTP,aHeHlf H3B'bH rp8}lHUlfTe aa PHMc~aTa HMnepHSl61• MaJIKHSITOpoA aa 'r03H .BH.ll <}llfOYJIH B JO>KHa B'bJIrapHSI ee,nHa xapaxrepna OCoOeH9,CT. Or TpaKHSI HMaMe cauo 5 ex- 3eMnJISIpa. -113rJIe>K.lla, 1Je resa <}lHOYJIH ca

40

pasnpocrpanena npeaa BCHIIKO B rpaHHIIHHre npOBHHLl.HH.

OT MHO>KeCTBOTO <}loPMlJ B Ta3H rpyna B JO>KHa B'bJIrapHSI ca OTKPHTH. caao ,l{Ba nma: - <}lHoyJtH c MaJIKO Ton~e aa xpas na

xpaxero (oep. 5 B, r); \.

- <}lHOYJIlf c paBHO orpsaano xpave (oop.

5.ll). - _

THn 111/1. <l>HoYJIHTe C Ma.[lKO TOn1Je B xpas aa xpasero ca enaa OT HaA-pa3npocTpaHeHHTe THnOBe. Xapaxrepnaapar cec MaCHBeH JI'bKCMQOfO'br'bJIHO Ce1JeHHe. Han Ll.HJrijH.ll'hpa, c'b.ll'bp)f{a~ OCTa na HrJIaTa, ce HaMHpa'MaJI'bK nOJIYKp'br'bJI rpeoeH.Kpa1JeTO e paBHO OTPSl- 3aHO C MaJIKo ronxe B'bpXY Hero (OOp.58, r). 3a narapasero na T~H THn B TpaKHSI.llOIIpHHaCH 3JIaTHaTa <}lHoYJIa OT~. JIIOJIHH, 5!M60JICKH oxpsr (oop. 5 B), aaaepeaa C MOHeTa na

Tpaaa (98-117)62. i ,

THn lUll. <l>HOYJIHTe OT T03H THn ce OTJIH- 1JaBaT C nO"MaJIKO MaCHBHHSI ca JI'bK, 1JeCTO C nOJIYKp'brJIOCelleHHe H paBHO cpSJ3aHO xpaxe (06p. 5,l{). Ilonoona <}lHoYJIa, aaxepeaa B MOrHJIaTa KpaA XHMH1JeCKHSI 'KOMOHH8T B Byprae, e .lI.aTHpaHa B cpenara na I I B.63

npOBHHLl.HaJIHO-pHMcKHTe KOJIeH1JaTH <}lHOYJIH ce 3a.ll'bp>KaT .ll'bJIro speae B ynorpeoa. B naHOHcKHTe HeKpOnOJlH ce cpemar saenao C taxa Hape1JeHHTe ,,<}lHOYJIH C KpHJILl.a"64 H ce ynorpeessar H npes II H III'~. 1i.{lA-K'hcHHTe HaXO,l{KH na Te3H ¢HOYJIH ca H3BeCTHli OT HeKponOJIHTe B ChOHH H Flex, K'b.lleTO ca nasrepeaa C MOHeTH sa J'opnnaaare H C JIYKOBH1JHH <}lHOY JIH65.

I'pyna IV . .LJ:HCKOBH qm6yJIH.

TOBa e H3KJIIOIIHTeJJHO 60raTa aa <}loPMH rpyna, KOSITO ce paanasaaa OT .lI.PyrHTe no JIHnCaT8 HaJl'bK, 38MecTeROTl1Ho'lJ{a C pasJIH1JHH <tx>PMH H' H3<>6pa1KeHHst - B'bpXy aes. K'hM nJI01JKaTa ca npaxpeneaa 1Jpe3 aanossane ar JIaTa C MaJIKa npY>KHHa H OT.lleJIHO H3- paooreaaar HrJIO.ll'bp>KaTeJI. .ll'bJIrH rO.llHHH B JIHTepaTypaTa npeOOJIa.llaBarne MHeHHeTO, 1Je T03H BH.ll <}lHOYJIH npOH3XO>K.lla OT sarranaare PHMCKH npOBHHLl.HH, fJIaBHO OT 3eMHTe KpaA PeAR H OTTaM ce e_pa3npOCTpaHHJI B Ll.SlJIaTa PHMcKa ,JfMnepHSI H H3B'bH nea, Ho nOCJIe.llHO oe OO'hpHaTO BHHMaHHe, 1Je nO.ll06HH .llHCKOBH <}lHOYJIH, yxpacesa C OJIarOpO.llHH KaM'bHH, ca H3BeCTHH OT IV B. np. H. e. B 3eMHTe aa cesep OT '4epHo Mope".

.llHcK08HTe ~HOYJIH HMaT MHOfO BapHaHTH, HO OT IOmHa B'hJIrapHH ca R3BecTHH cauo .llBa: - ¢HOyJIH B'bB <}lopMa na >KHBOTHH HJIH PHOH (<>6p. 5 K, JI);

- <}lilOYJIH C ascypea .llHCK(OOp. 5 H, H, 0)117.

<l>HOYJlHTe OT JO>KHa B'bJIrapHH npencrasJISiBaT JIOKaJIHH BapHaHTH aa nO.llOOHH ¢HOY-; JIH OT naHOHHSI, HOPHKYM H .llPyrHTe aananaa

npOBHHUHH. H03a pa3JIHKa OT THX B TpaKHH He ce cpemar eK3eMnJIHpH, yxpacena C eMaHJJ, rpaHYJIaUHH HJIH qmJIHrpaH. JIHncBaT H. HHKOU _OT xapaxrepsare aa ,t{pyrw{'e npOBUHLI.HHtPopMH • .llaTHpaHeTO aa qmOYJIHTe C azcypea JVICK H B'bB tPoPMa na .>KHBOTHH He ce paamreaaa. '06~0 THXHaTa ynorpeda ce orpammasa B'bB II H HalfaJIOTO na HI 8.68 nOJ(b6Ha XpOHOJIO-

_:rHH, nopana JIHnea aa ,ll06pe aarapaaa KOMnJIeRCH, TpHoBa ,lla npHeMeMH 3a,llHCKOBHTe qmoyJIH OT IO.>KHa S'bJIrapHSI.

Tpyna V. 'E~HO~eJIHH qm6YJIH.

TOBa ca MHOro no-psnxo cpetuana <PHOYJIH. .Xapaxrepaoro sa THX e, ne ca H3pa6oTeHHoT OpoH30Ba TeJI, KOHTO e H3BHTa B npysoraa H OTTaM npexaaaaa B HrJIa. B ApyrHjJ Kpaii npes H3lfYKBaHee aanpasea HrJIoJl,'bp.>KaTeJIHT. JI'bK'bT na Te3H <PHOYJIH noaaxora e norrsnnaTeJIHO H3lfYKaH, KaTO My e n.pH~a,lleHa. pasJIHlfHa <WpMa. <l>H6YJIHTe or Ta3H rpyna ce ,lleJIHT na ,llBa rnrta cnopen o<wpMHHeTO na JI'bKa:

-MHHHaTJOpHH <P"6YJIH C POMOOBH.lleH JI'bK (06p. 5.>K, 3);

_:_. T.- Hap. BOHHHIIlKH qm6yJIH (ocp. 5 e, M). THn VII: K'bM T03H THn npHHaAJIe)KaT <pHOyJIH, QHHTO pasuepa He npesnurasar 2,8 CM. 113paooTeHIL ca OT T'bHKa 0poH30B'a ten, na KOHTO spes H3lfYKBaHee npxnaaeaa pOM60- BH,llHa, <WpMa. Or TpaKHR HMaMe 4 eK3eMnJIHpa(oop. 5 .>K,3}. nO,ll06HH <pU6yJIH ;HHMaT anaJIOrM" B npyrare PHMCKH npoBHHUHH. OT rJle,llHa TOqKa - HaKoHCTpYKUHHTaTe3H <PHOyJIM npaaaanescar -K'bM paHHopHMCKHTe, HO caMO ,ll06pe ,llaTHpaHHHaxoAKH xorar Aa YTOIf,UHT BpeMeTO na THXHaTa ynOTpe6a:

THn V/2. Taxa aapesenare BOH'HHIIlKH HJlH JlerHOHHH <pH6YJllf ca H3pa60TeHH OT 6pOH30Ba 'feJI: . Te ca C H3BHT Jl1>K H MaJlKa npY)I<HHaOT 4-5 HaBMBKH. B'bripeKH Ha3BaHHeTO CH re ca HaMHpilHH .HnpH. lKeHCKH norpe6eHHH68•

Cpea BoAHHIIlKHTe 4'H6YJlH- ce pa3J1lfllal3aT naa BapHaHTa.n'bpBHSlT·e COB3J1HQ ceseaae Ha JI'bKa, KoeTO MO.>Ke ,lla 6o,lleH - - nonyxp'sr JIO HJlH POMOOBH,llHO (06p. 5 M). BTOPHHT aapaanr 06xBa~a$HoYJluC nO-MaJIKH pa3MepH - 3,5-4,5 CM H C npasosr-sxao .ceseaae na JI'bKa

(oop. 5 e)lo. .

cI>H6y JlaTa OT C. <SOJIHPOBO, 'XaCKOBCKH oxpsr (06p. 5 M), npHHa,llJIe)KH K'bM noPBUH aapnairr, HO ce paaaasaea OT THnijlfHHTe BOHHHIIlKH q>uoyJIH no A'bJlraTa CM npY)l5HHa. TH e aaxepenaa rpori,; qHaTO norpeoaaea HHBeH-

Tap e .llaTHpaHB I B.11 .....

, K'bM sropas aapaanr npHaa,llJle.>KH <PHOyaara OT rpoo 7 na MOrHJla r OT MepHtfJlepH, XacKoBcKH oxp'sr, KOHTO e narapaaa -B I B. aa H. e.62

BOHHHIUKHTe ¢Hoymt ce nOHBHMT aaHaanpea B 3eMHTe KpaH PeHH H OTTaM ce pas-

6 Apxeo.oornSl, 4, 1987 r.

npOCTp3HHBaTno ,llpyrHTe npoBHHUHH na PHMCKaTa HMnepHH • .llaTHpaHH ca B'bB uropara no-JIOBHHa aa I B,_)lO rrspsara nOJlOBHHa aa II B. He ca 3aOeJlH3aHH pa3J1HKH B ,llaTHpaHeTO aa nsara BapHaHTa~3. BOHHHIIIKHTe ¢HOYJlH OT IO>KHa S1>JII:apHH_"BJlH3aT C'b~O B Te3H XpOHOJIOrHlfeCKH rpaHHUH.

npOCJle,llSlBaHKH npouecavaa paanpocrpaHeHHe na pa3JIHIJHHTe THnOBe ¢H6yJlH MO.>KeM na 3a6eJIe.>KHM, 'Ie. HaH-paHHHTe¢HoYJIH C eARH HJIH ,llBa np'bCTeHa B'bpxy~'bKa H THn Aucissa npOH3XO.>K,llaT OT npoBHHUHHTe HopHKyM H naHOHH.SI. El<3eMIIJlSlpHTeOT IO.>KHa D'bJIrapHH npeacraanasar e,llHHHIJHH <WPMH OT UHJIOCTHOTO THnOJIOrHlJeCKO pa3BI'iTHe aa Te3H THnOBe. T03H ¢aKT, KaKTO n rOJIHMaTa npanaxa C <PHoYJIHTe OT HopHKYM H IlaaoHHSI npennonarar, se Te He ca 6Hmr npOH3Be.>K)laHHHa MHCtO, a ca BHeceHHOT Te3H npOBHHUHH. Te ca H 3HallHTeJIHO nO-K'bCHO narapaaa, OTKOJIKOTO C'b~HTe ¢HOYJIH, aanpmsep B HopHKyM.. 3a HenOCpe,llCTBeHHTe KOHTaKTH C'bC 3ana,llHHTe npOBHHUHH CBH,lleTeJJCTBYBa H <PHoYJlaTa OT C. SPe30BO (oop. 1 a).

Or ,llYHaBcKHTe npoBHHUHH no BCHKa BePOSITHOCT npOH3XO.>K,llaT nnpoBBHUHaJIHo-pHM"cKHTe KOJIeHtfaTH ¢H6YJlB.

HSiKoH THnOBe ¢HOYJlH OT IO)KHa -S'bJIrapHH rOBopHT sa Bp'b3KHTe c repenare, pasnoJIO.>KeHH na ceaep H H3TOK OT ,llOJIeH .llYHaB. K'bcHHTe BapHaHTH aa CHJIHOnpO¢HJlHpaHHTe ¢H6YJIH C e,llHH npscrea B'bpXY JI'bKa (TaOJI. II 4, 5) HMaT CBOHTe 6JIH3KH aHaJIOrHHB naXO,llKHTe OT YKpaHHa, K'bJ{eTO HaH-Hanpe,ll ce nOHBSlBa T03H ran. cI>H6YJIaTa OT AHTOc(Ta6JI. II 6) C'b~O OH MorJla na npOH3XO)K,lla OT Tepeaare, pa3nOJIO}l{eHH aa cesep OT tJepHO Mope. Ho B T03H CJIYlfaH He MO.>KeM ,lla H3KJIJOtfHM, 'Ie CBHAeTeJICTBYBa sa KOHTaKTHTe C'bC Cpenna H Cesepna Espona.

CTpYKTypaTa aa THnOBeTe na <PH6YJlHTe OT I01KHaS'bJlrapHSI npOHBSlBa HHKOH OCO- 6eHOCTn B ~paBHeHHe C ,llPyrHTe PHMCKH npoBHHUMH. B paHHopBMCKHSInepHO,ll ce HaOJI~',llasa rOJiHMo pasnooepasae HS JlOKaJlHH <PoP- 1t(U, CB'bp3aHH C'bCCTapHTe TpaKHHCKIf rpanaUHn HJIB pa3BHBa~H ce non BJlHSlHHeTO aa pasnpOCTpaHeHHTe no TOBa BpeMe B ,llpyrHTe npOBHHUHH <PoPMH. E,llHOBpeMeHHo C Tosa B TpaKHSI He ce cpemar ueJIH rpyna ¢HOYJlH, KaTO aanpaxep ¢U0YJlHTe, _ yxpacena COpHaMeHT BOB .BH,ll na OllH, ¢H6yJIH, yxpacean C. eMaHJI_ H.llp. PSI,llKO ce HaMHpaT H ripoBHHUHaJIHO-PHMCKHTe KOJleHlJaTH ¢HOYJlH.

MHoro06pa3HeTO aa JlQKaJIHH <WPMH H oc06eHaTa CTpyKTypa Ha THnoaere Ha ,paHHOPHMCKHTe <PHOYJIH OT IO.>KHa S'bJIrapHSI e OTJIHIJHTeJIHaTa septa HaT03H -THn xarepaana. TOBa BJlHSle sspxy onpenenaaero aa zocraTOlIHO TOIJHa XpOHOJIOrHSI sa BceKH BapHaHT. CaMO OTKpHBaHeTO aa noope narnpaua rpooun KOMnJIeKCH MO.>Ke ,lla zonpanece sa C'bBCeM TOIJHOTO HM narapane.

41

1 ABTOpK3Ta 6J1aro.n;apH HB CT. It. C. M. Cranneaa, CT. H. C. JI. Boryurapoaa. CT. H. c.n. HIIKOJlOB, H. C. MB. COTHPOB, .n;ou. JI. Feroa, H. c. n. AJla.n;}f{OB, H. c. MB. KapaAoTOB, H. c. M. nOMapa.n;cKH H na npyr are KOJlerH OT xyaeare B I01KHa B'bJIrapHSI sa nOMO~Ta, OKa3aHa it npa c'b6HpaHeTo na MaTepHaJlHTe.

2 O. A I m g r e n, Studien fiber nordeuropiiische Fibelformen der ersten nachchrtstlichen J ahrhunderte mit Berficksichtigung der provlnzlalrdmischen und stldrusslschenFor men. - Mannus Bibllotek, 32, 1923.

3 J. Gar b s c h. Die norlsch-pannonische

Frauentracht i m I-II J ahrhundert. - Munchner Beitrage zur Vor- und Fruhgeschichte, II, 1965,

p. 29.

• J. Gar b s c h. Ein FlugeIfibelfragment von Lorenzberg bei Epfach. Bemerkungen zu Fibel der Frauentracht von Raetien und luvavum. - Studien zur Vor- und Friihgeschichtlichen Archiiologie. Festschrift fur J. Werner zu 65 Geburtstag, I, 1974,

p. 168.

6 J. Gar b s c h. Op. cit., 1965, p. 29, Abb. 7. 8 J. Gar b s c h. Op. cit., 1974, p. 172.

7 I. K 0 v rig. Die Hauptypeo der kalserzeitlichen Fibeln luPannontem '-- Dtssertationes Pannonlcae, 114, 1937, p. 107.

8 n. A JI a z }f{ 0 B. Pa3KOnK[f aa IpaKopHMcKH HeKponOJl npn MepH'IJlepH. - MAM, 28, 1965, c. 82.

E. Pa t e k. Verbreitung und Herkunft der

romischen Fibeltypen von Pannonien. - Dissertationes Pannonicae, II 19, 1942, 91-92; O. A I mg r e n.Op. cit., p. 36.

10 M. Men k e. Raetische Siedlung und Bestattungsplatze der Inlhromlschen Kaiserzeit in Voralpenland. - Studien zur Vor- und Frfihgeschichtchen Arhiiologie. Festschrift fUr J. Werner zum 65 Geburtstag, 2, 1974, 152-153, Abb. 5.

11 M. Men k e. Op. cit., p. 152.

11 P. G Ius i n g. Studien zur Chronologie und Trachtgeschichte der Spiitlatenezeit und der friihen Kaiserzeit. Kiel, 1968, p.26.

13 G. K 0 s sac k. Fruhe romis.che Fibeln aus en Alpenland und ihre Bedeutung fur germanischen Kulturverhiiltniss. - Byerns Frflhzeit. F. Wagner zum 75 Geburtstag. Schriftenreihe zur bayerischen Landesgeschlchte 62, 1962, 125~137.

14 D. Pop esc u. Fibules en bronze des collections du Musee National des Antlqultes. - Dacia, 5-6, 1938, p. 241; TOBa cenOTB'bp}f{,aasa H OT paaxonKHTe aa PHMCK!lSI HeKpOnOJl B nTYH ....... E. Pa tek. Op. cit., p. 96; H. Pre ide 1. Die absolute Chronologie der germanischen Fibeln der fruhrotnifichen Kaiserzeit. - Mannus, 20, 1928, p. 93: ...

u; D. Pro t a s e. Un ci mltir dacic din epoca romana la Soporu de Qimpe. Contributie la problema continuitatii in Dacia. Bucuresti, 1976, p. 61; A. A M 6 P 03. 4>H6YJlbl iora esponeacxoa 'IaCTH CCCP-ll B . .n;o H. 9.- IV B. H. 9. - ApXeOJl(:itHSI CCCP. CBO.n; apXeOJIOrH'IeCKHX HCTO'lHHKOB nt-30. M., 1966, 36-38.

18 D. Pop esc u. Fibeln aus .demNatlonal museum fUr Altertumer in Bucurestl. - Dacia, 9-10, 1941-1944 (1945), p. 490.

17 A. Bur g e r. Le ci metler de la haute epoque imperial de Kekesd, - Archaeologiai Ertesito, 93, 1966, .p. 257; E. Pat e k. Op, cit., p. 97.

18 n. A JI a .n; }f{ 0 B. Pa3KonKH na TpaKopHMcKH HeKRorroJl npn MepH'IJlepH. - MAM; 28, 1965, c. 87. • A. AM 6 P 03. IJ;HT. C"'I., C. 38.

. 20 E. Pat e k. Op. cit., p. 122.

21 R. E. V u I p e. Les Iouilles de Tinosul. - Dacia, I, 1924, p. 214.

21 E. Pat e k. ·Op. cit., 112-1I3.

23 T. K 01 n i k. Pohrebisko v Beseriove [Prisperok k studtu doby rlmskej na Slovensku), - Slovenska archeologia, 9, 1961, p. 245-246; I. Pesk a r. Fibeln aus der romischen Kalserzeit In Miih-

ren. Praga, 1972, p. 85. .

24 E. Pat e k. Op. cit., p. 99.'

42

21 Revista Muzeulul Miniciplului Bucuresti, 1935

p. 209; D. Pop esc u. Op, cit., p. 243; E. P a t e k .. Op. cit., p. 103.

lit D. Pop esc u. Op. -cit., 1945, tab. V/58; E. Pat e k. Op. clt., tab. IV/14; M. Lam I 0- v Ii • S c h m i e d I 0 v a. Spony l doby ri mskej na Siovensku. - Studijne zvestl Archeologlckeho ustavu Slovenske] akademie VIed. 5, 1961, tab.

XIII2; I. Pes kat. Op. cit., p. 81. . -

117 I. K 0 v rig. Op. cit., tab. 14/141, 143. 28 D. Pop esc u. Op. cit., 1938, p. 245; O.

Pop I I I a n. Un quartier artisanal it Romula, - Dacia, 20, 1976, p.. 243.

28 D. Pop esc u. Op. clt., 1945, p. 487.

38 K. Ex n e r. Die provlnztalrdmischen Emailfibeln der Rheinland. - Bericht der Romisch-Germanischen Kommission, 29, 1941, p. 77.

31 CIL XII/3, p. 699.

32. I. Mar 0 v I c. Fibeln mit Inschrift von Typus Auclssa In cler archeologischen Muzeen von Zagreb. Zadar und Split. - Jahrbuch des Romisch-

Germanlschen Zentralmuzeums Mainz,8, 1961,

p. 120. .

33 I. Marovi c. Op. cit., p. 108; J. Behr ens. Romische Fibeln mit Inschrlft. - Reinecke

Festschrift, 1950, p. 6. •

a4 J. G r a u e. Die Griiberfeld, von Ornavasso.

Ein Studie zur Chronologie des ~piten Latene- und Iruhen Kaiserzeit. - Hamburger Beltrage zur Archaelogie, r, 1974.

36 E. Pat e k. Op. cit., p. 109.

38 M. Lam i 0 va- S c h m i e d I 0 v a. Op.

cit., p. 12.

37 D. Pop esc u. Op, cit., 1945, p. 487.

38 B. «I> II 11 0 B. HOBOOTKPHfH CTapHHH. - MAM,

5, 1915, C. 228.

a8 D. Pop esc u. Op. cit., 1945, p. 487. 40 E. Pat e k, Op. cit., p. 98, Abb. 3.

41 n. H H KO II 0 B, Xp, By JO K 11 H e B. HOBH TpaKRAcK" MOrKJlHH norpe6eHlflioT lJaT8J1KB, Crapo-

3ar~fcG~' 13-; hAr!e:!~rlJi~n:~n}r:~'n.I·_!·V~~nlk za

arheologiju I historiju Dalmatlnsku, LVI-LIX/2, 1954-1957, p. 71-73.

43 G. Be h r ens. Op, cit., 1954-1957, p. 69. 41 E. Pat e k. Op. cit., p. 98.

4& n. H H KO.JI 0 B, Xp. B y 10 K JI H e B. IJ;HT.

C'b'l., c. 21.

48 n. A JI a A }f{ 0 B, A. KilT a HOB a. PaaxonXII na Mot'HJI .. la XaCKoIiO; -:. ApXeOJlOrHR, IS, 1973,

3. co 77. . ',:: .; .' d,

"£" Pat e k ... Op. clt., 130-131;. V. K 0 ndi c. Zbirka rlmskich .fibula zVrsackog lnllzeja. - Rad Vojvodanskich Muzeja, 10, 1961, p. 269.

48 A. A M 6 P 03. IJ;HT. C'blJ., C. 28.

480. A I m g r en. Op. cit., rpyrra V, cepaa IX. 60 M. Lam i 0 va- S c h m i e d I 0 v a. Op.

cit.,p. 19; I. P esk a f. Op. cit., p. 19.

51 W. Bar the 1. Einzefunde: E. Flbeln. Das Kastel Zugmantel. - Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes der Romerreiches, 32, 1909, p~ 71.

&2 JI. reT 0 B, )1(. IT 0 n .0 B. rpOOHH aaxoaxa OT ,SIM60J1cKO. - ApXeOJlOTHSI, 14, 1972, 3, c. 44.

i3 MB. K a p a A 0 T o B. MOrHJlHH uorpe6eHHR B paAoHa Ha HecvrOKoll6uHaira ItpaA£yp1'8c •. - . M3BeCTHB aa MY3eHTe 01'IOrOHaTOQlfa S .... rapn •. 1,1976,

c.55.'. ..' . . . ..

II CTaBB B'bnpOC3a "Fliigelfibeln", ,aaTHpaHH H8

lB. HB R:" e.. . .

" I. ~,t)\i rig. Op, cit., p. 120; E. Pat e k • Op, cit., p. 137.

U S. Tho m . .a s. Die germanlschen Scheibenfibeln derrbmisehen Kaiserzeit i m frein Germanlen. - Berliner .Jahrbuchfiir Vor- und Friihgeschichte, 7,

1966, p. 71. .

&7 S. Tho mas. Op. cit. - rpyrra F H C.

&8 K. E x n e r. Op .. cit., p. 77; S. Tho mas.

Op, cit., p, 143; A. B 0 h me. Die Fibeln der Kastelle Saalsburg und Zugmantel. - Saalsburg Jahr-

buch, 29, 1972, p. 41.

59 A. B 0 h me. Op. cit., p. 13. 60 A. B e h me. Op, cit., 13-14.

61 n. A JI a ~ lK 0 B. ApXeOJlOrH'leCKH BeCTH.BeeTH na HapO~HHJI MY3ei% B Xacxono, 1, 1965, c.248. 62 n. A JI a ~ lK 0 B. Pa3KonKII ..• , c. 89, 116.

63 H. I( e r chi e r. Die romerzeltlichen Brandbestattungen unter Hiigeln in Niederosterreich (no-

risch-pannonischen Hiigelgriiber). Beitriige zur

Kenntnls der fiortsch-perinontschen Hiigelgriibkul-

tur 2. Archaelogia Austriaca, Beiheft 8, 1967, p. 63; A. B <> h me. Op. cit., 13-14.

" ",

Typologie et datation des fibules de la haute epoque romaine de la Bulgarie du Sud

E. GENGEVA

(R e sum e)

Dans Ie present article sont utilisees 87 fibules se trouvant dans les fonds des musees de Sofia, Plovdiv, Haskovo, Stara Zagora, Kazanlak, Sliven, Jambol, Burgas, Blagoevgrad, Sandanski, Parmi elles on distingue 5 groupes, Le groupe I comprend les fibules fortement profilees dont les types les plus anciens apparaissent a la fin du let s. avo n. ere, tandis que les variantes les plus recentes sont en usage encore a Ia fin du lIe et au debut du lIIe S. de n, ere. Le groupe II comprend des fibules a crochet retourne, II se compose de 5 types. Chaque type est d'origine differente, mais ce qui les unit c'est la torsion arquee commune du crochet. Ce groupe apparatt egalement tres tot - ala fin du [er S. avo n. ere et au debut du Ie S. de n. ere. Les formes les plus recentes sont en usage au cours du Ile S. Le groupe II I comprend

des fibules coudees provinciales-romaines dont en Thrace nous connaissons seulement 2 types. Elles peuvent etre datees a I'aide de riches complexes sepulcraux dans Ie IIe S. Le groupe IV cornprend les fibules dites circulaires, datees du milieu du IIe jusqu'au milieu du II Ie S. Le groupe V comprend les fibules unilateralesv connues deja de la periode latine et continuant a exister au debut de I'epoque romaine. Le groupe se compose de deux types - fibuies en fil de fer miniatures et fibules de soldat.

Jusqu'en Thrace avec un certain retard parviennent presque toutes les formes de fibules connues etalement dans les autres provinces romaines. Elles donnent naissance a un grand nombre de formes locales qui conferent un caractere specifique a cette sorte de materiaux de la Bulgarie du Sud.

43

MamepuaJlU U C7J0614eIiUfl

~eAHH HaxOAKH OT npaHCTOpH4eCKOTO CeJIHIl(e B M. PeAYTHTe npn C. Temnu, nJIeBeHCKH OKPbf

B. rEP rOB

Ilpn CrraCI1TtJIHI1Te apXeOJIOrHIJeCKH pas-

KOrrKI1 na rrpal1CTOpHIJeCKOTO CeJII1LUe B M. Pe,n:YTI1Te npn C. TeJII11I1, nJIeBeHCKI1 oxp-sr-, -651xa OTKpHTI1 3HaIJl1TeJIeH 6pOH Me,n:HI1 npenMeTI11. T51XHaTa TOIJHa crpa-rarparpcxa rr0311- UI151 ~ ,n:aTl1pOBKa ,n:orrpI1HaC51T 3a 11351CHHBaHe XpOHOJIOrl151Ta Ha rOJI51M 6pOH CJIYIJaHHO HaMepeHI1 rro,n:06HI1 Haxo,n:KI1 OT EbJIrapl151 11 OT EaJIKaHo-llYI-IaBCKIU! paHOH.

npal1CTOpl1IJeCKOTO CeJII1LUe C rrJIOLU OT 4 ,n:Ka ce HaMl1pa nenocpencrseno no CeBep0I13TOIJHl15I KpaH aa c. TeJII11I1. Pa3nOJIO:tKeHO e m.pxy eCTeCTBeH XbJIlVI, oorpanen 01' ,n:bJI60KH noJIOBe, a na H3TOK rpaHI1IJH C 061I1l1pHa panHHHa (06p. 1). Ilpnaannescn KbM rpynara na BHCOIJHHHO pa3nOJIO:tKeHI1Te CeJII1LUa, xapaKTepHI1 sa apeana na xy.n rypa KPI1BO,n:OJICaJIKyua-Ey6aHI12. KYJITYPHI151T nJIaCT CbC cpe,n:Ha ,n:e6eJIHHa 1,20 M e 06pa3yBaH 01' Tpl1 CTpOl1TeJIHH XOpH30HTa (06p. 2).

Il speu cmpoumenen xopusonm. CeJI11 LUeTO e Bb3Hl1KHaJIO BbPXY CTepHJleH nJIaCT, oripa- 3YBaH 01' xarpaaa rJIHHa H IJaKbJI. ,Ue6eJIHHaTa na CTp0I1TeJlHI151 XOPl130HT e 0,35 M. CeJI11 LUeTO e 3arl1HaJIO npn Bpa:tKeCKO aananenne 11 noxcap. OT,n:eJleHO e 01' c.TIe,n:BaLUI151 II XOPI1- 30HT OT CJIOH C ,n:e6eJIHHa 0,20 M. OTKpl1THTe Haxo,n:KH B I cTpOHTeJIeH XOPH30HT HaMl1paT MHor06pOHHl1 napaJIeJII1 B npyrn ennoapexenHO CbLUeCTBYBaJIH ceJIHLUa (06p. 3). TeXHOJIOrHIJeCKH 11 THnOJIOrHIJeCKI1 re n03BOJIHBaT cnenHHTe CHHxpOHH3aUI1113:

TeJII11I1 I XOPH30HT=CaJIKyua I I B4=

KPHBO,n:OJl5?! H npenxoxcna Ey63Hl1 XyM

IA6.

B r cTpOHTeJIeH XOPH30HT na TeJIHlIl e aacrt.nena HaH-xapaKTepHaTa T. Hap. "KJIaCHIJeCKa" ¢a3a na KOMnJleKCa KPI1Bo,n:OJI-CaJIKyua~Ey6aHI1. JlaTHpoBKaTa no C14 e: 3450 ±50 r. np. H. e.? Crparurparpcxara rro- 3I1UH51 na 1 XOPH30HT, Bb3Hl1KHaJI na CTepHJIeH TepeH, OT,n:eJleH C ,n:06pe H3paseH cTpaTHrpa¢CKH Xl1aTYC 01' II XOPH30HT, MHor06poHHHTe H ,n:06pe 3ana3eHH apXeOJIOrHIJeCKH Haxo,n:KH

44

cnonarar CbLUH51 ,n:a 6b,n:e pasrvrenan KaTO

aaraopen KOMnJIeKC.

Cnonm Me~a!! I u I I xopusonm, -06pa~yBaH e OT paspyuienure H pa3MHTl1 rJIHH06l1THl1 .CTeHH aa :tKHJII1LUaTa OT I XOpH30HT. Jle6eJIH-nara MY- nocrnra no 0,20 M. Xuaryci.r CBI1,n:eTeJICTBYBa aa npext.caane na :tKI1BOTa B' CeJIH-

• 06p. 1. Feodesuuen n.nan na npaucmopuuecsomo cenuuie 8 M. Peoqmume tipu c. Tenuui. Fig. 1. Plan geodesique du site prehistorique au lieu dit Reduttte, pres du village relis

• 06p. 2. lienmpascn npodnu: KB. )K 7. Fig. 2.

Profil central carte )K 7

• 06p. 3. Kepauusa (1 cmpoumenen xopusonm), Fig. 3. Cerami que (I er horizon de construction)

v

/ c.Tc.uun

25 50 75 lOll III

Iweeee! ~

ITITI.IJ1 ~ 2 0] ~4 m1Is IZ2JIi

~ s ° 0,5 I 2 3111

~7 ~,

1

2

o

10

20

30CM

utero sa neonpeneneno apexie. T03H CJlOH HMa 5ICHa XpbHOJlOrHQeCKa H crparnrpadicxa rro- 31IUH5I .

Bmopu cmpoumenen XOpU30Nm. Paano.no»cen e BbPXY XHaTYCHH5:l CJlOH, noxpnaam I XOpH30HT. ,Ue6eJllIHaTa na II XOp1I30HT e

45

o

10

• 06p. 4. Kepasusa (I I cmpoumenen xopusoum), Fig. 4. Ceramique (/ le horizon de construction)

OKOJIO 0,30 M. Me)KLLY LLBaTa XOpH30HTa CbmeCTBYBa . npHeMCTBeHOCT B pa3BHTHeTo na

46

/

20·

30CM

4

MaTepHaJIHaTa KYJITypa. BbnpeKH aHaJIOrHHre C HaXOLLKHTe OT I XOPH30HT TyK ce Ha6JI1oLLaBaT pennua caMOCT05lTeJIHH 51BJIeHH5I, THnHqH}! sa II XOPH30HT - cpHHaJIHa rpasa na

6

5

o

to

20

30 eM

• 06p. 5. Kepasusa (I I I cmpoumenetc xopusonm}:

Fig. 5. Ceramique (I I le horizon de construction)

xanxo.nara" (06p. 4). BTOPH CTpOHTe.neH xoPH30HT e 6H.n paspytuea H onoxcapeu. Toil CbIIl.O

npencraanasa aarsopen I<OMrr.neKC 6e3 execBaHe C HaXO)J.KH OT )J.pyrHTe HHBa.

BTOPH CTpOHTe.neH XOPH30HT nonpnnacs CbIIl.eCTBeHO aa npoo.neva aa Kpa51 ua xa.nxo-

47

JlI1Ta B KyJlTypHI151 KOMrrJleKC. KPI1BOAOJl-Canxyua-; Ey6aHI1. A6coJllOTHaTq AaTHpOBKa no paA110BbrJlepOAHI151 MeTOA (C1 I) e B rpaanUHTe na 3290±45-3220±45 r. rrp. H. e.

Tpemu cmpoumenen. xopusonm, Pa3nOJlO)KeH e nenocpencrseuo BbPXY ropemrre AeCTpYKUI1I1 na II XOPI130HT. ,Ue6eJlHH3Ta My e OKOJlO 0,20 M. Tloxpnr e C xyvycen cJlofI C Ae6eJll1Ha 0,20 M. He3aBI1CHMO OT TOBa, lie He JIl1l1H crpaTl1rpa¢CKH XHaTYC Me)KAY I I H I I I XOPI130HT; Ha6JIlOAaBaMe . 51CHO H3pa3eHO ripext.caane B xapaxrepa na MaTepl1aJIHaTa xy.nrypa (06p. 5).

TpeTI1 XOPl130HT CHHXPOHI13I1paMe, C 113-

BeCTHH pesepan, C faJlaTI1H9 H Pe6bpKOBO, Bpauancxn oxp sr+", Xornnua=Bononana, BeJIHKOTbPHOBCKH oxpt.r+', Ileseu" H OBlIapOBo-IlJIaTOT013, TbprOBI1Il1.KH oxp sr-, B PyM'bHH51 C T. Hap. Canxyua IV14. Pa3KorrKHTe B Canxyua ca rrpOBe)KAaHI1 COHAa)KHO 11 I1Ma 3Halll1TeJIHO 06bpKBaHe Ha CTpaTHrpa¢H51Ta H HaXOAKHTe, KoeTO npeAll3BI1KBa CbMHeHH51 no OTHOllleHHe ap saxara na Canxyua IV C npenurecrnynaunrre XOPH30HTI115.

Kacae ce AO enua HOBa xy.nrypa, K051TO H51Ma spi.axa C KyJITypHI151 KOMnJIeKC KPI1BOAOJI-CaJIKyua-Ey6aHI1. T51 ce OTHaC51 KbM XOpl130HTa na lllafI60BHAHI1Te AP'b)KKH [1.0 CpeAHI151 11 ,UOJIeH 'uYHaB16. B EbJIrapH51 6e nape-rena xyrrrypa faJlaTI1H17. ,UoceralllHI1Te npoysnanaa na T03H nepnon ca He3HallHTeJIHI1 no nzont H HaXOAKH H re He AaBaT Bb3MO)KHOCT 3a H351CH51BaHe xapaKTepa H ~rreUH¢HlIHI1Te oc06eHOCTH na MaTepHam-raTa xy.nrypa.

Ha 6a3aTa na TOllHaTa CTpaTHrpa¢H5I, 3HalIHTeJIHaTa npoysena nJIOIll. H 60raTCTBOTO na HaXOAKH CM51TaMe 3a HafI-rrpaBI1J1HO .KyJITypara, sacrt.nena B II I CTpOHTeJIeH XOp'iI30HT, Aa 6bAe HapelleHa KyJITypa TeJIHlll.

'uHCKYCHOHeH e m.npoci.r, KbM K051 enoxa na 6bAe ornecena xynrypa 1eJI 11 lll. ,UaJII1 B He51 ce H3)KI1B5IBaT crapn, HJIH ce aapaxorar HOBH eJleMeHTH18. He e yronneno H HaHMeHOBaHHeTO na nepnozta, T. e. AaJIH e. nOCTXaJIKOJIHT19, npexonen nepnon'", HJlH Belle ce OTHaC5I K'bM 6poH30BaTa_enoxa21• 111,0 ce OTHaC5I AO M5ICTOTO na xy.nrypa Te.nmu B XpOHOJlOrH51Ta na 6bJIrapCKaTa rrpaHCTOpH5I, HHe ClII1TaMe, lie

.0,

o

06p. 6 a, 6,0) Il peo uemu usptuiomesu om Mea U a) kocm, Fig. s,a, 6, 0) Objets iraoailles en euivre etz)en_os

T5I saena M5ICTO CJIeA ¢HHaJla na KP!:lBOAOJl~ Canxyua H e npenn paHH06poH30BHTe KyJITypH Marypa22-Kouo¢eHH23 H E3ep024.

HaJIHlIHHTe apXeOJIOrHlIeCKH AaHHI1 AaBaT B'b3MO)KHOCT xy.nrypa Tenum Aa ce rrperrspne B onopen penep npn H3CJIeABaHeTO na T03H HHrepecen nepnon OT naurara rrpaI1CTOpl151.

Ta6nHua 1

Pesy.smamu um cnekmpa.suust ana.nus tea uemanuume HaxOaKU

WH!fJ'bP XOPH-
na na60- Haxonxa Cu Sn Pb Zn Bi Ag Sb As Fe Ni Co Au
SOHT
paropusra ... 28348 maao I XOPH- OCHOB-
30HT HO 0.004 <0.0003: ? ? --iO~0003 r-r- 0,6 0,015 ?
28349 nnoro I XOPH-
30HT < 0:000 I~O;OO1 .. ? ? 0.02 .. 0,06 0,005 ?
28350 6pa,QBa- II XOPH-
Korra'! 30HT ~O,OO03 0,015 ? ? 0,002 0,004 0,035 < 0,001 0,006 ? <0,001
28351 Me.n:eH I XOPH-
npenaer 30HT ~0.0003 ~O,OO04 ? ? ~O,0005 0,Q25 - 0,04 0,05 ?
28352 Me,QeH I XOPH-
npenaer 30HT <0,0001 ~0,0006 ? ? 0,03 0,01 0,004 O,Ql5 ?
48 5CM

6

Crpararpadmara H narapoaxara na rrpaHCTOpHqeCKOTO cenmue Pe,ll,YTHTe npn C. TeJlHlll zronpanacar sa H3HCHHBaHe XpOHO.;JQfHHra na nanepeunre B nero Me,ll,HH opt.nns (Ta6J1. 1). .

MemaJlHU HGXOeJ!W om I cmpoumeneu xopU30Hm. B I XOPH30HT 6Hxa OTKpHT!1 TpH Me,ll,HH npenaera'" C ,ll,brOBH,ll,Ha ¢opMa (06p. 6a, 6, B). BbpXOBeTe ca 3a06J1eHH. 3a,ll,HaTa qaCT e yumpena C H3pH3aH 06paTeH 3b6. 3aBbpillBa C MaJlKa ,ll,pbJKKa C rrp06HT KpbrbJl OTBOp. I1MaT rpaneuoannno nanpe-mo ceqeHue. Ilpenjrernre H~MaT pexceuta qaCT. Te ca C no-rm enaaxsa ¢opMa If pasuepu: 06p. 6a, an. 2835326, ,ll,bJlJKHHa .0,097 M, MaKCH~1aJlHa umpnna 0,014 M, )J,e6eJ.HfHa:O,003M Ij,ll,HalVieTbp na crsopa 0,004 M;.o6p: 66;' aH .. 28351 .:___ ,ll,bJlJKUHa 0,088 M, umpiina' ;J.o· 0,'015 M, neoeJlHHa 0,004 M H ,ll,UaMeTbp na orsopa 0,004 M; 06p. 6B - ;J.bJlJKHHa 0,096 M, mnpuna ,ll,0 0,0011 M, ;J.e6eJlHHa 0,002 M H ,ll,HaMeTbp Ha orsopa 0,004 M. Opb)J,H5lTa ca H3J1eTH. IlpenMeT Ha 06p. 6a e OTJlHBaH rrpH TeMrrepaTypa, rrO-HHCKa or OrrTHMaJlHaTa, nopann KoeTO MeTaJlbT He ce e JleeJl fJla,ll,KO H rrOBbpXHOCTTa HMa "KOJKa". OTBopHTe ca rrp06HTH CJle,ll, OTJlHBaHeTO. E)J,HHH5lT OT npenxernre (06p. 66) e-OTKPHT B JKHJlHllI.e, nenocpencrneno ;J.O OCHOBa na nem'".

• 06p.]. Meona a601lflOcnupaAfla uena. Fig. 7. Epingle en cuivre en forme de spirale double

~ :;

.': .',:

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npe,ll,MeTH, auanornvna rro ¢opMa H ro.neMHHa, ca OTKpHTH B pennua rrpaHCTOpHqeC,KF(', 06eKTH - C'eJlHllI.HHTe MOfHJlH no Pyce'", lllYMeH29, HeBCKH30, BHHHua31, fOJl5lMO )].eJlqeB032, OBqapciB033• nO)J,06eH e .H npenveri.r 01' Canxyua'", ziarnpan KaKTO Te3H' 01' Tenant.

B IOfOH3TOqHa Espona aa rrspnn rrsr npu Te.anur ce OTKpHBaT HaXO;J.KH 01' T03H rnn, H3- pa60TeHH 01' Me;J.. OTHOCHO' npennaananennero HM ca H3Ka3aHH pa3J1HqHH MHeHH5l - xaprryHH35, Bb,ll,HUH36, rrJlaCTHHH37, KyKH aa xanaH38. Hanmonennara aa op snanra KaKTO C HeBbOpbJKeHO oxo, raxa H C 6HHOKYJlHpeH MHKpOCKon nOKa3BaT, rre KaTO pa60THa qaCT e H3nOJl3YBaH nt.pxt.r H 06paTHH5lT 3b6. Cr.unrre ca nOJlHpaHH' 01'. 'ynorpeoa. TOBa ce .

• 06p. 8 a, 6, 6, e, iJ) MeiJflu naxoosu (1 cmpoumene« xopusonm)

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• 06p. 9. MeJfla tiptulea-tconu« om muna }lC/wJanu (II cmpoumenen xopusonm}, Fig. 9. Hache-pioche en cuivre du type Jtisladani (Ll» horizon de construction)

• 06p. 10. Meona 6paJea-KOna'l om muna }lC/wJaflu~(l1-cmpoumeAefl xopusoum), Fig. 10. Hachepioche en cuivre du type J asladani (II e horizon de construction)

BHlK,L(a MHoro ,L(06pe npn npenvera, H3pa60TeH OT KOCT (06p. 6r), C ,L(bJllKHHa 0,077 lvI, unrpnna 0,013 M, ,L(e6eJlHHa 0,004 M H ,L(HaMeTbp na orsopa 0,003 M. T10JlHpaHeTo e IlO Ha,L(JlblKHaTa oc Ha Opb,L(HeTo, KaTO IlpH Bbpxa e HaH-,L(06pe H3pa3eHO H IlOCTeIleHHO HaMaJl5lBa KbM sannara nacr. T10JlHpaHeTo e no.nyueno npn pa- 60Ta C MeK H enacrusea MaTepHaJl (KOHOIl, BbJlHa, K03HHa, KaMbwHT).

T1JlOCKaTa ,L(brOBH,L(Ha <poplvIa, TbIlH5IT spt.x H MaJlKH5IT 06paTeH 3b6, pa3IlOJlOlKeH B e,L(Ha JlHHH5I C ,L(pblKKaTa, H3KJlIOqBaT yrrorpeoara Ha Ilpe,L(MeTHTe KaTO xapIlyHH H KaTO KYKHqKH 3a pH60JlOB. KYKHqKHTe 3a pH60JlOB ca Il03HaTH npes XaJlKOJlHTa, HO He3aBHCHMO OT lvIaTepHaJla, OT KOHTO ca H3pa6oTeHH (KOCT HJlH lvIe,L() , re HMaT npyra <p0pMa39. He H3,L(bplKa KpHTHKa H CTaHoBHw.eTO, rre ca 6HJlH HO)KqeTa, Il.TJaCTHHH HJlH KyKH sa KaIlaHH (H5IMaT pelKew.a qaCT, m.pxr.r e TbIl H IlOJlHpaH, H3JJHurea e H KOHTpHpaW.H5IT H3,L(aTbK).

Ha6JlIo,L(eHH5ITa H uanpaneunre excnepu-

MeHTH CBH,L(eTeJlCTBYBaT, qe Te3H OPb,L(H5I ca 6HJlH H3IlOJl3YBaHH 3a H3IlJlHTaHe Ha pH6apCKH MpelKH HJlH IlJleTKH OT KOHOIl, BbJlHa, JlHKO H np.

) Me,L(Ha ,L(BOHHOCIlHpaJlHa nr.na aa xoca (06p.

7; THIl Y-2). I13pa60TeHa e OT Me,L(Ha ren C xpt.r.no cexeane. OCTbP KOHycoBH,L(eH spr.x. I'opnara nacr aam.puma C ,L(Be cHMeTpHqHO pa3IlOJlO)KeHH CIlHpaJlH. ,UbJllKHHa 0,11 lvI, ,L(e6eJlHHa OT 0,006 ,L(O 0,002 M, umpnna npn CIlHpaJlHTe 0,041 lvI, ,L(HaMeTbp Ha CIlHpaJlHTe 0,016 M. Hr.nara e OTKpHTa na IlO,L(a na ropano

50

lKHJlHw.e OT I XOPH30HT. T5I HaMHpa TOqHH napanerm cpen OTKpHTHTe ,L(O Pyce'", KapaHOB041, LJaTaJlKa42, ,UOJleH LJH<pJlHK43, rOJl5lMO ,UeJlqeB044 H HeBcKH45. BCHqKH H3BeCTHH ,L(Ocera ,L(BOHHoCIlHpaJlHH nr JlH ce OTHaC5IT KbM xy.nrypara Konacanepuea-c Kapaaoao VI-

9

10

rYMeJIHIiUa. I1r JIaTa 01' Tenmu aacera e HaHCeBep03ana~HHHT npe~CTaBHTeJI Ha T03H THrr B B'bJIrapHH. TOBa rr03BOJIHBa, C H3BeCTHH pe- 3epBH rro OTHOllleHHe TOtIHaTa ~aTHpOBKa H pa3JIHtIHHTa B eTHOKYJITypHHTe paHOHH, ~a CHHXPOHH3HpaMe TeJIHIll 1 C ropenocosennre 06eKTH H CbOTBeTHHTe HM XOPH30HTH.

B 1 XOPH30HT ca OTKpHTH H e~Ha KyKHtIKa aa pH60JIOB, ~eKopaTHBHa nr JIa H TpH mana (06p. 8).

Kyxuuxara sa pH60JIOB (06p. 8a; Kp-2) e H3pa60TeHa 01' Me~Ha TeJI c npaacsr-snao cetIeHHe. BbPXbT e OCTbP, a ropHaTa tIaCT 3ast.puma C MaJIKa XaJIKHtIKa46. Me~HH KYKH aa pH60JIOB ca H3BeCTHH caao 01' CeJIHll1,HaTa MOrHJIa ~o Pyce". 3HatIHTeJIeH 6p0H ca naxepeHH B CeJIHll1,aTa 01' TpHnOJICKaTa xy.nrypa - eTarr A H B48.

)J,eKopaTHBHaTa Me~Ha HrJIa (06p. 86) e H3pa60TeHa 01' TeJI C OBaJIHO ceueane. I1Ma OCTbP BPbX, a ropnara tIaCT aaaspuma C ennnCOBH~Ha rrJIOtIKa, yxpacena C TpH cHMeTpHtIHO pa3rrOJIO)KeHH rro nepmpepuara nOJIYKpbr JIH BpH3BaHHH. )J,bJI)KHHa 0,08 M, ~e6eJIHHa 0,0002 M, ~HaMeTpH na nJIOtIKaTa 0,016 X 0,008 M. I1rJIaTa HHMa napaJIeJIH cpe~ OTKPHTHTe nocera Me~HH HaXO~KH. flo BCHKa BePOHTHOCT e npenaaanasena 3a yxpaca KbM 06- JIeKJIOTO.

illH.iIOTO (06p. 8B; fll1-2; AH. 28348) e H3- pa60TeHo 01' Me~Ha TeJI C KBa~paTHo CetIeHHe B OCHOBaTa H KpbrJIO npn m.pxa. )J,bJI)KHHa 0,104 M, ~e6eJIHHa 0,004 M, ~HaMeTbP 0,003 M. Me~HHTe uruna (06p. 8r,~; fll1-4) HMaT KBa~paTHO cexenne no u.HJIaTa ~bJI)KHHa. E~HOTO lllHJIO HMa ~bJI)KHHa 0,10 M H ~e6eJIHHa 0,004 M (06p. 8r), a npyroro - ~bJI)KHHa 0,045 M H ~e6eJIHHa 0,002 (06p. 8~). Illanara ca 6HJIH rrOCTaBHHH B ~bPBeHH HJIH KOCTHH ~Pb)KKH. Te ca HaH-tIeCTO cpemannre OPb~HH npes u.eJIHH XaJIKOJIHT49 .

• 06p. 11. cfJpaeMeHm om MeiJHa 6paiJ6a-KOna'l om muna f/CJWiJaliU (II cmpoumenen xopusonm]: Fig. 11. Fragment de hache-pioche en cuiore du type J asladani (II e horizon de construction)

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Me~Ha 6pa~Ba-KOrratI 01' THrra 5ICJIa~aHH50 (06p. 9; TT-2; AH. 28350). Bpaaaara-xonax HMa 3aKpHBeHO THJIO, ~o6pe o¢opMeHa H rrpo¢HJIHpaHa BTYJIKa 01' ~BeTeCTpaHH Ha OTBopa aa ~Pb)KKa. Cexautara tIaCT e pa3rrOJIO)KeHa rreprreH~HKyJIHPHO na xonaxa. TH e ~brOBH.nHO orpopueaa H HMa CJIe~H 01' ynorperia. Konaur.r HMa ~brOBH~HO cevenne, xopyoecr 01' .nOJIHaTa CTpaHa. ACHMeTpHtIHO H3xa6eH B npou.eca Ha panora. Op snaero e OTJIHBaHO npn OrrTHMaJIHa rexmeparypa. I1Ma rnanxa nOBbpXHOCT, 6e3 CJIe~H 01' ~OnbJIHHTeJIHa 06pa60TKa, C ~06pe H3pa3eHH _CTpaHHtIHH oopnose npn nynxara. )J,bJI)KHHa 0,252 M, umpuaa na 6pa~BaTa 0,045 M, unrpana na xonaxa 0,055 M, ~HaMeTbp na BTYJIKaTa 0,033 M, ~e6eJIHHa npn BTYJIxara 0,028 M, Te)KHHa 0,980 xr.

.06p. 13. MeiJHu npeiJMemu (llI cmpoumenen xopusonm}, Fig. 13. Objets en cuiure (II [e horizon de co nstruction )

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Poincons uivre(JI e horizon de-construction)

pa,ll.BaTa-Kona~~ OT TeJIHIll ·npe,ll.CTaBJIHBa e,ll.HH pa3BHT TIm: 5ICJIa,ll.aHH ¢ 'MaKCHMaJIHa e¢eKTHBHOCT H KalJeCTBO na : 113pa60TKaT3, fOJIeMHHT OTBOP H: orpopxreaa BTY.ri>Ka 3a ,ll.Pb)Kxara npnnanar cTa6HJIHOCT na ':oEl'p,ll.HeTO npn

pa60Ta, '

,Me,ll.HHTe 6pa,ll.BH-KOnalJH HMaT lllHPOKO paanpocrpaaenue B ':DaJIKaHO- Kaprrarcxara 06- JIaCT51, OT BbJIrapHH nocera ca riy6JIHKYBaHH 42 naxonxn'". Db:' MOP¢OJIOrHlJHn 6eJIe3H re ca 6HJIH pasnpeneaana OT ornennnre asropn no pa3JIHlJeH HalJHH. B. MHKOB. rH pasnens na TpH OCHOBHH rnna Bb3 OCHOBa na ¢opMaTa Ha THJIOTO, HaJIH~He Ha npbcTeH OT BbTpelll-

I nara crpaua na Apb)KKaTa n ¢opMaTa na KOnasa H OCTpHeTO sa CelJeHe53• ct>p. IIIy6epT - na ner BH,ll.a04, E. H. 4epHHX -Ha cenex anna, ua 6a3aTa na ,ll.bJI)f\HHaTa na opt.nnero H H3- aanenocrra na ,ll.OJIHaTa lJaCT i-Ia BTYJIKaTa55. THnOJIOr,HHTe ca YCJIOBHn H npn JIHnCaTa no-

",sera Ha TOlJHa CTpaTHrpa¢HH He n03BOJIHBaT peurasanero na np06JIeMa aa XPOHOJIOrHHTa aa

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Me,ll.HHTe 6pa,ll.BH-KOnalJH. KOnalJH H, 6pa,ll.BHOT KaMbK H KOCT HMaT lllHPOKO pasnpocrpaaeHHe npes XaJIKOJIHTa, HO KOM6HHHpaHH 6p~,ll.BOKona~H!H3pa6oTeHH 'OT MeA, ce 'CpeIJi.1lT B,~ xpaai.na enoxara. MHeHHeTO, ',lJe' 6pa,ll.Blne"

KOnalJH "npe,ll.CTaBJIHB'3T HeMHorOlJHCJJeH';TuIl!

MeTaJIHH H3,ll.eJIHH, KOHTO nopann aenpaxrasHOCT ca npOCbllI.eCTBYBaJIH aa csacex KpaTKO speae", HHMa nOKpHTHe06: T03If THn opt.nne npeorinanaaa B Ilearpanaa H IOron3TolJHa Espona npea nepnona na KbCHH5I XaJIKOJIHT57.

Me,ll.HaTa 6pa,ll.Ba-KOnalJ (06p. 10) e oTKpHTa npn pa3KoHKH na rOpHJIO )KHJIHIII.e, OTHaCHuto ce KbM II XOPH30HT, T. e. ¢HHaJIa na X'aJIKOJIHTa. Op snaero e OTKPHTO na nona na )KHJIHme saenao C KepaMHlJHH csnoae. HaXO,ll.KHTe ca nOKpHTH C rOpeJIHTe ,ll.eCTpYK~HH OT TaBaaa na )KHJiHllI.eTO (06p. 10), T. e. C TOlJHa crparurparpcxa n03H~HH H B,' aaraopen KOMnJIeKC. Crpararparpcxara H a6COJIlOTHaTa ,ll.aTHpOBKa na XOPH30HT-a cnoxtarar 6pa,ll.B;na-KOnalJ OT TeJIHIll ,ll.a ce npeaspne B aanesoien apxeo.norHlJeCKHfI3MeTHHK npn narnpane na aHaJIO- , rHlJHH HaXO,ll.KH.

',,' ·OT lIxopH30'HT nP9H3XoiK)I,a H cpparMeHT 9T ~Topa Me)l,Ha opanaa-xona-r OT THna'JltJla~ MHH (oop., II).· .Sariaaena , e', cexamara qaCT c )I,'brOBH)I,HO orpopaeu p'b6HaOCrpHero. To . e CI1MeTpHqHO SaTOqeHO' C'bC CJIe)l,H OT ynorperia. Pa3MepH. _ )I,'bJJ}KHHa, 0,03J M, UIlJPHl:Ja 0,032 M

H j{e6eJlHHa. 0,015 M.' '" " '.';:.

B' XaJlKOJlHTHOTO 'yeJlHIlJ,e npn Bpa)l,58 (PyM'bHHH) " e OTKpHTa. Me.z(Ha 6pa)l,BB-KOnaq 'OT runa 5ICJla)l,aHU, ~b5lTO ce : .n:?THpa C'bUJ.O .B :Kpa5l,Ha 'XaJIKOJIijja _:__; KYKYTeHI1AB;' AH,'iI.JIOrHQHO opt.nne e'oTKpHTO ,H B, XOp0)l,HHua59 (YKpaMHa). Toe OTKPHTO B .:pJlHHeHco,u:, OTHaC'HIl( ce K'bM Kpa5I na ' 1p'Hn0J1CKaTa' i<y.TrTY-

pa _. -eran: BilL' ., ",

Tounara crparnrparpna H)I,8THpOBKa na Me)l,HaTa 6pa)l,Ba-KOnaq OT M.' Pe)l,YTHTe me cnouorne 3a H35ICHHBaHe XpOHOJlOrHHTa na 6pa,nBI1Te-KOnaqH OT rnna 5ICJla)l,aHH na enna anaxatenua TepHTopHH, 06XBaIlJ,aIlJ,a IJ.eHTpaJlna H IOroH3ToqHa Eapona, :

B'bB' II XOPH30HT ca' OTKpl1TH H cenex Me)lHH IlIHJla (06p: 12). Tp,H OT THX (06p. 126, B H r; 11.11-2) HMaT npaaot.r-snao .cesenne B OCHOBaTa H Kp'brJlO npH B'bpxa. UJHJlaTa HMaT CJle)l,HHTe pasuepn: 06p. 126 _ lI,'bJl)KHHa 0,085 M, )l,e6eJlHHa 0,003 M H )l,HaMeTbp 0,002 M;

1. CnaCHTeJlHIITe pasxonxa HIl:; npaHCTOpHlJeCKOTO' CeJIHIIJ,e B M. Pe,llYTHTe npn C. TeJlHW ce nposexorar OT 1978 r. no,ll P'bKOBO,llCTBOTO na asropa.

2 B. MilK 0 B. ITpe,llIlCTOplIlJeCKOTO ceJIIIIIJ,e ,ll0 KPIIBO,llOJl, Bpasaucxo. - PIT, I, 1948, 26-62; B. H II K 0 JI 0 B. 3aMIIHeu. C., 1975; D. B e r C i u. Contributii la problernele neoliticului in Romlnia tn lumina noiJor cercetari. Bucuresti , 1961, 120- 337; Praistorija Jugoslavenskih zema1ja. III, EneoIitska doba. Sarajevo, 1979, 87-114.

-: ,3 )Q,!Ha caaxponaaauas He MOlKeM na Hanpa_BIIM , nopana )JllnCaTa na crpararparpcxavraoanua sa eTHO· KYJITyp,H~lI paHOII KPIIBO,llOJI-CaJIKyua-By6aHII.

, 4 D. Be r C i u. Op. cit., 279-289.

& 13. M 1:1 K 0 B. UHT. C'bIJ .• 26-6,2.

. I M. Gar a san i n. Neolithikum und Bronzezeit in Serbien und Makedonien, 39, BR_GK. 1958, 1-130. M. Gar a san in, O .. C a r a san i n. Nova

· iskopavanija na .. Welikoj Humsko] Cuke kod NisaStarinar, IX-X, 19S8-1959, 243--'-,245.

7'",UaTllpOBKiIT3 ~ aanpasena . no MeTolla C14 OT A-P X. Kaura B BepJIIIHCKaTa JIa6QpaTOpI:IIIH3 fAH, na KorOTO .M3Ka3BaM ncxpena 6JIarO,llapHocT. ,UaTIITe

He ca KaJlH6pllpaHII. . , ,

8 I:i3noJl3YBaM cJIYlJall na OJIaro,llapli aa ,ll:P CT.

H. C. I CT; X. Tonopona aa OKa3aHOTO MH C'b,lleHcTBlle "PII 11311CHlIBaHe xapaxrepa aa HI, XOpIl30HT.! .

9 H, To d 0 ro v ,a. Das Chronologiesystem von

· Karanovo i m Lichte der neuen Forschungsergebnlsse in Bulgarlen. - Siovenska Archeologia, XXIX, 1,

1981, p. 212. . .

10 X. To,ll 0 P 0 B a. Pa3KonKII B M. ",Uli<yrepa" KpaH c. Pe6'bpKOBO, BpalJaHCKH oxp sr. - C6. ApXeOJIOrlllJeCKII OTKpHTlIlI II paaxonxn npea 1978 r. C., 1979, 32-33.

11 B. 11 JI IJ e B a. Pa3K0l1KII aa npaIlCTOplIlJeCKOTO CeJIHIIJ,e B M. "BoJlona,lla" rrpn C. XOTHHua, BeJlIIKOT'bPHOBCKII oxp sr. - C6. ApXeOJlOrlllJeCKII OTKpllTlIlI II pa3KonKII npes 1979 r. C., 1980, 41-42.

12 X. To Jl 0 po B a. 3HeOJIHT Boar apaa. C.,

1979, c. 71. •

13 X. T o n 0 P 0 B a (c K 0 JI e K T II B). OBlJapOBO. - PIT, IX, 1983, 12-13.

14 D. B e r C i u. Op. cit., 309-327. 10 D. Be r C i u. Op. cit., 338-340.

o6p.12 B _ )I,'bJl)KHHa 0,096 M, )l,e6e'JIIma 0;005 M H'Ji.iIaMeT'bp 0,003 M; 06p. ·12 r _ )l,bJl)l{HHa O,O~,M, )l,e6eJlHH3 0,004 M H )l,iIaMeT'bp 0,003 M. ):(pYfHTe xernpn .IlIHJla ,HMaT .KBa)l,paTHO ceseHHe (o6p'. 12 a, ')1" e, )K; DI1-4): T03H THn IlIHJla 'ca 'flaii;:qecTq '~peIlJ,qHHTe'npe3 ,X~JlKOJlHTa60. , M¢i:na/!1-lume . ftOXOaKua(11: .J.I'.tmpoume.!left )(OpU8oHm .. ; .OTKpHTH . ca e,nHO "M~,nHO llIHJlO (o6p. 13a; DI1-4) H eznra Me)l,H,atip1;'qKa c npaao'srt-nno : ceseaae (oep.: 136; 'DH-6).

)loceratiIHl'lTa KOJleKUH5I QT Me)l,l-IH naxonxn OT npaacropnsecxoto .cennmen M e , P!'l)l,YTHTe npn C" TeJlHuicBH.lI.eTeJlCrBYBa" 3arrmpoKaTa ynorpeea Ha M~ira' np~3 K'bCHH5! 'x~JlKdJlHT. 'THe )l,OKa3aTe.iICTB03a, BHCClKOTO Te;i{HHQeCKO paBHHIlJ,eHa MeTaJlyprHHTa;H M~iMCTopcTBoro

npH 06pa60TKaTa Ha, Metana. .

Hapen C' xapaxrepnnre H noaaarnsa erroxara Me)l,HI1 Op'b)I.HH TyK sant.paa rrsr ce.cpeIlJ,aT H HOBH THnOBe :-:- ypennre aa nnerene H )l,eKOpaTHBHaTa Hf' JlR. ,

Me)l,HHTe naxonxu l-IMaT Sa)KHO MHCTO npu H3HCHHBaHe ,XPOHOJlOrHHTaH, )I.3THpoBKaTa na aHaJlOrHQHH naMeTHHUH KaKTO B B'bJlrapH5I, raxa H B BaJlKaHo-JlYHaBCKHH paMOH npea K'bCHHH XaJlKOJlHT.

18 P. Rom a n. =-Strtikturanderungen des Endiineollthikurns in Donau-Karpaten-Raurn. Dacia, NS, XV. 19t1,3-1__:169; N. Tasic~ Der Einbruch des Salcuta-BubanF'Krivod01-Komplexes auf der Balkan. - GCBI, Sarajevo, XIV, 1975.

11 X. T o a 0 P 0 aa, P83KOlIKII aa 06eKT BYKaTa KpaH C. faJIaTIIH, BpalJaHCKII OKP'bf. - C6. ApxeonorHlJeCKII OTKpllTlIlI II pa3KonKII rrpea 1979 r. C., 1980,

c. 37. " ~

18 G. I. G e 0 r g i e v. Zurn problem yom Obergang : des Chalkollthtkums zur Bronzezeit .inBulgarien. - 'X,I Internarionales Syrnposjurn iiber. das .Spatheollthikum und die, Bronzezeit. Xanthl, {_:_10

Oktober 1981, 161-167. .') "

" 19 X.,TO,ll0pOBa (c KOJIE!j<TIIS). UnTo

C'bIJ., 10-14 .. , ' . . ',,, .

20 X. To Jl 0 P 0 B a. 3HeOJlIIT Boarapaa ... , c.71. 21. B. 11 JI IJ e B a. ApXeOJlOrlllJeCKH pa3KOlIKII aa nps-

. IICTOplIlJeCKOrO ceJIIIIIJ,e B M. ,;Bo,llona,lla" KpaH, <;. Xoinuna, BeJlHKOT'bPHOBCKII oxp sr, -.C6.· ApxeonorxlJeCKII OTKpHTlIll II pasxonxn npea 1981 r. MIIXaHJIOB-

rpa,ll, 1982, 20_:_21. , , ..

_ . 22 H. ,U lK a M 6 a 3,0 B.II P. KaT II,H IJ a p 0 B. · Pa3KolIKII B nemepara Marypa npes- 197 l ,

23 P. Rom a n: Cornplexul Orlea-Sadovec,

SCIV, -1976, XXVII, 147~160. .: , .

24 f. 11 JI. I' e 0 p rile B, H. 51. M e.p n e p T,

·P. B. KaTIIHlJapOB s , ,U. f. ,UII'MIITpOB.

· Esepo. PaHH06pOH30BOTO ceJIIIIIJ,e. C., 1979, 497":"523. · 2& .Tnnonomaecxara H.oMeHKJlaTypa e 1I0 E. H. , II e' p ,If hi x. Fopnoe neao . II. MeTaJlJlyprHlI B npea-

· HeiillJeH Boarapna .. C., 1978,89-119. CneKTpaJlHHlIT aaanaa na Me,llTa e uanpasen B Jlenarrrpancxara Jla60· paropas na AH CCCP OT E. H. 4epHhlx, na KorOTO 113Ka3BaM 6JIarO,llapHOCT.

26 H. T 0 d 0 r 0 v a. Die kupferzeitlichten Axte und Beile Bu1garien. C. H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. - Miinchen, 1981, p. 54, tal, 19,226-228. 27 Ha npeaaera, npeacrasen na o6p. 6, He e nanpaBeH cneKTpaJleH aH8J1113.

28,U. K 0 C T 0 B. Ilpenacropasecxa MOrllJla JlO Pyce. - fHM, 1922-1925, C. 62, 06p. 10811; f. I' e 0 p rile B, H. A H r e JI 0 B. Pa3KonKII aa ceJlIIIIJ,HaTa MOrllJla ,ll0 Pyce npes 1948-1949 r. - HAH, XVIII, C. 67, o6p. 28, 1; f. I' e 0 p rile B II H. A H'

r e JI 0 B. PaSKOnKH aa CMHUl.HaTa MOrHJla AO Pyce npes 1950-1953 r. - llAll, XXI, c. 70. 06p. 30. 21 P. IT 0 nOB. KOA>KaAepMeHcKaTa MOrHJla npa rp. IIIYMeH. - llBA,lJ" VI, 1916-1918, c. 96, 06p. 87. 80 B. M H K 0 B. MOrHJlaTa npa c. CyJlT8H (ITonoscxo]. - rHM. 1922-1925, c. 33, 06p. 44r.

31 A. P a .A y H 'I e B a. BHHHua. EHeOJlHTHO ceJlHUl.e H HeKpOnOJl. - PIT, VI, 1976, c. 50, oep, 38 •• c.

BS X. T 0 A 0 P 0 B a. CMHUl.HaTa MOrHJla npa

rOJlflMO ,lJ,M'IeBo. - PIT, V, 1975, c. 200, o(5p. 87 •• c. 83 X. To A 0 P 0 B a. Osuapoao. C., 1976, c. 64. H D. Be r c i u, Op, cit., 226-227, fig. 66s. 36 X. T 0 A 0 P 0 B a. I..I;HT. C'b'l .• C. 200.

88 A. P a A y H 'I e B a. I..I;HT. C'b'l .• c. 41.

87 B. M H K 0 B. I..I;HT. css., c. 33.

38 D. B e r c I u. Op. clt., p. 226.

39 r. reo p r H e B, H. A H r e JI 0 B. PaSKonKH na cenamaara MOrHJla ,IlO Pyce opes 1950-1953 ••• , c. 67, 06p. 21-'1. A. Pa.llYH'IeBa. I..I;HT. C'b'l.,

c. 28, 06p_. 20-19; c. 50, 06p. 38-2.

40 ,lJ,. K 0 C T 0 B. I..I;H1. css., c. 62; 06p. 109.11;

r. reo p r H e B H H. A H r e JI 0 B. I..I;HT. C'b'l.,

c. 70, oop. 30.

(I E. q e p n J,I X. U.HT. C'b'l.,C. 118, Ta6J1.1911•1O• 411 ITaK TaM, c. 118, T86J1. 19t..

48 ITaK TaM, c. 118, T86J1. 19.i.

44 X. To.ll 0 P 0 B a. CMHUl.HaTa MOrHJla ... , c. 240, T. 128.

" B. M H K 0 B. I..I;HT. css., 34-35, 06p. 49a. •• XaJlKH'IKaTa !Sewe CHJlHO OKHCJleHa.

47 r. reo p r H e B, H. A H r e JI 0 B. I..I;HT. CM •• 61-70.

'8 H. B. P hi H .A H H a. PaHHeTpHnOJlCKaR 06pa- 60TKa Me,llH. - CA, 1963, 3, c.-aO. 06p. 71-5; ,lJ,peBHeAwee MeTaJlo06pa60THIBalOUl.ee npOH3BO.llCTBO BocTO'lHOI Bsponu. M., 1971, c. 53, pHC. 51-5; c. 115.

pHC. 258,. '

" E. H. q e p H J,I X. I..I;HT. c1>'1., 112-119. 50 E. H. q e PH hi X. I..I;HT. C'b'l., 89-96.

II Fr. S c hub e r t. Zu den Sudosteuropslschen Kugferaxten. Germania, 43, 2, 1965, 274-295.

I B. M H K 0 B. Me,AHH 6pa,ABH-KOna'lH OT B'hJlrapas, - C6. llsCJleJ1BaHHJI B rraxer aa K. IIIKopnHJI. C., 1961, 369-386; K'bM B'bnpOCa sa Me.AHHte6paJ1BHxonaxa B Bsaapras. - llAll, XXXIII. 1972,59-70.

58 B. M H K 0 B. MeJlHH 6pa,ABH-KOna'lH ..• , c. 375. MFr. S c hub e r t. Op. cit., 274-295.

51 E. H. q e p H J,I X. I..I;HT. CM., 92-96.

•• B. II JI 'I e B a, X. IT P o a a HOB. ITpaHCTopH'IeCKH MeTaJlHH H3,l{eJJ.HJI OT MY3eAHaTa c6HpKa B rp8,l{ CTpa>KHua. - Bexose, 1979, c. 74.

17 B. r. 3 (5 e HOB H 'I. ,lJ,peBHeAwHe MellHHe ronopu B BOCTO'lHOA Espone. - CA, 1963, 135-142. 58 A. V u I p e. Cu prlvlre la cronologia topoareIe de arama cubratele "in cruee", SCIV, 1964, 457- 466.

59 T. Sui i m irs k i. Copper Hoard fram Horodnlca on the Dniester. Mitteilungen Gesellschaft in Wien, XCI, 1961, p. 197.

60 E. H. q e p H hi X. I..I;HT. C'b'l., 116-119 •

Trouvailles en cuivre du site prehlstorigique au lieu dit Redutite pres du village Tells, department de Pleven

v. GERGOV

(R e sum e)

Lors des travaux de terrassement du site preh]

tori que au lieu dlt Redoutite pres du village s,

departement de Pleven, ont ete decouv vingt

trouvailles en cuivre.

La localite est sltuee i m atement pres de

l'extremlte nord-est du vi e Telis sur une surface de 40 ares. Elle a ent au groupe de localites sltuees sur d uteurs naturelles, caracterlstiques de I'ar e la region ethnoculturelle KrivodolSal - ubani. La couche de civilisation a une • aisseur de 1,20 m. Elle est Iormee de trois horizons de construction.

, Ier horizon de construction - comprend la phase

la plus caracterlstlque, ainsi dlte "c1assique" du complexe Krtvodol-Salkuca-Bubani. La datation d'apres la methode radiocarbonique (C14) - par 3450± 50 annees av. n. ere.

lIe horizon de construction - finale du chalcollthique. La datation d'apres la methode radlocarbonlque Ct, 3290±45-3220±46 annees avo n. ere.

Hie horizon de construction - culture Tells.

Le probleme de I'appellation de cette perlode est

54

~---

controverse, Chronologiquement le lieu de la culture Te~is est determine apr~ la finale du groupe culturel Krrvodol-Salkuca-Bubant et avant Sadovec·OrljaMagurata et Ezero.

Une importance determinante pourl'eclalrcissement de I 'appartenance ethnoculturelle de la populationayant habite Ie leu dit Redutlte ont les trouvailles ceramiques;

La hache-pioche en cuivre du type Jasladani est le premier outil decouvert aux donnees stratigraphiques exactes. II contrlbuera it I 'eclaircissement de la chronologie de ce genre de trouvailles non seulement en Rulgarie mais egalement dans la Penlnsule balkanique.

La collection de trouvallles en cuivre it TeliS temoigne du haut niveau technique de la metallurgie et de I 'art dans Ie traitement du metal. A c6te des outils en culvrecaracterlstlques et conn us pour I'epoque,on rencontre ici pour fa premiere fois des objets nouveaux - les instruments de trfcotage et

I'epingle decorative. '

Heo6Hap0,lI,SaHH naMeTHHUH aa llHaHa

TEO,lJ,OPA KOBA4EBA

B'bB ¢OH.ll.a na YICTopHqeCKH5T MY3eii, DJIeBeH, ce C'bXpaHHBaT HHKOJIKO He06HapO.ll.BaHH 06pOqHH nJIOqKH H MpaMOpHH craryapmr H30- 6pameHHH na 60rHHHTa ,UHaHa. Te ca OTKpHTH npn pa3JIHqHH 06CT05TTeJICTBa B DJIeBeHCKH oxpt.r (uacr OT npOBHHUHH ,UOJIHa MH3HH), na Tepl-!TOpHHTa Ha al-ITHqHHTe ceJIHllI.a npn C. I'nren, Il.nenen H C. 0PHXOBHua.

Ceno tuee« (aHT. COLONIA ULPIA

OESCENSIUM). DPH apXeOJIOrHqeCKH pasKonKH Ha xpaMa Ha ¢opyMa npe3 1976 r. e OTKpHT ropeu necen 'br'bJI OT 06pOqHa nJIOqKa C asoopaxcenne na ,UHaHa JIoBll)!{HHCKa B HHC'bK pe.nerp. YIHB. ,Ng 1656 (06p. 1). Ilnosxara HMa npanot.r-snna cpopMa H pavxa noKpaH, 3a06JIeHa B ropHaTa CH qaCT. 3ana3eHa BHC. 0,14, limp. 0,15 H .ll.e6. 0,032 M. OT H30- 6pa)!{eHHeTO na 60rHHHTa ca sanasenn: rnasara. JIHBOTO pavo H p sxara H npscrnre na .ll.HCHaTa P'bK3, C KOHTO nOCHra K'bM KOJIqaHa 33 crpena, THJIOTO e HaKJIOHeHO Ha.ll.HCHO. JIHueTo e C'bBCeM MJIa.ll.e)!{KO, aaxpi.r JIeHO H C nO.ll.P06HOCTH (cera n03aJIHqeHH). Koca ra e cpecana na rn.r Ha.ll. qeJlOTO. B enpu KOCH KHqypH TH nOKpHBa YIlIHTC, KaTO non THX ce CKOCHBa no nOCOKa na THJIa. JIHBOTO pavo e nOKpHTO C XHMaTHOH, C KOCO H JlHHeapHO 03HaqeHH .ll.HnJIH, npeXB'bpJIeH npe3 JIHBaTa p'bKa. TH e nporer nara Ha.ll.HCHO H .ll.'bP)!{H JI'bK.

B ECKYC THn'bT na ,UHaHa JIcB)J,mHHCKa - neurexonxa, e sacr-srren H B cnena B'bpXy Me.ll.aJlbOHa Ha nOJlHXpOHHa M03aHKal C'bC CIDxcer "npeBp'blll.aHeTO na MJIa.ll.e)!{a KHnapHC B m.pno" H B TOpC OT MpaMopHa CTaTYCTKa2• DonYJIHpHOCTTa na HeHHHH KyJlT TyK ce nonxpenx H C npencrananero if KaTO e3.ll.aqKa na enen", H OT enHrpa¢CKH .ll.aHHH4 33 novaraHeTO if- KaTO ,UHaHa REGINA.

rpaiJ J7/le8Cfl (aHT. STORGOSIA). ,UOJIeH necen 'br'bJI OT CTaTY)l na ,UHaHa JIoB.ll.)KHHCKa C eJJeH H xyue, OTKpHTa npes 1964 r. cnynaano

• 06p. 1. ct>pacAte/-lm om otipouna n/LO'UW na Iluana JIaBoOlcuuCIW, c. Fueen. Fig, 1, Fragment de dalle rituelle de Diane Chassseresse, village Gigen

.ll.0 rroutencxnn KJlOH na KB. Crapa rapa. 11HB. ,Ng 106.8 (06p. 2). BHC. 0,245 H IlIHp. 0,17 M. I'pynara e pa3BHTa m.pxy nJIOCKa, 3a06JIeHa ornpen nozrcranxa C .ll.e6. 0,15 M, OT H306pa)!{eHHeTO na 60rHHHTa ca sanaaenn:

JIeBH5TT xpax OT cpenara na oenporo nanony H JleBHHT 'br'bJI na npannpanna K'bC XHTOH. Kpaxt.r e 06yT B'bB BHCOKa JIOB.ll.)!{HHCKa 06YBxa, rrpncrernara orrope C .ll.BOHHa penerpna JleHTa C BHCHlQ KpaH. 3a.ll. KpaKa if ce nO.ll.aBa npennara nacr OT THJIOTO na e.nena, qHHTO Myuyna e or-rynena. OTK'bM rpt.onara crpana na CTaTYHTa ce BH)!{.ll.aT por-ara My. DoqTH aam,nHO e aanasena ¢HrypaTa na xysero. HanpaseHO na 3aJl.HHTe CH xpaxa H onp s ao C npenuirre CH xpaxa B r-spmrre ua enena, TO e aaxanano YXOTO My. OKOTO na xynero e oseprano spes 6a.ll.eMOBH.ll.Ha BpH3aHa JIHHHH; THJIOTO na ztaere )!{HBOTHH ca TpeTHpaHH noseve KaTO peJIe¢, OTKOJIKOTO KaTO xp sr.na CKYJlnTypa .

OCBeH ormcanara CTaTYH OT panona na rp. DJIeBeH npOH3XO)!{.ll.aT ouie H no-pane OTKpHTHTe: peJIe¢5 aa ,UHaHa JIOB.ll.)!{HHCKa C AnOJIOH, cspna H xyse; nanrmc" B'bpXy nOCTaMeHT aa CTaTYH, H3.ll.HrHaTa B ,,3eMJIHllI.eTO na ,UHaHHHHTe CJlV)!{HTeJlH" B seer na "CenTHMH Cesep, nesapnre AHTOHHH H Tera H na IOJlHH ,UOMHa" H )!{epTBeHHK C nocseiuenne na enna MeCTHa 60rHHH - ,UHaHa GERMETlTHA.

Ceno 0PflX08UUp. OT 3eMJlHllI.eTO na ceJIOTO npOH3XO)!{.ll.aT nse 06poqHH nJIOqKH H eana CTaTyeTKa. D'bpBHTe naa naMeTHHKa ca OTKpHTH B -racren .ll.BOP B aanannns KpaH na ceJIOTO 3ae.ll.HO C KYJlTOBa CTaTYH Ha 60r MHTpa H 06pOqHa nJIOqKa na TpaKHHCKHH KOHHHK. Te rpernpar THna na ,UHaHa JIOB.ll.)!{HHCKa, TpeTHHT e HaMepeH B M. 4eHreHe capaH Ha OKOJlO 7--8 KM toroaanaano OT CeJIOTO H aacrt.nna rnna 'uHaHa-ApTeMH.ll.a - rocnonapxa na )!{HBOTHHTe.

06pOqHa nJIOqKa C ¢opMa na e.ll.HKYJIa. 11HB. ,Ng 3152 (06p. 3). BHC. 0,255, MaKC . IlIHp. 0,025 M. Heennaxso IlIHpOKa pavxa oorpaacna penerpa, npencranam ,UHaHa, npn.ll.py)!{eHa OT xyne, JlOBHa cuena - xyue, cspna H zrspso. BOrHHHTa e npana, C JIHue HaCpelll.a, nO.ll.P06HOCTHTe ca .ll.OCTa 3aJIHqeHH, C 06peMeHeH JIHB KpaK Ha.ll.HCHO H CHJIHO H3- rrsnar H H3HeceH BCTpaHH JlHB xpax. Kocara e cpecaHa Ha n'bT Ha.ll. qeJlOTO H CB060.ll.HO na.ll.a m.pxy pavenere. 06J1eqeHa e B 6e3p'bKaBeH XHTOH, .ll.'bJI'br .ll.0 Ha.ll. KOJIeHeTe, K'bC nenJIOC H xeMaTHOH, KOHTO' MHHaBa KaTO peneoea nOHC npes xpt.cra. E.ll.HHHHT KpaH na HaMeTxara e npexm.p.neu npes JIHBaTa pt.xa, a npyrHHT e pa3BHT 3a.ll. r-spria, B nporernarara JIHBa p sxa 60rHHHTa .ll.'bP)!{H JI'bK, a C B.ll.HrHa-

55

• 06p. 2. ifJpazltteflm om cmanujn na Iluana J/06- aJICUiiCKa, e. IlJie6efl. xig. 2~ Fragment de statue de Diane Chasseresse, Pleven

• 06p. 3. Otipouna n.unxa na Iluana J/06aJICUIICKa, c. Opnxoeuua. Fig. 3. Dalle riiuelle de Diane Chasseresse, village Orjahooica

TaTa )1.51CHa pt.xa nocara KbM nO)1.aBaIII.H5I ce 3a)1. )1.51CHOTO paMO KOnqaH CbC CTpenH. 06YTa e B HHCKH nOB)1.)KHi1cKH 06YBKH, npHCTerHaTH orrope C )1.BoHHa nenra, C BHC5IIII. or BbTpernHaTa CTpaHa Ha KpaKa ~ KpaH. 3a)1. )1.eCHHH ~KpaK ce nozrasa npennara nacr or THnOTO na Kyqe C B)1.HrHaTa rnaBa H MYUyHa, onpHHa B xpas na XHTOHa. 3a)1. )1.eCHHH xpax e npencraBeI-Ia nOBHa cueHa or cspna Ha)1.HCHO, saxanana sa YXOTO or Onp5lHO na 3a)1.HHTe CH xpaxa xyse. 4acT or THnOTO My npeannana BbPXY pavxara na nrrouxara. Ha BTOpH n.nan, 3a)1. nHBaTa pr.xa na 60rHHHTa, ce BH)K)1.a KOpOnara na )1.bPBO.

B onucanns penerp H306pa)KeHHeTO na JlHaHa JIOB)1.)KHHCKa ce ornurrana C YCTpeMHO )1.B}DKeHHe. TIO)1.06HO npe)1.CTaBHHe CpeIII.aMe B naMeTHHUH npe)1.HMHO or Cesepaa DbnrapHH H HaH-Beqe B Te3H or CBeTHnHIII.eTO na JlHaHa

H Ano.non or MOHTaHa (MHxaHnOBrpaJ()8,

BbnqH)1.pbM9 H I'aranaua'", MHxaHnOBrpa,ll.CKO, H CBeTHJIHIII.eTO npa I' nasa Ilaner a!'. TaKa e npe)1.CTaBeHa TH H BbPXY peBepca Ha 6POH30BH MOHeTH na KOMO)1.12 H JlHa)1.YMe"HHaH13, ceuenn B PHM, a CbIII.O H BbPXY pesepca na 6POH30BH MOHeTH, cenena B paanntrHH rpa)1.0Be14 na MH3HH H TpaKH5I npenn H npesnpeae na PHMCKOTO Bna)1.HqeCTBo. KaKTo e H3BecTHo, npOTOTHITbT aa HeHHoTo HaHnony.napno H306pa)KeHHe T. Hap. Bepcaiicxa ApTeMH)1.a ce npHnHCBa Ha e)1.HH aT )1.BaMaTa aHTHqHH cxy.nnropn Cxonac H JIeoxap15.

B HKOHOrpa¢H5ITa Ha 60rHH5ITa H B KOMno- 3HUH5ITa na penerpa npaB~B'fIeqaTneHHe H5IKonKO MOMeHTa, KOH~ca---no-pe)1.KH aa H306pa-)KeHH5ITa ~. E)1.H_H·H--H"T or THX e )1.bnraTa xoca. OT OTKPJ:f.T.H-Te/')1.0Cera y Hac naMeTHHUH C JlH9J:!a....-JIoB)1.)KHHCKa-nerneXO)1.Ka, TH e CbC

________..-exO)1.Ha npHqeCKa caMO B 06pOqHa rrnOqKa OT ..---..---..--- CnHBHHua16. Taxasa e H ITpHqeCKaTa ~ B pene¢ or CHnHCTpa17, B KOHTO e npencrasena xaro esnavxa. Karo HMaMe npe)1.BH)1. e)1.HI-I pene¢18, OTKpHT na ECKBHnHHCKHH XbJlM B PHM, B KOHTO H306pmKeHHeTo na MJla)1.aTa -60rHIUI-e3)1.aqj(a na KOH, C )1.bJlra xoca e xapaKTepH3HpaHO or CbnpOBO)K)1.aIII.HH 51 craporp suxn Ha)1.nHC KaTO 'IUIlPU 800"'1'), T. e, TpaKHHcKa 60rHHH, nonycxave, qe Ta3H oco- 6eHOCT ce )1.bJl)KH na MeCTHO BnHHHHe. Ha T03H ,H3BO)1. He nporrraopevar se-re npnanevennre KaTO na panenn MOHeTHH H306pa)KeHH5I19, OCO'6eHo Te3H, cesean na DaJlKaHCKHH nOJlyoCTpOB, B KOHTO JlHnCBa nO)1.06Ha TpaKToBK8 Ha npH·qeCKaTa H KOHTO Bb3npOH3Be)K)1.aTYTBbp)1.eJ-IH B O¢HUHaJlHOTO H3KYCTBb THnOBe.

Jlpyra ocooeuocr e HaqHHbT na npencraBHHe na )1.bPBOTO, KoeTO HanOMH5I rat.pne MHoro 3a 06pOqI-IHTe naMeTHHUH na TpaI(HH-

2

3

CKH5I 60r-KOHHHK20. TIPHcbcTBHeTO na zrspBOTO B penetpa OT C. 0P51XOBHUa MO)Ke ,Ua ce 065ICHH KaTO OTrJIaC Ha KY~Ta H3 60rHH5ITa OT nO-,UbJI60Ka 'upeBHOCT, KOraTO e 6HJIa rrornrrana KaTO nOKpOBHTeJIKa na zn.puerara H paCTHTeJIHOCTTa21.

Tpera OC06eHOCT B penerpa e JIOBH3Ta CUeHa, K05ITO He e THnHlfHa 33 peJIeq,HTe Ha jlHaHa JIOB,U)KHHCK3, 3 aa penednrre na TpaKHHCKH5I Xepoc'". TIO,U06HO npe,UCTaB5II:IeOTKpHB3Me B eznra n.novxa OT C. rpa'uI1lue23; ra6pOBCKO, Kb,UeTO e npencrasea THr1'BT H3 esnavxara.

MpaMOpl-Ia oopo-ma n.novxa C npasot.r-s.nna q,opMa, C TeCHH BepTHKaJ1HH H lImpOKH XOpH30HTaJIHH paMKH. ·l1HB. M 3152 (06p. 4). BHC. 0,22, limp. 0,315 H ,Ue6. 0,025-0,030 M. Flo-rp ytio 06pa60TeH rpb6. Ilpencraaena e jlHaHa neurexomca B rpyna - CbC CHJIBaH H TpHTe HHMq,H. BCHlfKH q,HrypH ca nacpema H s-cnoxoana nosa. EOfHH5ITa e c. 06JIeKlfeH neceH KpaK, 06JIelfeHa B ,UBOHHO npenacaH H ,UbJIbr ,UO KOJIeHeTe XlfTOH. B JI5IB3Ta, cnycnara KpaH T5IJIOTO pt.xa ,UbP)KH JIbK, a C ,U5ICHaTa nOC5Ira aa CTpeJIa KbM KOJIlfmla, tiHHTO peMbUH ca xpt-crocann npen r-spnure H. Kocara e cpecana na rrs r Ha,U lfeJIOTO THn melonenfrisur H JIHHeapHo pa3nOJIO)I(eH KOK, KOHTO sacrsnaa OTlfaCTI1 ropnara panxa na peneq,a. C Ta3H npusecxa 60rHH5ITa ce cpema lfeCTO BbPXY naMeTHHuH KaKTO OT MH3H5124 H

• 06p. 4. Otipouna n/IO'IIW na .ll.uafla, Cu nean u Tpume nusubu, c. Opsixoeuua. Fig. 4. Daile rituelle de Diana, Siloain et les Trois nymphes, village Orjahouica

TpaKH51, raxa H B npyrn PHMCKH npOBHHUHH25. OT )l,5ICHaTa H crpana e npencrasen 60rbT na ropnre H JIOBa CHJIBaH B xapaxrepna HKOHorpaq,H5I~ Bor-st e npencranea C ,UbJIra ,UO pavenere Kb,UpaBa xoca, C 6pa,Ua H MycTaIlH. 06JIelfeH e B npenacan XHTOH, C TpH lfeTBbpnl nonrt.naru pt.xasn, ,UbJIbr ,UO Ha,U KOJIeHeTe H HaMeTHaT C XHMaTHOH, aaxorrran Ha ,UHCHOTO paMO C KpbrJIa arpaq,a. C JI5IBaTa pt.xa e 06XBaHaJI TbHKOCTe6JIeHO 'upbBlfe, a B nanecenara BCTpaHH ,UHCHa p sxa ,UbP)I{H xocep C xt.ca 'upb)KKa, nOMeCTeH BbPXY sepTHKaJIHaTa pavxa na penerpa. jlo ,UeCHH5I My xpax e HerOBH5IT cnbTHHK - KYlfeTO. B HKOHOrparpcxo crxoureane H306pa)I(eHHeTO na ClIJIBaH nannpa 6JIH3Ka. aHaJIOrlIH B penednrre OT CBeTHJIHmaTa npn C. JIHJIHlfe26, -T'naaa TIaHera27, H nafr-aene B penepa OT MHXaHJIOB-

rpa,U28. .

B,U5ICHO OT 60fHH5ITa jlHaHa ca npencraBeHH TpHTe HlIMq,H, b6JIelfeHH B ,UbJIrH, ,UBOHHO npenacaHH H ,UpanHpaHH XllTOHH, C nplllfeCKH KaTO HeHHaTa. TIO,U06HO na 60rllH5ITa ,UBeTe q,llrypH OTJIHBO ca C 06JIeKlfeH ,neceH KpaK, a npll HaH-KpaHHaTa OT,U5ICHO e 06JIeKlfeH II H3- necen scrpauu JIeBHHT xpax. jl51cHaTa pt.xa na HllMq,aTa B cpenara H rasn OT,U5ICHO ,UOKOCBaT pavoro ua HllMq,ara OTJI5IBO, lfll5ITO ,UeCHlIua e cnycnara Ha,UOJIy .• D5lBaTa pt.xa na BC5IKa enna OT THX e cnycnara KpaH T5IJIOTO, xa'ro xpaanara OT,U5ICHO ,UbP)KH cjmaJIa (?), Onp5IHa BbPXY pavxara na penerpa. 11 npn TpHTe q,Hr-ypn pt.uere ca o603HalfeHH npes nJIHTKO Bp5I3aHH JIHHHB. I\aKTo ce BH)K,Ua, HHMq,HTe

4

8 ApXeOJIOfIDI, 4, 1987 r.

57

• 06p. 5 a) tPpazMeHm om cmamuemsa I-ta IluanaApmeuuoa - eocnoitapka nu. JlCU60mHUme, c. 0PflXO' euua (AUl{fJ). Fig. 5 a) Fragment de statuette de Diane-Artenis. protectrisse des animaux, village Or iahovica (face)

• 06p. 56) tPpazMeHm om cmamqemxa ua IluauaApmeuuxa - eocnooapxa na JlCU60mHUme, c. OPflXO-

6uI{a (zp'06). Fig. 56) Fragment de statuette de

Diane-Artemis, protectrisse des animaux, village

Orjahouica (dos)

nt.pxy pasr Jle)!(,naHIH! penerp ca cm.psa HH noMe)!(,ny CH no HaqHH, pa3J1HqeH OT H3BeCTHHTe H MHor06pOHHH H306pa)!(eHH5T. ,UBa OT no- 3HaTHTe HH cnysaa npeanarar 6J1H3Ka anaJlOnI5T KaTO KOMn03Hll,H5T H HKOHorP3CPH5T - T03H OT MHXaHJlOBrpa,lI.29, npn KOHTO nnacrntrHOTO npencraasne . H3 pt.uere BHaC5! 5TCHOT3 B'bB BJlO)!(eHH5T 33MHC'bJl na ,lI.BH)!(eHHHTa. IUe ,lI.06aBHM, qe ,lI.HCHaTa pt.xa na rrspaara HHMcpa OT penerpa B MHX3HJlOBrpa,lI., cr-snara B JlaK'bT5T H B,lI.HrHaTa narope, na nOMH5T ,lI.BH)!(eHHeTO aa ct.apevenen XOPOBO,lI.. H5TM3 C'bMHeHHe, qe B CB'bp3BamHTe TpHTe HHMcpH ,lI.BH)!(eHHH TP5T6B3 ,lI.a T'bPCHM e,lI.Ha ,lI.pyra cxeMa Ha TeXHHH T3HU. BTOPH5!T penerp npOH3XO)!(,lI.3 OT CBeTHJlHmeTO npu C. CaJla,lI.HHOB030, HO ,lI.BH)!(eHHHTa ca no-p33J1HqHH.

E,nHOBpeMeHHOTO npe,lI.CTaB5THe na )lHaHa, CHJlBaH H TpHTe HHMCPH nOCTaBH m.npoci.r aa Bp'b3K3Ta Me)!(,1ly T5TX. C'bmHOCTTa na nnere rJl3BHH 60)!(eCTBa ,UHaHa H CHJlBaH KaTO 60- rose H3 roprrre H JIOBa H pomn3 na HHMqmTe KaTO TeXHH nOCT05!HHH npH,lI.pY)!(HTeJlH HH pasKpHBa peanasnpana H,lI.e5TTa aa ropcxn 60- )l{eCTB3. B T05T CMHC'bJl TpHTe HHMCPH ce 5TB5!BaT B acneKT3 Ha Opea,lI.H H )lpHa,lI.H. OTKpHBaHeTo na 06pOqHH naMeTHHUH na 60rHHHTa ,UHaHa - cava HJlH ct.nposonena OT CHJlBaH H. TpHTe HHMCPH, He e cJlyqaHHo. To MO)!(e ,lI.3 ce em-pace C HaJlHqHeTO na H3BOPH, xapaxrepnn aa paiio-

58

5

na H3 c. 0P5TxoBHua oute npes aHTHqHOCTTa, KOHTO H ,lI.HeC ce nOJl3YBaT KaTO BO,nOH3TOqHHUH. 33 e,lI.HH OT T5TX cpe,lI. HaCeJleHHeTO ce rosopn, qe e Jleqe6eH. BBHO, qe TyK e HMaJlO CBeTHJlHme, CB'bp3aHO C KYJlTa K'bM ,UH3Ha, B KoeTO ca nonnacsnu 06pOqHH ztapoae H H3 npyrn 60)!(eCTBa, KaTO MHTpa H TpaKHHcKH5T 60r - KOHHHK. TIO,lI.06eH e cnyvaar H C'bC CBeTHJlHmeTO npn I'nana TIaHera31. H3BecTHH ca H npyrn cnyvan na Bp'b3KH Me)!(,lI.y CBeTHJlHmara na ApTeMH,lI.a C H3BOpH32.

CTaTyeTK3 H3 'uHaHa-ApTeMH,lI.a C r.naran.

HHB. M .342 (06p. 5 a), 33na3. BHC. 0,245 H MaKC. WHp. 0, II M. 3ana3eH e TOPC'bT na 60rHH5!Ta H nacr OT cpHrypaTa na rnnrana. 'uHaH3-ApTeMH,lI.a e B YCTpeMHa nosa HaJlHBO. 06JIeqeHa e B ,lI.'bJl'br ,lI.0 nO,lI.KOJleHeTe XHTOH H K'bC, npenacan non rt.pnnre iT nermoc OT cpHHa npospa-nra MaTepH5!, n03BOJl5TB3ma ,na ce yceT5TT cpopMHTe na T5TJlOTO. ,UHarOHaJlHO na r'hp,lI.HTe iT MHHaBa nenrara na KOJIqaHa, KOHTO Bepo5TTHo e 6HJI nOKpHT C XHM3THOH. K3KTO H3r Jle)l{,lI.a, HaMeTKaTa e nOKpHB3JIa r-spoa H pavenere H npoxynrena non MHWHHUHTe ce e cnycxana Ha,lI.OJlY H BCTpaHH (06p. 56). C neeHHH CH xpax 60rHHHTa ce 06mlra m.pxy THJlOTO Ha fJIHraH, 06'bpHaT HaJl5!BO. B cpaBHeHHe C cpl1rypaT3 na 60rHH5ITa, OTJlHQaBama ce C nO,lI.06HO H n.naCTHqHO MO,lI.eJlHpaHa H no.nupana nunesa nOB'bpXHOCT, r'bp6'bT e CXeMaTHqHO npenanen. <PHrypaTa H3 rJlHraHa e rpyoonara, HO C ,lI.OCTa ,lI.eTaHJlHO npenasane na r.nanara, xemnara no JlHHHHTa na rpt.onaxa, KOHTO Hano,n06HBa rpHBa npH e,lI.pHTe M'b)!(KH r JlHr3HH, H onauncara.

KaKTo 6e sene nOCOqeHO, CTaTyeTK3Ta npenCTaBH e,lI.HH pH,lI.KO cpeuian y Hac THn na )lHaHaApTeMH,lI.a - rocncnapxa na )!(HBOTHHTe. TIo,lI.06eH naMeTHHK HJi e H3BeCTeH cavo OT MH-

xaHJIOBrpa){33. B T03H THn HHe BH>K){aMe OTpazceaae na HaH-paHHoTo cxsautaaejs rp'bU-. xara MHTOJIorH5I aa . C'blllHOCTTa aa ApTeMu~a ~aTO OOrUH5I, nOKpOBUTeJIKa aa >KUBOTHure34•

E~UH nper JIe){ aa naMeTHUUUTe na ,Un:aHa, OTKpHTH B nJIeBeHCKH oxpsr, HM .naBa OCHOBaHHe ){a rOBopHM aa nonYJI5IpHOCTTa aa KYJIra if npea aHTHIIHOCTTa. ,Uocera ca H3BecTI1H OOIIl,O 16 naMeTHHKa35, OT KOHTO 7 penerpa, 3cTaTyapHH H300pa>KeHH5I, 1 M03aHK8 H 5 Hannnca, e~HHH5IT OT KOHTO e nOCBeTeH na AnoJIOH H ,UuaHa. OCBeH KOJIHlIeCTBeHH5I oeJIer K'bM T03H H3BO){ HH HaBe>K~a H pasnooopaanero B HallHHa na npe~CTaB5IHe H acnexrare vn:

AHaJIH3'bT OT raenaa TOIlKa na nxoaorpadmara nOKa3Ba, lie ca 3aCToneHH nsa OCHOBHH acnexra:

1. 'uHaHa-ApTeMH.n;a KaTO rocnonapxa na >KHBOTHUTe, H

2. ,UHaHa KaTO 6ofHH5I na JIOBa H noxpoBUTeJIKa aa ropare,

Ha Te3U ){Ba8Cfi~KTa C'bOTBeTCTBYBaT TpH nxonorpaocxa Tuna, OTKOlfTO caxo e){HH, aacrsrtea B CTaTYeTKaTa OT c. 0P5lXOBUl(a, e CB'bp3aH C n'bpBH5I acnexr. OCTaHaJiUTe ){Ba Tuna, KOHTO OTpa351B3T BTOpH5I acnexr, ca:

a) ,UH3Ha .noB){>KuifcKa-neIlleXO~Ka B K'bC XUTOH, nenJIOC H XHMaTUOH, C JI'bK H CTpeJIa, .,OHraIIl,a" UJIU B CT3THlIeH BH~; oe3 npH){py-

1 T. I van 0 v. Romische Mosaike aus Colonia Ulpia Oescenslum. - Akten des Symposium fiber das antike Mosaik. Trier, 1983.

I A. Fro v a. Lo scavo della missione areheologia Italiana in Bulgaria ad Oescus. Boll. dell 1st. Nationale di Archeologia e Storia del1 arte XI. Rome, 1948, p. 27, fig. 83.

8 B. .n 0 () P Y c K H. MaTepHaJiH no apxeoao-

rHBTa aa B'bJirapHB. - MC()., XVI-XVII, 1900,

c. 31.

, CIL !II 7423; CIL III 14414.

II r. H. K a u a p 0 B. AIITH'!HH naMeTHH~H H3 B'bJirapHB. - HBAH, IV, 1926-1927, c. 112, 06p.52.

e r. H. K a u a p 0 B. npHHOC K'bM apXeOJIOrHBTa aa B'bJIrapHB. - HBAH, I, 1919, c. 115. HaJlnHC'bT e JlaTHpaH OT BpeMeTO aa CenTHMHA Cesep (193- 211); cnopea Hac A8THpOBKaT8 MOlKe A8 ce CBene JlO

nepHO}l8 209-211 1'.' '},,' "

7 r. H. K 8 u a p OB •. ,HOBH8HTH'!IlH naMeTHH~ _ OT B'bJlr8pHR. - J.m.n, IV, 1919, c. I.

8 JI. 0 r H e HOB a - Map If HOB 8.AHTftqHaTa CKYJlnTypa B MOHTaHa. - B: B'bJirapHSI 1300, II. C., 1982, 143-149; r. A JI e K C a HAP 0 B. MOHrana, n'bTeBOAHTM. C., 1981.

• B • .n 0 () P Y C K H. [(HT. C'b'!., c. 31, ,N'g 5, 06p. 31.

10 H B. B e JI K 0 B. HaXOJlKH H BeCTH OT paaaa MeCTa.- HBAH, XIV, 1940-1942. c. 268, 06p. 364. 11 B • .n 0 () P Y C K H. TpaKHAcKo CBeTHJlHIne aa ACKJlenHB AJ rJlaBa Ilaaera. - HHM. I, 1907, c. 81, 06p. 59.

11 M. B i e be r. Ancient Copies. New York, 1977, fig. 281, 282.

18 Op. cit., fig. 283.

14 H. M y III MOB. AHTH'IHHTe MOHeTH sa BaaKaHCKHJI nonYOCTpOB. C., 1912. BHm MOHeTHTe C nop. M 268, 289, 220, 299, 316, 414, 532, 587, 588, 758, 787, 873, 906, 1070, 1115, 1220, 1221, 1303, 1378, 1474, 1853, 1872, 1902, 1924, 1925, 1982, 1997, 2089, 2211, 2265, 2588, 2604, 2686, 2566, 2691, 2764, 2777, 2778, 2868, 2996, 3000, 3031, 3085, 3458, 3525, 3529, 3537, 3561, 3613,

xcaaatno 51 >KHBOTHO; C KYlIe H JIOBHO >KHBOTHO HJIH C KYlIe H JIOBHa cueaa. T03H THn na oorHH5ITa e HaH-IfOnYJI5IpeH36•

0) ,UHaHa JI9B~>KHHCKa, HO esnasxa BopXY cspaa HJlU MeN', KaKTO H npe~CTaB5IT pene<pHTe or C. rHrefi37 U OT aHT. Fepnnaaa'" (){H. neJIHIll8T). KaKTO e U3BeCTHo, T03H Tun e B'b3- HUKHaJi riO){ BJIU5IHUe na naMeTHHUHTe na TpaKHHCKH5I KOHHHK.

,UaRRATe OT Ha){nUCUTe, npOH3XO>K~aIIl,H OT nJIeBeHCKH oxpur, noxaaaar, lie LI:uaHa e nOIlHTaHa B Ta3U lIaCT na npOBHHUH5I LI:OJIHa MH3U5I H KaTO OOrHH5I OT PUMCKH5I naHTeOH C nonYJIHpHU5I i~- ernrrer REGINA, H KaTO cUHKpeTH3HpaHo TpaKo-pHMCKO OO>KeCTBO c JIOKaJIHH5I enarer GERMETJTHA. IlonyJIS!pHOCTTa na OOrHH5ITa nOCTaBS! m.npoca sa ct.utecraysaaero aa HeHHH CBeTlI.TJHIII,a. Pa3- rJIe:>K~aHHTe TyK naMeTHHUH HH xapar ){a npennoaaraae, lie TaKHBa CBeTUJIHllla e HMaJIO B ropncrara MeCTHOCT KaHJI'bKa npu aHT. CTOPro3HH, a ct-mo U B ropncrara H c H3BopHa soza MeCTHOCT npa aHTUIIHOTO ceJIUIII,e B c. OOS!xoBHua. KaTO CIO>KeT H CTHJI Te3U naMeTHHUH, ocooeno OT c. 0P5lXOBHua, nOKa3- BaT rOJIS!Ma OJIH30CT){0 OTKpUTUTe B CBeTUJIHIII,eTO Ha IluaHa H AnOJIOH B MOHTaHa. TOBa ){aBa OCHOBaHue ~a rH CB'bp:>KeM C KaMeHO){eJICKUTe aTeJIHeTa na MOHTaHa.

3652, 3738, 3790, 4049, 4315, 4470, 4534, 4625, 4670, 4813, 4950, 5086, 5245, 5570.

111 M. B. BOT B e H H K H K 0 ae K T H B. MH!jlOJlOrHlJeCKHA CJIOBapb. JI., 1961, c. 32.

18 .n • .n e IJ e B. KynT'bT aa ApTeMHJla B o()nacTTa aa Cpeana CTpYMa. - HAH, XIX. q. 2, 1955, c. 104, o()p. I I.

17 I. R us s u. Monumente sculpturele din Durostorum. - AISC, III, 1936-1940, 180-181, fig. 8.

18 B . .n 0 () P Y C K H. [(HT. C'b'l. - HHM, 1. 1907,

c. 154, o()p. 124.

19 BHm nOCO'leHHTe B ()M. 14 MOHeTHH THnOBe. 90 Z. G 0 c e v a, M. 0 p per man. Corpus Cultus Equitls Thracii, vol. I. Leiden, 1981, Nr. 416, 419; vol. 11. Leiden, 1984, Nr. 561, 608, 620.

it M. H. BOT B e If H K H K b Jl e K T H B. [(HT.

C'b'l., c.~.

D A. M H JI'I e B, H. I( 0 B a 'I e B. HeO()HapOJlBaHH naMeTHH~H OT CeBJIHeBcKo. - Apxeoaoras, 1961, 2, c. 45, o()p. 8.

18 B. .n 0 () P y C K H,. [(HT. cM. - MC6., XVIXVII, 1900, c. 14, 06p. 7 H C. 14, 06p. 8;HHM, I, 1904, C. 118, oep, 96 H C. 74, O()p. 46: r. H. K a u ap 0 B. npHHOC K'bM ApeBHaTa HClOPUSI aa JIoB'!aH-

'CKO. - B: C(). JIoBe'! H JIoB'IaHCKO, I, 1929, osp. 30.

M B • .n 0 () P Y C K H. [(HT. C'bIJ; - MC()., XVIXVIII, o()p. 31; r. M U xa Ii JI 0 B. I'psnaare HaAnHCH, HaMepeHH B B'bnrapHH. C., 1958, II, C. 164, 06p. 759.

516 S.R e ina C h. Repertoire de la statuaire Greque et Romaine. - Paris, 1909, II, p. 31, fig. 9;

p. 313, fig. 7; p. 316, fig. 4.

1I8 H B. B e H e Jl H K 0 B. CBeTHJIHIneTO npn

c. JIHJlB'!e. - HAH, XVIII, 19, c. 201, o6p. 184. 91 B . .n 0 () P Y C K H. [(HT. eM. - HHM, I, 1907,

C. 81, Nt 116, ,o()p. 58.

28 r. A JI e K C a H Jl P 0 B. [(HT. C'bIJ., BHm peae!jla C'hC CHnBaH, .nHaHa H TPHTe HHM!jlH.

!I' Flax TaM.

30 B. .n 0 () P Y C K H. MaTepHaJiH no apxeoaoraara na B'bJIrapHSI. - MC()., XIII, 1896, C. 412,

59

Ta6J1. III, 06p. 6. B nonyaspaoro B Hawe ~peMe B nHpHHCKHH KpaA xopo ,,)leHHHK8" BHX(AaMe peMHHHclleHUHJI aa roaa 1aHu.

31 B • .lJ. 0 6 P Y c K H. l(HT. C1>If. - HHM, I, 1907,

c. 9 H CJI.

3. naK TaM, C. 117, .Nt 15; B. cz, H JI 0 B. CBeTHJlHlI(e aa .lJ.H8Ha H AnOJlOH npH rpa". cz,eMHHaHA. - HA.lJ., V, 1915, c. 216.

83 r. A JI e K C a HAP 0 B. l(HT. C1.If., H TaM 1jloT0c C1>C CT8TYJI aa ApTeMHAa - roenoaapxa aa x(HBOTHH.

84. H. A. I( Y H. CrapOrp1>UKH JlereHAH H MHTOBe.

C., 1962, c. 40.

so Cnopea MeCTOHaXOX(,IleHHeTO CH re ce pasnpeAeJlfIT no CJle)UJHSI nIJHH: c. BaAKaJl - I peJI~ H 2 HunRC8; c. rRreR -" 2 pijj~8, I cTaryeTKa H 1 MOaaAKa; c. OpJIXOBHUa - 2 PM. H 1 CTaTYeTKa; c. neJIHWaT - I peJlecJl. H rp,. nJleBeH - I peJl~,

I CT8TyerK8 R 3 H8AnRca. '

31 M. B i e b e r. Op. elt., fig. 284-286.

17 B • .1l 06 P Y C K R. l(HT. CDIf. -MC6., XVIXVII, 1900, c. 31, 06p. 6.

81 r. I( a U 8 P 0 B. AHTHIJHH naMeTHHllH R3

BDJlrapRII. -'- HAIi, VIII, 1934, c. 5O,06p. 35.

Monoments non publies de Diane T.KOVACEVA

Dans t 'etude, sont pubties pour 18 premiere fois trois monuments rituels et deux monuments statuatres.lles avec le culte de Diane, decouverts en dif· ferents endroits dans I'actuel departement de Pleven, Au point de vue iconographique ils traitent Ie type de Diane-Artemis, protedrice des iantmaux (fig. 5) et de Diane Chasseresse - pletonne (fig. 1-4). Dans I 'un d'eux. (fig. 3) Diane est representee ensemble avec Silvain et les Trois nymphes.

Seton leur emplacement ces monuments sont lies avec les sites antiques pres du village Gigen (Colonia Ulpla Oescenslum), la ville de Pleven (I'ahtique

Storgoisa) et Ie village Orjabovlca. . .

Au point de vue du sulet et de I'Iconographlque et par la manlere d'execut on, lis se rapprochent des monuments crees dans les ateliers de taU leurs de pierres de I 'antique Montana (actuellement Mihajlovgrad).

3HaQeHHeTO .Ha Xep6HllH.llHTe

B Ona3BaHeTO na apXeOJIOrHlfeCKHTe· naMeTHHUH Y HaC

I( A M E H JI 10 B EH 0 B

RaKTO B('ijIJKH KY,TITypHijueHHOCTH, raxa H apxeo,TIOrHlJeCKHTe naMeTHijUH Co3~aBaT pe~Hua .np06,TIeMH npa THXHOTO' nOAAop1fUlHe.

Ilpn KOHcepBaUH~lTa H . nOAApo}KKaTaHa apxeoaomsecxare naMeTHH.UH OC~I{H TPYk HOCTH CD3~aBaT pa3,TIHIJHIHe BH~OBe' paCTHTemfOCT -'- MoXOBe, ,TIHmeH, TpeBH, xpacrn ij nspaera, ROH ca npHIJHIJHTe sa . TOBa Bpe~HO OTpa)KeHHe na paCTllTe,TIHOCTTa BoPXY apxeo,TIOfHlJeCKHTe naMeTHHUH?

H3BeCTHO e, lJe BH~OBeTe JlHIUeH ca 60raTH .na KHCe,TIHHH-, OCo6eHO na OKCa,TIOBa xaoeaana. nOn?~aHKH Bopxy KaMeHHHTe H MpaMopHHTe lJaCTH na naMeTHHUHTe, 'Fe C noxonrra na KHCeJIHHaTa nocrenenao paapyuraaar nosspxHOCTTa na csunrre H no T03H HalJHH noaysasar OT TSiX He06xo~HMaTa HM MHHepa,TIHa xpaaa. Taxa ,TIHlUeHTe KaTO DopBH 3aCe,TIHHUH' no naMeTHHUHTe CD3.ll.aBaT YCJJOBHH sa pa3BHraero BopXY TSiX na nO·BHClUH paCTHTe.JIHH BH~oBe.

60

Borarara paCTHTe,TIHOCT, KOSITO ce pa3BHBa no H B 6JIH30CT no acropaxecxare naMeTHHUH, lJecTO e npHIJHHa csmare ~a ce paspyuraaar MHoro 6op30. Tasn cnoe06HOC~' H3 pacrenaara na yBpe}K~aT MpaMopHHT.e H ~pyrH acropnse-

. CKH naMeTHHUH IJpea OT~e.JISiHero aa OpraHHIJHH H MHHepa,TIHH coe~HHeHHH OT KopeHHTe e YCT3HOBelia ome npes XVIII BeK. Ilpn no~p06nHTe npOYIJB3HHH e· KOHCTaTupaHo, lJe paspyunrreaaara .lleAHOCT HaKope"HTe aa paCTeHHHTa ce ~'bJI}KH Ha60r3TOTO CD~op)KaHHe ua peaaua aMHHoKHcemiHH, saxapa, 4>epMeHTH II ~p;,KOHTO Te OT~e,TISl1'. CYMapHO KO,TIHlJecTBOTO Ha Te3H coe~HHeHHH aOCTHra 3HaIJHTe,TIHa Be,TIHIJHHa - 0'1' 5 ~O 10% OT M3caTa aa ue,TIHHpaCTHTe,TIeH opraHH30M.

HSBecTHo e, lJe Bof ,TIeHaTa KHCe,TIHHa. OTneneaa rrpn ~HlUaHe1'O aa xopeaare napacreHHSlTa, MO}Ke ~a pasraapa penaua Hepa3TBOpHMH BoB nona cy6CTpaTH, B T. lJ. pa3JIHQHHTe BH.ll.OBe KaMoUH, M03ai%KH, MpaMOp, TYX,TIH,

..

xopocaa U ap. TOBa pasraapaae jra nocoseHUTe cyocrpara ce YJIecHHBa OT CnOCOOHOCTra Haii-cI>UHUTe KOpeHOBU BJIaCHHKU ,Zla ce npaxpenaar nJI'bTHO, T. e. na ce cpacrsar C TB'bp,ZlHTe cy6cTpaTH.

He nO-MaJIKO saaseane sa yope>K,ZlaHe aa apxeonorasecxare naMeTHHUH UM3 H MeXaHIJlIeCKOTO HM paspymasaae OT xopeaare na paCTeHHHTa. Hapea C OT.lleJlHHUHTaHa pasJlHIIHH XHMUIIHH C'be.1lHHeHHH KOpeHUTe xpea ryprypaoro naasraae no rapeae aa aapacrBaHeTO ca 0 C'bCTOHHHe ,Zla pa3K'bpTHT ,l{OCTa TB'bP,l{H 06eKTU. TOBa MexaHHllecKo paspyunrTeJlHO ,l{eiiCTBUe Ha KopeHHTe ce YJleCHHBa OT HHKOH TeXHH cneUHtPuIIHH CBoHCTBa.

Texrrsr aa aapacraaae, aanpaxep aa non- 3eMHHTe opraan npu OOJIIllUHCTBOTO pacreHHH, rrpeaauraaa rroaa na Ha)l.3eMHHTe lIaCTH. Taxa aanpaaep eJlHa .n.oyro,l{HIllHa ,I{'bOOBa cl>H)l.aHKa BRCOKa·· e,n,sa 30--40 CM HMa cI>oPMHpan Belle rJIaBeJr KOpefl, .1l0CTHraw. ,Zl0 1,5- 2,0 M ,I{'bJI>KHHa.

Pa3MepHTe Ha KOpeHoBHTe CHCTeMH ca C'b- 111.0 H3B'bHpe.ltHO rOJIeMH. Taxa npn HHKOH >KHTHH paCTeHHH 06w.aTa .It'bJI>KUHa na cI>oPMH~ paHaTa KopeHoBa CHCTeMa ,l{OCTHra .Ito 20 KM. Ilpn peaaua .It'bpBeCIIU paCTUTeJIHU BU,I{OBe KOpeHRTe npOHUKBaT JJ,O 10-15 M .It'bJIOOIIUHa, KaTO qeCTOCTpaHHIIHo ooxaamar nnoui C .1lHaMeT'bp 10-18 M.

B npapoana YCJIOBUH xopeuare H3 pasJIHlIHHTe BHJJ,OBe rpeaacra pacreaas ce pasnoaarar nOCJIOHHO H nJl'bTHO npennarar ueJIUH 06xBaHaT nJIaCT.

npOHHKBaiiKH noa nOJIHeTHJleHOBHTe aaCTUJIKH, KOUTO Hanoc..1e.1l'bK WHPOKO ce U3" nOJI3YBaT npn KOHcepBHpaHeTOHaapXOOJI~ rHlleCKH otSeKTH, xopeaare npes pa3BHTUH HOB nO.1lp'bCT lIecTO pa3K'bCBaT H U3Ba>K)l.aT OT CTPOH csanrre,

BCHlIKH n'bpBOHallaJlHU nospemr OT xopeHHTe na paCTeHHHTa OTBapHT "BpaTH" sa npoH"KBaHe na .It'b>K.ltOBHUTe BOJJ,H, KOHTO JJ,on'bJIUUTeJlHO spes 33Mp'b3BaHeTO npes 3RMaTa YBeJlHlIaBaT YBpeJKJJ,3HHJlT3 us 8pxeoJIOr"'IecKRTeo6eitTH.

no T03R HallHU paCTeUHHTa MOraT .Ita 6'b.ltaT npHlIltUa3a . YBpeJK;l(aHeTO HJiH n'bJIUOTO aaJIHllaBaUe CJIe.ltHTe na ueHHU KyJITypUH nauerUHUH. HepH,ZlKO xpaCTOBHTe H )I.'bpBeCHU BUJJ,OBe npenHTCTBYBaT nocrsna HJIH 3aKpHBaT apxeoJlorUlIeCKHTe 06eKTH.

Bopoara C Ue}KeJlaH8Ta paCTHTeJlUOCT UpH apxeoaoravecxxre 06eKTH 06UKHOBeuo ce BO,ZlH no MeX8HHlIeH aasnn - ascxyoaaae, noKOCHBaue aa TpeBHCTHTe, U3CUlIaUe U8 xpaCTOBUTe If )I.'bpBeCHH Bn,ZlOBe. P'bIlHUTe MeTO)l.H aa oop6a C Ta3H paCTnTeJJHOCT, oeoeeao cpemy MHororO)l.nlllHHTe KOpeHHIll,HH H KopeHOBOU3- JI.'bHKOBH BH)l.OBe, xpacrnre U np. He .ltaBaT lIeCTO 3a)l.OBOJIHTeJleH pesYJITaT.

BCHIIKO TOBa naaara )l.a· ce noT'bp\!u noMOIll,Ta aa xHMnllecKHTeCpe)l.CTBa sa YHUIUO>KaBaHero Ha BpeJJ,HaTa paCTHTeJIHOCT npu apxeoJIOrHllecKHTe naMeTHUUH.

.llocera y Hac UeJIeHaCOlleHH onHTU C U3- noasysaaero aa xep6UUU)l.H aa 6op6a C He>KeJlaHaTa paCXUTeJlHOCT no apxeonorusecxare naMeTHRUU He ca npOBe1K)l.aHH. B eJJ,UHUlIUH CJ1YllaH H3no~3yBaHeTO HM y Hac e CTaBaJIO HHUH)l.eHTH0,6e3'·')l.a e nOCTaBHHO aa HaYIIua OCHOBa. B'snpexa OCK'b)l.HaTa HHcI>oPMaUHH HMa )l.aHHH aa WHPOKOTO H3nOJI3YBaHe na xep6uUH)l.HTe sa 6op6a C paCTHTeJIHOCTTa no apxeoJIOrHlIeCKHTe naMeTHUUU B HTaJIHH. C xepoaUH)l.H C1'aHa B'b3M02KHO )l.a ee YHUIll,O>KaBaT BCHKaKBH TpeBHU. xpaCTOBH. H .ll'bPBecHH paCTUTeJIHH BH,ltOBe. MeX8HH3M'bT na )l.eHCTBue aa resa xep6HUH)l.n e pa3JlUQeH. lJpes HaHaCHHe na nosaeaara nOB'bpXHOCT B'bB BH)I. aa pasrsopa UJIH rpaHYJIH HJlM IIpe3 Hanp'bCKB8He Ha Ha)l.- 3eMHHTe QaCTU ua paCTeHUHTa re MoraT HJIH )l.a npenHTCTBYBaT pa3BHTUeTO OT ceMeHaTa H BereTaTHBHUTe opraaa aa HOBU paCTeHHSI OT nosaara, HJlH rrsx )l.a YUHIU01KaT Belle pa3BHTHTe Ha)l. nosaara paCTeHUH. C nOMOIUTa aa T. uap. CHCTeMHH xep6HUHJJ,H ce C'b3JJ,aJJ,e B'b3- MO>KHOCTTa )l.a ce YHuIUO}K8BaT H nOJJ,3eMHHTe oprasa aa paCTeHUHTa, KOe1'O e OT oc06eHO 3HaQeHHe npn OTCTpaHHBaHeTO aa TaKHBa MHOrOrO)l.HIlIHH KopeHUIUHU H KopeHOBOU3)1.'bHKOBH BH,ZlOBe KaTO napea, TPOCKOT, 6aJIYP, nanaMHJJ,a, nosaraua, xsnaaa, 6'b3, KaKTO H ua peaana xpaCTOBH H )I.'bPBecHH annoae.

Xep6UUH.ltHTe, 1Ipe3 H3DOJI3YBaHero na nonXOJJ,SlIll,H Onp'bCKBaTeJlHU ype,Zl6H, 6uxa MorJ1H )l.a ce npnaarar H na HHalle TPY)l.uO)l.ocT'bnHU cexropa ua apxeoaorusecxare 06eKTH.

XHMHlleCKoTO OTcTpaHHBaHe na ue1KeJlanara paCTMTeJIHOCT npn apxeonorasecxare 06eKTH C'bIll,O He MO}Ke ){a ce npanara Wa6JIOHHQ H noBCeMecTHO. 3a npaBUJIHOTO U ecpeKTHBHO H3nOJI3yB8He Ha xep6HUH,ZlUTe ce H3HCKBaT 3a)l.~60qeHH no3H8HHH OTHOCUO BUJJ,OBHH C'bCTaB ua paCTeHUHTa H TeXHHTe 6UOJlOrUIIHH oC06euOCTH. Ha 6a38Ta na Te3U ,l{aHHH IUe TpH6Ba na ce nO)l.6epaT Haii-no.1lXO)l.HIUHTe xep- 6uuuJJ,u U )l.03U. KaKTOH MOMeHTUTe Ha THXHOTO npHJI01KeHHe.

He06xo,ZlUMO e C'bIUO raxa )l.06pe )l.a ce n03HaEaT OCBeH 6UOJIOrHQHHTe H cl>H3HKoXHMHlIHHTe CBOHCTBa Ha H3nOJI3YBaHUTe xep6HUU)l.H. Or C'bIUHTe ce HCKa )l.a He 3aM'bpCHBaT saumraBaHHTe naMeTuHUH H )l.a He )l.OBe1K)l.aT )1.0 npoMSlHa na THXHOTO OUBeTHBaHe (M03aii:KH H JJ,p.). A H3BecTHO e, lie· HHKOH xep6HUH.Il.H c'b)l.'bp}f{aT KHCeJIHHH, MaCJ1a H np., KOUTO MoraT na ·JJ,0- BeJJ,aT )1.0 TaKOBa 3aM'bpCHBaHe.

C ornen na TOBa, lie OTJJ,eJlHHTe pacreans pearapar pa3J1UlIHO na xep6nUHJJ,HTe, secro me ce naaara )l.a ce U3nOJ'l3YBaT crporo cneUH$HQUU xepeauana, KOM6HHauuu HJIH CHCTeMH OT xep6UUH)l.H. Heaaaara IUe TpH6Ba JJ,a ce pa60TH C TOTaJIHU xep6HuuJJ,H, 3aIUOTO HHK'bJJ,e me ce HaJlO*U OKOJIO apxeonornsecxare naMeTHUUH OT ecreraxecxa rneasa TOIIKa, KaKTO H 3a npeJJ,na~oaHe H8 nOIlBaTa OT ep03HH, )l.a ce sanasa HHCKopaCTHIUaTa ecrecrsena HJIH U3KYCTBeHO C'b3)1.aJJ,eHa TpeBUCTa UJIU xpacro-

61

sa paCTHTeJIHOCT. B TaKHBa CJIy~aH uie ce npacerae no H3nOJI3:YBaHeto aa ce.neKTHSHH Xep6HI1.H,nH.

H3nOJI3YS8 HIITe xep,6,HI1.H,nH He TpH6Ba ,na npe.nCTaBJIHBar np06JIe~ 3a OKOJIHaTa cpe,na H ,na He ca TOKCHqHH 3a 'lOBeKa, ,nHSHTe H ,noMaHlHHTe iKHSOTHH. Te He TpHosa,na HMaT HenpHHTeH MHpHC H na OT6JIbCKBaTnOCeTHTeJIHre na apxeoaorusecxnre oOeKTH. Bw01l1.e crpeaexcsr rpsosa ,na ob,ne spes npaBHJIeH no,n60p H H3nOJI3ysaHeTo Ha Sb3MOiKHO HaHHHCKH .n03H OT XepOHI1.H,na .na He ce .nOCTHrHe ,no OPYTaJIHa aaueca B npapoaara.

CneLI,mjm'lHH npenapara 1I1.e rpsosa ,na ce H3nOJI3yaaT cpeury JIHHleHTe H MbxoaeTe J]Opa.nH THXHaTa 01:l0JIOrH'leCK8 ocoeeaocr,

TIbpBHTe CTbnKH, KOHTO 6Hxa HanpaaeHH y Hac sa H3nOJI3yaaHeTO aa xepOJJI1.HAH 8· (k>p~ 6aTae aescenaaara paCTHTeJIHOCT·· "PH ,apxeo~. JIOrHqCCKHTe ~TH ca AOC-r8 H8CbPllHTe.nHH. Ilpes 1985 H 1986 f .: B paaoaa HaOmITnara CTaHI1.fUI3a Hro,nonJIo,nHH KyJITYPH a rp. KOCTHH6po,n B'hPXy OCTaHKH OT ,npeBHH PHMCKH crpann 6H xa H3Be,neHH CJIe,nHHTe onHTH:

Ilpes aarycr 1985 r. 6e H3BbpHleHo rpeTHpaHe C XepOHLI,H,na PaYHJl.'hn (Ha 6a3a rJIH¢o3aT) S .n03a 1200 cM3/,nKa. TIp'bCKaHeTo ce nposene C rpboHa npucxaxxa. TIpeo6JIaJl.aBa1l1.H oHxa CJIeJl.HHTe paCTHTeJIHH BH,nose:

BHJIa aKaLI,HH - Robinia pseudoacacia CHHH }KJI'b'lKa - Cichorium intybus Illanxa - Rosa canina

TIHpeH - Agropyrum repens.

TIpe3 cenreaspa H OKTOMSPH C'b1l1.8Ta roJl.HHa HeKOJIKOKpaTHO 6e OT'lHTaHOH npOCJIe,nHsaHO Jl.eHCTBHeTo aa npenapara KaKTO B1>pXy He1KeJIaHaTa paCTHTeJIliOCT, TaKa H sa eseaTyaJIHO OTpHl1.aTeJIHO S'b3AeHCTBHe B'bpXy caMHH oOeKT. Pe3YJITaTHTe OHX8 ~lHOro AQ6- pn - n'bJIHO sarnsaae Ha noconeaurenc-rope paCTHTeJIHH BH,nOse, oea KaKSIiTO H na ;e nospena no TpeTHpaHHH 06eKT.

OKypaiKHTeJIHHTe pe3YJITaTH ztosenoxa Jl.0 3aJIaraHeTO npe3 ¢espyapH 1986 r. Ha STOPH onar C rpaHyJIHpaHHH TOTaJIeH XepOHI1.HA <l>H,nY3HT (aa 6a3a Jl.HxJI06eHHJI). rpaHYJIHTe 6Hxa pa3XB'bpJIHHH C nOM01l1.Ta aa p'b'leH anJIHKaTOp, 'lpe3 KOHTO ce H3B'bpiliSaille H caMOTO .n03Hpane na npenapara • .lI.03aTa 8~9. Kr/,nKa npenapar ce OKa3a H8n'bJIHO e<j:leKTHsHa cpeuiy HaJIH'lHaTa TpeSHCTa paCTHTeJIHOCT. E¢eKT'hT oe npocaenen nO-K'bCHO no speae aa sereraI1.HHTa aa paCTeHHHTa. H npa T03H onar, nposenes SbPXy 3H,noseTe aa pHMCK~.crpa4a OT Ha'laJIOTO aa IV BeK, pC3YJITaTHTe cpemy HaJlH'lHaTa nJIeBeJIHa paCTHTeJIHOCT oj{xa MHOro ,nOOpH. T03H e¢eKT (n'bJIHO OTCTpaHHB8He aa paCTIITeJIHOcna) npo,n'bJI}Kasa,na ce sanasaa II nocera (Ha'laJIOTO aa 1987 r.). Baaronapeaae na n'bJIrOTO CH [lOCJIe,neHcTBHe <l>H,nY3HT 3aCJIY}K8Ba BHliMaHHe H nO·3a,n'bJI60- 'leHH npoyssaans C l1.eJI YCTaHoBHBaHe aa

62

XepOHI1.H,nHHH My e$eKT H cpemy ,npyrH pacraTeJIHH BHAOBe.

Tesa peaYJITaTH nOKa3IDIT, 'le npa enaa npaBHJIeH nOA60p H pa3YMHO H3nOJI3YBaHe Xep6HLI,HJl.HTe MoraT Jl.a O'b,naT l1.eHHH nOM01l1.HHI1.H aa apXeOJI03HTe. He06X9AHMo e 06alle ,na cepa3IlIHpH H 3a,n'bJI60qH ·pa60TaTa STa3H OOJIaCT UpH TRCHOTOC'bTpyAHHqeCTBO Me}K,ny Xep60JI03H, apxeonosa, xoacepnaropa na HCTOpHQeCKH naMeTHHLI,H H ,np. CneI1.HaJIHCTH.

HMaHKH npe,nBHJl. xaxecreara, KOHTO ce H3HCKBaT OT xep6HI1.H,nHTe aa H3nOJI3YBaHe npa apXeOJIOrHlIecKHTe.ooeKTH, OCBeH npoA'bJIiKasaHeTO aa onHTHTe C Payrnrsn H <l>H,nY3HT rrpa B'b3MOiKHOCT 3aCJIYiKaBa na ce npcyxar 01l1.e H CJIe.t\HHTe xep6HI1.H,nH:

J~. 2,4-:Jl---: EC::TepHHTe ¢oPMH sa 2,4·,l{ ca ;ocOOeHQ .KT;HBQ epemy A'bJI60KO aKOpeHSlBa1l1.HTeCe MHoror~AIlUIHH BH,nOBe. Xep- 6nI1.HAHTe aa Ta30, 6a3ace H3nOJI3YB8T npe,llHMHO no BpeMe na aererausssa aa -pacreHHHTa. CJIeJl. KaTO npOHHKHaT npe3Ha;J.3eMHHTe 'laCTH HB paCTeHHj{T8, npenaparare aa 6a3a 2,4-.ll ce npeaacar ,no xopeaosara CHCTeMa spes <J>,noeMa saenao C aCHMHJIaTHTe.

2. 2,4,5- T - XepOHI1.H,nHTe na Ta3H 6a3a ca oc06eHO e¢eKTHBHH cpetuy ,nbpBecHaTa H xpacrosa paCTHTeJIHOCT (B'bp6a, TOnOJI8, raO'bp, ,n'b6, IlIHnKa, ztpaxa, JIeIlIHHK). H3noJI- 3YBaT ce csuio no speae aa aererauaara, HO a HRKOH CJIyqaH H npe,nH TOBa (HanpHMep 3a npucxaae B OCHOBaTa aa ,n'bpBeTaTa).

3. XeKca3HHoH - Ilpenaara ce noa T'hPrOBCKOTO HaHMeHOBaHHe Bennap. MO}Ke na ce H3nOJI3YBa sa YHHIII.O}KaBaHe aa HflKOH xpacroaa H ,n'bpBeCHH BHJl.ose(MaJIHHH,. K'bnHHH, ,n'b6, 6pe3a H np.).

4. THa3a<J>,nYPoH - Ha Ta3H oa3a e no- 3HaT Xep6HI1.H,n'bT Ep60TaH - 80% HaMoKpHM npax H 5% rpaHYJIaT. C'be,nHHeHHeTO ce a6- cop6»pa rJIaBHQ,aT KO,p~TeH8paCTeH:HHTa. TIPIl HOpMaJIIfIl.ycolIGBHHxep6HI1.HA'bT MO}Ke )la nonzrspscanoxsare 'lHCTa OT He}KeJIaHaTa paCTHTeJIHOCT B npo,n'bJI}KeHHe na enaa rOAHHa.

5. Kap6aMHJl.H - KaTO TOTaJIeH xepoaI1.HJl. .llHYPOH OT Ta3H rpyna MO}Ke na ce 113- nOJI3YBa no BCSlKO spexe aa rozanara, C H3- KJIlOlIeHHe caxo xoraro noxaara.e 3aMp'b3HaJIa. MHoro Jl.06'bp pesyarar ce noaysaaa, KOfaTO ce npHJIO}KH MaJiKO npfAH Jl.a sanosue pacresesr na pacreaaara.

6. TpHKJIonHp ~ Ha Ta3H6a38 e H3BecTeH XepOHI1.H,nbT rapJIOH 3A, KOHTO ce npenopsvaa sa 6op6a cpemy peaaua HeiKeJIaHU A'bPBCCHH H xpacTOBiUlHH BHJl.Ose H Mooro eJl.HOro,nHIlIHH H MHOroro,IUIIHHH nJIeBeJiH. Eij>eKTHBeH e H xoraro ce npOJIO}KH na OTCeqeHH ,n'bHepH HJIH ce HH.lKeKTHpa B ,n'bPBOTO. TIPH Te3H MeTo,nH aa npHJIO}KeHHe e ,naJI ,n06bp e¢eKT cpenty BHJl.OBeTe KJIeH,CJIHBa H B'bp6a.

BrasH CTaTHH HHMa ,na H36poHBaMe BCHQKH Bb3MOiKHH H nepcnexraaaa Xep6HI1.H,nH, KOHTo6Hxa MOrJIH ,na ce npoyqaT, HO MHoro OT

T~X 6l1xa ce OKa3aJIH eQ>eKTHBHH H H3ro,nHH 3a H3nOJI3YBaHe cpe~y He1KeJIaHaTa paCTHTeJIHOCT npH Ona3BaHe Ha apXeOJIOrHtIeCKHTe 06eKTH.

'1.Jpe3 H3nOJI3YBaHe aa Xep6HUH,nHTe HHe

me M01KeM ,na nO}J,nOMOrHeM C'hXpaHeHHeTO ua

1 K 0 JI e D, 11. Ilaeseaare D B"bJIrapHSI. C., 1963.

I JIIO 6 e HOD, 51. CnpaDO'lHHKno xep6HIlH,AHTe. C., 1980.

3 0 Y e H, O. Onasaaae aa npapoaaare pecypca

apXeOJIOrHtIeCKHTe H HCTOpHtIeCKH naMeTHH LIH sa H,nHHTe nO\<OJIeHH~, na aanpasnx C'b~H re nO-npHBJIeKaTeJIHH H ,nOCT'hnHH sa TOJIKOBa rOJIeMH~ 6pOH CTpaCTHH nOCeTHTeJIH H ,na YJIeCHHM npoy~BaTeJIHaT~ H peCTaBpaTOpcxa OJlaropo,nHa ,ne'iiHocT aa apXeOJI03HTe y HaC.

(npesoa or aHrJlHil:cKH). C., 1981.

• X P H C T 0 D, M. BOTaHHKa. C., 1963.

" Tot a, F. Les herbicides au secours des monuments historiques d'ltalie~·;..,.. Ciba-Geigy Revue, 3. 1979.

L'importance des herbicides dans la preservation des monuments archeologiques en Bulgarie

K. L U BEN 0 V

(R e sum e)

Dans le present article I'auteur etudie les proprietes des vegetaux baset hauts de secreter par leur systeme de racines, de$CQroposes chimiques qui peuvent detruire,differentessortes de plerres, de mosalques, de tuiles, de mortiers et autreselements composants des monuments archeclogiques. II attire I 'attention egalement sur l'endommagement des monuments archeologlques et des revetements de plasti ques utilises pour leur conservation centre leur demolition mecanique par les racines des vegetaux.

Apres avolr passe brlevement en revue les methodes appliques dans le passe pour la lutte contre

la vegetation indesirable concernant les monuments archeologiques, I 'auteur etudie plus en detail la possibitite d 'utiliser dans ce but Ies herbicides.

L 'auteur, communique des donnees sur les premieres experiences entreprises par lui pour I'utilisation des herbicides centre la vegetation indesirable dans une station archeologlque dans le territoire de la ville de Kostinbrod.

11 attire I'attention sur la necessite d 'une collaboration plus etroite a I 'avenir entre herbologues, archeologues, conservateurs de monuments hlstortques et autres specialistes.

63

Kpumusa U peuensuu

B. M. MAP K E B I1 Y. TI03JJ;HE- TPMTIOJIbCKME TIJI.EMEHA CEBEPHO~ MOJIJJ;ABMI1. l(liIlII1HEB, 1984 -

. MOHorpacpHHTa aa BHAHHH MOJIAaBCKH npaacropax B. M. MapKeBH'l 06XBaw.a MHor06poAHH 06eKTH OT K'bCHHH nepaoa aa TpHIIOJICKaTa Ky.lITypa aa TepHTOpHHTa na Cesepna MOJlAaBH"; npoY'leHH J1H'IHO 01' asropa. Ha6.111o,AeHHHTa, nanpaaena npa-paaxonxare, H nonY'IeHHTe H3KJ1m'lHTenHO ueHHH' apxeonorH'IecKH MaTepHaJiH XB'bPJlRT HOBa CBerJlHHa B'bpXy 6necTR' W.HTe cpHHanHH erana na eAHa 01' HaA-HHTepeCHHTe npaHCTOpH'leCKH KyJlTypH B Bspona.

TpHnOJICKaTa KYJlTypa B MOJIAaBHH ce HSCJleABa OT 1893 r. nacax, npa KOeTO ca 6HJlH npoysena TaKHBa BO,AeU\H apXeOJlOrH'leCKH 06eKTH KaTO BblxBaTHHUH, COJIOH'leHH, Bapaapesxa, KOCTeHew.H, BpblHAsellH H ,Ap.

TIpes nOCJleAHHTe AeceTHneTHH 3a npoY'lBaHeTOHa ceaaatara ca Hsnon3YBaHH peaaua MOAepHH MerO.Q,H. 06eKTHTe ce OTKpHBaTH AOKYMeHTHpaT OT CaMOJIeT. pasnoaoacenaero na lKHnHw.aTa (T. Hap. TpHnOJICKH nnow.a.ztKH) ce peracrpapa C noxonrra aa MarHHTOMeT'bP, TaKa se, 6es Aa ca npoaeaaana paasonxa B'bpXy UHJlaTa MHoroxeKrapHa naoni ua nOCeJleHHJlT8, Hayxara e nOJlY'lH.IIa AaHHHsa pasxepare HM, 06w.aTa HM naaaapoaxav.sa r'bCTOT8Ta aa nocenamaara CHeTeMa H sa nOCOKHTe aa pasceaaaae na TpHnOJICKHTe nnexeaa.

T'bii: KaTO 60nWHHCTBOTO OT nOCeJIeHHHTa ca eAHOcaoaaa, TO na nspao MHCTO B HSY'laBaHerO aa KYJITY' para CTOHT np06JIeMHTe aa Heii:HaTa nepHOAHsaUHH, OTHOCHTenHa H a6COJlmTHa XpOHOJIOrHH.

K'bCHHHT nepaon aa TpHnOJICKaTa Ky.llrypa, npeaMeT na peuenaapaaara MOHorpacpHH, OTrOBapH na Heii:HHTe cpaSH Ci H Cs (yl H y2) no T. C. Ilaccex. B. M. MapKeBH'l noaaara na 06CToeH KpHTH'leH anaJIH3 no-crapare nepHoAH3aUHoHHH KOHuellUHH H cpopMyJlHpa coocraeaa THnOJlOrH'leCKH KpHTepHH3a OTHaCHHe Ha nOCeJIeHHBTa H HeKpOnOJlHTe K'bM K'bCHHH nepaon na KYJlTypaTa. Cpen THX C HaA-BHcoKa CHMnTOMaTH'lHa CTOii:HOCT ca: CBeTJlaTa cpHHa xepaaaxa C MOHoxpOMHa (sepna HJlH T'bMHOKacpHBa pHCYHKa; '1eCTO cpeuiamare ce peanHCTH'lHI{ MOTHBH - casnue, Tauuyoaw.H 'lOBeWKH cpHrypKH, Hs06pa>KeHHH na >KHBOTHH, paCTeHHH HAp.; paanaaaaero na CnHpaJIHHH opuaxear; nOHBaTa aa C'bAOBe THn "Mne'lHHK" H KynOJlOBHAHHTe xanaua K'bM THX; npOUeHTHOTO YBe.llHxeaae aa rpy6aTa xepaaaxa C'bC C'lYKaHH MHAH B TeCTOTO, yxpaceaa C OTne'laT'bUH aa WHYP HJlH C npoBJlH'laHe na rpetien; H3npaBeHHTe >KeHCKH rnHHeHH HAOJlH C npo(iHTH yWH; orpOMHHTe no pasxepa, paAHanHO nJlaHHpaHH nOCeJleHHH; nOHBaTa Ha nOJlHpaHH KpeM'b'lHH 6paABH, KOHTO B'bB cpHHanHHTe erana na nepaoaa ca caxo C or.lleAaJIHH ocrpaera: CTP'bMHO peTYWHpaHHTe, OTJlH'lHO ocpopMeHH KpeM'b'lHH OP'bAHB, 6paABHTe - xonaxa THn ApHYW., 51CJlaAaHH H T'bprY'OKHa HAp.

B paMKHTe aa K'bCHHB erarr aa TpHnOJICKaTa KYJITypa aBTOp'bT paaaaxasa ocea "CTeneHH" (nO-TOllHO nOAcpa3H) H eAHa AeBera, xapaKTepHa caMO 3a nope'lHeTa aa JJ;HeCT'bp. BCRKa enaa OT THX e aapesena no HMero aa naa-xapaxrepaaa 06eK},: Kapaxyuraacxa, Jlerpencxa, BapBapOBCKa, KYKyreHcKa, Baapasccxa, Bpuaaseacsa, KOCTeHew.CKa, fOPA'IHeHWTCKa H CPHHaJIHaTa - BblXBaTHHCKa, orrcaapsma Ha YcaTOBO.

B O1'AeJIHa rnaaa na MOHorpacpHHTa ca paSrJleAaHH ceaamara, yxpenareaasre CHCTeMH H lKHJlHw.aTa.

64

Haii:-HHTepecHHHT MOMellT TYK e Kp'brJlaTa nJlaHHpOBxa aa nOCeJleHHRTa (Maii:AaHeK, KOJIOMHii:Il(HH8, TIonYAHH, Bapaaposxa amp.) H orpOMHHTe BM pa3Mepa - AO 480 crpaaa, OKOJIO CBOOOAHa uearpaana nnow.aAKa, B KOHueHTpHlIHH spsroae ca paSIIOJIOlKe. HH A'bJIrH, aexo TpalleUOBHAHH rrocrpoaxa. Ta3H naaHHpOBKa, B'bSHHKHaJla HMeHHO npes T03H nepaoa, aaaapa CBoeTO nO-HaTaTDwHO pasaarae B xp sroaara 1IJ18BHpOBKaHa cemtw.aTa OT Haii:~paHHHTe erana 01' 6j1oHsOilara enO»8.B Samcaao-AHarOJIHAcKHR paAOH (.LJ;eMHp'lH xmlOK, TPOH, Eaepo HAP.).

OCo6eH aurepec npe.qCTaBJIRBa AeTaA.IIHOTO H npeUH3HO HSCJleABaHe aa asropa B1>PXy OCo6eHoCTHTe aa apxarexrypara aa TpHnOJlCKaTa apxarexrypa. HerOBHTe Ha6J1mAeHHH, noaxpenesa .« erHorpacpcKH napaaena, XB'bPJIHT cseraaaa H B'bPXY peAHua HeH.SHCHeHH MOMeHTH B npaacropasecxara apxarexrypa aa BanKaHcKHSI nOJlyoCTpoBH ca neaea Hap'b'lHHK aa BceKHHeHH HSCJle,AOBaTen. Crpanare ca 6HJlH .ll.BY· eralKHH, nOHSIKora C aemo xarouaae, TIpH HylK,l(a ca 6HnH 'lacrH'lHO BKonaBaHH B CKJIOHa. T. Hap. rpanoaCKH nnow.a.ztKH UpH ,AeraAnHO HSCJle,ABaHe ca ce OKa- 3aJlH cTa6HJlHHTe, aoceaa or rpe~H r.llHHeHa OO~oBe HS BTOpHJJeraJK aa crpaaare; TIo.q06HH Ha6JllOJlellHJJ ca aanpaseaa HanOCJle,l('bK H 'Y Hac sa ~OX8n Ha ReoJIHTa (CnaTHHa) H eHeOJlJITa(fSf1iiITlflf, -OB'IapOBO). OTC'bCTBHeTO aa KOJlOBaKOHCTJ!YKnafJj KI,lKTOH HIiKOH oc06eHoCTH aa ,1J;eCTPYKUHHTe(paSMHTJI aMopcpIIH UHHeHH aarpynsaans) nOKaSBaT,'1e creaare aa crpaAHTe ca 6HJIH rJlHH06HTHH. OTB'bTpe ca 6HnH MHoroKpaTHO OUBerHBaHH C 6HJIO HnH 'lepBeHO. BD3CTaHO' seaa e nOCJle,AOBaTeJlHOCTTa na CTPOHTeJIHHTe MeponpHHTHH OT 3apaBHHBaHeTO aa CTpOHTenHaTa naomaaxa ,AO ocpopMHHeTO aa ,ABYCKaTHHH nOKpHB H ssrpemHHTe C'bOp'b>KeHHlI: new. (BepOllTHO' C KOMHH), OO,AHyMH H ,1J;p.

Or6enSl3aHaTa OT aBTopa TeH,1J;eHUHH ,Aa ce H3nO.ll· 3YBaT npea nO'K'bCHHTe eraOH Ha KynTypaTa B CTPOHTeJICTBOTO A'bpBeTa C see nO-MaJl'bK ,AHaMeT'bp, a 110- rOJleMHTe CTBOJIOBe ,Aa ce pasnenaaT Ha TaJInH e aHTepeCHO YKa38HHe sa aaManllBaHero H8 ,A'bpBeCHaTa paCTHTeJlHOCT BCJl~CTBHe YCHneHaTa CTpOHTeJlHa ,Aeii:· HOCT aa ilOCHTeJlHTe aa Tpanoacxara KynTypa.

Cpen Op'b>KHHTa OT pasrJIe>KAaHHH nepaoa OCOOeHO MHCTO aaeaar HaA-paHHHTe KaMH. TI'bpBOHa'lanHO Te ca Hspa60TBaHH OT KOCT, nO-K'bCHO K'bM KOCTeHOTO THnG ce npaxpenaa Me,AHO OCTpHe, a npea cpHHanHHH eran Belle ce HSnOJISYBaT H ManKH Me,AHH KaMH. K'bM Op'b>KHHTa ce OTHaCK H 'leCTO cpemaaara 60AHa 6pa.ll.Ba''1YK OT eJleHOB por, THOO.llOrH'leCKH H,AeHTH'IHa C resa, OTKpHBaHH y Hac B M'b>KKHTe K'bCHOeHOJlHTHH norpeeeaas B JJ;ypaHKynaK, Ton6YXHHcKO. B'bB BCKKO TPHOOJlCKO lKHnHw.e ce O1'KpHBaT 6HKOHH'IHH npemaeaa sa BpeTeHO, yspaceaa C aapesa H Ha60Q8HHH, KaKTO H Te>KeCTH aa T'bKa'leH craa. 3aoaseHHTe no A'bHaTa Ha C'bAOBeTe orne'laT'bUH or DJiaTOBe ca 1I0SBonHnH Ha aBTopa .zta npOCJl~H BH,AOBere npOH3Be>KAaHH T'bKaHH: pJJ,II.Ka, rpy6a T'bKaH sa 'lYBaJIH, naarno C 20-20 HHWKH aa CMs H T'bKaH THn PHIIC C 20-22 HHWKH aa CMII, aanonaysaaa sa aanpasara aa apexe, ,Ae6eJlH T'bKaHH THn "'lepra" C T'bHKa OCHOBa H Ae6eJl B'bT'bK (8-10 HHWKH na CM2), CJlYlKHJlH sepoarao aa xeprn H saBHBKH. O'leBHAHO HHBOTO aa T'bKaHHOTO npoH3BoAcTBO sa uana IOrOHSTO'lHa Eapona e 6HJlO e,AHO H C'bW.O. TaKa 'Ie ca ce IIpOH3BelK,AanH eAHH H C'bW.H T'bKaHH. PaSnH'IHHTa MelK,Ay erHOKYJlTypHHTe apeaaa BepOKTHO caaaxapaaa OTpa>KeHHe B opaaxeaTHpaHeTO aa T'bKaHHTe, cne,AH OT KoeTO sa CJ.lKaJleHHe He ca ce 3anaSHJlH. Or PHCYHKHTe no C'b,AOBeTe ce

SaAJlT 3aKJIIO'leHHII aa >KeHCKaTa apexa - KOIiToe C WHpOKa noaa, npacrernara S Kp1>CTa. Flaeresero C KyKa HJlH HrJlH C'b~O e 6HJlO n03HaTO.

B TeXHOJIOrHRTa aa xepaxaxara ce Ha6J1IO)tasa nanoasyaaaero HIl JleHTeCTa TeXHHKa H (sepOJlTHO) BapTSI~O ce YC'I'PORCTBO aa Aooq,opMIIHe nacssoaere, OCTaHKH OT rp'bH'IapCKH neum csccxapa HaA orna~eTO ca KOHCT3THpaHH s KOcTeHe~H H Bapaaposxa. Harepecao e Aa ce oT6enelKH, 'Ie HSPtlA C BIlCOKOKa· lIeCTBeHaTa !llHHa KepaMHK8 683 OnOCHHTeJlH B TeCTOTO H C rJlaAKa, noaapaaa nOB1>pXHOCTC'bll(eCTsys8 rJ)y6a xepaxaxa C'bC C'bSCeM pa3J11I'1HH4IOPMIl,. i>6HlmoseHo xyna, 4wPMysaHa OT rJlHHeHo T@C1'O;~'be£qyKaHJf'MltAH; 11 AseTe xareropaa KepalotKtc:a. 'ell .:p.8BH'OcroAHlfKOMnOHeHTH Ha xyJl1'Yi>a1'll •.

OCHOBa aa HKoHOMAIUI.'l'.~a; 3eMeAeJIKeTO H CKOTOS'bACTBOTO. OTrJleJK$lHilca 6HJlH lU!THPH BHAa maeHHUH, .u.sa BH.u.a e1JeMHK, npoco, rpax, npaCKOBH H CJlHBH. Cpea AouaWHHTe lKHBOTH" SOAe~o MliCTO aaeaa rOBe.u.OTO, KaTO caxo B'bS !llHHaJlHHlI eran (YcaTOBO) AOMHHHpa osuara, KoeTO e salKHO YKa3aHHe sa !llYH)l.aMeHTaJlHH KJlHMaTHlIHH H eKOJlOrH'IeCKH npoxeHH. KOCTH OTonHTOMeH KOH, KOHTO OTC'bCTBysaT B nopaHHHTe 1fla3H na TpHnOJlCKaTa KYJlTypa, cera ca 'IeCTO lISJleHHe, xoero rosopa aa MacosoTO HaSJlH3aHe na KOHJI s 6HTa aa 'IOBeKa HMeHHO npea T03H nepaoa, Ilpeaser na aosa ca 6HJlH rJlaaHO ·1'YP'bTH eJIeH'bT. 1Il0 ce OTHSCJI AOC'bOTHOweHHe-rOJlOS;_lKHBOTH6- B'bACTBO S 06e3ne'laSaReTOlI8 uectHliI'lii xpsualla IfaCeJleHlte'OO, -ro: np~paRHtlT6eranH' HS· KYJlTYpaTa AeJI'bT aaHCHBOTHOIn>ACTBOTO'e 62,72%. Ilpes nO-K'bC" HHTeeTanHTOAensAa H852,45%. Te3H C'bOTHOWeHHII 06a'le CHJlHO BapHpaT S crenanre H JleCOCTenHH paRaHH. npeAMeT aa C'b6HpaTeJICTSO Ca6HJlH MHAHTe, lK'bJl'bAHTe, AHSHTe xepenra, AHIIHTH BHillHH, KpyWH, R6l1JIKH, JleWHHUHTe, ApeuKHTe," KaKTOH ceaeaara H8 HIIKOH A'bPSecHH aaaose. Ilpeanoaara ce ome, 'Ie npe.nMeTHa C'b6HpaTeJICTBO ca 6HJlH ome MaJlHHHTe, lIrOAHTe,K'bDHHHTe, KHCeJIeU'bT, xonpasara, JIanaA1>T, AHBHJlT 'Iec'bH H noaesaare r'b6H.

Pa3MeHHaTa T'bprOBHII ce pa3rnelKnaKaTO salKen, CHCTeMHO AeiiCTByaau(>OTpaC1tn ;HMaw.3a l(eJI JlOC'l'aBKll aa peAKHcypOBHilH,' KaTOHllnpHMep MeATS HKpeM'bK8.

APXeoJfONllfecKHTe HMopH n03S0JlllllaTHa a STOP a Aa C10JlH Sa~:fBlltHert>; Iia ceM,hlHo-poAOBHTe OTHOWeJiHSI. TaKa rOJleMlI'nf'J(oMOBe c:-rp:M H noaese neue~ellHlI, xapaKTepHH S8lfalJaJl'0T0H8 nepHOAl!; 6HsaT H3MecTeRHOTe)l.HOC'I'aARH crpaAH, rpynHpaHlf06a'le no HlIKOJIKO HS ,e.llHO MflCTO. T03M cpaKT ce HHTepnpe.:

THpa xaro npH3H8K 3aOTHOCHTeJIHaTa caMOCTOllTeJIHOCT aa OTAeJIHOTOClllteACTBO;,' I1M8AliHHH ome sa naTpHapXaJIHH OTHomeRH. If 'HMyw.eCTBello aepaseaCTSO. Kpynaare. TPHR()JI(:K~'" lloe~elfHlIce JllIlIsaf BepOllTHOpO~~lfftM;, I(e~Tp?_; " '. .

B. K • .MaIU(ealPl~ .... ,.ccsc:~1fOH·M0MtHaTa nlJo6Mir,",,"I.~I.E~)6or~; 'l'fI.~"

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MAL G 0 R ZA TAB I ERN AC 1\ A· L UBAN S K A. THE ROMAN AND EAR LY-.f3Y· ZANTINEFORTIFICATIONS OF 40WER MOESIA AND NOR THERN THR:ACE. W ROCLAW etc., 1'982. 285 J);·VUI.

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ASTopKara aa p83r.llelKJlaHaTllMOHorpa$HJI A-P M.

DHepItau.u.-Jltti6aH'tK'ae ~pe "03HaTaHa 6'bJirapCKHTe H3CJ1e)l.saqH, 'j:ia6oTeuJ.HB' nOJIeTO aa aaraxaara' apxeoaorns.

B ysona aa "PHMcKHte H paHHosH3aHTHHcKH yxpenneHHlI ua .lI.OJlHa MH3HII H Cesepna TpaKHII" asropxara H3T'bKBa MOTHBHTe,no)l.6YAHJlH H K'bM pa3pa60TBaHeTO na Ta3H TeMa, H 4wPMYJlHP8 OCHOBHHTe UeJIH ua csoero H3CJleASalle: na OnpeAeJiH xapaxrepaare '1epTH B Tonorpa!llHHTa aa YKpenRTeJIHHleC'bOP'b>Ke-

9 Apxeoaoraa, 4, 1987 r.

nJiaCTHKa. TOR e CKJlOHeH A8 paaraescaa HJlOJlHTe KaTO Jts06pa>KeIiHR ua lKPHUH aa CJI'bH'IeSOTO 6olKeCTso. HalWJlKHTe aa 300MOp!llHH !llHrYPKH e pora H aa caxoCTOIlTeJIHH 6YKPaHROHH CSHAeTeJlcTBYBaT aa Ba)KHOTO MIlCTO Ha 6HKa B KYJlTa KaTO CHMBOJI sa M'blKKOTO ,

HaqaJIO.

Pa3rJleJKJlaiiKH . -'Sp'b3KHTe Ha K'bCHOTpHnOJICKHTe nJleMeHaCT~H OT'C'bCeAHHTe 06J1aCTH, aSTOp'bT nOAqepTaBjF 'recllll'~ KOHTaKTH npena BCH1IKO C'bC csceaHaTa {BceaepOHS'I'()'I!f8 nOCOKa) KyJlTypa aa <l>YHHeBHAHHTeqaIHIH KOH'I'aKTHTec ApeSHOIIMHaTa KyJlTypa HMaT nOBeqe Jl'saxpOlf&H xapaxrep, HO S eAHO JlMHO norpe6eIlHe KP'tA e. ·BypeyqeRlf.ca O'rKpHTHABa K'bCHQTPHROJICKK 'Ch,!{a, ·xoetO roBOp" sa KOHTaKTH aa CRHXPOHHO HHBo.06.' sa K1>eHIUI 'e1'all aa Tpanoacxara KyJlTypa H KYJITypaTllBoAlhlKepeeryp II cnopea aaropa C8 KJlIOROBHAHHTe '!!;P'bHd!:H. TYKTPR6sa )l8 OT- 6eJie)KHM, 'Ie apeaasr aa TflXHOTO CHHXPOHHO pasnpocrpaaeaae 06xs8~a TepHTOpHHTe OT BaJiaTOH AoMoJIAaBHlI. HIIKOH npaseaeaa OT asropa H~KaJlH6pHpaHH C14 AaTR, KaKTO H aurepecaara H8XOAKa HaKOCTeHa TOKa OT DpHHA3eHH, KOHTO e n01lTH HAeHTH'IHa C HaXOAKaTa OT Eaepo (y Hac norpeurao narepnperapaaa KaTO HJI,OJl), ca B'bBeJIH asropa B 3a6J1Y>K,!I.eHRe OTHOCHO B'b3MO)KHOCTTa na nOCTYJlHP8 KOHTaKTH R C 'KYJlTypaTa Eaepo A (paHHa 6POH:;jOB8 enoxa) B TpaKRH. Or KOMnapaTHBHS rJleJlHa TO'lKa TOBa TB'bpAeHHe He H3)l'bplKa KpHTHKa, T'bii xaro npOTHB<lpe'HI aa npeAHily~RTe, HanllJIHO' npHeMJlHBH CHHxpOHH3aUHH. CTpaTHrpa$eKH e AOK8aauo, 'Ie XopH30Hnt' BO.llpOKepeCTYP II - !llYHHeBHAHH 1IaWH -. 4epHs, IIOA8 I ...:.. K1>CHO TpanoJlHenpeAxolKAa XPOHOJIOFH'IecKH ··XOPH30HT8 BaAeH DOJIepa3-4epHaBoAa III-Esepo A~ TPOB I.

Peueaaapaaara MOHorpalflKjt' e A06pe, oIflopMeRa nOJIHrpa4»''1ecKH. CHs6,!1;eHa e C .60raT HJlIOcrp8THBeH MatepHaJl, C'bCTOJIlI( ee'I>T Ta6J1HUH, rpa!llHKH, 'IepHO-

6emf RUMrlll1 4!OTotpll!llJlH. .

n'bJIHOTaTII aaHSCJIenBaHeTo K6oMTCTBOTO Ha H3- BOPOBHIl MaTepHMt',06xB8HaT B KHiuaT8, IInpaBH ae- 3aMeilHMa·saBcetcHH3CJ1eAoBateJI, nOcBeTHJI ce na np06n~Te HS npexo,lla; OT eHeOJIHTa K'bM 6poH30BaT3 enOXa,'K'bM KoHTO nepHOA,' KaTO nIlJIO, cnaaa K'bCRaTa TpHnOJICKa KyJlTypa. TIpe)lCTaBeHHJlT B H3A8HHeTO 60raT apXOOJlOrH'IeCKK' MaTepHaJIOTJlH'lHO HJlKJCTpllpa l'OJIeMHH P83M8X, OT6enB3aH OTHOCHTtMHTeH3 TltHnoaexara KYJrTy'paCJIeA aaraaanero Jia 6JIetTII~HTe cesepH0611nKliHCKHelfeOJlHTHH' 06lt{ecTBa, 1fHiiTO' npeaCT3BKTeJl K'YJI'I'ypHHHTKOM"IIJleK'C KO,!!;lKa.ll~MeHrYMMHHu.a-KapaHoso'VI, eCHHxp<JHeH casso H8 pasHHIlH cpeAHHl1eTau' at paSBHTHeTO H8 KOMIlJIeKCa KYJCY'reHH- TpHUOJIHe. MHor06poAHH ca napaaeaare, KOHTO Morff Aa ce OTKpllllT MelK.llY MarepHaJlHTe 0'1' HamHTe 3eMHH BKJllo'leHHTe, S KRHraTa KaxoAKR H -repeHHHcH'I'yanHH.

"X BHPJitETATOJJ.OPOBA

HHH; Aa HanpaBH onHT3a cHcTeM8TH3aUHH Ha 016paHHTMHHTe06eKTHi na ce yC'FaHOSH paaaauiero aa CTPORTeJIHOTO R3KYCTSO H rexaaxara: .ll,a ce npocaeasr OCHOSHHTe BHAoBe oT6paHRTeJlHH eJIeMeHTH; Aa ce onpeaeaar, AOKOJIKOTO e B'b3MO:iKHO, rJlaBHHTe TeHAeHUHHHCTeneHH B .pa3BHTKeTo HS 4!oPTlI$HK8UHlIT3 or PHMCKRH RepHO,!!. H HeHHOTO BHHRHlIe B'bpXy yxpenaTMHOTO H3KYCTBO OT nO-K'bCHO speue.

He06xOAHMOCTTa 0'1' KOMnneKceH HOAXOA npa.paspaoorsasero H3 Ta3R 06wJlpHa "poo.neMaTHK8 HHKOii HHKora He e OTpK'Ian,O~e nO-MaJlKO D'bK aeoexonaMOCTTa 0'1' CHHTe3 B Hay'lHo oraoureaae. HenpaBHJlHO e CJleAOBaTeJlflO Aa ce OORCHRBa JIHnCaTa,Ha UlIJlOCTHO, H3'1epnaTenHO R3CJleABaHe ua PHMCKOTO YKpenHTeJIHO H3KYCTBO B D'bJirapHII (a H B'b06~el) C "nJla1leSHa aanca as narepec K'hM 06~aTO C'bCTOHHRe aa !ll0PTH!llHKaUHHTa". ABTopKaTa caMa npaanaaa, 1Ie e Heoo-

65

XOJlHMO n'bpBOHa'laJIHO HarpynBaHe HaJlOC1'OBepHa HaY'lHa HHCPOPII~HJI - eran, SaKOHOMepHO npeJlxOQaw. CHHTe38.

OT Kpaa ua MHHa.UIll'sex Aocera 6ua nYMHKYBaHH C paaJIH'IHO Xa'leCTBO BHYWHreJlHO KOJIH'IeCTBO naMeTHHUH aa aHTH'IHaTa CPOpTHcpHKaUHlI. 3aCerHaTif 6l1xa B no-rOJlllM8 H.IIH nO-MaJlKa crenen peaaua npoMeIlH, caspaaaa C HSBopOSHaHHeTO, ronorpaessra, THnOJIOrHJlTa, npOCTpaHCTBeHOTO paSBHTHe, CTPOHTeJI· HHTe OCo6eHOCTH, HCTopHlITa H nepHOAHsaUHIlTa aa xpeOOCTHOTO CTPOHTeJlCTBO 00 HaWRTe seaa opes pasr.lleJKAaH8Ta enoxa. TOBa JlOBeJle H AO n1>pBHTe noSHa'lHTeJlHH ,0606w.eHRlI: CTYJlHJlTa sa ,paSBHTReTO Ha pRMCKaTa YKpeOHTeJlHa CRCTeMa aa T_ HBaROBl H, paslSRpa ce, xparxara, HO TB'bpAe C'bA'bplKaTeJlHa paeora aa .LJ:. OB'IapOB sa paHHOBRsaHTHiicKOTO xpeOOCTHO CTPORTeJlCTBO 00 aaurare seMHI (MelKAY anpo'Iell, caxo 6erJlo cnoaeaara aa c. 26, MaKap 'Ie Rlla TB'bpJle rOJllllIO OTHoweHHe K1>M sropara nOJlOBRHa OT KHRraTa Ha M. Baepaauxa). He OHBa Aa ce aaepasa, 'Ie oopaAR RSKJllO'IRTeJlRaTa BalKHOCT aa aamare 3eMR sa PRill R BH3aHTHJl npes UeJJRJI nepHGAOT I 11.0 VI, B. KOHTHHIOHTeT' ce Ha6.alO.laBa B, Pe.llHU8 yXPelieRH 06eKTH. Bcne.llCTBHe nocrOJlRJIOTO, ROJI~e, npeYCTpOJisaae H U,JlJlOCTHO np~rp&JK.llaHe Hl YK~HHJlra Ha eAHO R C'&UJ,OMRclO.eCTecTBeHO e AS· C~ Hai-A06pe aanaseaa H OPOY'leHIi OO·K'bCHHTe CTpOBTeJlHH cJlaaH, KoeTO HeHsl>eJKHo 3aTpYAIUIBa MOHorpacpH'IHOTO H3- cneABaHe Ha paHHOpKMCKaTa CPOpTHcpllKaUHJl Y Hac aa cerllWHHJI eran aa apXeOJIOrH'IeCKHTe npoY'IBaHHJl.

He OTKpHBall OCHOBaHHe B K8TerOpH'IHOTO craaoBHw.e aa aBTOpKaTa, 'Ie He ca npeADPHeMaHR QJIHTR sa npocneJljlBaHe RCTopHRTa aa PRMCKHTe yKpen.lleHRJI (c. 8). Cneuaaaao mo ce OTBaCJl AO JlOKa.llHaHpaHH're YKpeneHHueHTpoBe B aanrare seMH, HanHlle ca SHa'lHTeJlIIO KOJIH'II!CTBO CTYAHH, npocne.llJlBaW.1i ,TJlXHOTO paaBHTHe aa 6as8Ta Ha ·nHOteHHTe I13BGpB H aa AOCTHlKeHHSTa,B apxeoaoraseexero HM npoY'IBaHe. me ce orpaHH'Ia'CaMO CDC CnOMeHaBaHe'FOHa c6opHHKa.OT ny6.11HKYBaHR no-pane eraTHHHa, B •. B~KOB, DOCBeTeHH aa pHMCKHTe rpaAoBe a B'bJIrap8Jllf, aa APyrH npo6neMH OT crapara HCTOPHH aa HaWHTe

seMHI., , .,' ,

, A6cOlJIOTHO aeo6xoAH)lO npH nOIl.06Ho .H3CJ1eJl.B8ll.e e YTO'lHJlBaHeTO Ha IISnOJl3YBaaaTa TepMHHOJIorHIl,-KaKTOno OTHOWeHile aa. OT6paHHTeJlHHTe e.neMeHTH, TaKa R OTHOCHO THDOBereoT6paHHTe.nHHC'bOp'Ui;e· HHS. Han'bJIHO UeJIec1>06pasHo . aBTopK8T, npe.llDplfe-

Ma T088 ow.e B YBOAa (C. 1.1). 'iii,.

CJJe)l KaTO nOHCHua CMHC'b.lla ... ~~totJl.paa~JlP.a

H. H300JISYD8 TePMH1UlTe, C88tra,~ .. tenum. ·.PIC.esi. dium, burgus, M •. Ji,HepRau". i C~IIl8BaI .'Ie aoQoIIKHTeOTTHX YiLpeDMHJUli(c· r'P¥BS'Otl:OTOKo,IJO AysHHa RJlH nO-M8JlKO AymH) w.eHaaOD8Ba C aHr.IJHACKaTa JlYMa fort. Ho KUBO ce nOJlyqaBal HII esmara CTpaullRa, B 6e.n.l9,· Jle'reM: "Fort" me ce HSnOJISYBa aa nO-MaollKRTe yxpenaeaaa, TaKHBa KaTO aarepare aa nO-MaJlKH OT .lJerHORHTe BoeHHH '1aCTH H aa nOM ow.HH 'IaCTH, a "fortlet" - xoraro CTaBa AYMa sa TB'bp,Ae Ma.llKH 06eKTH, KaTO resa OT THna 6ypryc - Ha6J1IOAaTeJlHa KYJla." Ilpa TOBa noaosceaae HHKaK He e '1YAHO, 'Ie aa C. 58 cpemaae JlTpyc, AnMYC H .LJ:HMyM, OOPeAe-

,JleaH xaro fortlets, a HII c.76 - Tpaacaapacxa KaTO CHrRaJlHO-HaMIOAaTeJlHa KYJlal

BKpas Ha YBOAa M •. Baepaauxa ce cnspa H aa HCTopHKo·reorpacpcKHB apeaa, 06eKT aa HeAHaTa paeora. HaA~06w.o Toi e HOCOqeH KaTo.uOJlHaMHSHS' R Ceaepaa TpaKHJl - Onpe.IleJIeHHe, TB~p,lle He. BCHO npa Hs6paHKB XpOHOJIOrH'IecKJI' OOxNT Dop8,llH npOMeHJlHBHJI TepHTOpHaJlHo-aAl(HHRCTpaTJlBeH ,., -.aHBueRT Ha resa reorpa4JcKH HMeHa opes oepHOAa 1- VI B. TpaKHH OT lAO KpaB na I1IB. enpQBHHUHII, a OT pecpoPMRTe, Ha .lI.HouerHaH - H AHOUes, BKJlIO'I' Baw. ome ner npOBHHIlHH (.LJ:OJIHa HJlII Bropa MHSHJl, Ma.llKa CKHTHS, EBpona, XeMRIIOHT, POAone) ocsea eAHOHMeHHaTa. l(aKBo ToraBa o6XBalila 1l0HHTHeTO Ceeepaa TpaKHJl B paarnell[JlaHaTa pa6ora? npH HSSCHBBaileTO aa TepHTopHII,nHHH o6cer ,M. DilepHallKa npH6srB8 Bce naK AO HSKOH YTO'lHeHHR. ETo B KaKBO ce C1>CTOIlT re: H3KJ1IO'IeHa e CeBepHa,u06py·

66

JllKa, a ca BKJllOqeHH qaCTH OT I'opna MHSRH H MaKeAOHHR. MOTHBHpOBKaTa e Hey6e.1lRTeJlHa. HaJlR'IHeTO aa MOHorpacpR'IHO HSCJle.ABaHe (TOBa ua X. faiieBcKa) H BKJllO'IBaHeTO B KpaB Ha I I 1"11. B HOBoo60c06eHaTa npOBHHUHlI MaJlKaCKHTHli na Cesepaa .LJ:06pYAlKa eAM JlH ca aprYMeHTH SaeJlHMHHHp:aHeTo if OT asnpocHOTO HSCJleABaHe. I:IIITO n1>K "Ky;u.YPHOTO eAHHCTBO H XOMoreHHOCT" na I'opaa H .LJ:OJIua MHSHR, CMBTaM, AaBaT OCHOBaHRe aa BK.IIIO'IBaHeTO aa BH)l.RHCKHJl Kpaii B HSJlOlKeHReTO. Jlpa pasr.llelKAaHelO aa PHMCKaTa YKpenHTeJlHa cacreaa CJleABa )l.a ce HSXO>KAa HeOT KY.IITypHa o6w.HocT, a OT DGeHHOCTpaTerH'IeCKRTe c'b06palKeHHB aa nearpanaara Macr. He 6HBa Aa ce 3a6paBJl, 'Ie OT 3aBJIaAHBaHero AO eBaKYHpaHeTO na .LJ:aKHR (106-oK. 272 r.) nO-rOJIJlIl8TIl 'IaCT .OT ,uOJIHa MR3HJl OCTaBa rpaaasaa 30Ha (R TO OT HTtPBOcreneaao anasesae ) sa pa3.11HKa OT Fopna MHsHS, KOeTO BOAH AO C'hBCeM APyra nOJIRTHKa aa PHM B 06naC'M'a Ha CPOPTHcpHKaIlHSlTa H soeHHOTO )l.eJlO 01>06- me B ABeTe npoBHHIlHH. npe.llOOJlaraM BceKH w.ece C1>r.llaCH, qe~rHOpHpaReTo na eAHa SHa'lHTeJlHa R H3XJ1lQtfRTeJlaO Ba>KHa B CTpaTerHqeCKO OTHoweHRe 'IaCT OT, ,llOJIHa MR3HKB JlHl\erO aa Ceaepaa .!l06py. JllKa, JlBJ!Baw.ace 6ytjlepHasoHa MeJKAY BapBapCKHJl CBJlT H IlHBHnHsaIlRSlTa opes paSrJlelKAaHaTa enoxa (H npH TOBa TB'bp.ll.e )l.o6pe npoyueaaf], e He.Il0nycrHMO. th06w.e nOAXO.ll.1>T K'bM np06J1eMHTe HaCT!lpara HCTOpHJ! OT rJle.llHaTOqKa aa ceraWH_HTe.nO,lHITHtfecKH peasHOCTH e HeOnpaBAaH H HenpaBH~eH.

CMRTaM aa Heo6xo,AHMo,lUl ce cnpa, ,H aa ow.e eAHH B'bnpOc -XpOHOJIOrneCKHJI 06xBsT na HscneABa, HerO •• I(a.KTO 6e cneaeaero, a H KaKTO CO'IH SarJlaBHeTO, 8BTopKaTa ce SaHBMaBa C CPOpTH.HKaIlHlITa Ha TepHTopHHTa Ha AHeWHa BurapRS. OT nepHola I-VI B. Y CT8HOBeHOH ~ODPJleTO e o6oco6JlBaHeTO B TeaR xpOHOJIOrHqecKH paMKR Ha ...... OCHDBHH. nqJlDepuOAa - PHMCKH (I-III B.) H K1tCHoaHTH'IeH.(IV-VI B., KoAlO o6xB8U(a K~CHOpHllc.KaTa· ,K·' paHHoBHaaHTHii:. CKaTS enoxa no Te9H seMB). nepJlOJJ,ll3aUHHTa e H3. aspmeaa B'b3 ocaoaa HS c'bll(eersel!HTe lIpOMeHR B o6w.ecTBeno-HKoaOMHqe~KHrePTnOWeHHJ], a . KaTO pesYJlTaT OT TOBa H B IJOJIK1"~,,0T0 H J(Y.IITYPHOTO pasBRTHe. _ TasH npHHIlHDHa nOC'l3HOBKa 6H CJle)lBaJlO Aa .118lKH B OCHOBaTaHa BeRKO .qa~THOH3C.II~Ba"ejKaCaew.o, uepHo)laI- VI B., peen .. H.pS9rJJeQBIIOTQe.era. _ Ha c. 12 8BTopJ(ara .HSJJcHJlBaOOflJlTHJlTaipUMcKH, K'bCHOpll,~KRH paHli0WlS8HtHiicKU, 'HO caMO B xpeHOJIOrH~KH acnexr., 6ea TOBa· 11.3 CenpeB1>pHe B RCTOP:Jlqec~ a . 8 MlfOAQ.,rJorH'JecKa ,68341 aaqpyJl:1YpH·. paHeio. H~.'V~1'a..B,llIUlCTBeHo_.qpa8KJ1nO i6H 6HJJq,cnopeA rMeJ""R~M~ p~JI,eJIR ,.H3 ABe.DODe'!e II.IJH OO;MaJlXO CaMO(TC>Hre.lJHH ,!aCTH, ana.IIHSHp.niHC'b()TJI8TH()J)HMcKa1'a,(I-lII &).11. K~CHOaHTH'!HBta (IV~VI s.) CPOPT~4»tKaUHH., KaTO BC51Ka 01' .'IaCT,HTe ce. Dpe)l.xo~Aa,OT. nper.IJeA ,liB :06lqecTm!HOUK,OIlOMH'IecKoTO . H nOJIHTH'IOOKOTO PSUH.TIIe,Ha 06- xBaHaTHJI OT paeorara apeaa H npOH9XOlK.'lIlw.HTe OT TOBa OCHOBHH BoeHHocrpaTerHqeCKR lleJlRHa lleHTpaJlaara BJlaCT, KoeTO 6R noxoraaao aa R3J1CHHBaHeTO na oco6eHOCTHTe B yxpenareaaara lI.eAHOCT. TaKOBB OTHOCHTeJlHO aesaaacaao pBarnelK,ZI;aHe aa .ABBTa ocHOBHH nepaoaa (B KOHTO MOrn H TpJl6Ba Jla ce oooco- 6HT OTAeJlHH erana) SHa'lHTeJlHO 6H nOBRWUJlO xasecrBOTO aa o606w.eHHeTO ~apa3JHTRero HaBoeflJlO-C'l'POU-' Te.nHaTa , KOHuenllHJI ,B .TOOHPIlii:()H.' R3J1c1fsaa~KII MOTHBH.~, .oope.ll.eJIJ1tn, PB3,JlH'l.HflreTeHA~}JnHH 11 'KOH-

Kpe-r'ifHTe OpOMeHH. '.' ' .', • ",

, Hs.oo_HJler(H~·HeAPe.lleH() B meeT r.naBH, BeJi xa OT KOHTO e .ll.<>D'WlHH1'eJlHO AeT8AJlHO CTPYKTypRpaHa.

B I· rnaaa e aanpaaen nperaea Ha AoceraWHHTe npo_ytfBaRlut"no TeMBTa.

ITocBell(aoaiiKH II rJlasa na asaopare, 8STopKaTa ra 060co6sBa B TpR OCHOBHH rpYOH (apXeOJIOrH'IeCKH, nHCMeHH H HKOHorpacpcKH) H rH oO.ll.Jlara Ha ana.IJH3. no OTHoweHHe ua apXeOJIOrRqecKHTe naMeTHHUR M. Baepnauaa nOJlCHJlBa, 'Ie HHMa Aa BKJlro'lR. Mnoro- 6pOAaHTe YKpenaeHHJI OT Ceaepua TpaKRII, OORcaRH· R Onpe.lleJIeHH OT n • .LJ:eJlHpa)l.eB B HerOBOTO CMHHeHRe "npHilOC K1>M HCTopH'IecKaTa reorpacpHH aa TpaKHH" KaTO CTapR UJIH aHTHqHR. Ha c. 80-84, 88 II B npa-

JIOlKeHHlI K'bMKHHraTa KaI'aJIOr ooase ca UHTHpaHH .lleCeTKH YKpemITeJIHH cuop toxeaaa, e,!{HHCTBeHH CBe,!{eHHlI aa KOHTO TlI sepnn OT "OTpeqeHHlI" no-rope OT caaara Hell aBTOp.

CHCTeMaTH3aUHlITa H roncrparpuara aa yxpenneHHlITa ca npenxer aa III raaaa.

~OpMYJIHpaHH ca .llBe OCHOSHH rpynH: I'paHHqHH H m.rpeunm YKpenHTeJIHH csop saceana. I('bM rrspsara rpyna ca OTHeceHH YKpenJIeHHlITa no JLYHaBcKHlI JIHMeC, no qepHOMOpCKHlI 6pllr H no MelK.llynpoBHHUHaJIHHTe .rpaHHUH H rpanauare na rpaacxare rep aTOpHH. Br.rpeurnara <P0pTH<pHKaUHlI ooxnama CeJIHru;HHTe oT6paHHTeJIHH csop sacenaa, crpareruuecxare YKpenJIeHHlI H YKpenJIeHHlI aa B'bTpelIIHa car ypnocr, oT6paHHTeJIHHTe C'bop'b:lKeHHlI aa 3eMe.lleJICKH 06eKTH H .llPym YKpenJIeHHlI (npeH3nOJI3YBaHH TpaKHHcKH perpyr-ayxa, csop saceaaa, oxpansnaura BO,!{OH3TOqHHUH H MOCTOBe, 3aru;HTHH nperpann). B OT.lleJIeH naparparp e aanpaseaa xapaxrepacrnxa na HaH-BalKHHTe ronorparpcxn ocooeaocra na <P0pTH<pHKaUHoHHHTe csop'saceana. Cnea TB'bp,!{e nonpoeaara CHCTeMaTH3aUHlI na yxpenxeaaara no THn H npensaaaaseaae 6Y'!{H He.ll0YMeHHe H e He060cHoBaHo, cnopea MeH, r-spceHeTO H onpeneaaaero aa xap axrepua xepra B ronorpa<pHlITa HM no HOBa CTpYKTypa, C'b06pa3Ho KOllTO re ca pa3I'JIe,!{aHH B serapn rpyna cnopen r-eorparpCKOTO CH nOJIOlKeHHe: KpaH.llYHaBcKH, qepHOMOpCKH, YKpenJIeHHlI B, JLYHaBcKaTa paBHHHa H B IlpeaoanKaHa H YKpenJIeHHlI Ha WI' OT CTapa nJIaHHHa H B TpaKHHcKaTa HH3HHa. ECTecTBeHo e npH TaK'bB no,!{xoa na ce .llOCTHrHe ,!{O ,,3HaqHTeJIHH" ronorpatpcxa 0606ru;eHHlI, KaTO nanpaaep TOBa, qe "YKpenJIeHHlITa B JLYHaBcKaTa paBHHHa 3aeMaJIH nnom or 0,5 no 70 xa" (c. 98),

He reorparpcxoro nOJIOlKeHHe, a npennaanaseuaero (THn'bT) H KOHKpeTHaTa HCTOpHqeCKa cHTyaUHlI (T. e. npexero na asrpazcnauero) ca KpHTepHHTe, OT KOHTO 6H Tp1l6BaJIO .lla ce P'bKOBO.llH H3CJIe.llBaq'bT Ha xapaKTepHHTe qepTH B ronorparpaara na PHMCKHTe H paHHOBH3aHTHHCKH YKpenJIeHHlI, KaTO ,!{'bplKH CMeTKa, pas- 6Hpa ce, aa cneuarpaxara ua peaeqia B .lla.lleHHlI paHOH.

Tp1l6Ba .lla ce aanpaaar H HlIKOH nO-qaCTHH 6eJIe:lKKH.

Henonycraao e npe'!{CTaBlIHeTO na Xanpnanouara H AHToHHHoBaTa CTeHa B'bB BeJIHK06pHTaHHlI (THnHqHH JIHMecH) KaTO HaH-TOqHH napanena na HMaru;HTe JIOKaJIHO aaaseaae K'bCHOaHTHqHH nperpanan 3H.llOBe B I13TOqHHlI BaJIKaH.

TIPH see qe B HCTOpHqeCKaTa HaYKa naxora He e 6HJIa cnopna JIOKaJIH3aUHlITa n a YTYC B rp anamero MelK,!{Y rYJIlIHUH H MHJIKOBHua (TIJIeBeHCKH oxp sr), M. BHepHaUKa ro nOCTaBlI npn COMOBHT. Illo ce OTHaCH '.llO YKpenJIeHHeTO npn COMOBHT, TO TYK seue ce YTB'bp,!{H JioKaJIH3aUHlITa na J1yuepHapHa6ypryc4•

A KaK na CH 0611CHHM CJIe.llHHlI napanoxcs

Ha c. 84 xpenocnrre npn c. O.ll'bPUH, Xparipoao, Kan. JLHMHTPOBO H BaJIHK (ToJI6YXHHCKH oxp sr) ca 03HaqeHH KaTO YKpeneHH 3eMe.lleJICKH nOCeJIeHHlI. Caxo 14 CTpaHHII,H nO-HaTaT'bK (c. 98) csunrre ca onpeneaeun KaTO "qHCTO crparer asecxa xpenocra, B'b3- HHKHaJIII npea IV-V B. nopaan BapBapCKHTe nalIIecTBHlI" .

B IV raaaa ca paaraenann B'bnpOCHTe na cTpOHTeJIaara TeXHHKa. TlI ce C'bCTOH OT ,!{Be OCHOBHH qaCTII:

B rrspaara ce paar JIelK.llaT cTpOIITeJIHIITe MaTepllaJIII no BII.ll H npeaaaanaueane, KaKTO II IIHcTpYMeHTHTe II npncnocoeaenaara, H3nOJI3YBaHH npn cTpOHTeJICTBOTO na YKpenHTeJIHII csoprosenas. a B'bB arop a ra qaCT anropxara ce cnapa na rJIaBHHTe cTpoHTe.~HH npauuana H HaqllHH npn aarpascnanero na TeXHHTE' OCHOBII, CTeHIITe na KYJIIITe II J;!1I.ll0BeTe nOKpHTlIlI na nopra ,H KY JIll.

B rJIaBa V ca nO,!{JIOlKeHII Ha aHaJIII3 OCHOBHIITe THnOBe oT6paHHTeJIHII eJIeMeHTII: CTeHH, nporeaxaaMH, KYJIH, nopra, nOTepBII, 6ap6HKaHII, poaose, CJIYXOBH KOpll,!{OpH II BaJIOBe. Paarvreaaau ca TeXHHl'e pa3HoBII,!{HOCTH H cTpOHTeJIHH ocoeenocrn H e nocosena B'b3n~lIeTaTa XpOHOJIOrHlI B pa3BHTHeTO 11M. B'bnpeKII crapanaero CH asropxara e .llOnYCHaJIa HlIKOH HeTOqBOCTH.

B'bTpelIIHIITe nanacrpa no KpenOCTHHTe 3H.llOBe aa ABrYCTa Tpaaaa, HOBe, TIaYTaJIlIlI, lIIYMeHcKaTa KpenOCT (a H pa3KpIITIITe aanocnensx na XncapJI'bKa B CJIIIBeB) He ca CJIYlKeJIII TOJIKOBa aa aasnpaaasaue na CTeHIITe (c. 144), KOJIKOTO aa C'b3.llaBaHe na YCJIOBlIlI aa asrpaacnaue aa no-urapoxa 60HHa nJIaT<popMa, YJIeCHlIBaru;a ,!{eHcTBlIlITa na 3aru;1I1HIIUIITe aa xpenocrra.

113ToqBaTa CTeHa aa A6pIITYC He e 611JIa cnaones a C e,!{IIHcTBeHa (c. 150), a C sernpn KYJIII (6e3 .lla ce CMlITa Ta3H, <pJIaHKllparu;a OT tor 113TOqHaTa nopra),

Heonpannano e H3nOJI3YBaHeTO KaTO CHHOHHMH ua TepMIIHII C KOBKpeTHO C'b,!{'bp:lKaHHe, xapaxrepaaapamn <popMaTa na KpenOCTHHTe KYJIH. Taxa na c. 151 anropxara aapaxa Kp'brJIHTe KYJIH "C<PepllqHH" - onpeneaenae, Han'bJIHO JIlIlIIeHO OT CMHC'bJI. E,!{HO H C'brU;O e cnopen Hell "nO.llKOBo06pa3Ha" II U-BII.llHa KYJIa (nax TaM). MaJlKO no-noay (c. 153) TlI r onopn aa "no!1,KOBo06pa3HH, HapHqaHII noxaxor a BeTpHJl006pa3HH KYJIH".

A6cOJlfOTHO aeaonycraxo e ,!{a ce !1,aBaT npasrepa aa nOJlYKp'brJlII II Kp'brJIII KYJIII C, HHKonoJIHc a.ll I1CTPYM (c. 160, 186), T'bH KaTO nocera TYK He e npoyxeua HIITO eana KYJIa, a ui o ce OTHaClI ,!{O sononpoaona, TOH e BJIH3aJl B rpana lie non cesepuara (c. 185), a non aarranaara nopra.

M. Bnepaauxa 060c0611Ba e!1,HH cneuarpauen 0'1'- 6paHIITeJIeH eJIeMeHT - caooonaocromnara KYJIa, 113- neceua npen JIIIHHlITa na xpenocraare CTeHII aripenuaauaseaa ,!{a ocarypaaa .llOn'bJlHHTeJlHa aamara aa KpenOCTHaTa nopra (c. 194), 113BeCTHa B cpeaaoaexoanara <P0pTH<pIIKaUlIlI KaTO ,,6ap6HKaH". Heocnopaau apxeonomxecxa CBII.lleTeJlCTBa aa csmecrayaanero Ha 6ap6HKaHII B aHTllqHII YKpenJleHlIlI 06aqe HlIMa - KaKTO 01' reparopaara aa B'bJlrapHlI, raxa (!1,OKOJIKOTO MH e 113 BeCTH 0) H OT npyrure PHMCKH npoBHHUHH. He MOlKe .lla ce 113nOJl3YBa H KaTO apryaear sa <POp MYJIHpaHe aa noaooaa resa H3BeCTHIIlIT cTpOHTeJIeH Ha.ll~ nHC OT MOHTaHa 01' 258 r.D

Harepec npencraanaaa unrepnperananra na p aaKpHTHTe nO.ll3eMHH raaepna, CB'bP38HII C oT6paHHTeJI. HHTe c'bOp'b:lKeHHlI aa Asrycra Tpaaaa, KaTO CJIYXOBH xopaaopn (c. 196). Ilpeauaaaavenaero aa T03H IIHrepecen H Hell3BeCTeH B 6'bJlr8pCK8Ta apXeOJIOrHqeCKa nnreparypa oT6paHHTeJIeH eJIeMeHT 611J10 3aru;HTHII. UHTe CBoeBpeMeHHO ,!{a ce OCBe.llOMlIT 33 npe.llnpHeMa. HeTO or oecascnaurare na cansopna pa60TH C lI,eJI nonxonasane na CTeHaTa IlJIH npOHHKBaHe a rpana, TIO.ll. 3eMHHTe KOpH.llOpH sa narpyanpane na crpascara 6HJIH TeCHH H CJle.llBaJIH HanpaBJIeHHeTO ua KpenOCT-

HaTa CTeHa. '

B VI r naaa M. Baepnauxa npasn nperaea na pasBHTHeTO H8 PHMCKOTO H paHHoBH3aHTHHcKOTO yxpenaTeJlHO cTpOHTeJICTBo. 060c06eHH ca serupa rrepaona: 1) I B. OT H. e.; 2) II - cpeaara aa III B.; 3) BTOpara nOJIOBHHa na III-IV B. H 4) xpaa na IVVI I B. 06'bpHaTO e BHHMaHHe H aa BJIHlIHHeTO na auTHqHaTa <P0pTH<pHKaIl,HlI B'bpXY TOBa OT enoxara aa TI'bPBOTO H BTOPOTO 6'bJlrapCKO uapcrno, C'bOTBeTCTBHeTO MelK.llY onpeaeaeaare OT asropxara serapu OCHOBHH erana B pa3BHTHeTo aa aHTHqHOTO yxpenaTeJIHO H3KYCTBO H npHeTaTa neplI0.llH3all,lI11 Ha nOJlHTHqeCKaTa HCTOPHlI aa pa3rJIelK!1,aHH!I panon ofiaue He e ,,<paKT OT 113BeCTHO aaaseaae" (c. 220), a Han'bJIHO 3aKOHOMepHO. '

Ta3H r JIaBa 3HaqHTeJlHO npeassxoacaa no xasecrsa .llPyrllTe qaCTH na 113JIOlKeHHeTO, npeooaanaaamo MlICTO B KOIITO 3aeM3 onllCaTeJICTBOTO H Beru;eBe,!{CKHlIT no.llxo.ll - HeC'bBMeCTHMH cnope.ll MeH C nOCTaBeHHTe ueJIH H3 uscneaaaaero. Tp1l6Ba .ll3 ce anecar see nax HlIKOH <paKTOJIOrllqeCKH KOpeKII,HH.

Becnacnan He Cb3,l{aJI, a peopr aauaapaa JLYHaBCKaTa <pJlOTa. B'b3 OCHOBa aa H3BOPOBII1I MaTepHaJI B'b3HHKBaHeTO " ce OTHaClI OT H3CJIe,!{BaqHTe oru;e KbM

BpeMeTO Ha ABrYCT. .

MH3HlI 6HJla pa3,!{eJIeHa Ha ,!{Be qaCTH He cJle.ll ,!{aKHHCKaTa BOHH,a na }1oMHII,HaH, a npeaa Hell, KaTO eJIeMeHT OT nO,!{fOI'OBKaTa ".

He MOlKe na ce xasce, qe ca OKOHqaTeJIHO H311CHeHH B'bnpOCHTe OKOJIO npoaaxona aa MYHHII,HnHHTe B

67

PHMCKHTe npOBHlIll.HH. Bee naK npeo6JJaJl.aBa NReRHeTO, 'Ie B MYlfllll.llnHaJIeHpaHr 6HJlH HSARraHH He KpaRJIarepRH're KliHa6H, a 6JIH3KOCTOH~HTe BRKyCIf.

HHKaKBHO<:lI0B8HHII He CDW.eC1'BYBaTC'b3.!laBSHeTO aa eMnOpHtlTe,l(a ce npanxcaa aa TpaHH (c. 210). EnHrp*KH1'enSNeTHHIlH nOKa3BaT, 'Ie B'h3HHKBaHeTO HNee crnaca K'hM aropara nOJIOBHHa aa II H Ra'l8JIOTO aa I I I B.

Asropxa.a cnO,l(eJiH (c MaJiKH yroaopxa) Cl'aHOBHinero aa T. CapHoBcKH6 sa rrspaeucraysaraaea poas na .llWlHO,llYHaBcKHH pason B pa3BHTHeTo na PHMCKaTa CPOPTHCPHKallHH (c. 210, 222). 3a)t'bJI60'leHHTe H3CJIe,llBaHHH aa T. Bexepr? H T.HB8HOB8 06a'le apryaearapaao nOKa3Ba1', se HOBOCTHTe. B yxpenarenHOTO H3KYCTBO ce paanpocrpaassar B Eapona 01' Cesepaa A<pPHKa. CHPHH H Apa6HH.

B 3aKJIJO'IeIlHeTO Ha CBOHTa paeora M. Buepaauxa OTHOBO H3JIara HHKOH 01' OCHOBHHTe CH H3BOAH. TyK TH <PaPMYJIHpa "TeopHHTa" CH sa C'blll.eCTBy.aaHeTo na TpH oropaHHTeJIHH JIHHHH, sauramaeauur .LJ;OJIHa MH3HII H Cesepna TpsKHH.Te 6HJIHpaanOR<»KeHH OT aanaz aa H3TOK, ycnopenHO eAlla H8 .. pyu (c,224). .llYHaBcKHlIT JIHMeC npe.l(c1'aBJUiBaJl.· n:t.plIa .. (lJ>ttpa.u.a cpelll.YHaWeCTBHHTa crrceBep .. B'tl)paT8-J1HHiUI,C'Da· .llall,eHa npes II .S;,·SK.1IIO'IOJra YKPetMeHIISI.1'a,.pasnOJlO>KeHH rroxpaa rrsra HaHcye..:..MoHTlIHa ...... MeJiT:aHHKOnOJlHC a.u. I1CTPYM_;,MapIlHllHQJl(U,HC. GTapa HJIaHHHa C KpenOCTHTe. HSJl.HrHaTH aaoxpaHa aa npoXOll,HTe, C'bCTaBJIHBaJia TpeTOTO npeIIHTCTBHC. .non'bJI· HHTeJIBa If nOCJIe.u.Ha nperpall,a npe.u.CTaBJIHBaJiH yKpeneaare OT aropara nOJIOBHHa aa 11 B.rpa'!(OBe B TpaKHH-ilaYTaJIH41, CepAHKa, IPHJIHnOnWilfc, ABrYCTa Tpasua H .!lp.

CJIe,!(Ba na ce oroeJIe>KH, 'Ie C'blll.eCTByU8HCTO sa YKpenHTeJIHa JIHHHHnO nporeaceaae H8 .n'bTH HaH' oyc-MapIlHaHOnoJI, KaKTO H caMHIlT 111>1' ROcTaBR1' TB'bp».e MHoro B1>npOCHTeJIHH. He CT.8Ba HCHOHk'bM ItOHOT cpOpMyJIH~HHTe oropaHHTeJIHH JIHHHH ce OT' aacsr MHor06pollHHTe YKpenJIeHHH 01' ilpeA6a.1lK8Ha.

B 6'bJIrapCK8Ta HCTOpH'IecKa JIHTepaTypa OTlI,aBIta apryaearnpano e nOK83aHO C'bw.ecTBYBaHeTO aa TpH OCHOBHH 3alll.HTHH nOHCa no HaWM'te 3eMlf,H3' rpa.u.eHH B nepnoaa I-VI B.: .nYHaBCKH, BaJIKaHCKH H CTpaH,I(>KaHCKo.Po,!(onCKH9• ToH KaTO BCIiKa HOBa TeOpHH ce HY>KlI,ae 01' AOKa3aTeJICTBa, M. Baepaanxa

: I 11 BaH 0 B, T. A6jlHTYC. PHMCKH KaCTeJI H

paHHoBH3aHTHiicKH rpaa B .nWlHa MH3HH. T. L C., 1~80, Co 153 CJI.

II 0 B 'I a p 0 B,.n. PaHHoBH3aHTHikKOT<l Kpe-

nOCTHO CTpOHTeJICrBO no aamare seMH (V-VIr B.) - ijBIi.n, XXIX, 1974,c. 223c.tt.

a Vel kov, V. Roman Cities in Bulgaria. Am-

sjerdam, . [980. . ..

4 K 0 B a '1 e B a, T. OCTaHKH 01' pHMCKaTa enoxa KpaA C. COMOBHT.H MeCTOHaXO>KAeHHeTO aa Lucernariaburgus. - I1MC3B, I. 1977,c. 249 CJI.

G CIL, III, 7450.

6 5 a r ri 0 ws k i, T. Novae jako sledziba pierwszego legtonu italskiego. 7"" Archeologia, 27, 1976, p, 54.

? B e eh e r t, 'T. Romische Lagertore und ihre

AHTOHI1A XAH.n~HRcKa

TEJII1 B CKAJII1TE. C., 1985. 154c.

OBI1-

HanOCJIeA'bK CKaJIHHTe MaHacTHpH Y HaC .l1pell,H3- BHKaxa onpaaaaa aarepec. ilplf HanpaBeHHreHOBH npOY'IBaHIfH 6Rxa YT()QHeaH He caxo Ha'lHHhT aa o<PoPMJIeHHe If CPYHKIlHOH3J1HOTO npe,llHa3Ha'leHHe aa TeXHHTe rroaemeaaa, HO no TeXHHTe CTeHH C5Hxa OTKPHTH MHoro HeH3BeCTHIf noeera PHCYHKH, aaaua Hcp.e,IUIo· BeKOBHH 6'bJIrapCKH HaAnHCH·rpa41HTH. B peaYJITaT aa TOBa B pea HaWH nepHOAH'lHH H3,l1;aHHH ce nOHBHxa

MHcro ny(lJlHK3IlHH. .

11 eTOH3J(aTeJICTBO "CenTeMBpK" e HMaJlO xy6aBaTa H~eH ,!(a H3,!(aAe Ha 6'bJIrapCKH H HHKOH 3ana,llHH eaH'

68

6H Tp1l6B8JIO ,lIao6oCHOBe CBOHTe BH>KlI,aHHH no B'bnpoca, a H~'.II.a ra H3J1ara B aKCHOMaTH'IHa <PaPMa.

K'bM M()Jrorpaq,HHTa e npHJIO>KeH xaraaor, C'b,llDp>Kaw; KpaTKH CBe,lleHHH H nO-IWI>KHa'Fa aareparypa aa 377 aHTH'IHH YKpenJIeHHJt OT TepHTopHHTa aa B'bJirapHH. Bsnpeaa npeaaaaaaseanero CH' lI,a nOn'bJIHH ezaa "pa3HHHa H Jla noJi.nOMorHe H3C.11li;1tBa'lHTe na aHTH'I· aara CPOpTHcpHKaIUfH, KaTaJIOr'LTell,Ba JIH me H3n'bJIHH B'b3JIaraHHTe My $YHKIlHH, nopaaa fOJleMHTe Hell'hJl' MOTH H peaauara HeTO'lHOCTH B JlOKaJlH3allHHTa H onpeaeasaero aa THnOJIOrHHTa aa 06eKTHTe. HeH3' BeCTHO aamo, npH C'hCTaBHHeTO My 88TopKaTa He e H3n0Jl3YBaJla pe,l(Hlla A06pe HaBectHR H 'teCTO HanOJI· 3YBaHH no-crapaa nO-HOBH pa601'H.C1>lI,'bp>KalU,H MHO' ro CBe.lleHHlI aa YKpenHTeJIHH C'bop'b>KeHHlI no HaWHTe 3eMH, KaTO aanpaaep resa aa .n. l.(oH'IeB11I, CT. CTeq,aHOBll, .n. ;lI>KOHOBa·MHTOBalll, MHOrO'lHCJleHHTe rpyneae aa 6paTHillKOpnHJI HAp. OCseH TOBa nO'ITH 6l1,HOBpeMeHHO CH3J1H3aHeTO OT ne'laT Ha KHHraTa Ha M •. BliepHa1lK8,RaYKa13 ce c.!I06H C xaraaora aa P.PaltleB11I;KoATO npeAJlsra HeH3MepHMO no-rrssna HmpOPlil&nH1l .3aaHTK,",OTO KpenOCTHO CTpOHTeJICTBO OT Ba.IIK8I1O- .llY.HaBCKHRP&AoH •

B KPU !fa ,KIUfl'aT8ca "tiONeCTeHH CnHC'bIlH aa csKpalU,eHKJiTa H aa nO·.'1eCTO H:l11OJJ3YBaHaTa JlHTepaTYp:a, pealOMe· aa 1l000CKIfe3"K HnOk838J1CllHa reo-

rpactx:KHTe HMeHa. .

H3JIO>KeWHeTO e C50rllTo HB·_ 06m,H JIBH"" Y.II8'1HO HJlJOcTpHpaHO C naaaoae, CHHMKH. H rpa<pH'IHH H806- pa>KeHHHHa YKpellJleHHH HJIH reXHH eJIeMeHTH OT pa3f.1le>K.llaHHH paaoa, TpH6Ba ,l(a nonpaas see nax .II0nYCHS'l'HTe rpeWKHB Ha.u.nHCIITe: ua c. 65 (q,n. 25) eupeacrasea l1J1liH'bT He Ha JlerROHHHH aarep .nYPO~ CTOPYM, a aa TypCK8Ta xpenocr Caancrpa: aa c. 103 (.cpHr .57) e H3«)paaeHacpe.llHOBCKOBH8TaKpenocT "KaM'bKa" Kplii OpRxoso, a ae Kt.CHQaHTR'IHaTa apenocr npa C:a,Jt()~;8a c. 132 (qmr. 72) e nOMeCTeH cHTyal(HoHHHHT IIAB .xa.ear8Ta, 118 YKpertM'TeJIHHTe C1>op'bJlCeHHH aa K3CTe.lIa .AatYC"renpH. X'bPJIell, a He H8 AcaMYC,. KakTO TB'bMH 8B~Ta; cpHr. 127 sa c, 184 llOK8aBanJI8Ha aa. KYJlHTeC ltapaYJIIIHTe noae~HHSI He ca.MO aa xpenocrranpa .nOJIMa Ka6.1111, HO H aa T. Hap. "KpYMOBO KaJIe" Kpaii T'sproaame.

CEPfEA TOPBA TOB

Bauinschrlften. Bonner J ahrbiicher, 171, 1971, 5.260. 8 Ii Ba. HO IJ" T: I.(HT., , C'b'l:, c. 222.

.~.lK. .06()(!.ii\eItIfe y .9.B sapo B,.n. BHaaH-

THAcKH H ~r-apCKH kP~ittk;TH V.;_X B.eK. C., 1982,

19-20. . .. , • _ .'." .••... " _

10 1( 0 Hi{ es, ,If..CTapHHHTe no ceSepHHT(! CK.lIOHOBe aa EJIeHCKHH H CJIHBeHCKHH ,68J1KaH. - fHAMil, l, 1948, c. 113 CJI.; A.pxeOJlOrH'IeCKH naaennrnn no JO>KHHTe CKJIOHOBe na Ilananopcxa Cp C.llH a ropa. C., 1963.

11 CT. e <p a HOB, C T. CTapHHIlTe no lI,W1HHH

6aceHuHa 5hupa. G., 1956. . ..

. U.ZJ;X< 0 If 0 a.a ·.-MH r OB a, .n., ApXeOJIOrH'Ie' CKH nliMCTHlUI,H B ilJIeBeHCKH OKP'bI'. C., ,1979.

ta Paw e a, P.CTap06'bJ1rapclQ{ YKpenJltllHHHa .nOJIHHH .nYHaB (VII.,....X Ill+ Bapaa, 1982, c. 180 CJI.

IlH KHaca 3B TeaH.'It¢HO~UITH'lHH.H HaA'Be'le cpeaaoDeRO.HH 06H-rena,H.aMHpa~K. ee B pa3JlH'tHH xpaama Ha CTp8HaTa HH. Mome(iH no-npaaaano ~ 6'bll,e,lla· HapeIJe" H3».aHHeTO 8JI6YM. T'bll KaTO OCHOBHaTa My '1aCT e CHHMKOB MaTepHaJi (130 crpaaaua), a npeaurecrsaw.HTe 1'0 24 - KpaT'hK TeKCT C 061ll. n03HaB8TeJIeH xapaarep, I1J1JOcTpaIUfHTe aaeposaar 170 <PaToca, B npe06JI8,llaB8Ill.aTa CH '1aCT [(BeTHH, noaesero OT KOHTO ce OTJIH'I8BaT C SHCOKH, XYlI,O>KecTJleHH Ka'leCTBa H ,lIaB8TA06pa apHTeJIHa npeacraaa 3a naMeTHHIlHTe. .ll06pe 6R 6HJ1o, aKO 6Hxa Aa,!(eHH ll.BeTHH <PotoeH ,Ha BenHKOJlenHHTe <ppK30Be B npHTBopa Ha ll'bpKBaTa·Ha fOJIeMHH HHCOBCKH MaHaCTlfp (c. 120-122). CnOPe){ Hac no-npaBHJIHO meure lI,a 6'h.!le, aKO <pO'IOCHTe (lHxa

nonpeneaa nOCJle,!{OBaTeJlHO no reorpaecxoro paano- XVII I B.", a MeIK,!{Y TliX HMa H TaKRBa, KORTO MoraT

JlOlKeHHe aa 06RTeJlHTe, KaTO ce nO'IHe C THli KpaA C'LC CHrypHOCT aa 6'L,lJ;aT ,!{aTHpaHH 3Ha'lHTeJIHO . no-

'1epHOMOpCKOTO HH Kpaii6peIKHe, KOHTO ca HaA-paHHH paso - OT XIV s. Haanacare B CKaJlHHlI MaHacTHp

(OT K'LCHan aHTH'IHOCT), H nOCJIe,lJ;OBaTeJlHO aa sanan. npa c. POliK ca...H3Ce'leHH He aa H3TO'lHaTa, a aa cesep-

BCH'IKH $<>TOCH ca npH,!{pyIKeHH C 0611CHHTeJlHH TeK- sara CTeHa aa nparaopa. HenpaBHJlHO e TB'bp,!{eHHeTO,

CTOBe. 3a C'LIKaJleHHe HliKOH OT TliX ca norpeuraa. 'Ie enHTeT'LT ,,6ar,peHopO,lJ;eH" ce nasan aa CHHOBeTe H

Taxa aanpaxep aa C.' 43-46 e oT6eJl1l3aHO, 'Ie 06eK- A'hm."pHTe na uapa, a raxa e 6HJI napuxan cauo rn.pao-

rare ca npa C. MorHJla, IIIYMeHCKO (B TeKCTa -- Bap- pOAHHlITMy CHH. fpY3HHCKHte HaAnHcH B HaA-cesep-

HeHCKO), AOKaTo BC'Lm.HOCT re ca npB C. 1(0coBO, HaTa (a He Haii-H3TO'lHan!) KHJlHlI na KOMnJleKCa

II1YMeHCKO. <POTOCHTe na c. 114-115 ca aa MaaaCTHpa BaA crapas nbT sa C. I(PHsHli (lie I(pHBHHa!), Ilposa-

B M. I(YKJlHTe, pa3nOJlOIKeH H3TO'lHO OT C. CSaJleHHK, Jl.HiicKO, ca TpH, a He '1eTHpH.

Pyceacxo, a He npa rp. Xaeeaposo, Pa3rpaACKO. A. XaHAIKHAcKH AeJlH pacyaxare-rpa.paru no

CKaJlHaTa 06HTeJl aa c. 116 He e npn rp. ~!lOB().~aJlltHre ciekk Ha~reldt,!{se rpyna: JlHHeapPa3rpa'!{CKO, a B M •. l(aJl}frepH~a npa XP. BertlM,'Hli H 'oOeMHH; nllJiH i;}fcYllKa'l'a-e JIlIHeapHa, HJlH a6eMPyceacxo, Ha .1:-' .. ~;4{·~"42~'~.tl~,K"Q!lfPJleK,",'J) .Kp1I~~ _fIa, ,.~.JleclbMHeHo B3a8ijc~T ~ YMeHHeTO na OTAM-

meauara, a He 3~1'p-ynlllUt1a l('bfllCtl8 np'H C. liBlI'IiOBO;' Hdrb JlHne,Koeroro e 'H.atJItBBHJlO. OTTaM HAsa CTHJlH-

III.e ce cnpea l1o--nOAP06HO B'hPXY rescroaara '1aCT 3HP8HHlIT H no-onpOcteHpHCyH'LK HJlH nO-YMeJlOTO

na TpYJJ.a. B Heihurre 'IIeTHpH pasaeaa ca pasraexaaa nJlaCTH'IHO H peaJlHCTH'IHO npeaasaae aa H306paIKe-

peA 8'bnpOCH. C&:IooP.laHH Cl,C CKaJIHHTe MaHacTHpH Y HHeTo.A8TOP'bT a6a'le Kel1paBHJlHO rB,Onpe,lleJIliCaMO

Hac: reorpa4lcKoTo BM paanoaoscenne, apXHTeKTYp- KaTOnJlO,!{ na ,,,TeCHlul KOHraKT 113;J:pe.ztHoBeKoBHHII

HHTe HM OCo6eHOCTH H cpentannre B rax Ha,!{nHCI!, 3Ha- 6'LJlrapHH C npnpoaara", Karo H3KJIIO'IIlM ezaa cpaB-

UH.pH~YHKH H CTeHOnHCH. HHTeJlHO MaJIKa 'IaCT 01' TlIX, KOHTO ca CS"bp3aHH C

B KpaTKHlI a630p aa pa3nOJIOlKeHHeTO aa CKaJIHHTe XPHCTHSlHCKH MOTHBH, aHaJlH3bT aa rOJISIMa sacr OT

06HTeJlH ca ,!{onYCHaTH HliKOH HeTO'lHOCTH. Taxa aa- OCTaHaJIHTe CO'lH, 'Ie re ca OCTaHKH OT eaH'IeCKH npea-

npaaep KHJIHHTe B Ilemepna AOJl npaKocoso ce sa- CTaBH Y 6'LJIr3pHHa OT roea apexe. PHCYHKHTe aa

MHpaT He H8 JIeSHSI My 6pSlr (c. 8), a na ,!{eCHHII. C'L- MaCKH eABa JlH MOIKeM Aa CBbpIKeM C waMaHCTBOTO

mara rpenrxa e AonYCHaTa H aa fOJIeMHfi HHCOBCKH y npatisnrap are, samoro HlIKOJIKOTO '10BeWKH H306pa-

MaHaCTHp (c. 11). EABa Jill '1HTaTeJlIIT uie paseepe aa IKeHHA, onpeaeaeaa OT HliKOH HaWH H3CJ1eASa'lH KaTO

KoA MaHacTHp npli CeHoBO ce OTHaCli onscaaaero na uraxaaa, ca npenaaeaa 6e3 MaCKH. TYK no-sepoarao

(c, 11), T'b(lKaTo He e nocoseaa MeCTHOCTTa, B xoaro ce xacae aa KOCMorOHHII H ,!{eMOHOJIOrH'IHH npencra-

ce HaMHpa, a ~'bllI.eupeMeHHO lie e aanpasesa ChOTBeT- BH, KOHTO BHIKAaMe orpaseaa B HliKOH H AO aaec sa-

aara npenpaTKaK'D" t\WToca. Kacae ce SC'bIll.HOCT aa na3eHH. HapoAHH 06H'laH H HaH-se'le KYKepCKHTe.

CKaJlHHlI MaHaCTHp "CB . .LJ.HMHTbp" B M. II1aHJIl>K xa- HenpaBHJlHO aBTOp'LT nOCTaBSI paaeacrso MeIK,!{y

pana (He xaaapal). Flpa Tosa onacaanero aa naana MHor06poAHHTe Kp'LCrOBe, sazpacxana no CTeHHTe aa

H pasaepare aa U'LpKBaTa ca HeTO'lHH (re ca 3Ha'lH- CKaJIHHTe 06HTeJlH, C e3HQeCKHTe aaaun • .LJ.oKaro no-

TeJlHO nO-rOJIeMH!). IloMem.eHHlITa aa .. MaHacTHpa" CJleAHHre HMaT rrpennaano aaaneaae, rrspaare ca H3-

npa c. I(pHBHSI (cera npHCbeAHHeHO K'LM Ceuoao) ca pas aa XpHCTHlIHcKa peaaocr H cxapeaae, nOCTaBeHH

pa3nOJIOIKeHH lie aa 16 M BHCO'lHHa, a sa 8 M, a UapK- or 63roMOJlUH sa H3M:OJIeHHe onpomeaae aa .. 3eMHHTe

sara OlA&Blla He C'Lm.eCTBYB1. B M. Crenero HMa caxo "rpeXOBe". TOBa, ce nOTB'LplK.llaBa H OT HRKOH KpaTKH

ecrecrseaa nelll.epH, KOHTO aa Mecra 1I.0ClIT CJIe.llH OT HaAnHCR,. KOIITO noxaxora rH csnpoaoscaar, C'LA'bP-

H3KYCTBeHa a6pa60TKa, HO lISHOHe ca .6HJlH H3n0Jl3- IKalll.lI nH'lHOTO HMe aa 60rOMOJIeila H AYMH KaTO "MHO-

BaHIi 3a 06HTeJI. MaHaCTHp'bT npH C. Dllcaaeu, 'Py. rorpeU1HII", "npOCTH" H np. DPOH3BOJIHO eHa,Kpali Ii

ceacso, 'IHeTO "onHC8HHe" npaen a STOp-loT, ae csmecr- npeAnO)lOIKeHllero na A. XaHAIKIIHCKH aa raxa nape-

Bysaor.aet_:eTH!ieTlUi. T'Lii KaTO e pa3pyweH H3URJlO 'IeHHTe or Hero .. Ta6J1H'IHH H306paIKeHHR", HJIH "He-

npu saneue HaltaM1oIi:. TBbPAeHHeTO aa "WHpOKO aa- n03HaTa' CHCTeMa sa 3anHCBaHe HaHH~opMallHlI".

CT'bneHa CaKpaJlHocT", H8 AJI60THHCKHlI MaHaCTHp no- se ca no-apxaasan H MoraT .Ila6'LAaT OTHeceHH K"bM

HelKe B Hero HJolaJJOrO,llIlM. 6poA CKa,JlHH rpoeoae e npaacropasecxara 6poH30Ba enoxa (C. 23). <PaKT'LT,

HenpaBHJIHo. T'bA KaTO He re onpeaeasr T03H My xa- qe re ce cpeinar BbPXY a6pa60teHH npes cpeAHOBeKO-

paxrep, a caxata My q,YHKllIIR xaro 06wre,JI. TaKHBa BHeTO CKaJlHH crena na nOMem.eHHR B MaHaCTHpHTe

rpoooae, B nO-MaJIbK HJlH no-rOJIIIY 6poA, HMa B MHO- npa Kpenxa, CeHOBO, I(PHBHA HAp., H3KJIIO'ISaT TOBa.

ro APyrH CKaJIHH M3HaCTHpH (MOCKOB ,IlOJI npl! c. tIep- CTeHonHCHte B U"bpKSaTaB MOCK08 )J,OJI npa tIep-

BeH, PaKJIeHa neutepa aa Cyxa pexa, HsaHOBO, l(o-BeHcKaTa KpenOCT ca npUApYIKellB C rp'LUKH Ha,!{nHCH,

COBCKHlI M8HaCTHp HAp.) H TlIXHOro HaJIH'IHe e ~YHK- KOIITO eaaa JlH roaopar, 'Ie re ca OT nasaaoro na X IV B.

UHOHaJiHO cBbp3aHo .c-reaa naMeTHH~H. III.o ce xacae Tosa e TOJlK08a nO-1I3KJ1lOl[eHO, KaTO UMaMe npe,!{BH,!{, AO C~¥HTe rp~HII~Jl.-n:mtc.,K!lMeij6p~r. :.IiOBIlTe'le Il9,TPBa BpeJo(e l{epBeH e MHTpOnOJlHTCKO Ce,lI,aJIHm.e aJ)(}yq~~JI,c()'~!(f~ •. ~:Gil .~;~cft'bCH9Il1I:rH~l!IL~M~ ,~'bM'r1>p!!OBC~ra ~:q>llaJ.l~HlI. TeaR JlunHCH JJ.U;Sr H He. ell ·eJl~~~";;f ~~.)"HH~, JJ~#JjII~IHh :QClf.Q~~i'''''~''Sf! np~q~9JIC!\;1 'I_eB1.p.P()CHHre. CTeHP-. CaK8p. C:TpaHp.~ 'II' JhTQ,'lIC~~i>1':oAo~i{eL'n~pi). 'J~£!i.C~r~~~eTO?~;~~IS0:r9:;'Ma4lf:reCTBO, . KO-

B paaneza .... fllfCMeltll .. naMeT!lHu~.JC., l~-:r~?1,,!:';~!P,JO¥','t.JIrapc~.~'fP~l1Q.I{5l,rclClli\eHt'Lp e6aJI aSTOp'LT e ,!{onyc!la,ll C'L.lII.op.AAJ{ero'lHOct~.}la q~p~~:.~¥~"DOJ{l&tll~e({.Ha _l.l,8J)-.5P~K~a., narpaapuma, C'L~

MliCTO TyK Tp1l6BaAa ce o-r(Se,JIelKaT T~3JlB .. J:{~.~- npQB.O.ll.eH. ',C J{8JIaralle'l;p.lta . JP'hIl;UTa nHcMeHOCT.

CKHTe 06HTeJIH. Ha){nHC"bT HaHBo fpaMaTHK or' U:hP, ,A. JaJl.lOKHKCKa "e ll()JI~.BaJI B,3Ha'lHTeJlHa crenen

KBaTa B .I'ocnoaes AOJI He e OT XIII B •. (c. 12 H .17), 1.IH~KOU)l~yrHny6JI,HKal~HR, 6ea Aa rH ITOCO'lH B npn-

a OT XIV 8. (1322-1323 r.). IlOCJIeAHHte H3c.'Ie.llBa- JIOlKeiJIlRClIHC'hK HaJIHTCpaTypaTa. T'bH KaTO He e

HHR YCTaH08Hxa, 'Ie saannaca CTaBa .llYMa He sa.uap cnell.HaJIH!!1'BMaTepHlITa, KOliTOpa3rJIeIKAa, Toii KOM-

Feopra Teprep I, Koiho 6HJ1 CTanaJI non, a sa CM'bpTTa nHJlHpa pa3J:~aHH:re BbnpocH OT HaY'lHaTa JIHTepa-

aa nap feoprH Teprep II. C'hill0 rasa Be'le e OTXB'bP- 'rypa, B KPlITOTe ca.paapadorena. Pa~6Hpa ce, B TOBa

aeao npOH3BOJIHOTO. TS'LpAeIiHe, 'Ie CKaJIHHlIT rpo6. B HlIMa HllinO aepenao. BeAaTae B TOBa, se T'LKMO TO-

Kp-smeanara e H8 VtloprH Teprep I. 1Il0 ce OTHaCH AO raaa. TGA e nOKa3aJI JieYMeHHe AA ra npeneaa, csno-

oT6eJl1l3a,R8T8 I'OAHUa,8Ua,ll.IlHCa aa llaMlIH,TlI ae .e CTaBH H ({anpaBH BepRH H~BO,!{H. DOp8AH TOBa TpYAl>T

nOBH38HT.HitC.J[O .; o!l~,()IUfCJIe,ijHe. a no CbTIIOjleHlie na cTp1l6ila,iJo' ,!{li· 6'L,!{e peneasapaa OT. CneUHaJlHCTII. B

C8eT8.' Hen:hJlJiOTa, ~ ,II3ITHCBaHeTo if HHMa. - TSie TOBa oraomeaae penaxropcxatavaaaeca aa CSeTJIa

6199. T.e_ t ~~'f291 .1'. Herot(HO ca npeAueHH HlI- MaHrbp088 ce e oxasaaa ,Hey.u;a'lHa.

KOH ,'IR'IHH H.lleBIlS aa)J,jlHcH ....:. ABecM, BM ... ABepKH, He3a.B~cHMO OT Te3H CJla('iocTH He MOlKeM Aa He n03-

Heoq,aHT, BM. Heo$HT H ,!{p. Q'IeBH.llHO HaH-HoliaTa APa~HM.ycHJlHIITa na asropa sa aanpaaeaoro, HaWHTe

nareparvpa sa ie3H)la,!{nHCH ca OCTaHaJiH HeH3secTHH~eJ,!.elK,iq{ IIMaT sa uen eAUHCTBeHO ,lI.8 OpHeHTHpaT noHa aBropa_ , .' ' .ll06pe'lHTaTeJIlI, a, OT ,!{PyracTpaHa, ,!{a cnOMorHaT

IlOCJIeJ,(HHTeH3CJ1e,ABaHHlI Ha. MHXaHJI MH'IeB xa- npa eARa HOBO H3AaHHe aa KHHraTa na 6'b,!{8T H36er-

TerOpH'IHO nOTB'bpIKJ1a13aT, 'Ie aaanncare B neinepare HaTH nOCO'leHHTe nponycxn H rpeinxa.

rtpa C. Ilapeseu •. Bpa'laHCKO, KaKTO H C"b6HTHSlTa, '

KOHTO Te OTpa3RBaT, He ca "iIaii-06111.0 OT XVI- APA MAPfOC

69

Ilpeeneo

H3JIO>K6a "iOBeJIHpCTBOTO

OT eJlHHHCTHtJeCKaTB enoxa TapaHTO", HTaJIHSI

Or 8 MapT ,1(0 20 cenreaapa 1986 r, HapO,l(HHSlT apXeOJIorH'IeCKH MY3eit B rp. Tapaaro npelCTaBH eana H3B'&Hpe,l(Ho BalKH8 H3JIOlK6a, KOSITO 6eOpraRRsRpana OT ApxeOJlorlfll«KaftAHpeK" UHR HaoKp1>t IlyJt.dl.Pl3JlolkeRR 6HX8 npeAMe1'H,418,a6<n'eHH';Ot'· 6JI8ropo.lteH MeT8JI, OTKpHTR OT MHHaJlHR BeK .IlO H8WH .ltHH B TepHTOpaara H8 8HTH'IH8T8 cnapraacxa KOJIOHHSI T8P8C ()(H. T8paHTo) H B 06JI8CTTa, KOSITO e caspaaaa B HKOHOMH'IeCKO OTHoweHHe C aea, X pOH()JIOrH'IeCKH TSI 06xB8w;a eAHH OTHaH-BalKHHTe nepHO)(H H8 aaTH'lHOCTT8 - eJIHHHCTH'IecKaT8 enoxa (BTopsTa i10J10BRU8 H8 IV~ rrspsara ROJIOBRH3H8 I B. np. H. e.), KOfITO e,l(HOlIjH!MeURO C rose e II eAHH' • Or B'&3JIOBHTe lIIOMeHTH B lKHBOT8 Hil KOJlOHHSlTa. TOBa e speaero na rOJIeMHSI pa3UBeT H nocreneaea ynaJ('&K R8 Tapac, KOHTO ry6H CBORTa caMoCTOSlTeJIHOCT H ce BKJIJO'IB8 B HOB8T8 pHMCKa nOJlHTH'IeCK8 CTpYKryp8.

HaKHTHTe oTTap8C, saeaso C .lIpyrH 3JIaTHH H3,1(eJIHll OT aeTH'IHa HTaJlHR, 'I8CTH'IHO sese C8 6HJIH npeacraaann B ,l(Be J(pyrH H3JIOlK6H B PHM (1946) H B ToPHHO H Bapa (1961). HOB8TS HSJfOlK68 HMa' no-paeaasea 06JrBK. 38 P8SJIHK8 OT npeAHWRJlTe' Til '-e nocserena C8MO aa IOBeJl1tpCTBOrO oTTapac H B HeSl ca 'BKJIio'leHH OKMo 300 eKcnOH8Ta. MelKJ(Y TllX IjJHrYPHp8T' H MHoro Heny6JlHKYB8HH H8xo,nKH K8KTO OT MHH8JIO'I"O, T8Ka H H8CKOpO '01J(PHTH. HOBOTO B HSJIOlK68Ta e, 'Ie. CK'&nHTe npezMeTH BeC8 npe.nCT8aeHB C8MR 38 ce6e CH, 8 C8 BKJlJO'IeHB B TeXHBSl 8pXeOJlOrH'IecKH KOHTeKCT. B'leTHpH OT SaJIRTe H8 .My3ell C8 noapeJ(eHH B XpOHOJfOrR'leCKa nOCJIe,l(OB8TeJIHOCT M8repR8J1R . OT nocoqeH8T8 enOX8, sae,nHO C nO-SHa'lHTeJIHR norpe6aJtJur KOMnJleXCR. B eKcn03HI{RRTa ca H8MepRJlH MliCTO H ApyrR 8pXeOJIOrRQecKH' M8TePH8J1H, KOHTO. nOA'lepnBftT Bp'L3- KHTe MelKAYJOBeJlBpCTBOTO H H30- 6p8lKeHHRT8 npxy KepaMBKaT8, TepaK01RTe H ApyrB npeAMe1'R OT

C'blD,0T0 BpeMe. . '. '. .'

HaKRTHre XB10pmIT H08a., CIlt!T" JlHH8 B'&pxy IOBeJIRpcTBOTOaTap'8C H B'LPXY HerOBHTe ap'l>3KH C Ha'llrOJfeMHTe UeHTpOBe Hft eJUIHBCTHQeCKHSl CBRT. H3J10lKeHH ca pa3HO-

70

06P83HH no cjIo~Ma H H3n'&JIHeHHe BeHUH, j(HaJ(eMH, 06eUH, or-spJlHUH, rpHBHH, np'LCTenH.

fipe.-cralleHH ca 06~0 ocex BH~a MIi1(if: 3aeAHO e TIlna BeHll'A .ttI'. JlaBpCJliltnlltTa, nosHatlf .BB'&.II~ ralun,' in' MorHJlaHCKaT8 MorHJla B'IIBBj)ll\tl H Porosea; SaCT'liReHH ca HBeHnH e 6p'&WJlRHOBH cspneaH.IlHH JIHCTa, C 6P'LWJUIHOBH TpH,l(eJIHH JlHCTa, KaKToH BeHUH OT MHpT H pOSH. XpOHOJlOrH'IeCKH re ce BKJIIO'IBaT B rpaHHUHTe OT BTOpara nOJIOBHHa aa IV AO II B. np. H. e. BeHUHTe C JlaBpOBH JlHera OT rana, OTKpHT B'LB Bpana, B Tapae ce OTHaCHT K'LM nepsoaa MelK.llY aropara nOJlOBHHa ua IV B. H Ha'laJIOTO na III B. np, H. e.

. Me)f{,lty HaA·xylSaBHTe eKseM-

,uJlHPH MOlKe Aa ce nOCO'lR aeaeU'LT OT c.Cepa J('Opo.Toft e nanpaaea OT OTi(eJIHH6YKeT'IeTa at pasnH'IHH 1{&i!TSl, JlHCTa, lk'&Jl'L,I(H H JtaCT8pH, B,&PXY KOHtO ca xanHaJiH it8J1KH 6y60JleQKH,8 MelK,ny PSCTHTeJIHHTeeJIeMeHTH C8 BKJI)()'IeHH TpH H306palKeHHSl aa HHxe H ,nBe na . Epoc, B neroaara BHPTYOsHa R3pa6oTKa JlCHO ce ttYBCTBYB8 c806o,ltBOTO npaaaraue H8 paSJlHQRH , xOMnoslfl{lf0IlRH. e.n~ MeHTH• xspuTepHHa,aifskyC'f_'" TOJl'it' Tapac;' ............•. •

n()' oTHomeUHe lia··· BeHI{RTt\B Tlipsc ce SalSeJlH3Sa eAHO lIBJ!eHRe, o6paTHo na TOBa, KOHCTaTHpaao B TpaKHSI. B TpaKHH rroz BJIHHHHerO na pa3JIH'IHH HCTOfHKOCOUH8J1HHljJaKTopH npea IV-II B. np. H. e. ce npeMHHaaa OT ynorpe- 6aTa H8 6JIft~OPOJ(HRMeTaJiH K'&M no-eBTRH MeT8JI sa aarrpaaara HM. B Tapac 6POH30BHTe BeHUR ca pasnpocrpaaeaa npes aropara noJlOBRHa Ha IV B. H rrspsnre jreceTHJteTHR tia III B. np, H. e., a npes III H II B. np, H. e. ce saMeCTB8T OT S.UTHH.

.llHaJ(eMHTeca 'IerHpH BH,na.H ,l(8TRp8T OT •• IV J(o.HatlaJlOTO Ha II B.np. H.e. Ha.i-neHtrHR1' "ekci. nonar e AllaAeMaTa. OT rp.I(attoc8, KOSlTO. npe,nCTaBJlSlBaeJ(IIH urelbOnp na TapaHrcKoTo • SJlaTapCTBO 01 .. KpBsr H8. III ...... HaQ8JrOTO . H8 II a.np.H~e. B'&pxy SJlaTH8ra acHOBa .Ha',nIJa.rteMaTll ca 8i'pa,neilR CK'LnOUeHHH K8M'&HH; a SJI.aTHaTa n()B'LpXHOCT na UBetlJeTaTa.·H Jill(:taTa e nOKpHTa C 'IepBeil, CHH, lK'&JIT, 6RJI, 3eJIeH H ,npyrH -nse-

TOBe eM8HJI, KoeTO C'L3,!{aBa SlpKH I{BerOBH KOHTpaCTH.

3J18TH8Ta ,lI;Ha,l(eMa 01 c. Ka'IHaBHJI8HH H Ta3H, H306pa3eHa Bt.pxy e,lH8 rJlHHeHa lKeHCKa rJI8- J!Ja 0'1" . TapaHTo, nOK83BaT H3BecTHif" 8lfil.ltorHHc ,ltRa,l\eMaTa' B10PXY PHTOHft OrfiaRllt"lOpCKOTO C'hKpOBHw;e, H9pa60reH K8TIlrJiaBa aa aMa30HKa. TB'LpJ(e sepoarao enaa,l(eJiKaTa, xosroce cnycxa no 3aJ(aara crpana aa »WJleMa" na axa- 30HKaTa H KOllTO e He06H'I8HHa sa TaKOBa H306palKeHHe, J(8 e 'IftCT err ,l(Ra,neMa OT rarra aa 3J1aTHHTe, nOCTaBeHH B,&PXY OCHOBS OT Herpaea MarepHaJI.·

fOJfSlM 6pOH ca npeACT3BeHHTe B H3JIOlK6aTa 06eI{H (IV -I B. np. H. e.). 3aCT1>neHH ca nrecr THn8, MelK,I(y KOHTO H TaKHBa, K8KBHro ca A06pe HSBeCTHH OT rpaKHAcKlfTe "lGrpe6eHHSl • .lI.OCTa pasnpoCTpaHI!HH' CaJl8Ji:ReBBAHHTe 06eUH. Te C8 npe,ltCT8BeliH OT HaAonpocrenaa BapnHT (aanpaxep xaTO resa OT PaHKOBUH ~ Foue .lleJI'IeB), J(O MHoro enOlKHH MOAeJIH C yxpaca OT pattllTeJlUH eJIeMeHTH H il>HJlHrpaH (noA06HH Ha resa OT MOrRJlaHCKaTa MorRJIa B'&B BpaIla) •. He,l(HHre, H,I(pyrHTe npoasx~8Tot I.'tdr)Je6eHRSl 01 IV B. tlp.8. e.R rna.HoOT BTOp8Ta noJloaRHa 'HaBeKa. 38cBH~eTeJICTayBa'H e c'&m.o TaKa R THn'&T, 3aB'bpWBaw; C JI'LBCKa raaaa B e,l(HHHlI CH KpaA, pasnpocrpaaea B "I'apac 'npes sropara nOJIOBHHa sa IV B.' H Ha'laJIOTO na III B;np. H. e. TOSR TRn e J(06pe nOSHaT H B TpaKHR, HlinpHMep B HaXOJ(KHTe OT MeaeK, Ma,ll.8pa, BapHa.MHoro A06pe ca npeA0T8BeHR 06eUHre C AHCK H BHCYJIK8 c.pa9Ho()(Spa3HHljJopMH ~ lKeHCKa rmiBa, nHpa~HJ(Ka, KO" ayc, C'lIA, nTlllu!,Epoc - KORTO 'IeCTO ca 'la.cr .or.tf8elfTapa aa nortH!6eHRlI 01' IV---,fla.np; H. e.

OI'1.pJlHllHTe OT Tapac, csrroCT8BellH C nO]lo6H1I HaKRTH or TpaKRlI, HCRO OqepTftBaT C'&BceM pas:

JlR'IHHTe aKycbs'e 'B,nBeTe reorpaljJcKH d6J1aCTH. TOBa' ca or1>p· JlHUH OT M'LHHCTa, OT J(BOltHO CKa~ 'leUR 6pHMKH, 01 etrJIe'reHaJleHTa, OT JIeHTa C BRctAKH,' OT,II.BoHH~ CKa'leHH 6pRMKR C UBeTHIi M'LRHCT8 If B'&3J1H,. KOHTO ce xapaxrepaaaparc HSRm,eCTBO H ,ll.eJIHKaTHOCT B H3pa6OTKaTa H Mlipa B yxpacara. Te ca pa3npOCTp8HeH~ .npea ne-

pHOAa OT BTOpaTa nMOBHHa na IV B. AO I B. np. H. e. Cpea TSiX ocooeno ce OTKpoSiBa or-spaanara aa MOTOJla, KOSITO e '1YAeCeH npnMep sa rOJleMHTe nOCTHlKeHHSI na

, JOBeJIHPHOTOHSKYCTBO B Tapac npes rrspsara '1eTB'bpT na In B. np, H. e. TH e HspaCSOTeHa OTMaTHa aenra, cnaereaa B meer BepHlKlQI OT ,JJ,lIQAHH (iPHMKH H aasspmea c nO,eAHa naJiMeTa B ABaTa KpaH.

B HSJlQlK6aTa e npAAcTa~H H THn'hT or-spnaua, KOHTa B Tpa""R e HSBeCTHa caxo o:r.Hs06I!33JfBliae~ TO if B'bpXY PHTOHRTe en naHal'JOPCKOTO C'bKpOBHlIle" Jl'bB4M>PiJa aa rnaea aa aMaSOHJ(a.n,OApalKaHHH aa T03H BHA aJlaT,ail Or'hpJlHUH, H3pa(iOTeHH OT, nOORaTeHa raaaa, ce cpelllaT K'bM ,KpaH aa IV B. np, H. e.

fpHBHHTe ca. OT no-pHAKO cpeJUaHHTeHaKHTH. H TYK, KaKTO H B TpaKHH, OT xpaa na IV AO nspBHTe AeCeTHJleTHH aa II 8. np. H. e. ce cpeuiar aarsopeaa rpHBHH, rpnsHH c OTBopeHH KpaHlIlaH cnapanoBHAHH.

HSJlO>KeHHTe npscreaa AaBaT eana cpaBHHTeJIHO TOIIHanpeAcT8- sa sa paSBHTHeTO aa TOBa npoasBOACTBO B Tapac npea eJIHHHCTHsecxara enoxa. 3aCT'bneHH ca HHJWJIKO rana: cKapa(ieoHAH (c Hai·rwulMo pasBHTHe npes 350- 300 r. np. H. e.), c nnosxa - r Jl8,l1,Ka, rpaaapana HJlH c peJlectJ· aa yxpaca (aropara nOJlOBHHa na IV-cPeAaT8 aa III, MHoro PHAKO cpelllaHH npea .n'hpBaTa nMOBHHa aa II B. np. H.e.), c KaM'bK B rHeSAOTO na npscreaa (IV -I B. np. H., e.), c 06HKHoBeHa xanxa (IV -l~ np. ,H. e.), M.~AY HaA· npe)!.CTaBHTeJIHHTe,. e~eI(JlJnlpH ca eAHH np'hCTeJlo:r,~01'Ma.H eARH OT TapaHTO., B'IopxynnO'lU'f1l sa n'hpBHJf e H306paseHa ,H,!{eMHSHpaaa >KeHCKa raaaa. MIIoro npeUHSHaTa Hspa60TKa nOSBOJIRBa SIC· HO )!.a ce paSJlH'IaT, Aa>Ke HaKHTH' re na >KeHaTa: or-spaana C BHCYJI' KH H AHCKQBH)!.HH o(ieUH c BHCYJI' xa B'hB cIl<>PMaTa aa Epoc, B'hpxy KaM'bKa,Ha BTOpHH np'hCTeH eape)!.· CTaBe"" ,JKeHCKa . +HrYJ)a, KORTO BepORTHOn'bJ(HH c~J\ c. BOM.

, H3JlO>KeHH, ca C'bIllO . Kori'lera, 4>H6YJlH H APyrH npe,ltMeTH,CB'hP' aaaa C yKpacaTa. ltaA.paHHHTe npe)!.CTaBeHH.SJlaTHH H Cpe6'bpHH KOD'IeTa ca OTBTopaTa IlOJlOBHHa aa IV B.np. H. e. OT npeaaerare, TRCHO CB'bpSaHH c >KeHaTa, oe06eH aarepec npeAcTaBJIHBaT OJlOBHHTe nHKCHAH, OTKpHTH B TapaHTO H aarapanur OTK'hM KpaR aa tv - cpeaara na II B. np, H. e. B e)l.Ha OT TRX,paS)l.eneHa OTB'bTpe aa }PH, ca ce sanaSH,JlHQCTaT'bUH OT6R.1!,O BeJite~,o,. ~~pORT"O .0000BUO 6eJIH-

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THKaTa, . " KOHTO" e npeacraaena c npoHSBe):ttlHHlt 01' xpas : na IV H rJlaBHO 0'1' III B. np. H. e. HHKOH ~tix 'BeAHata npHMlf'laT BRH·' MaHHeTO C HHTepeCHHTe CH Hs06plf.: >KeHHH H BHCOKHTe CH' CTHJlHCTH'IeCKH Ka'leCTBa. MoraT Aa ce noco'IaT HanpHlCepKYTH~KaTa B'LB <IlOp. ~a Hll ,ICnAB c. 1I~()_6pal'KeHRe na He,peR~ 'JS1>Pxy 1(eT()CHJ!~ e,D.HOOr,Jle. tlaJio.yxpa~"o s., A4'po.yJ:ra R )lBa ~poea.,H, )l.BaTailpeAMeTaCa lJaMepellH B. Kaaoca, Bes C'bMRe· HHe e)I.IIH. 0'1' HaA-pe.ll.KuTe npelMe. TH e. 6POH30B.8Ta , .. opexOTpOUlaQKa" C'bC SJla'l'~a nJlaCTHH'X;a •. HallepeJia B c. POHAH'Hena. n<ice,r8 'e RSBeereH caxo ollJ,e eAHH nOlOOeH npe)UleT, OTKpHT B JlOKPH, Koiho cera. ce naunpa B Pe,ll,>KHO KaJla6pHSI.

OT HSJlo>K68Ta HCHO ce BH>KM, xe III B. np. H. e. ce oneprasa KaTO nepaon aa Hal\·rOJlHM pasUBeT na JOBeJIHPCTBOTO B KOJlOHHH· Ta Tapac H HeAHHH xaarepnaaz, Ilpes TOOH nepaon TapaHTcKOTo npOHSBo,lJ;CTBO, OT enaa crpaaa, ce YBeJIH'IaBa, a, OT zpyra, npRA06H. aa CBOS! CPHSHOHOMHH C HSHBeHO npeanosaraaae K'hM HRKOH CTRJlH· CTH'IHH nOXBaTH H HKoHorpa4>cKH MOTHBH. HaKHTRTe, npeacraseax B Tapaaro, C'I>IIlO rasa nOKaSBaT e,lJ;HO OTBOpeHO sa B'bHWHH BJlRH· HHR SaHallT'IHACTBO, KoeTO CO'lH O'leBH,lJ;HH Bp'b3KH C JOBeJIHPCTBOTO B AJleKCaH.llpHR, ETPYPHH, a xaxTO nO)l.CKa3BaT H MHoro napaaeaa c MaTepHaJlHTe, OTKpHTH B TpaKHH, H B'bo6l1le .c Baaxancxara 06J1aCT.

B H3J10>Kilna .. IOBeJIHpCTBOTO

OT eJlHHHCTH'IeCK8Ta enoxa B TapaH.TO" Hsn'bKBaT H .llpyrH Ba>KHH MOMeHTH, TSlCHO CB'IoPS8HH C o6lUe· CTBeHo1'0 pa3BH'l'se Ha r-spuare or KOJIOHH~~a . H, JIB ue!:tJJ01'O uac~Jle· RHe. C, nOtpe6a..HllTe 'O(SH~'.,Jt.~p.

n06pe i'lM'lepTaRae 1i'~p.ItJtMep pa3JIHKaTa MelKJtY YMep~d. $>1'a7 THJI norpe6aJleH HHBeRTap Ha TapaHT(:KHTe )J{HTeJIH, H paSKOW,.T B norpeeeuaara aa MeCTHOTOHaceaenae, TaSH pasaaxa HanOMRII nOJlOlKeHHeTO, 3aCBHAeTeJICTBYsa· HO KaKTO B TpaKHH, TaKa, 1l,.)l.Jtpy. rH reorpaecsa 06J1aCTH C nq-MaJlKO paS'IJleHeHH nMH'I'HKO·cortHaJlHH CTPYKTYPJlHnO-MaJlK01tAeKOKpaTH'IHH" B cpasnenae C rp"'~KIlTe nOJlHCH. ~eCTHaTa 8PHC'l'OXp'aUHlI e BHaCHJlaCK'hnH npeAMC'l'H, sa Aa ce nOKalite B lKHBoTa H SfiHlI{HHTe rrorpetiaana T'bplKeCT8a, J(.aXTo. H sa ,lI,a HST'bKHe npeA MeCTHOTO aaCeJIeHH!! COU,HaJlHOTO cunOJlox<eHHe, 60raTcTBOTOCR, 'a . CJle.llOBa· TeJIHO H nOJlHTJI'IeCxaTa H RKOHO' MH'IeCKaTaCR B,1(ller.

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XeOJlOrH'IeCKO CBHAeTeJICTBO, OT eAHa crpaaa, sa 60raTCTBO H QT. KJlHK K'bM csapeaeaaara MO)l.a, a, 0'1' ,lJ;pyra - sa HKOHOMH'IeCKaTa BJiaCT na MeCTHHTe apHCTOKpaTH'1eCKH cpeaa. C OTKpHTHTe B T03H HHBeHTap AHa,lJ;eMa H CKHnT'bp ce

.' XB'bPJlH HOBa CBeTJlHHa B'bpXY coIOu'.nHaTa pOU na lKeHara B HTa· JiHiCKOTO o6lUeCTBO, pOJlH, KOHTO e C'bBceM paSJlH'IHa OT TaSH, 0'1" pe.n.eHa na rp'bll,KaTa sceaa.

HaKHTHTe, KORTO npeodnaaaBaT B KOJIOHH8JlHHTe H MeCTHHTe Koun4eXCH Ot IV-l B. np, H. e., ca .,npeJtHIIRO. np'bCTeHH. H 06eUH, T. e. ,yJq)a~RJtIl, KORTO B ne-roJlHya creneJl'ce HSItOJ(SYUT OT >KeHBTe.n~C'l>CTBJfeTOHa n03J1aTeHH rJlHHeHH RaKHTH BOKaSBa noKOHKPeTHO SHa'leHHeTO na HHKOH YKpaWeHHJI B norpeeaaaare 06R'1aH. Teaa rJlHHeHH 06eUH H or-spJlHUH ca OTKpHTH npeAHMHO B KOJlOHHHTa. TeXHOJlOrHIITa na TJlX· HaTa Hspa60TKa - nOKpHTH ca C MHoro T'bH'I>K SJlaTeH CJlOR, KOI\TO JleCHO ce OJlJOIIlBa, - TO'lHO CO'lH, 'Ie re He MoraT ,lI,a 6'h,ll,aT ynorpessBaHH B elKeAHeBHeTO, a ca aapaooTeHH CneUHaJiHO sa norpeeenas.

n06pe nOA'IepTaHa e csmo raxa (j)YHKUHHTa aa seaeua npa no· rpe6eHHeTO, 4>YHKUHH, KOHTO ce HST'bKBa JlCHO C BKJlJO'IBaHeTO B HSJlo>K6aTa aa eAHa 6pOHSOBa XH,lJ;· pHH, OTKpRTa B Ta_paHTO. KaKTo npa KpaTePHTe OT ,l1;epBeHH, OKO· JlO WHHTa aa C'hAa, HsnMaYBaH KaTO ypna, ce HaMRpa BeHeU. TOBa e AeTaHJI, KORTO, 0'1' e)l.Ha crpana, nOTB'bp>KAaBa C'hlUeCTBYBalUaTa THCna apsaxa MelK,lI,Y aeseua H norpe- 6aJlHHH paryan, a, OT apyra, nOACKaSBa sa B'b3MO>KHH BP'b3KH ue>K)l.Y norpe6aJlHHH seaen ,J{ xepoaaanaaTa,. ",a .IlOK()AHH.(4>eHoMeH,x a· p&pepeHsa ~HHHCTHqeCKaTa eno-

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B T33R'. ~o)J{6a ca nOA'IepTa· IIR ~e ~oro MOMeHTH OT HCTO~ PHRTS aa Tapac R na MeCTHHTe ueaT,pOBe B AnyJlHR H JlYKaHHH. TJI e H SHa'lHTeJlHa Kpa'iKa Hanpe)!. B 06J1acTTa aa MyseOJlorHHTa. Op· raHHsaTopRTe . Ha HSJlo>K6aTa ca npea'b3MOrHaJiH onaCHOCTTa, KOJl· ,TO BHHarH C1.lIleCTliYBa, ocoeeno npH eKcnOSHUHJI HaHaKHTH, Aa ce YBJleKaT caxo B C'bcTaBHHeTO sa xy6aBH H. ectJeKTHH ,BHTpHHH. Te ca HsrpaAHJlHe,lI,Ha'C'rpora HaY'IHa KOHuenUHR H C nOMOIllTa aa C'bCTaBeHH!! aa BHCOKO HaY'IHO paBHH· me xaranor, C nJlaHOBe Ha 06J1aCT' ra, C KOJlio e CB'bpSaH BceKH noSHa'lHTeJIeH KOynJleKC HJlH npeaMeT, C paSJlH'IHH 06S1CHHTeJIHH Ta(i· Jla H 4>HJlMH ycnHBaT Aa npOBe,ll,aT C WHpOKaTa ny6JIHKa eAHH rpa)l.HBeH HCTOpH'IeCKH paarosop.

MAPH,SI PEXO-BYMBAJlOBA

71

STOPH Ha.QH()HaJIeH CHMn03HYM "nOCeJIHllJ,eH }KHBOT B TpaKHH"

Or 6 .110 8" OKTOMBpH 1986 r.

B rp. 51Mtion ce nposeae BTOPHHT nauaoaaaea cHMn03HYM no npoeJJeMHTe aa nOCeJlHlIlHHH }KHBOr B TpaKHH C Me}K.IIYHapo.llHo YIJaCTHe. CHMfI03Ji1YM'bT 6e opr-aaaaapaa OT LlHpeKUHH ,,[(YJI1'ypHO-HCTOpHQeCKO aacaeacrao" K'bM [(oMHTera aa KYJlTypa", ApxeOnOrHqeCKHB HHCTHTYT npn BAH, Kareapara no Apxeoaorna K'bM CY ,,[(JlHMeHT OXPH.IICKH", OKP'b}KHHB aapoaea csser H OKP'b}KflHB HCTOpHIJeCKH MY3eH - rp. .sIM60Jl.

CHMn03HYM'bT 6e OTKpHT OT npOlJ>. BeJIH3ap BeJlK()B- p'bKOBO.llHTeJl H8 apxeo~ortqeCKHTe pasxonxa B Ka6HJle> a Ms.ltpllBkTeJlHOTO CH CJlOBO K1>1I. Y1faci'HHllitre B CHMn03HYMa zp. KOCTa ~. UOB - npe.llce,naTeJf Ha OKP'blK· lIHB C'bBeT" sa .IIYXOBHopa3BHTHe, roaopn sa }KHBHB HHTepeC aa BMtiOJlCKaTa 0611leCTBeHOCT K'bM OTKpHTHBTa aa apXeOJl03HTe, K'bM tpaK.HlI:cKOTO MHHano. nO>ICeJlaHHe aa cnopna paeora OT HMero aa LlHpeKUHB ,,[(YJlTYPHO-HCTOpHlJeCKO HaCJIe.llCTBO" K'bM [(OMHTera aa Kynrypa noaaece cr. H. C. PYMeH KaTHHIJapOB.

MHHaJI3Ta 1986 r. 03HaMeHYsa 15-rO.llHIIIHHH8Ta aa pezosmrre apxeoaornvecaa paaxonxa aa Ka- 6HJle, CPOK. HecpaBHHM C XHnB.II0- aernara My HCTOPHB, HO .IIOCTaT'blJeH, aa .IIa ce OIJaKBaT speaa pe- 3YJrTaTH OT HerOBHTe npOYIJBaTeJlH. Ha TOBa 6e nOCBeTeH H naesapIIHHT .IIOKJra.ll aa npOlJ>. B. BEJI· KOB - .. Pa3KonKH H rrpOYIJBaHHH B [(a6HJre 1982-1986 r." B Hero aa OCHOBaTa na 15~rO.llHIIIHHTe CHCTeMHH paaxonx«, H oc06eHO aa OTKpHTHRTa OT nocne,ltH:Hre. 5ro.IIHHH, ce OIJepTaBa MRctaTOH,iKao 6HJle B nOCeJIHlIl"OTO ·pagiltl'l'He • Hft" TpaKHB or patiHo}KeJfsi3Hata en6xa .110 KpaH ua 811THIJHOCTT8. npe.llJlo>KeHa e HOB a .naTHpOBKa na yxpenHTeJrHara CHCTeMa na rpaaa C orne.ll na pa3BHT noceaamen >KHBOT npe.llH H.IIBaHeTO aa IflHJlHn II rrpea 3-41 r. np. H •. e., a aHaJlH3'bT H8 HOBOOTKpHTHTe Ha.llnHCH OTKPHsa HOBH CTpallHUH OT rrOJlHTHIJe· CKaTa H peJlHrH03HaTIl nCTOpHf! na rpaaa H BoeHHHII aarep,

, np06J1eMHTe,KOHTO nOCTaBR Ka- 6HJle, npHC'bCTsYBaxa B nOBeIJeTO Or H3HeceHHTe )l;OKJlO.nH, 6H1(a rJrailna TeMa aa pa3HCKBaiufllTa. H rosa lie e cnYlJaAHo He 38l1{OTO CHMn03HYM'bTCe npOBe}K.IIaWe B XHH· repaaana aa aHTHIJHHR rpaa, Flpe.IIH . lICHqKO· 1'088 ce 06YC~B.lI OT MRCTOTO, xoero rpa.ll1>T e SaeMaJi B HCTopHRTa HS .IIpeSHa TpaKHR H 3aelfa ,l\HeC B HaYIJHHTe . .IIHpeHHH na H3CJ1e,l\OBaTeJIHTe. ApxeoJlorHIJeCKOTO npOYIJBaHe OT nOCJleAHHre ro.nHHH· .IIa.lle B'b3MO}KHOCT na HerOBHTe rtpoyxaarena .IIa OCBeT-

72

JrHT OT.IIeJIHH CTpaHH OT HKOHOMHxara, nOJlHTHlJecKara HCTOPHH H penHrR03HlfH >KRBOT B rpaaa, B .IIOKJla.lla CH, nocserea na asnpoca sa T'bprOBCKO-HXOHOMHqecxHTe BP'blIKH aa [(a6HJle no .ltaHHH aa xepalIfHqHaTa enHrpa(j)HKa, .IIOUeHT JI. fETOBHanpaBH n1>.IIeH aHaJlH3 rra H3BeCTHHTe .IIocera aMl}IopHH ne'laTH (ny6JIHKYBaHH H fleny6J1HKYBaHH). TO'IHOTO HM rpynapane no T'bprOBCKHueIlTpOBe H rO.llHHH H8 npOHSBO.IICTIIO,C'bnOCTaBeHO C .IIaHHllTe .OT· MOHe1'Ha'fa nRp~yJfanHB, pa~KpHBaxapTHH8Taaa HKOIIOMif· ttec)CHlt.>KHBO'I'. allrpll~., K6ito 61IAeInk'!'e :,paSKODKH : ute< • AOt't".'Inm .• Hfl· 1'eJYte". s~x(aBaaa6;Jl1d.naaOTO HaMann.He sa HMfiopTaaa nepaoa, C~Bna~a~ C KeJrTCKOTO npHC~CTBHe BTpaKHB.

Ha XpOHOJlOrHHTa ila aBTOHOM· lIOTO xoneroceseae na [(a6l1JIe 6e nocserea .IIOKna.n'bl' aa K. H. H. Ll. L(PAfAHOB. B'b3 OCHOBa na OTKpHTHTe )tocera6pOH30BH H cpe(hpHH MOHerH, ceseaa B xcaerapanuara aa [(a6Hne, Toli npe,D;Jla:ra e.llHa 1l0BaXpOHOJlOrHlI, .ltaHHHTe OT KORTO OCBeTJlBBaT nepHO,D;H OT nO.lfH'I'HlJeCKa1'a II HKOHOMHqeCKa .. a HCTOPHB aa rpa.lla.

Ha B'b3HHKBaileTO H Ha: paaaara HcrOpHH na Ka6HJte6e nOCBeTeH .nOKna.ll1>T na H. C. M. L(OMAPALlGI\H - "l\a6HJIe H TpaKHlicKHTe tpa.llOBe IV-I BeK np, H. e." L(anTa aa aanaaaara KpenOCTHa creHa npa noprara My ~alJa OCHOBaHHe .IIa 3alllHTaBaCBOHTa Tesa 3a eJfHHHCTH'IeCKaTa ~aTHpOBKa aa YKpenHTeJIHaTa CHCTeMa aa rpaaa, B'L3HHKHaJr KaTO .. YKpeneftO cpe,D;H· lI\eCJl~~ nox".zt8 • aacJ)kJtir.lllfs Tp,a~IJ" .. "K~ 1'oli·npoc)Je.nHB,~ .. ~ R~R. '~yrJf ·tpaKHHCKII . rpa.llOBe; - .n ~()K.'IaA'LT aa H. TAH1fEBA - ~BoeH'HHHT Jlarep l\atiHJJe", 6e noCBeTeH na apXeOJlOrHqeCKOTO npoY'IBalleB pafiona na aarepa, K'b.lteTO nOCJIeAHHTe rO.llHHH aa CHcreMHH pa3KonKII .n8.110Xa tloraT MIl'l'epHaJl sa H3RCHlIB.aHeto na 4WpTHIj>HKaUHSlTa II rpa.ll0ycTpoll:cTBeHa:TaCHCTeMa;. a HOBOOTKpHTHTe Ra.nnHCH 01' BTOpaTa. xoxopra na JIYKeHlIlfHre .lI3THpaxa HaIJanOTO aa ctt>OHTeJICTBOTO npea 30-Te ro.lIHRH Ha II Belt.

Oc06eHo BHHMaRHe BH8YIJHHTe C'bOOllleHHSI H . .IIHCKYCHH 6e " OT.lIe~ ",eao 'H a. npri6Jte~HTe' 'lta.pMHt.jl03~ JtkH ~H~01;, B, I<~6Jf~e.J3JioiCJ(Qa: aa CT. H. C. All. JUfMJiTPt).BAMHJIttEBA :-. ';llaMe1'HHUH .•.....• lIa Tp8KHAcKaTa peJlHrHR. B. • l\aISHJI,e" , 6na paarJIe.llaHR rnHlfeRHTe KYJlTOBH oramna - ecxapH, OTKPHTH npn paaxonxare aa 6a3HJl.HKa Nt I. nOCTaBeH 6e np06neM'br. sa TRXaara POJIH B peJlHrH03HHB KYJlT, a npe,nJIOlKeHaTa THnonorHR aa T03H poa naMeTlIHUH OT TpaKHR C na-

paneJIH OT E~HCKHR CBBT .IIaBal' OcHOBaHHe ecxapnre OT l\a6HJle .Ita 6'b.llaT oraeceaa K1>M eJIHHHCTHsecxara enoxa.

Pa3KonKHTe Ha CBerHJlHlIleTO aa ,,3aAqH BP'bX" e.llHHCTBeHOTO UHJlOCTHO npOYIJeHO CKanHO CBeTHJIHlIle B TpaKHH, nOCTaBR pe.ll npo- 6J1eMH, HO H .IIaBa B"b3MO>KHOCT 3a HOBa HHTepnperaUHB aa resa csoe- 06pa3HH cpeaama aa ~YXOBeH >KHBOT. Ha TOBa 6e nOCB~eH ,D;OKJraJ.{'bT aa CT. H. C. B. HAIlLlEHOBA - .. CKanHHTe CBeTHJlHlUa B TpaKHR", lCOeTO e H n1>pBH OnHT aa ce CHCTeMaTiaH,a "aBecTHOTO aa CKanHHTe tBeTII"41uut ".' TpaKHR, na ce aa- 6eJle)l{aT np06JIfJMIIT~ H ,l\a ce npeaJlOlKaT KOB'II'XHrtOftsH.

06CTOeH nperJle,l\Jta naMeTHHUHTe aa ApTeMH,Aa B l\a6HHe nanpasa B .IIOKJla.na en CT. aCHCTeHT T. CTO.sIHOB. C"bnOCTaBHTeJIHHRT aaaans aa .IIaHHHTe O'T I<a6Hne (MOllerHTe aa CnapTOK, aBTOHOM· HOTO MOHeTOCe'leHeH CK8JfHHRT peJle(j) OT CBerHJlHlUeTO ua Axponona) C .IIaHHH aa KYJlTa H3B1>H TpaKHR, npeanoaar a HOJlBaTaHa 1t306pa}KeHHRra na tlorltHRTa B1>B Sp'b3K8 C pa3BHTHeTO' Ita K86HJle CJie.ll MaKe.llOHCKaTa KOJlOHH3aUHH.

Ha e;l{HH CJ10peH npOOJleM 0'1' HeToplfRTa HB .peJIHrHSITa B. TpaKHB 6e nOCBereH ,l\OKna~1>T Ha 1\. PABAJl}I(KEB - .. [(ynT'bT na XepaK'bJi B Ka6HJle. (np06J1eMH aa nposaxaeaero B TpaKHJI)". Ha OCHOBaTa aa naMerHItUH' OT URna TpaKHB e npepa3rJle.llBH B'brtPO'C1>T .'Ill KYJlTa na 6ora·xepO'H B l\a6HJle xaro nORBaTa aa HerOBBre arpa- 6YTHB~pXr MOHeTHre aa Cnaprox lIa~TOHOMROTo .MOIfeTOCeqeHe na tpaJtIl',ce c"'P.~Ba,;cTe~,lfeItIl,HB, xap-aktepHH aft ni!JlHJfeJfillilfetHqeCKH CBRT.

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nJIO)l, na )I,'bJIrOrO)l,HWHO ap-

XeOJIOrHqeCKO npoyxaaae B p'aMKHTe aa C'bBpeMeHHHH rpaa ~M(}OJI 6e )l,OKJIa)l,'bT sa C1, If. c • .l! •. .lUfMI1TPOBA, noc~efl na ~ .. 60JlCKaTa KpenOCT. S'nerpl'e9YJlTaTJIre OT apxeOJlOrJl'le<:kB paaxonxa H aHaJlH3'bT aa nHCMellHTeH3BopH )l,aBaT oCHOBaHHe .l!HocnoJl-llHaMnOJIH, 1l'b6HJlHH )1,8 ce H)I,eHTH<tIHuapar C'bC CeJIHII(I)TO B aanaanara sacr na )l,UeWHHSl HM60JI, npocslI(eCTBYBaJlO npes K'bCHaTa aHTHqHOCT H cpe)l,HOBeKOBHeTO, HO C'bC CJIe)l,H na >KHBOT orne OT KaMeHHOMe.ll.HaTa enoxa.

I'paasr, HerOBOTO MHCTO o COuaamro-noaarauecxara H HKOHOMHqeCKaTa crpyxrypa na .lIpeBHa TpaKHSl 6e e)l,HH OT HaA')I,HCKYTH. paanre np06J1eMH. PeaYJITaTHTe OT npoynaanero na Ka6HJIe aese naaar B'b3MO)j{HOCT )l.a ce npeOCMHCJIHT HHKOH MOMeHTH OT nOCeJIHII(HOTO pa3BHTHe B TpaKHH, )l.a ce nor.'le)l.HaT B HOBa CBeTJlHHa O'bnpoCHTe Ha rpa)l,oycTpoAcTBOTO H cpOpTH<jIHKallHHTa, HKOHOMHKaTa, 6HTa H peJIHrH03HHSl >KHBOT B rpaaoaere na )l.peBHa TpaKHH. B )l,HHTe aa CHMn03HYMa lie rroceren H apXeOJIOrHqeCKHHT pesepaar Ka· 6HJle, K1»l.eTO YIJaCTHHIlHTe ce aanoaaaxa C OTKpHTHSITa OT nocaeaHHTe rO)l,HHH. TYK na M$lCTO, cpea pYHHHTe aa .lI.peBHHSI rpa)J. H B HO· BOOTKpHTaTa H3nom6eHa aana 6!1xa npO,ll'bJl)KeflH .!1HCKYCH8Te 33 MSlC10- TO 8 pOJIHTa aa Ka6HJIe B nOCeJlHII(HOTO pa3BHTHe na TpaKHH, aa npeJIOMHTe B acropasecsara My c'b.ll.6a, OTpa3eHa B MHor06poAHHTe naMeTHHllH •

. B )l.OKJla,lla na H; c. n. BAJIA· BAHOB ?"7 ."rpa..,~e.~)J.t)eBfla TpaKI:I,lI .. np~ 110:(<!M~.8a ·,t,ll.c nlin II" '" 6ePA~}Jga~)I qr"Ol(e~r aa nOJleoreH~iI~. ·...tPiKIfACKa't8 COllHaJlHO·HKOHOMHlJecKa 8 nOJlHTH' secxa cpena, Ha <floHa aa pa3BHT nOCeJIHlI(eH >KHBOT npe)J.8 H)J.BaHeTO aa cf>HJIHn I I ce npasa onnr aa COllHaJlHa xapaKTepHcTHKa Ha TpaKHHCKHSI rpaa KaTO OTHOCHTeJIHO aaroeoaencnpaxo uapcxara BJlaCT.

npHHOC B H3CJle.ll.BaHeTO aa Tp8' KHiicKaTa ~OCeJIHII(Ha· cacreaa 01

10 APXeoJIorHSI, 4, 1987 r.

paHHOeJIHH8CTHqeCKaTa enoxa 6e ,llOKJIa.ll.'bT Ita CT.H. c. 3J1. fOQEBA. 113nOJl3YBaHeTo aa apxeoaorHIJecKH,enlJrpacpcKH JiI HYMH3Ma:THqHH .lI.aHHH H npaseaenaar 06- CTooH aHanH3 Ha nHCMeHHTe H3BOpa ca n03BOnHJlH .lI.a ce oneprae B nOJlHTHqeCKH H .. HKOHoMHlJeCKH . acneKI' KapTRHaTa .ua 4>IIJlHnOBaTa KQJlOHH38UHSI B TpaKHSI H pOJISITa if sa pa3BHT8eTO na eJI8HHCTJI'le· CKIIH TItn rpM.

. npJilKJllOqBaHeTO Ha apxeoJlo,

1'1t'leCKOTo npoYIJBaHe na CTapIIRHre B'hpxy cesepnoro pa3KJlOHeH8e aa TPHX'bJIMHeTO B nJlOB.lUIB .lIa~e B'b3MO)KHOCT aa H. C. AT. nEff· KOB )J.a npe)J.CTaBH B )J.OKJI8.lI.a CH "KpenocTTa aa ;lI.peBHHH TpaKHAcKJI rpa,ll EBMOJInHH" e.ll.HH no·06CToeH nperaen aa pa3KpHTHH KYJITOB KOM· nJIeKC OT paHHO>KeJISl3HaTa enoxa H na nOCeJIHII(HOTO pa3BHTHe B paiiOHa xa TPHX'bJIMHeTO.

HOB npnaoc B ascaenaaaero aa nOCeJIHII(HHSI )KHBOT B npesaa TpaKH!I no )l,aHHH aa TonOHHMHSI' Ta 6e .lI.oKJIa)J.'bT na npoo. K. BJIAXOB - "CeJlHlI(aTa B TpaKHH no e3HKOBH )J.aHHH", B KoiiTO 6Hxa H3· necena HOBH .lI.aHHH aa HMeTO H paaaara HCTOPHH aa Oaecoc,

. Harepecaa XHnOTe3a aa CaKpaJInara CPYHK1I,HSI na HOBOOTKPHTOTO C'bKpOBHlI(e OT C. Por03eH npe,llJIo, >KH B )l.OKJIa)J.a CH H. C. .ll. fEPfOBA. CeMaHTHKaTa na H306pa. >KeHHHTa B'bpXY csnonere OT C'bK' posamero 6e pasraeaaua B CBeTJIHHaTa aa HSIKOH 0611(H np06J1eMH Ha peJIHrHRTa H MHTOJIOrHqHOTO MHCJIliHe aa BaJIKaHHTe H EreAcKo-AHaTOJIHAcKHH apean.

B )J.OKJIa.lla na K. H. H. 3JI. 3.llPABKOBA H ll. I1BAHOB - "npHHOC K1>M TpaKHAcK8TapeJlHrH03Ha npaxraxa", 6e npe)I,JIO>Ke· aa HHTepeCHa HHTepnpeTa1l,HSI aa HOBOOTKpHTHTe B Pyceacxo H3KYCT' BeHH nO)J.3eMHH C'bOp'blKeHHH, KOHTO 611xa CB'bp3aHH C KYJITa aa 3aJlMOKCHC H peJlHrH03HaTa npaKTHKa na 06eaCM'bpTRBaHeTo npa rerare, H~BecT!la HH no C'b0.6l1(eHHH aa

8~T~~~H~~ ~~~$:'HHKQ.nOBce

.. JtP1il~~P~~!l1~t.JtO~~ n:~a· Bf .. ItOBOOtKpJ.t:'f9TO'jWlHIt4e- ,PPH C. KP'hH,. CT8Pwaropc!Co, .• I!,)l3cJJe)J.' saaero HanOCe.1lH!fUIH!I )KHBOT npes K'bCHaTa aHTHqHOCT. 3ana3eHHlfT B'bpXY cpparMeHT CTpOHTeJIHa xepaMHKa HaAnKC, cnopeA 8BTopa naaa OCHonaHHe na ce JIOKaJIH3Hpa TaM CeJIHlI(eTO Me3H,lle!la.

I1HTepecHH np06JIeMH no OTHOureaae na nOCeJIHII(HOTO pa3BHTHe

na .llOJIHa MH3HH npes K'bCHaTa aHTHIJHOCT 6S1xa nOCTaBeHH B AO' KJI8)J.a H8 K. KOl1:4EBA. Toii 6e nOCBeTeH aa e.ll.HH cJIa60 npoyqeH B apXeOJIOrHqeCKO OTHOlueHHe nJIaHHHCKH paaon - MeCTHOCTTa fpa)J.HlI(e Kpaii I'aeposo. ApxeoJlOrHqeCKOTO npoysaane HII xpenOCTTa n03BOJIHB{l na ce rrpocaeaa aapascaanero na HOB THn yxpeneHH ceJIHlI(a KaTO npexon 0T' aHTHq· HHH K'bM Cpe.ll.HOBeKOBHHH yxperrea rpaa,

TIPHH()C B H3(:JIe,l(BaHeTO aa paanpOCTpaHeHH~TO Ha XPHCTHSlHCKHH KyJIT H Bp'b3KHTe My C noceamnaara CHCTeM.aJil lieiiHHTe eJIeMeHTH B HCTOpHIJeCKIl acneKT6e )l.OKJla· )J.'bT na cr. H. C,. M .. BAKJII1HOBA - "K'bM XPHC'rHRHcKaTa ronorpa<jlHH aa rpaaosere B TpaKHH H MH3HS! IV-VII BeK". B Hero 6Hxa npOCJIe)l.eHH HaCT'bnHJIHTe npoMeHH B CTpYKTypaTa na nOCenHIlI,' HOTO YCTpoiicTBO npa npexoaa OT e3HqeCTBO K'bM XPHCTHHHCTBO H narpaaoianero aa HOBHTe 1I,eH1poBe •

.lloKJla.ll.'bT na A-P P. XOiliEK (Flpara) - "npaBOCJlaBltH H epe· TH1I,H B e>Ke)l.HeBHHH )KHBOT B TpaKHH npea IV BeK", nOCTaBH npo· l'iJIeMa aa peJIHrH03HHTe oraoureHHH B TpaKHH B KOHTeKCTa aa cpopMHpaHcTo na paHHoxpHCTHHHcKaTa KyJITypa B 6'bJlrapCKHTe 3eMH.

ll-JI A. BI1EPHAUKH )J.oKJIa,ll· Ba CBoerO npoyqRaHe Ha enHCKonCKaTa 6a3HJIHKa B HOBe. Pa3rJIe,llaH 6e nJIaH'bT C YCTaHoBeHHTe ,D;Ba nepaoaa aa CTPOHTeJICTBO. Borarara nnacrasaa yxpaca OT xpaMOp naxapa napanena B H3KYCT' BOTO aa MaJia A3HSI, a no OTKpH· THTe xpaxopna cpparMeHTH e npenJIO>KeHa B'b3CTaHOBKa aa aMBOHa.

llYMaTa aa 3aKJIIOqHTeJlHO CJIO· BO 6e naaeaa na npocp. B. BEJI· KOB, xoaro 6JIarOAapH aa KOJIerare sa yqaCTHeTO, sa cnoaeaeHHTe MHCJlH H H,lleH. HaTpynaHHHT cpaKTHqeCKH MaTepHaJi H 3HaHHB, HOBHTe H3CJIe,!l;OaHHSI 6Hxa ,ll06pa OCIIOBa aa O)KHBeHH )J.HCKYCHH no np06J1eIolHTe na nOCeJIHII(HHH >KHBOT B Tp'aKHH. B xona na Te3H' Pll3"CKB8HIU( . ee OIJepTaxa HHOBH npo6.ll~II;.H~>'BH B'i>3MO)KHOCTH .H n'bTJ(lIl.8 !lpe.ll. H8Y'l)rOTO. .lI.HpeHe. M. 8KQHa. IIICJlMII03HYM npes 1990 r. JtHeUlJlHTenp06JieMH HaMe· pSiT CBaeTO peurenae B HayqHH XH' nOTe3H, TO npHHOC aa TOBa me HMa H II HallHOHaJIeH CHMn03HYM no np06J1eMHTe aa nOCeJIHII(HH!I lKH· BOT B TpaKHSI.

KOCT A.llI1H PABA.llIKI1EB

73

Me>K.llYHap0.lleH CHMn03HYM no cnaBHHCKa apxeonorHH

Or 30 cenTeMBpH.)I;O 4 OKTOMBpM 1986 r. s rp. Ilpaaen - IOroCJlaBlul. ce C'bCTOH MelK)I;YHapoJ(eH cHMn03HYM no CJIaBHHCKa apxeoJlorHfI aa rexa "CnaBflHcKa e3Hxecxa peJlHrHH". Toli 6e opraaa- 3HpaH OT MaKe)l;OHCKaTa aKa)l;eMHH aa H8YKHTe B rp.CKonHe H OT HHcTHTYTa aa H3CJ1e)l;BaHe na CTapOCJIaBlIHCKaTa KyJlTypa B rp. Ilpaaen. B Hero asexa Y'IaCTHe apxeoJI03H H eaHKOBe){H OT B'bJIrapHlI, r.LJ:p, Ilonnra, PYM1>HHlI, CCCPj lJeXOCJIOBaKHlI, IOrocJIaBHH.' B'J,JIrapcxara rpyna 6e p'bKOBO~eHa OT a Ka)l;. .LJ:. AareJIOB,

OrKpHBaBeTO H8' cHMn03Hyi(a ,H nJleHapHOTO 9'a~AaIlHe certpdlse,lle B .LJ:oMa Ha. KY.7ITYt>aT8 .. MapKo ll.eneaxoa", fipHBeTCTBHe K1>M Y'IaCTHHUHTe ornpasaxa- npe,llce)l;aTeJlJlT Ha OpraHM3at(HoHHIUI . KOMBTeT npop. fi,I1JIHeBcKH, npenceaareJIlIT rra MaKe,lloHcKaTa aKa)J;eMHH aa HaYKHTe npOlj>. tt FlonjtopnaHOB, ,IlHpeKTOp1>T aa HHCTHTYTa ea H3CJIe)J;BaH.e na CTapOCJIaBlIHCKara KYJlTypa B rp. Ilpaaen B. Ba- 6H'I, 06lUecrBeHH H KYJlTYPHH )J;eAIUI.

H3HeceHH 611xa 37 ,Il0KJIa,lla, OT KOHTO 7 aa naenapsoro saceaaaae C 00 e,llHH npe,llcTaBHTen na Y'I3CTBYBalUHTe CTpaHH. B ,ltoKJla.lta na O. H. Tpy6a'loB (CCCP) - ,,1('bM peKoHCTPYKUHfi aa CaMOC03HaHHeTO H MHpospeHHeTo na CTapHTe CJlaBlIHH ('cBoA' - 'He CBOH' B KOHTeKCTa Ha eSHKa H KyJlTypaTa~ H,IleonorHlI H8 poaa, aarponoueaTpH31>M H8 KapTHHaT8 H8 CBeTa, .llOTeOHHMH'IeH cTa,llHA)", H aa Fl. HJI~eBCKH (IOrOCJI8BHlI) - "I('DM ynorpeeara aa napaJleJIH MelK.l\Y M'HKeHcKaTa H CJlaBSlHCKaT8 peJIHrHSI", B03 ocaosa ,Ha,3al1aJI~lIelUt H3CJ1e,ABaHHlI ca Hs;JplpeilH"~OBH .llaHHH 38 CJl8BlIHCKaTa, pUHrHII, nOT'bpCeH e npOH3XO,ll'DT H H Bp'b3- KHTe ir C ,IlpyrH peJIHrHH. B ,Il0KJl8- .IIa CH "I(YJlT'DT B CBeTHJlHlU8Ta B ceBep038na)J;HHTe 06J1acTH H8 cnaBlIHHTe- nrOH3XO,A H )l;eliCTBHe" :A. Xepxan r.LJ:p) pasrJle}{a eaeTHnHlUaTa H8 OOo)J;PHTHTe 8 aa noMepaHCKHTe CJlaBflfiH,. KaTO ApKOaa H Perpa, npe)J;JlOlKH cnony'lJlHBH peKOHCTpYKUHH, noxasa JlDPBeHH HA0JI8. B. B. Ce.ll08 (CCCP) ce cnps na "l(ynTa K'DM, KaM'DKa B eaH'IeCTBOTO na HSTO'lHIITe caaBlIHH". ToA npocaeaa pa3BHTHeTO Ha T038 crap KyJlT - OT KaM1>HH C 'IaWeBHAHH B.II'Dn6aBaHHfI HJlH C Hs06palKe6HSI, Hano,A06S1BalUH lKHBOTHHCKH aana H 'IOBeWKH xpaxa, npea aHTponOMop«!mHTe cIIHrYPH (eropara nOJlOBBHa aa I XHJllI.IIOJleTHe) .110 KaMeHHHTe Kp'bCTOBe. M. I<oMwa (PYM'bHHS) roscpa aa "CnaBlIHH, PYY'bHH M npOTopyM'bHH B Kapnaro-Zlyaaacxara 06- JlaCT cnopen paryaaa rpynoaarapane", TH 061>pHa BHHM8HHe na

74

pOJIHTa HaMeCTHOTO OpOTOpyM'bHCKO naceaeane (reTo'AaKH H .IIaKOpoaana), KaTO nOCO'lH, 'Ie HfiKOH BHAoBe pHTyaJlH OT aBTOXTOHeH H CJIaBflHCKH npoaaxoa ca H,I(eHTH'IHH. Toaa cJlaKT 06l1cHHBa C e.llHaKBHTe ,nYXOBHH nOTpe6HoCTH aa .IIBara eraoca, KOHTO npes VI-X B. H3noJisYBa1' e.llHH H C'blUH nexponOJlH. He 6e oT6eJl1'3aHo, lie, ocHOBBOTO KOJlH'IeCTBO OT 1'eaH nexponOJl,H B . .l1:06py.ltlKa H MYHTeHHfI ca ,nBy06Pe,l!HH ,c, ,eaHII~cI!:H 06pe.ll aa TpynOnOJl~raHe1'o., no, T03H HaqHH npa6WrilI>lIre 6HX~, e,.IIHMHII:IfPa-,' HM Itan'wuto,a pomrT8 Ha .. ac,It,,"JlHp~H.HTeB Kpn na X B ... , 'cita" BlrHH ,','- npHHH3eHa. B ,n:oKJla,lta RaSA. BaHH (lJ~XOCJlOBaKHH)"I('bM' ctpYKTYpaT3 aa CJlaBHHCKOTO e3H'IeCTBO", 6e H3T'bKHaTO, 'Ie BDB cJlYHKUHHTe H8 CJlaBHHCKHTe 60roBe e orpaseaa ,1J;HcJlepeHUHaUHlIra aa paHHOCJlaBHHCKoTO naceneHHe. Ha ABaTa 06lUecTBeHH CJlOH - BJlaCTBYBalUo H opoHsBelK,nalUo aaCeJlenHe - oTrollapHf ,!tila acnexra H8 n'DpBH'IHHTe npapoaan 60roBe. MHoroKoMnoHeHTHocna na caaBSlHCKOTO ~H'IeCTBO e B'bB Up'b3Ka C'bC CJlOlKHIIH. .npcnec aa CJlaBHHCKHH ,eTHOreireaHC. Fl. feoprHeB (B'J,JIrapHH):B HHctopH'IeCKH CBMAeTeJICTBa sa IOlKHOCJIallHHCKOTO U'bPXOBHO 60lKeCTBO", npaseae: IUHpOK Kp'br .IIaHHH 3a peJlHrHHTa Ha IOlKHHTe CJlaBHHH, KaTO 06'bpHa BHHMaHHe na KOCTeHOTO porxe C 'IeTHpHr JlaBOTO 60lKecrBo OT FlpeCJlaB.

Pa60TaTa aa ,nReTe CeRltHH npo,1J;DJllKH B, Crp8)1;8Ta Ha,HKOH.<?~H'IecltHll . cfIa1(yJl't'eT .':J .rp·,lJpIiJtert. ~JI.~fl.crt ,fYt ,,l(OKJl~~R-rt!(ila. '~rqCJi~Ka 'y'l'eml)" ~,,~1,'P3a~aC '.9'" clIe,l(lIaHHSr ,Hac~a~~lfc~ara ' ~eJlH,titR B 06Jl3cTta Ha' eaHK03H'al{HeTO - aa .LJ:. BPOlKOBHir "HH,1J;OeBpOneliCKaTa eTHMOJIOrHH H CJI3BHHCKaTa H. 6aJITHAcKaTa e3H'IeCKa peJlHrHlI", , .LJ:. , ' POHqeBH'I-BpOlKOBH1f -"CHHKPeTIfSM'bT na XPHc;THSlHCTBOTO H 'CJlaBflHCKOTO e3HlieCTBO B CBeTJrHHaTa aa TonOHHMHRTa H erHQ,lIOrHHTaM, B. CTolttf~CKa-AHTH'I '"E3HqeCKH '. OCTlIn.UH B ' cpeAHOBeKOBHaTa, . KHHlKHHHa". O. HUIIH.OBa-,,3a 1I11KOR elUPJeeKH KYJlfOBH CBeAeR,HfI B MaKeAoK~Kara TonOHHMH$!", C. 3aroBItiI".. Flepyn H Beaec H TeXHHre HH.IIOeaponeACI{H nap.8J1eJIH HHApa H PY.llpa". .LJ:oK.rraAilTe, OT 06J18CTTa aa apXeOJlOrHHTa TeM8TH1JHO MOraT .IIa ce ooeAHHHT B lIe1'HpH rpyna,

OCHOBHaTa rpyna 06xBall(a 113- CJle.llBaHHH R 06J1aCTTa 6a CJlaBlIHCKHTe CBeTHJlMlU8 H c.rraBSlIICKRTe 60lKeCTBa. OCOOeao HHTepeCHH, HOBH .IlaHHH npe)lCT8BH H. n. Pycanoaa (CCCP) C AOKJla.llaCH "36pyqKHRT HAon H rpa,nHlUa-CBeTHJlHlU8 aa p. 36py'I". TH 3anOSHa Y'IaCT-

HHUIiTe B cifMn03HYMa C npoy-reHHTe OT HeH ABe rpaAHlU8-cBeTHJlHlUa', rOJleMH KYJlTOBH ueHtpOBe npea X':'_XIII B., paanoacxena npa p. 36pYlJ,He;f(aJle'l OT MHCTOTO, K'b1\eTO npe3'1848 r.e HaMepeH nposyraar 36pYQKilBA9J!', TeaH rpanama C 01'KpHTHTe B Tlrx KYJITOBH C'bOpDlKeHHR ca nOCClUuaHH caxo no apeae na npaSHHUH, KOraro .ca H3B'bpmBaHH paanooepasan esHQeCKH 06peAH. Ha .IIpyro cnaBHHCKO CBeTHJlHlUe, H3CJ1eABaHO Qpe3 apxeOJlOrHQeeKH . pa3KonKH npH., c. ,Pa.ZJ;HKoBo (fioJIwa), 6e nQeBeTeH )lOl(Jla.ll'bT aa B. Ba6H'I (IOrocnaBHH) ,H H. .LJ:a6poBcKa (fioJllUa). C pamrara nORBa H8 cnaBHHCKH eaH'IeCKH .. CBeTHJlH~a npa YCTHeTO na OAep 6e cBopsaa ,noKJIa.ZJ;'bTUa BJI. cJ)HJlHIYOBHaK (no.rrma). B'b3 OCHOBa aa nHCMeHH, apxeoJlOrH'IeCKH H eTHorpacJlcKH 1\aHHR ToA YCTaHOBHB8, 'Ie OCBeH HaApasnpOCTp8HeHHHT KyJlT K'bM CBRTOBHT, JlOKaJlHHRT K'bM Tparaaa, 51POBIIT H e,nHOJllllleBOTo 60lKecTBo OT BOJlHH npn YCTHeTO Ita O)tep e C'1.lUeCTBYBaJl KyJlT K'1.M Flepyjr H Beaec, X. 10. BpaxMaH (r.LJ:P) tOBOPH "3a peJIHrH03HaTa npeaCTaBa. sa .cBeTa. Ira Cp'1.6cKHTe nneMeRa". H3nOJl3yJ1aAKHnlfCyeHH H apxeo.liorH'IeeKH , ,AaHHH, '. ToA npoCJleAH RHKOH OT pe.rrIfi'H~BHTe KYJlTOBe na Jl'Y>KlI'IKHTe C'bp6H, CB'bP- 3aHH C OCTaBRHeTO H8 xpaaareaHH npo.ZJ;yKTH npa HSBOPHTe H AOMaWHHTe oramna, C lKepTBonpHHOmeHM na KylleTa •. B ,ltoKJlalta. Cn .. ESH'IeCKHTe KYJlTOBH MeeTa B noJlHTH'IeCKaTa CHcTeMa na 3anaAHHTe CJlaBHH~ JI.JI~'1~HeBHQ (IloJlwa) ~j>~Il:~oerQ CltiialUaHe: 3a tOJlJlM'1l'l'a 'pmUf R'a' ttyJrT'oBil1'eMeCTa B 06lUeC'l'Beuo-noJlHTH'IeeXHlf >KHBOT ua ,Salla.llRHTe.,c.rraBHHII opea IXX B. C KYJIioBRTe MeCTa cac8'1.paana HMcHaTa na OT)leJIHH'I'e nneMeHa, TaM ca pemaB8HH BalltHH' 81>npOCH - sa ,&:oAHaTa H MHpa"noJ1araHHCa KJleTBH, re 6H.rrH c';~I1- .rrHlUa., C,B03HIIKBaHero Ha rp8.ll0- ,BeTe • HHKOH OT cJlYHKllHHTeHa. Teall MeCTa,ce rroexar OT, T'bplKHlUaT8.

: B10J?a ~pyna J(oKJ(a){1I 6ua noCBeTeHH HS. czaaaacsare aexponoJill: B..tt; .. ,~aJ!eaKO, ' (IOr()CJl8SHH) i'oaOpH 3~ np~~aHHSlTalfa, seipoDOJIHfe B pdoll.·)fa OXplt,ltCKOTO esepo, B ,!(OK.7I8)ta na Il. Kopoureu (IOrOCJlaBllfI) ce npocaenaxa esn'IeCKR eJleMeHTH, YCTaHOBeHH B CJlaBRHCKHTe HeKpOnOJlM B CaoseHHlI - npa fiTyA H TYPHHw'le, na ,3J1. lJHJlHHCKa (lJeXOCJIOBaKHH) - B CnoBaKHR KaTO CHM6H03a MelK,ny asapa R CJl8BSlHH, aa Ba, AJleKCOBa (IOrOCJl8SHH) -B MaKe.llOHHlJ. CT. OJiTeaHY (PYM'bHHH) B "BHpHTya.rrHHHT norpeeaaea xapaKTep Ha PYM'bHHTe H CJIaBHHHTe B'hpxy Kapnaro-Jlyaaacxara repa-

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Tperara rpyna ,llOJ41~,H."~xa nc-oeoemaeaur .xa.paJtt~.)(, a, TJIX ce paaraeaaxa ~H"~lI,~MeM~HT~. 3anaaHJIH. cenp»pilSJI"'"H CJ.Ia,BBHCKH H3po.zlH A1.pro ,aiel., npHe.JlaHe aa xPHcl'IlHHCTBOJ;(). YCTaH()BBBaHeTO aa resn e.neJleHTH e peaYJITaT DT KOMnJIeKCHO HaCJIe,llBaHe H C'bnDCTaBSIHe Ha nHCMeHH. apxeoJIOrH'IecKH. eraorpaocxa H JlHHrBHCTH'IHH ,llaHHH. B ,llOKJIa~a CH "E3H'IeCTBDTD npa JO>KHHTe caaBBHH" )1(. B'b>KapOBa (6'bJItaPHR) pa3rJIe.ll.a KYJITa K'bM TIepYB. CBapor H Benec, K'bM KaJ.l'bHH. peKH~ ropa H BeKOBHH ,ll'bpBeTa: 3~n03Ha Y'laCTHHUHTe B .cHMnDa,HYJla,.. C'bC CBeTHJIHm.eTO B M, ..MIIHacTHp'leTo" npa c. fopaHoBuH.KJOCTeH,llHJICKH oxp sr , K'b.ll.eTO npes XI H XIV B. ca nDCTpoeHHU'bPKBH, a .11.0 nasaJIOTO na XX B. ca H3B'bpWBaHH >KepTBOnpHHoweHHSI. BCBDB HHrepecea ,llOKJI8JI. .. TIaraHH3M'bT H rp8JI.CKHTe ycnOBHH aa ;)KHBDT" M. Craaxeaa (6'bJIrapHB) H3T'hKHa, sre B rpa,llcKH YCJIOBHSI e3H'leCTBOTO HSiMa B'h3MO;)KHOCT aalUHpoKa H3- saa, T'hH KaTO KOHTPOJl'hT aa U'bPKsara e c8.1l~.HD.e3H'IeCKaTa.cH.MBOJIJtK8 .'~MRp~~p,a3 .. 8, 3aIl8,,,T: '1HikKOTO , npOtt:3Be.ll~'T}I.AeKopaTHBHaTa KepaJljllfll •. , B Met~()onJiaCTHKaTa H n(jT03H Ha'lllH ,B~a3a B 06p'bm.eHHe. fp8JI.OBeTeKato..ueHTpDBe na .llyxoBeH >KHBOT ca MeCTa na 60p()aHa H,lleH, na nOBBa aa epeca H T. H • .u.. 6HaJleKOBa (qexDCJlOBaKHB) aanOJIaYBa pe3YJITaTHre OT apXeOJlOrH'IeCKHTe. pasKonKH H, ,llaJlHHTe Hlll1HCMelUlTe asBOPH- n-"pJ(()JIHa,.I()PJt.ll.H'~J(.HKa,. JU~KCH.> C1>8.11.~. c,ll.~" np8.STHra- He aa ~"~'~lI1Ha ;;~P.~·II, ~eTOAd B'bB,BeJJKK8, ;~pa.BHSi, If YCTaHoBBBa . peAHna~H'IeCKH .OT>KHBeJIHUH • .u.OKJlaA'hT Ha f. MapSIHOBH'I-ByAoBH'I (IOl"ocnaBHSI) 6e na reaa "HBKOH BH,llOBe cyesePHSI, . KaTO e3H'IeCKa Tpa.ll.HUHSI". aa 3J1. KJlaHHua (qexocnoBaKHSI) - "TpMHUHH H HOBH4IoPNH B

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npaxraxa. TOBa ca pa3J1H'IHHTe IOrocnasHH. '

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na aJIIICKHTe CJIaBSlHH B nepaona CK'hnH HKOHH. Oc06eHo anesarae-

na KapaHTaHO-KeTJIaWKaTa KYJI- HHe HH nanpaan MyaeHT na CJl8BSlH-

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JIIO.lI.MHJIA .lI.OH4EBATIETKOBA

75

Bropa .Me>KIlYHap0.l1Ha KOH<pepeHQHH

no npaOMrapCKa apXeOJIOrHH B WyM6H

OT 21 OKTOMBPH AO 23 OKTOMapH .1986 . r. B mYMeH 6e nposeneaa BTOpa Me>K]I;YHapOAHa KOH!fJepeHu,HII "TIpa6'bJirapHTe B HsTO'IHa H Ilearpaana Bspona VI-,X B." TR 6e npOA'bJl>KeHHe aa ]l;BYerpanuara 6'bJirapO-C'bBeTCKa cpema no npa6'bJlrapCKa apxeOJlorHR, C'bCTORJla ce B mYMeH npea 1976 r. MHTepeC'bT, C KoilTO 6ua nocpemaara ooHapoABaHHTe Ma'I'epHaJiH 0'1' cpemara (BJK. c60PHHxa TIJlHCKa.-TIpeCllaB, T. 2,(981), OTHOBO noxaaa, 'Ie KpV'hTHa aaHHTepeCOBaHHTeOT np06neM8THxara CneUHaJlHCTH·e· 3 Htt'lMTeJllIO nO-llJHpOK,OCOOeHO'iJ(o ee t>1'HaCli AO CneUH8J1He'I'HTe B "Y>K6HHa'. B~ 'IeM TOSH ",aKT' e OTAaBHa HSBeCTeH. B peayarar na pasceasaHHRTa npa6'bJ1rapCKHTe nJleMeHa saeuar npaxo Y'IaCTHe B'bB 4'oPMHpaHeTO H eTHH'IeCKHH 06J1HK Ha HaCeJleHHeTO B OOllJHPHH reparopHH. HSSlcHSIBaHeTo aa TSlXHaT8 HCTOpH'IeCK8 c'bJJ;6a He 6M. 6HJIO B'bSMO>KHO 6es HSCJleJJ;oBaTeJleJ(JfTe YCHJlHlIHa SpXeOJl03H HHC'I'<J{Hi" UH OT BeH'IKIt PSiiORH aa EBpOtfa, K'bJJ;eTO npa61iJ1rapHTeca oeTa.HJlH CJleAH. TOBa 6eMOTHB1>1' HS oprasaaaropnre - ~HJUraJl'bTH8 AMM npa BAH - mYMeH, H OHC - mYMeH, ,ll;a nOK8HSlT S8 Y'IaCTHe 17 cneU:HaJlIICTH, 0'1' KOHTO aa KOHtj)epeHUHSlra npHC'bCTBYB8X8 9. HeilHa OCHOBHa saJJ;aqa 6e spea HHTerpaU:HlI Ha upa- 6'bJ1rapHCTH 0'1' paSJlHqHH C'I'paHii }la ce oxeprae ome no-penlfJeHo npHHOC'bT H poasra H8 npa6'bJ1r8- pare B eTHoKyJlTYPHaTa. HCTOpHH aa paHHocpeJJ;HOBeKoBH8- Eapona. ,lI,oKJla,ll;H npo'leTOXlfapXeOJl03H 0'1' F,lI,P, ~pr. e.GCP, YHrapCK8'ra H8poAifil peny6:If'HKilJt B'bJIrapHli. ¥'IacrllRn'HTt 6Hxa npaBeTCTBysaHH OTIiMeTO HaOI( aa BI(TI H HI( Ita OHC 0'1' HBaiiJlo TIeTPOB - npe,ll;ce}laTeJl aa OKP'b>KHHf! C'LBeT sa JJ;yXOBRO paasarae .

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76

uenrposere na TIt.P80TO 6'bJirapCKO napcrse. Ha np06JIeMa sa KOHTaKTH"fe Me>K]l;Y npa6'bJirapH H MaA>KapH 6e nOCBeTeH AOKJla,ll'bT' na A •. X. XaJlHK08 (CCCP) "TIpa- 6'bJIrapH H np8Ma,Il>KapH B CpenHOTO TIoBOJI>KHe H,lI,OJlHOTO TIPHkaMHe". B nporaaosec na TPMHUHOHHOTO MHeHHe, 'Ie TeSK KOHT8KTH ca 6HJlH H8A-aKTHBHH rrpes VIII-IX B. JJ;oKJIaAqHK'bT npnBeAe ]l;OKa38Tenc1'Ba aa SHa'lHTeJIKO . mi-paltHH axT1lBHHB3aHMOO1'HOrueHIUf. C~peJt H.er0Jt.Be"re .. erlIHlJecKH rpyrtl{ca KOHTaKTyB~JlH ~ -npes . I1-iV B.~KoraTooT.aenHK . TIOP1U>eSHlIHH. rpYI1H, cpea ROHTOe KMaJlO HlloJlUPH ("npanpa6t,.lIraPH"), ca AOCTHrHaJiH AO Cpe)l,HOTO reseaae aa Boara saen-

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tlia 'DJleMeBae.1 H~"bH'apieoJtarHQeCKH KY.iltYPH.· T oinpe)(JlO>KH KaTO orHOBeH 6eJler norpe6aJIHHH oope,ll H nO-TO'IHO 0pHeHTaUHSlTa. B'b3 OCHOBa na KOHTO B npasepaoMOpCKO-KaBKa3KaTa Ii.!l.OJIHOAY· HaBCKan rpyn8 npa6'bJIrapK IICHO ce'06oc06I1BaT no .IlBeocHoBHH ct.cT8inm, rpaltHUH . Me>KAY KOHTO ca 6HJlIi C'bOTBet.HO pelCHTe ,lI,olf H .lI.YHaB: TIocO'leHIf 6Jixa HIIJ{()If .IlaRilH S8B'b3MO>KHOCTTa. nO.llooHo tpy· nnpaae A86'bAe HanpaseHo 1i- 81>S OCHOBa' RB cneU:HcjlH'IHH. 6enesH OT naMerHHQHTe na MlfU"pHaJlHaTa KYJI'l'ypa. Ha e-rHHlJecK8Ta HCTOpHR Ha CeBepeH 1(8BK8SHpOJIHTa ... ~6'bJJraplM'e 6e nOCBeteHJ{oKJl8.1lt.T. Ha M. f.MarOMeJ{OB (CCCP} "B'bJIrapare H CTpaH8Ta BepCHJlHH". AB10P'bT npHBe.lle .nHeMeHH H apXeO.llOrH'IeCKH cjla.KTH aa 6'bJ1rapCKOTOHaceneHBe Ha H3BeeTHaTaOT nHCMeHHTe· H3TO'IHHUH "eTpaHa BepCHJlHH". .ToA06'bpHa BHHMa-

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aa HSiKOH H3CJleAOBaTeJlH, KOHTO

He OT'IHTaT eTHH'IeCKaTH nuCTpOTa

Ha paROHa, npeYBeJIH'IaBaT ponJiT8 H8 HpaHoesH'IHOTO HaCeJIeHHe H nOJUleHflBaT . aKTHBHaTa pOJIH Ha TIOpltoe9H"1HH,-e . nJIeMeHa. ,lI,oKJIaAqHK'bT nOcdqir,'~MecTHOTO Hp8HOeSH'IHO RaCeJleR1le' HHKora He e npe.llCTaBJIHBaJIO e]l;HOpO.llHa Maca H 'Ie HaBHpHO ome B' I: .X~JI.. np. H. e. B HerOBHH C'bCTaB e: 1fM8J10 TIOPKOeslt'lHH rpymr. HllKoHetlfoHHMB y Xepoaor MoraT Aa 6'bA8T C6J1H>KeHH C HMeHaTa aa TJOPKOe3a'lRH nJleMeHa, a C'IHTaltHTe 38 aHaXpOHHS"bM ynoMeH8BaHBH sa npoHHKBaHetO aa HRKOH 0'1' THX, H IJo-TO'fHO na 6'bJ1rarCKH nJleMeHa, B ApMeHItJi npes I -III B •. HaASepOHTHO OTpaSSIBaT HCTOpliqetKH e'b6HTHB. MeCTHOTO TIOPK0e3HqHO aaceaeuae SHa'lHTeJlRO aapaCTBa cJI.e,ll; xyltCKoro HallJeCTBHe H HeCJIY'IaAHO TYKca 6HJfK c'bsAaAeHH rrspsare uearpose na Xa3apCKHH xaranar. }J.OKJlaA'bT na A. XeHHHr (f,ll,P) "HSTO'lHO no npoasxoa ops>KHe H CHapH>KeHHe Ha KOHHHI{H B KOJleKTHSHH HaxoAKH OT SeMe,ll;eJleKH Ce'lIfBa. na .nOJlHHH ,lI,YH8B npes VlIl-X B.... 6e HsrpaJJ;eH B'bpxyxapTHp8HetO Ha Te'SH iraXO)l,KH rf C1>nOCTaBSIHeTOHM C aaaJtorH'IIfU.aemH.01' HSTO'lH8 Espona ..' C~eCTHOTO 11M YKpHBaHe ii . C1>X'PaRtfB8ae .ce H~t>eTHpa k8TO.I{Olta3a~er~ S8" ftputlHKflaJlHB )l,t.Jf60KO:3eMe,lleJfcJI'iI 6HT epea HaceJleHBe, nasemo ome HlIKOR Tpa.llHU:HH na KOHHHlI 6HT; SII c.IIH· B3HeTO lIa. AB3TaCTonaHCKO-KYJITypHH1'Hna. CnopeA .Il0KJl8.1lllHKa YCBOIIBalteTORa MeCTHaTIi seMeJtenCKaTeXIlBKae CTaRaJlO HaA-pallO R 1l$'A'~;,p3() cpe,-OHasH '1aCT OT ~R~'/ItO'.· :tlPOH3XO,( .. H8CeJleUB't;, . xoetii.ce ·lIaermBa.:lOJlHo-

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·B' U;JtaaMKJlaJJ;8 6H1(8 aacerIfll'l'H· B~iqjoeH OT eTHOKYJiTYPHa'f"a lIctOf!Ha Ha epeAIi4ltYHaBCKHTe seMH H TIIXHaTaBp1>3Ka C TI"PBOTO 6'hJ1rapcKo UapeTBO. A. CenrnerePH (YHP) HanpaBH KpaTK8 xapaxTepHCTHKa na OCHOBHHTe erans OT B3aHMOOTHOllJeHHHT8 Me>KJJ;Y aaaPH, npa6'bJIrapH H n'bpBOTO 6'bJ1- rapcxo uapCTBO C'brJIaCHO rpaaaU:HOHH8Ta rJIe.llHa TOqKa B 6'bJ1rapCK8T8 HCTopHorpacjlH!l. B'b3OCHOBa Ha KapTHpaHe HaaBapCKH rpo- 60ae C 'SoraT HH.&eHT3p 6e npenJlO>KeHa JIOKaJtHS8UHlI Ha r.n8BHHre 1l0JlHTH'IeCKH UeHTpOBe na asapCKHII KaraHaT - npOOJIeM, KORTO ace oute He e pemea nOJIO>KHTeJl-

HO. nOCO'leHH 6Hxa HHKOH enexenTH aa K'bCHOaBapCKOTO H 6'bJlrap' CKOTO B'bOp'blKeHHe B Ha'laJlOTO aa IX B., KOraTO B'bJlrapHll YCTaHO' BliSa KOHTpOJl B'bpXy xacr OT asapCKHTe BJla~eHHlI. B ~OKJla~a aa B. M. CbOKe (YHP) 6e aanpasea enar sa peBH3HH na HaJlOlKeHOTO B aaurara H B peaaua '1ylKJlH HCTO· paorpaeaa MHeHHe aa npncseaaHliBaHeTO aa H3TO'lHaT8 nO.llOBHH8 Ha aB8pCKHH KaraHaT K'b~ 6anrap~ CKaTa ,lJ;'bplKaBa H YCTaHQBaaauero aa 06w,a rpaHHuac.pa~c~ra HMnepHH. l(aTo~lC1l~WJJa '):esaT8 CH :a~'b'l'.lJ~!I.tlaKOH

apxecaorasecxa, 4»lfJl~allecK.Jf

H HCTOpH'IeCKH H3TO'IHHUH. Cno-

PeA·Hetb MelKJlypeJiHeTo aa .ny. HaB H Tnca H TpaHCIIJlBaHHH npes IX B. He CaBJUI3aJ1H B rp8HHUHTe aa il'bpltOTo. 61U1rapcKo uapCTBO. Pa3rJl~aAKH naMelHHUHTe na M8TepHaJlHara KYJlTypa B T03H paAOH, ToA rH xapaxrepaanpa. KaTO K'bCHoaBapcKH C'bC CaJlTOBO-MaHU' KHBJlHlIHHlI, KaTO lie . HaKJlJO. .. ·B8 H BJlHHHHe aa Ma,lJ;lKapHTe. .B.ua'l'a }l,OKJIa,lJ;a, K8KTO H B H.IlKOII KaKas· B8HHSI no BpeMe H<1lHt)llYCHHTe, 6e ornpaseao .nolKeJl~lle'HaCJJe,a· aamara ItOHfl!epeallUlI,Ila ce 06- C'bAH B'bnpoeW 38 .JlaTHpOBKara H eTHH'IecKaTanpHHa,llJ1elKHOCT aa C'bItPOBHlIleto OT Hara ceur MHK' JlOW.

Bropa rpyna ,aoKJla,lJ;H 611u noCBereHH aa npa61.JlrapCKH· norp(:- 6aJleH 06PeA. B ,lJ;oKJIalll aa B~C. ClJJlbOpO. (CCCP) "06pe~'bT 06ea· BpeX(~aHe Y 'llpa6'LJlrapHTe'~ (SlIXa noeolleaH pe~Hua . npHMepHH83a· cpHItClipaHO,npH • pasxonxac. .• ,IlQ. ae- 06l1cHeHopa3PYlI!8B8He lIaCUlle· TH B. npa61oJlrapCKHaexpdnOJi.H B erenaara SOU8 OKWlOp. AOD •. ABtOP'hT, .nousa npW4H~II.epeHOTO paapymasaae ('1aCTH'IHO ,IMK . TI1UI" HO) KaTO napaa aa H3BeCTHHlloT MHoro paHoHH aa caera-crpax or M'bpTBeJla. 06'hpHaro 6e BHHMaHHe aa ,UeHan0Jl3YBaHHlI ~ocera sa rra-

aa .UeIJ.. He. K. "p.o. D. 04 .. 'OT ·.AP .. ea .s HOP CKHH.

nepH~ lI~pKe.I1 .... B . B.

OCT~,:,B"iJ~"'lf_fi .,

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HHe. ,.0630PeJf"~~l,ti,ilhit~j repcxsre HeKponOJlIf' 'UB' MHlIlt .nYH8B" npoxere Y. ~1i~Jlf"P (ClJPf). AHaJlHaHpaAKH norpe6aJIHHH 06peJl H HHBeHTapa, ,lJ;OKJIa,lJ,'1HK'bT CTH· ra AO B3BOAa, 'Ie Haii'BalKHHHT 01" JlHIJHTelJell 6'ener. Ha npa6bJ1rap· CICHTe HeKpOnOJlB e THXHaTa .6'HPH· TyaJlHOCT, T. e. aa npa61U1rapcKO, HaCeJIeHHe npHUaAJleX(aTH rpodosere C TpynoH3rapHHHR OT')I,BY' 06pe,lJ;HHTe eaHttecXH HeKpOnOJIH. B

paAoHa. .,_, .r- .. ', .'

3a n",'La D'bT H" K~pIHn811Ta

611xa ,!!;OKJIa,lJ;BaHH ~oceraWHHTe peaYJlTaTH 01' npoysaanaara na 5 ,!!;BY' 06pe,lJ;HH aexponoaa B Ceaepoaa-; TO'lHa B'bJirapHll: Tonaaa, TOJI' 6YXHHCKH OKp'hr (CT. AHreJlOBa, J1. .nOH'IeBa), Hoscapeeo, CHJlH· CTpeHCKHOKp'bf(P. Paaiea, CT. CT8UHJlOB), lIepua,. T0Jl6YXHHCICH oap-sr (l1B. Bacaasaa), BaJl'lHK (M • .nHMHTpOB} _.It XJlTOBO, TOJl' 6YXHHCKH oxpsr (B. AOTOB). FloCJleAOBllTeJlBOTO. JIll npeMraBJIHe n«?aBOJlfl-AacenOJlY'lM ~o6Itanpe.n. CTaS8'.u.-CXOJtC1BOTO H pa3JlH'IlUITa B nporpe6aJlHHR 06pe~ H HHBeH' Tap. Ha6J1IO,lJ;eHHlITa aa oraeaaare pa3KOnBa'lH ,!!;8BaT OCHOB8HHll,!!;a ce CMHTa, 'Ie ce HaMHpaMe na HOB, MeTO,lJ;H'IeCKH nO'3pHJI eran B npoY'IBaHeTO aa Te3H H3KJlIO'IHTeJlHO BalKHH naMeTHHUH, C'b,!!;'bplKaw,H ueaaa HHcj>opMaUHH aa peKOHCTpYK' llHH aa 06w,eCTBeHHH CTPOH, ,!!;y. XOBHaTa ,H MaTepHaJlHa KyJlTypa na HaCeJleHHeTO. 3a H3HCHliBaHe· TO na TesH B'bnpOCH OT'IaCTH AonpHsecoxa ,lloKJla,llBaHHTe HOBH AaH' HH .sa xapaxrepa aa noceajnunara CHCTeMa OKOIlO Il.nHCK8 (T. BaJIa6aHOB, T. ATaHaCOB) H onaT'hT aa B'bSCTaHOaKaHa IOproo6pas· aara nOCTpOHKa B ueHT'bpa 'Ha nJlHCKa, caspaana C HaA·paIlHHH lKHJlHw,eH XOPH30HT ua CTOJIHl1aTa (P. Pames, B . .llO'leBa).

Pe,lJ,Hua HOBR MaTep.HaJiH H aa- 6JIIOAeHHH t)lIxa H3aeceIJH.,s. Tperara rpyna ,lJ;OKJla~H, nOCBeTeHH aa up06JteliUlTe ua xYA9}KeCTBeua:ra KYJI' rypa. T. TOTeB pa3rJleAflHOS.o, OTKpHTH • ){BofiHxne1faT'Iera--af.iy" JlH Q'f IlpecJlU H •. eBeH-rya,uH8TaJUt Bp1.sKa C e3H'IeCKHTe BHpBaUIIHHa npa6'bJlrapHl'e. E. CHMQHOBa (-YHP) roaopx. sa . HHKoapClJ(H MeraJIHHnpElAMeTH or K~H()8Bap· CKHH lfeKponOJl npH TonoHap,YHrap'UI; . M. BaKJlHHQ8a npencraBH JlaHHIlTe .3aY.!lHKalleH rp06 C '10BeWKHCKelJe'J' H KY'leTa H PHJlKa KOJlaWa r:apHHTypa OT nepHo.lla aa SelJHKOTOnpeCeJIeHHe, . OTKpHTH KpaiiIllieBeH. n. OB1fapOIl.IJOCO'lH 1l~~9j:THre,)a' KpNnQSMl\Ho,

uti· .... :, '1111~~9~i

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Jl~l~a ,. .: ..... ...eH;Mili (1.

MrHPOJK."fltJ 7.U:~~~.t!i TO H8'P SlJ~B.: lWI'a,lla!' ,.~lqIa~, ,;OT Flpeeaas. 1(. TOTes cnpllJ,\lIlllfa· HHeTO B'bpXY H306paX(eHHRJriflPl<Y cpe6'bpeH Me,llaJu.OHH eueH1'Y~· aara MY apsaxa cnpa61>JIrapeKa· ra KyJlTypa.

qeTB'hpTa rpyna ,Il0KJla,!!;H 06e· ~HHlIBaxa B1>npOCHTe aa npa6'bJl' r'apcxara (JlpeBHOTlOpKCKa) ~y. xOBHa KyJlTypa H B '1aCTHOCT aa PYHH'I'eCKoTO nliCMO B ~HeWHa ,YH' rapus (11. Ep~eJlH, YHP) H B'b.ll·

rapaa (1(. 1(0HcTaHTHHOB), ranoJlOrHlITa H XpOHOJIOrHHTa aa paHHOCpe,lJ;HOBeKOBHHTe 3HaUH ()K. AJla,!!;lKOB), OT~eJlHH B'bnpOCH aa peJlHrHHTa (B. CHMeoHOB, H. OB' ''1aPOB, fl.· MOP03, fl. Anexcaes},

Ha HHKOH np06J1eMH aa cj>YHKuHHTa H n'bpBOHa'laJIHHH BH~ aa e3H'Ie· CKHTe xpaxoae II xanama 611xa nocaereaa ,Il0KJla,llHTe aa CT. BoH~X(HeB, CT. BOHeB H 1(. BOTOB. Harepecaa H,aeH aa anrepnperapalle aa eaH'leCKHH xpaa ~O TpouHaTa naaara B nJlHCKa KaTO B'&3' nOMeHaTelJHO csopsaceaae H3Ka· sa n. r~OprHeB •

.no HSBeCTIfa crenea BcrpaHH or npaxara 'I'eII4l .1:J8 KQH<PepeHI1I1S1Ta 6e ,Il0KJlaJl'lo-T aa B. B.nepxaBKO (CCCP) "Ha'l3Jlo .Ha pycK0-6an· rapcxnre T'bprOBCXH Bp'bSKH (IX~ X B.)".

3a '1YlK,lJ;eCTpaHHHTe Y'laCl'HH'

HHUH 6e oprauaaapaaa eKCKYP' 3HH ,!!;O CHJIHCTpa. C'bC C'h)l.eHCT· BHeTO HB. O.n "KYJlTYPHO~HCTOPH'1eCKO HaCJle~CTBO" B. CHJlHCTpa H TOJl6yxHH TaM 6e ype,lleHa cneUIlMHa H3J10lK6a C MaTepHaJiH OT npOy'leHHTe npes nOCJIe;r.HHTe roo ,IlHHH B nsara OKp'bral1pa6~rap· CKH HeKpOnOJlH. rOCTHTe ce sa· IJ03HaXa C npOY'lsaHHJlTa aa cpe~· HOBeKOBHHH.nP'bCT'bP H pHMCKaT8 rp06l1Hua. Ha CJle,ll~w,HH JleH Te noceraxa nJlHCKa, Ma,llapa H npec~all.B Ma,llapa HM (Se npeaoCTIlBeHaB'bSMOJi(BOCT,,l(a Ha6JJIO~' B~T" CKaJlHHH pe.ne41 OTCKeJIe, H3· AAt~TY,'AOtl,Jl8OTO III peJle41a.

BropaTIl KOHcj>epeHUHlI IJO npa- 6~rapc1tll, Jl,PXeoJIorHlI .. MaR1UIHH aaaaxara CHi" 06eJlHHHBaiiKH YCH· JlIIJlTaHa CUeUHaJlflCTH or 5, crpalIH, TH C'b,lleHcTByaa sa-nocraaaaeTO na HHKMKO BalKHH np06J1eMa C HeC'hMHeHO reoperasecxo H npaxTH'Ie<:I{O .SHaqeHHe: I. 06W,HOCT H. paMHlIHe B, KYJlTypaTa na OT' ,ae,llH.llTe npa6:bJ{rapCKH rpyna B Espona. 2.. 11s~HpBaHe aa ,lJ;OK8' aareaetaa sa ,lJ;OXYIICKO npHC'bCT' BHe till 'fIOPKOe3H'1HO (npa6'h.lJrap· CKQ)Ha~e,neHHe II I1sTO'lHB. Espona. 3. 06or8'1:lIBatie. aa . KpHTepHH'

'@;';.,( .pw.eIlHero . MeJKJJ;y

lIP l(_.)lJlTypa H ersoc.

4-~; _ . ,yll~; nO·<;1>B;l1Pwe·

11K. .'3;4 ~THH1J~KallrpH~

6Y~IIS1 aa HUollnaMeTflHUHlla XYAA}KecTseHaTa KyJlTypa. '. Flopa,lJ;H BalKHOCTTaCH Te3H. np06J1eMH ce npesp'smar B nenocpeacrseaa npaKTH'IeCKa 3aJla'la H C'hBCeM ecTeCTBeHO 6Hxa C'bCTaBHJlH np06JIe· M3THKaTa aa CJle~Baw,aTa KOH' cj>epell"Hli.

PAI1IO pAI1IEB

71

KUHrorntc

o 6lI.1, H C'b q " H en H Sf

BeMf(J8, BelluMp. In memoriam.

AKaA. Bna}J,HMHp I'eopraes 1908- 1986. - Apxeoaoraa, 1986, NI 4, 49-50.

BAaiJuMup08a-AllaiJ:JICOBa, J!OIt-

ICIJ. )KHBOT, OT}J,a}J,eH aa apxeoaorHJlTa H MY3eAHOTo }J,eJlO. _ 113B. MyseHTe CeB. B'bJIrapHJI, to, 1984,

223-226. .

flo CJIY'laH 65-ro}J,HUfHHHaTa na Bepa AHToHoBa.

FepUJ8a, Iluana, XIII xoarpec na BKfI H 6'bJ1rapCKa'l"a apxeoaorH'IecKa HayKa. - ApXeOJlorHII, 1986, Nt 4, 1-4.

Iluonucuee, Hea», Kopeaa B 'IepH03eMa. I1CTOp. oqepJiC aa c. 4epH03eMeH - fIJfOlWlBeKH OKp1>l". IlnoBA", Xp.· r. JJ.aHOB, 1985;

Pen.: feoprH CTOJIHOB. -' Tpa..; KHJI, 1986, Nt 5, 122-123. .

ElUfllIU01JtiJUJI B7JJleapuJl. foil. peA. B.IIIwump Feopraes HAp. T. 5: n -- P. C., BAH, 1986. 879 c. CHn., 51 n. K.

CBe}J,eHHJI sa apXeOJIOrHqeCKH 06eKTH H naMeTHHIlH OT nptllcropHqeckaTa,aItTH'lHlIT8 . H' tpe)(HaBeKosHaT.il enruta uaMHoroMecra 8·TOII8.' . i

HtIilw K 1lCb88·· lUi· 6lleoiJtlllu. [HHrepa»J.--- Mnl(, 1986, Nt 4, Co' -61 ..

.' ItbnpocH're aaaasa Taraaa ·l(aA·

pJlK9Ba. .

/(pamTCtl !lemapUJI naJ!06pgiJlJII!a; C'bcT8B. apes, BeJtKO TOHeB H AOMaH 3ap'leB.BapHa, r.Ba· KIMOB, 1986. 440 c.

Or npaHCTOpH'IeCKara moxa

}J,O C'bBpeMeRHOC'r1' •.

MapKeBu'l. B. H. BnHsKoeH }J,aJleKoe. [An6YM). KHwHlleB.' 1985. 45 c. C TeKcTHa MonA.Beltit,; PYOKH H aHrnHicKH es., 207· .... /_,

Apxeo.'10rH'IeCkB ~ .. a •• '""OT· MonA.BHS oTnpllll'tTOPR'Qet:hta; aHTH'IRara ttCpeJ(lrbM!ttOBHlITa enoxa.

Pen.: X. Toaopose, - Apxeo" norHlI, 1987, NI 1,42--43.

PYCU1UJ8, Ba.upu. .llpeBHOTo

MRII&nO Ha Ban'lIlK. .;._' TypHCT, 1986, nt· 8, 20 ...... 21.

CmanltetJ(J,MaaiJaAUHa. CpeUUr cvapxeoaorasra. C., B'bJIr.·· xy}J,OlKHHK, 1985.

Peu.: TaHII Pyceaa, - M.fIl(, 1986, .N!! 4, c. 62.

X X X I Hal{uonaAHa Itont/Je-

penquJI no apxeosoeus: 61>8 BeAltl(O T'fIpHOtJO. - ApXeO.llOrHJI, 1986, Nt 4, 48-49 •..

XpucmOtia, 3iJpa8lC1J. Ilo}J,6paHa 6HMHorpa41HJI na TPYAOBeTe na aUA. .LJ.HMHT'hP AHreJIOB. - HYMHsMal'HKa, 1987, Nt I, 6-9.

IOpylt08a, RopiJaHlClJ. B'bJIHY-

Baw. 106Hneil:. - HYMH3IiaTHKa, 1987, Nt 1, 3-5.

AKa}J,. .LJ.HMRT'bp Anreaoa H8 70 rOJlHHH.

Diambo», Ivan. Sur I'apparition de quelques forteresses et

78

agglomerations dansla montagne de Sredna gora sur Ie territoire du departement de Plovdiv. ~ In: Pulpudeva. 5. S., 1986, 204- 209. OT 6poHsoBaTa enoxa }J,O

K1>CH8ra aHTHqHOCT. .

VelkotJ. Yelizar, Archiologi-

sche Unterwasserforschungen in Bulgerien, - Ethnogr.-archiol. Zit •• 1986, No 27, 283-296.

Fl p a a c r o p n a AeuJlOBa, J/. H. Ilorpe6anbHblii

06PJlA .9HeOJJHTH'IecKHX 3eMJ1e-

A~blleB IOro-BOC"I'O'IBoi EBPO-

nlol •. - I(P8TKHe ~ MuCT. apxeo.noru CCCP, 180, 1986, 9 ......

1+. .

hpaM08&, MaR. HaKHTH OT npaHCTopB'IecKHJI HeKponoo npa c • .ny. e_aRKYJlaK, TOJl6YXHHCKH OKp'br..nOOpYAlKa, 3, 1986, 75-84.

BaAaooKJIn, . J! IUCpaH. XaamarCKO CeJlHllle Kpaii c. OBqapoBo. XacKoJJCKH OKP'W'. "'- .. Haa, My- 3eHTeIOrOH3T. B'bJIrapHlI, 9, 1986, 7 ..... 22.

B'f>AQaH.08a. XpucmUHa. PaRKaTpaKHAcKo DOCeJIeHHe KpaA Co CTaPu.eBW c.o.aacKIl OKp'br. - I1SB. KyseR. 1OlIt.,B1oiJIrapHH, 12, 1986, 67......:.84·.,)1 ... ::",

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l'e1lOB,' HtJ;I(OJlQIJ'.IlpOTonRc· MeH001T8.--'- Oretiecrao, 1987, Hll" 15-1:7:, .

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1987.21 c. "

HUiUJADtJ, Dva'iJa1t. CeJlHw.e OT K'bCHHSl HeOJIHT npH .e, Bpeaaua, Bpa'laKCKHoKp·..... ''__ Apxeo.notltH, 1986,M 4,5 ...... 17.

BoItOl/ 'liMA,.; . HosonOC'l"r.nll-illl lIax(1AtriI ot6p0H30BaT8H paaaara lKeJlR3Ha enoxa B npaacTOPHqecKHJI OT}J,eJI Ha ll1YMellcKHJI OKp'bX(eH MyseA. - Hsa. MyseHre CeB. B'bJIrapHH, 10, 1984, 5- 10, 1 c. n, un.

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keramikou.. • ..•. •.. '.·"UmVenita.J.

E. Purkyrle vi... ,tt85. 217 p, PalfeR··;.~

.. ~: ' .. Jf8~H .~.coB. ~ ApX~SI,:· . U ••• ·· 1<1 4, .45-.47. . Podtuweil, CM. Troyan Iscb e Gef_fOrmeD der Fruhbronzeze.it in'.\ttatoJien,: net ~iis Ulld angrenz-mden Gebieten. Mainz.·. Phi· lipp v •. Zabern; 1919 •.. 249 pi, 33 .tL;26 ann. '.' .....',

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~199 ·:"'}'Y<~"'.:· .",

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EI!ee".u··· - lj"iiih~ut··'de

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298 .: " .• > ...........•.... ,

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Mapull 'Iu<tuK06a. KbcHOaHTHQHa· ra rpoeuaua npa CHJlHCTpa. C., IhJlr. XYAOH<HIIK, 1986. 120 c. c IIJ1.

p'uMUmp06, M. )J.HoHHCOnOJlHC H npa6'bJIrapHTe cnopea apxeo.norH'IeCKHTe .AOKa3a1eJICTBa.- B:

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" 'FlopiJtfiU!6. . .Cmet/Jax . nex<te8. .l1.'WliUl8006P~yB8TeJlHR~ npOll&CH B A~BIlOC'l'ta. -'1HllOJlOfHJI'1{ Tee PHT~H&JlHo-nonYJlaIlHOHHH paMKH (nO'1I8TepH"'.· OT BarJIK8nO·AHa~kKH;. ~~.KpastHa n~ Ha""~"Hit! .. t'X"" .• p. H •• e.,; AJi.'rilP,.~~'~ai .. ue"~·'Y1.t>""·.iI' HCTOP~"'''''' BMHKO '. T1>'~

193'7. 2£ c. "" " .. .... . ?'Y'~1,

Jli«iefcoeO.j:·lk_,..,..,: }~~ HIoIH npOH3BI?~C1'De1tHll!~ '1(' itij)J"*' Bblii uearp 6.nH3 r.Pa,AOJIfHp;'c..:J) In: ActaCentri historiae'"l'fi'fa antiqua balcaniclf'. t. S~;·J ~k,

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. llapCKll nOAapbUIf, B Tpll6Uexo-' TO Il8PCKO' CbKpOOUl1{e.· · ...... n~. KYJlTYpaTa, 1987, 1<1 ·1, 94-,..1~:

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HUIroA08, J].rtMU'fft,&/I..Upl''8HH-. 3aUHJI ,npOMWWJle~ro- .. "po1l3- BO,ACTBaa PHMCKHX ·(ttJlOlJXll~BJlX 4JpaKu!i If MH3nI;_ytB~- In:

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CtItOJIH08, Tfilttico. 3a axoaorpa«PHJI1'aH ceMawhrtl;'a-ra aa H<eHCKHre lf306palKflHHli' B naveTHHIlKTe na TpaKHicKHH KOHHHK. ... BeKOBe, 1987, .Nii I, 18--30.

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Cpel(HOBeKOBHe

A sescuee, lfopiJaH. npOH300.llCTBO aa crpa4JHTo .. KepaMHK3 B T'spuoarpan. - Bexose, 1987. Nt 1. 53-59.

A HeeA06, ,auMUm'bp. B'bJIrapHH'bT B Cpe.llHOBeKOBHeTo. CBeTorJleA, H.lleOJlOrHSI, .llYlIIeBHOCT. Bapaa •. r. Baxaaoa, 1985. 337 c. . ~ez.: Georgi Bakalov. - Etud. balk., 1986. No 4. 121-l23.

AntnQltOBa, Bepa, I(p'bCTOBe-

eaKOJIllHOHH B I1cTopH'lecKHH MYaeH nJIlO.llMHJl8 )l(HBKoBa".l1aB.MyaeHTe CeB. IhnrapHH, 10, 1934. 43-53, 2 C.BJI.

AlUnoHQ6a, Bepti',,{t l.(6emaHa JJ.peMp,U3Q6a. ijltPJ(BJi~H KaMeHHH IJ.O~pOAKH B cTapb6'bJ1rapCKOTo rpa.llHme T!PH c. 113P1AceH,PyceHCKO. ~ 1130. Mya¢HteCeB • .B1,JIrapUt 10.1984,59 ........ 70. lOCo JI.HJI. . Amaltac06, Teopeu • .3a npexo-

AaOT_pa,IIp .. KlIAJ, nJlyr. "':B'bJir. eTHQI'P.ll,$HSJ., 1.986.,llAt 2,24-34.

l\orleK'tHBHa . Huo.¢Ka OT cenCKQC.TOflaIiCKH OJ>'b,IUIR Ha Tpy)(jl. OT C.Crul,llHme~, .9.«JlHGl'P~HCKH ol(j)'br, C;BHAeT~eTsrBamll S<l' noasara aa n4¥~opajjo B.X .•.

Sfiiioypult, A .!<'.; ;~.prHUle B 06puax '.' H.,JJP,~AG~eJfHRX BOCTO'lHLlXCJIIlBHH. JI.~ HaYKa, 1983.

Peu.: MHJleHa5eHoBcKa·Clt6· KOBa. -Bur. tjlMKJlOP, 1986,

Nt 3.92 95.· . .

SO~uet1, C. ApxHTeKTYPHHHT 06Pll3 Jla :rp(lHHaT8,,~T8B f!JlH. cKa,. -- .B: MelKJiy~.p. KOHrpec Il() 6'bJ1rapHCTHKa, I. CocpHlII9IH. ~ l,~ .. H., -: l; CliI!lRQa¥YM CJII1J~ . Hnpa6'bJ1l"apu.C., 1982.

I 34,...,l44 .. '.' . ...• .

B~..tuJtO(JQ, Map~puma .. BTOpHRT MelK,aYHapQJUlJJ xoarpec no 6'bnrapnCTIiKa H. np.q6J!eMHTe aa 6'bJlrap~KaTa HCTOPUH. npea cpeaHOBeKOBHeTO. -- .CTap06'bJirapHCTHKa; 1986. Nt 4,95-98, •.

IloKJlUIUJ6a, . M.TeMeHI{HH B PaSBHTlleTO na paijHoCpeAHQbeKOBHaTa6'bJlrapCKa cKynnTypa.- B: ,\ielK.llYHap .. KOHrpec no 6'bJ1rapHCTILKa, I. c.cxJ»tJ! 198.1. .uoKaaAH.

I.; 2 •... ~'. 1: .. G .. "lOI .... · ~~.y M .CJI. aBH. HH H n. pa.6M.' ra .. pH .. , C.~· ... l~ .• a3U-350.

. B:(J~ s : ~. :ITo' : B'bIlPoca aa np0H3xOAa aa IilPH\yM~H1'8JIHaTa apxJ!.:~~r)'(ta 11;. fiapB8TiI. 6'bJ1rapCKa Jl.~plKaJJa •. -- B: .M.e)K,llYHap.KoH~ 1]1. ec no 6'bJirap. HCT.HK.a, I. CocpHSI. .uOKJlaJl.H. T. I. Cexu, 5, KH. I:

H'bJIrapCKaTa KYJlTYPa H 83aHMO.lleHcTBHeTo H C'bC CBeToBHaTa KYJITypa: I(YJlTYP8Ta H!l.CPe)lHOBeKOBua 5DJ1rapHJI. C., 198?305 ..... 313.

BelteiJulC06, H.Me./tHOTo rYMHo. - B: MelKJl.YHap. KOHrpecno 6'bJfrapHCTHKa. I. COCPHS! 1981. .uOKJl8,ll.H. T -. J. CeKll.5,: KH~ 2: 5'bJi'

rapcxara KYJITypa H B3aHNOJleii:CTBHeTO H C'bC CBeTOBHaTa KYJlrypa: ETHOrpa$HR H IPoJIKJlOP. C.,

1983. 19-89. . .

BoeUIWtJlJ, H. '<{>0pMHpOBaHHe

.IlpeBHe60JlrapCKOii CHCTeMbI MOHYMeHTaAbHOH pOCnHCR Ha OCHOBe 3JIJIHHHCTHlJecKHX TPllAHUHii:. - B: l\\e.lK.IlYHap. xoarpec no 6'bJirapHCTHKa, I, COCPHB 1981. )].oKJla.llH. T. 1.. CeKU. 5,. KH. I: D'bJlrapCKaTa KYJlTypa H, B3aHMO.lleHCTBHeTO if C'bC CBeTOBHaTa KY arypa: KYJlTYpara H8 Cpe.l1HOBeKOBHa o'bJIrapHB. C., 1983.99-106.

BbI:JM;IJp'Q6a, )/(U6K1l H. CpeaaeBeKOBHble .lKHJlHw.a aa repparopsa OOJlrapHK {no apxeoaoraseexn» .IlilHHblM). - Siov. archeologia, 34, 1986. No 2, 26\-218.

Famee., n .. 11.. Cpe.llHOBeKOBHo ceaaiae H ·HeKpOIlOJl OT X II B. Kpaii c. Koeaseso, na3apJUKHllI!'H OKp'br. C •• 1985 (Pa3KoIlKHH npo-

y,IIBaHHH, 12.). ~

B peueaaaara aBT. e TeTeB,

n. ,U.

Rea.: I. Erdelyi. - Acta Arehaecl, ,Hung.); 1986" No 38,

p. 340. 1

. Ieopeuee, n. npHeMCTBeHOCT Me.lKAY, Haii-CTapHTe. MOHYMeHFaJlHH crpoesca B nJlHCKa. - B:

Me.lKAYHap. xonrpec no .00Jlfap.Hcrasa, I. CGqlHH 1981. )].oKJlaJlH. T. 2. 4. 1: CHMno3HYM CnaBSlHH H npa6'bJlrapH. C., 1982, 106-121.

repacu~06a- TQMlY.Ja, B. OHT'bT aa 6'bJ1rapCKHTellepHoMopCKH rpaJlOBe B 10-Te rO.l1HHH ua X IV BeK, orpaaea B CMeTKHTe na AII,TOHHK Dap6epH.H. - B: MelKllYHap. KOHrpec no. c)1iJIrapHCTHKa, I. COtj>HH 1981. )].oKJlaJlH. T. 1. CeKQ. I, KH.' I: D'bJIraPSKa'fa )l'bp.lKaBa npes sexcsere. Cp.eAHoBeKoBHa 6'hJ1rapCKa ll'bp)KaBa. C., 1982,. 120-e127.

lI.aMJllt06, H,uKOJIa. CpeaaoeeKOBlune HeKpOnOJIH • B Cpennare POAonH. - MHl\ • .1986. .Nt 4, 23-28 •.

JJ.epu6ee6. bOpUC. AxpHAa. [WcTOp. osepx sa I1-nOlJHOP!>JlOl1cKilTa oWIa.c.T}. 2. npepa6. ·H .Il0n. ,H3,ll. ll.aOBAJlB. Xp. r. naHOB, 1986. . Peu.; HIlKO.uii XaiTOB. Ilpo- 30pell K1>M. MHHa.l10TO ua POAouaTe. - PO,llODH, 1986 • .Nv 9, c. 10.

lI.:1I£!Ipo6tl, A, 0<lJoPMJieHHe lIa 6'b.l1UPCKHTepDKOnOCH X-XIII BeK. - B: Me~JlYHap. KOHl'p.ec no 61oJ1rapHCTHKa. I. Co4pHJi 1981, ,UoKJlaJlH. T. 1. Cexu, 5, XB. I: oonrapcKaTa Ky.l1Typa 1I·B3aHMO· J1eiiCFBlleroH, CDC. C&eTOBHaTa KYJITYpa: J(Y.1I:rYP81a. Ifa Cpe.!lHO.BeIOB, aa D'bJirapHH. C... 1983c. 84-98.

p'o6pe6, H. CTOnaHCKIt KY./lTYpa Ha npa6b.llrapliTe. npeAW aaceaBa.jUl:TO 11M S HaWHire 3e.MH. - B:

MemJlYHap. xoarpec no 6'bJll'apHCTHIa. 1. Co+Kll 19tH • .Ll,OKJJ8JlH. T. 2. H. I: CHMnosHy'M CnaSJI.HH H npa6bJrrapH.. C.~ 1982. 49-60.

p'f)'1!'Ii!fI. C. ,.llpaO'bJlrapCKilliT xaaeaaap'' B MayepH3J1H3Ta KYJIlypa aa cT3po61.J1rapItTe. - B:

Me.lKJlYRap. KOHrpec no 6'bJ1rapHC1'H'K3:, I. C.o+Hli 19SL 'uOKJi3JlH. 1 .. 2:. 4. 1: CHMnoaHYM CJlaBgUH H

11 APXeoJlOrHH, 4. I 987 r.

npa6'b~rapH. C., 1982, 298-315.

1I.01!'te6a-nemKooa, JltoiJMllJla.

OPOH30B KP1>CT C JlHTyprHIIHH «popMYJIH. - HYMH3MaTHKa, 1981, N2 I, 40-46.

1I.01i'U!6a, J/. u em. AnzeJlooa. np06J1eMH ua paaaocpeaaoaexoaaara KYJlTypa B IOIKBa ,U06pY,llJKa. - B: Me)KAYHap. xoarpec no 6'bJi' rapHCTHKa, I. COCPHH 1981. ,UOKJlaAH. T. 2. 4. I: CHMIl03HYM CaaBHHH H npaosarapa. C., 1·982, 163-181.

fiOpOa1!06, Ii. B'bpxy ·$H3HlleCKHB 06J1HK ua CJlaBHHHTe H npa- 6'bJlfapHTe uo aHTpOnOJIOrHqHH .I1aHHH. - B: Me)KAYHap. soarpec no 6loJ1rapHCTHKa, I. CoIPHSl 1981. ,UoKJla.l1H. T. 2. 4. I: CHMn03HYM CJlaSBHH H npa6'bJirapH, C., 1982, 367-381.

liopiJaHooa, Taus, 11306palKeHHH aa mHBOTHH B crapocsarapCK010 H3KYCTBO H CB'bp3a.HHTe. C THX peJlHrHOOHH BHpBaHHH.ROB H pH60J10B, 1986, Nv 7.14-16.

K6U1!mO, J/uiJUJI. CTe3THToBa

HKOHaHa Boropoasua C MJIa,lleHeua 01 T'bpHOBrpa.l1. - ApxeoaorHH. 1985, Nv 2. 45-53.

Peu.: KOHCTaHTHH TOTeB.-

ApXeOJlOrHH. 1987, .Nl! I, 44-46.

KOAe8, Husosa«. Cyxceexuare n'bTH~a no OoJlrapCKHTe 3eMH H n'bTYBaHCTo no THX npes X V - XVIII B. - B.: HaYKa H 06w.ecTBo. C6. B naxer aa a Ka.ll. EMHJI I'eopruea. C., 1986, 548-561.

Koseoapoe, H. o,'bJIrapCKaTa

JI'bpmaBa B cpeJlHOBeKOBHaTa KiPTOrpaIP.!UI. - B: MemJlYHap. KOHrpee no 6'bJ1rapHCTHKa, I. COCPHSI 1981. .l1.0KJl3J\H. T. I. CeKU. 1, KII. 1: D'bJIrapCK3Ta ll'bpm3Ba npes aexosere. CpeJlHOBeKOBHa 6'bJ1rapCKa JI'bplKasa. C., 1982, 238-246.

Kop06YlUlwHa. T. H. 3eMJIeAeJIHe HS, ·TeppHT.opIiH BenopycCHH B X-XII1 RB. MIIHCK, HaYKa H TeXHHKa, 1979. 115 c., 5 Ta6;/1.,

23,pHC. ,

Peu.: CT. BHTJlHHOB. "7 Apxeo- 1l0rHlI. 1981, .N2 1, 43-44.

KY3e6, A AeKca,Hi)7Jp. HflKHT'

HIITe C'bKPOBHW.a or L.!.OJIHw.e [BapH61HCl!..1I OKpbl'l. -:- MilK, 1986, Nt 4, 44-47.

OF XIU-XIV B.

lluXll'Ce6a. B.· COOTHQwtmHe )(IIIIHaTIOI) .,.Jloll.llOHCKOro" H "EJlDaaaerrpaaexoro" eBB lIreJiHii. - B: MelKAYHap. xosrpee no 6'bJuapHCTHKa,. I. Cocpuli. 1981. .ll.oKJlaAIi. T. 1. CeKU. 5, KH. 1: IhJlrap.cK3- Ta Ky.liTypa H B3aHM0.l1eiiCTBHeTo H esc CReTOBHaTIl KyJlTypa: KYJltypala lIa cpeAHOBeKOBHa .E'bJIrapH,'" c., 1983. 116-126.

MaopoiJuH06a. JI.. I13KycrDOifo ua Bropara 6'bJ1rapCKa JI'bj)mas3. TpaJUIll.HIl, BJI·HIUIHe H' x.YAolKecfBeIlK TeH.I1eHllIUi. - B: MelKJlYHap. xosrpec no 6:onrapIiCTIIKa, L Co:«PHH 1981. ,UoKJlaJlH. T. 1. CeKU. 5, KII. 1: O'bJII:apCKara KyJITypa H B38I1MoAeii:cTBllero, H C'bC CBeTOBHa· ra xyJlTy;pa: KY.l1TypaT8 aa cpea- 1:I0BeKQBHa OunpHa. C." 1983, 2tl6-213.

M anseea, Osea. CpeJlHOBeKOB-

HII KepaMHlJHH C'b.llOBe or IDOHJla na OKp'b/KHHlI HCTOpHlJeCKH' MY- 3eH - CHJlHCrpa. - ,U06pYJllKa, 3, 1986, 100-106.

M IlA'le6, A. KYJlTYPHH B3aH-

MOOTHOllleHHH na E'bJlrapHH C BH- 3allTHH H APyrH re t;:'bCe.l1HH crpa HH npes paHHOTO CpeJlHOBeKoBHe. ---, B: Me)K.I1YHap. xourpec no 6'bJlrapHCTHKa, I. COcj>HH 1981. floKJla.llH. T. I. Cexu. 5, KH. 1: E'bJl· rapcxara KyJlTypa: H B3aH.MO.lleHcTBHeTO H C'bC CBeTOS_HaTa KyJlTypa:

Kyarypara aa (:pe.llHOBeKOBHa D'bJIrapH,.. C., 1983, 298-304.

Muxaanoea, TONKa. C$epOKO-

HYCH OT DJlHCKa. - Apxeoaor na, 1987, .N'! 1, 15-23.

Hetueea, B. KocrIOM.'bT npes D'bpBOrO 6'bJlrapCKO uapcrso (no apXeOJIOfHqeCKH AaHHH). B:

MemJlYHap. xourpec no 6'bJirapHCl·HKa, I. COtj>IIH 1981. .uoKJla.llH. T. 2. 4. 1. CHMno311YM CnasBllli H npa6'bJ1rapH. C., 1982, 351-366.

H UKOA06a, fl. KHJIII«Pa peBcKHHT MaHacrHp - KHH/KOBHO H npocBeTHO cpeauuie npea X IV BeR. - B:

MemJlYHap. xoarpec no 6'bJiraplICTHKa, I. COqlHH 1981. ,UOKJI3J1H. T. I. Cexu, 5, KH. 1: E'bJlrapCKara xyarypa H ssauaoneitcraaerc H C'bC CBeTOBHara KYJlrypa: Kym·ypara aa Cpe.llHOBeKOBHa n'bJIf8- pas, C., 1983, 73-79.

08'lapOO, JJ.. 3a eaaxecsara CIIM· BOJlHKa Y npa6'bJ1rapHTe. _. B:

MelKJlYHap. xonrpec no 6'bJIrapHCTHKa, I. CocplIll. 1981. .ll.oKJla,ll,H. T. 2. 4. 1: CHMn03H,YM CJla'BBHH II IIpa6'bJ1rapII. C., 1982, 214-285.

06'tapoo, HUKoAau .. 3a .. xapaKrepa na xy JlO/KeCTBeHOTO raopseCTBQ B 6'bJ1rap~KOro cpenaoaesoBHe. - np06J1. H3KYCTB010. 1986, ,N~ 3, 53-57.

06'lapOO, HUI v oJlaii. Omesa KYJI' Ta K'bM CB. ,U.IIMHTbV npes Broporo 6'bJ1l'apCKO U1:lPCTBO. - BexoBe, 1981, Nt 1, 16-18.

OJIOSIIH a·lllnYJlH aa CBeTeHO ",aeJlO, BOJla K .I1J}.

Oe"apoo, HUlw/lQu. U,J>PKBala "CB. fioaH ITPOJlPOM" B K'bpJOKa'JIH. - MIlK, 1986. N! 4. 16-22.

HalJaJIHO speae aa C.'b~!!CTBYaaae X -X I sea.

Ilo..Ilu.'II!6, Xpucmo. 4»oTorl>a-

MeTPlIlJHO .I10KYMeHTupalle aa apXeOJlOrRlJecKIfH OOeKl' "Cpe.llil0- ReKODHa xpenocr" - rp. D3J1lJIIK.feoae3·., KapTorp., 3elo(eyC'l'p., 1986, X2 4, 18~20.

Ilot:l()6:, A. T'bpHOBrpaA, CTO' JlHuaTa Ha D'bJlrapHSl npea X 11- X IV BeK. - B: MemAl{Hap. KOHFPe.C, no oo..nrapHcTHKa, I, Coq.HSI 1981. AOJ[Jl3AH. T. 1. CeKU. I, Kfl. 1: D'bJi.apcKaT& Jlbll')K 3 sa, npes BeKOBeTe. Cpe,llHOBeKOBHa oo.JIl'apcxa A'bplKaBa. c.. 1982" 1l0-119.

Ilpmuc, A. K'bM npo6.neMa sa AaTHpoBXaT3 aa Cp,eAH.o.Be'KmmaTa KaTeAP8.11a "CB. HHIiOJl.a" B KpenOCna Ha MeJIHHK.. B:

Meli\Ayuap. lWtll'pec no 6'1>J1rapHCTHKa, I. CO<PHH 198k .ll.oKJIa,lUl. T. 1" Cexu .• 5, KII" I: D1>JlrapU31ia KyJlTypa It B3aHM0.l1~icTBllero H CDC CBelOBH3ra KyJlTypa: K,Y.IITY-

81

para aa cpeascsexoaaa B'biirapHJI.

C., 1983, 176'"'-193.. '.'

PaiJe8a, Mepu. ,PIHutqcpeAlidBeKOBHa KepaMHK8l-01"G.1IJ(8TeH: ~ HaB. MystHTe, IOr0H3T. fi:MrifpuH, 9, 1986;;'67'"""16.''''

Patue8; Po. YCKopeHOp33'BHTHe H8c1ap06'bJltapcKSTa KyJJrypa.:....o..

:~c~1~~)~~~:Hr8:f. Jl()~:~~!~

T. 2. 'q.. 1: CHMn03aYM' CJISmfHH H npa6t..rIrapH. C:, 1982,93-105.

Comup06;' HY1(lH; . X;YJlOHl:ec+B~HHHaKH1'lI01 XVII MK • .l{apefUleTO aa .l{lKOH Bt,PHHIT. -' MfIK, 1986; ,N'g 4, 37-43.

Pa3KpHTo OTHMaHH~ B cpeJl-

HOBeKOBHRTa KpenOI!'t KOKaJfllH-

CKR YpBHII' KpaA C6cltHH.

CthaHttlloo, Cm.u" r. AM1(canap08. ' E31l1JeCKo'cl!etJl'JiHUteOT paUHOi'O cpeJlfi'oBeKOBHe B' MOHTlIB'S,' __. B:Me*)(¥~p. I«()Hrp~ nO'(S!HIrapH'CTIIK'a, 'I. ~H'1I )981. lloKJIII'.IlH, T" 2,. lJ.· Il 'CIIMnosHYM Clt8BlIHH H 'npa6'bnrapK. C., 1982,

286~297. '. .

Cmanxee, ,auMUm7Jp. PaHHo-

epeaaoaexoaen HeKpOnOJl.!tO rapa Ta6nKa. - H3B; MY3eHTe CeB. B'bIlpaf,liUI,IO, 1984, 33-42, 4 c. H'.It:,.

Ctlia1ifieBa, M • HctoPll'lect<H

<lK>P1tfHpaJtU'$IT ce rpaJl, HlferOltm POJIH B ,.cpea8eBeKO&HaTa 61>JlNIIl-eKa- I¢yJl1iYpa. • ........ a; . Mq)(yHRp. KOHrpec·l'Io 6'bliraplidrHKa, 'I:'!~otPHR' 198I.11OKliaAR:' 'F.l. CeKJi. $,K8' ·'1: .B-imrapCK81'a KyJl'rypa HB3aHMoJleltcTBHero if C'bC CBeTOBHaT8KY.1ITYPil: KYJITypaTa na -cpeJlHoBetc-OBHaB'bJIrspHII. c., 11'1&3, 9~16.

CmertotlUK, p. BO.1IrapCKaH cpeaneaexoaas MHHwaTlOpa H YKpaancxaa KHHlKHaH HJlJllOcrpaUHH X lY"':":XVlI DB. - B:MelKAYHap. KOHrpecrio 6'bJirapHCTHK8, 1.' C<><I>HJl' 1981. 1l0KJIQJlH, T.' 1. CeKU. 5, KH.· I:' B'bJlrapcKa'fa KY.ifTypa 'H B3aHMo,lteitCTBRefO'H' C'bC CBerOBHaTa KyJlTypa:. "KYJlTypa:ra Hacpe~iI'OBeKoBJt8IhJll'ap-1tJt.' C.,

1983;' 322-3'4'3'... -:':

CmoRHotta-CepatPuAi06a, p" ApxeOJtOI'Hl{ecKR paaxonxz H npoy'lBaHHH aa CJlaBOBa xpenocr-ra rp. Me.lIHHK. ....:.. B: MeJKAYHap. KOHrpeC no 6'bJirSpHCTHK8; 'h Co!PIUI' 1981. .l{oKiII3JlII. T; I: Ce'KlJ.. I, KH. I:B1>JlFapcKaTa 4'hplKssarrpe3

~~!O~~~a;;r.e~~~Ble:8:'H10~~~

ToiJoPOIIIl, H. U 11'; Stule8l1ue8.

CpeJlHOBekoBHffTtf 6'&Jli'spCKI(ae· MH, cnope.ueBpoilt!iicKHTt!·· KaplI'6- rpaljlcKH. H3Bopil'" B 06m.~aJI1C1lil'eKH· l(OH'reK{!T.· -B:MelK4YHap. Koorpec'uo' 61>J1rapHc1itKa, I. Co'IjlHi 1981. ;llOKJIaJlll.T. I.CeKu. I, KH. I: B'LJU!aplmaTa 4'1aplKaBa npea 8eKOBeTe.Cpt9lKOBeI(()BHsO'r.Jlrapcxa .zt1>J»!t'8Bil-:C., "1982,'247-260.

ToiJo:potta, X: Hmroa oc06eHOCTH B l?a38HTH'eTO li'a apxHTel(rypaTaH8'npa6'bJIrapeKOTo cC!JtHIl(e lIa TmU!MHH ocrpos KpaH ,ll:ypafl- KyJfaK., .... : B: MelK.IlYHap. xoarpec no 61;Jfi'apHcTHKa, I. CoIjlHHJ981'. .llOKMJlH: L2. '4. f: CHMn03IlYM

82

CJlaBllH'I( H,rtpa6'bJ1rapil;'C,', 1982, 316'"-329.

Ti)iIJ~ii, T.flJlHCit8J1 fIpecJIaB 'BcBe'l1iHHaTa :Hllrt{)tJieAHHTEi apxeoaorasecxa pesYJlTaTH.·i.:.,;· '8:

MelKJlYHap. xoarpec 110, 6tmrapHCTHK3, 1. CO$Hn 198 L .uOKJT·dJur. T. 2. tf. I: CHMno3HYMCJlIlBllRH H npa6'bilrapH •. C.,·l982, ]22"";;133.

TYlle'rulW8, Huko/laii. qacoB~

HHKOiJH.Te Kyifl. -' BeROBe, 1-987,

JIll! -r, 39-4&. ,'i

. KY!'lH OT xpaa Ha XVI, XVII

.IlO' XIX s, .., "

Xap(Joea,Mapeapuma., . np&fu" X()Jl Ha 'CelJlf~-eTq .' B ... , paiiOHa' '. HS ~HemHHH rpa.n BaHcKo. ~ __ ' -AjH{fITeKTypll, 1986, 'Nil. 314','59:--:52'.

Xempte, : 1i:,ApxeoJlOrif"li!CKfi nptiY'l&8flHfi' !l1i·titl3il(~,if~' .'.,a TpYAa. Me?My rpa~a ,H. e~oIIbT9J'to BpeMenat JhpDa'f a 61i.1tra~a· Jl1> p- 1lt8Ba~):U;bB:Me#CAYH!lih ., KOHrpec no 6'h.Ilra'plf-crHKa, I.G<><I>HH f981. .l{oK-Jla)(H, T,·2. tJ. I~ CHMB03HYM CJlaBl'IilH' H' 'npa6'l>J1tapH.·C., 1982, 182 ...... 199. '

#OHf{e8a, M, XYAq>I<eCTSeIfH

IiJKOJfH S H3KyctBOToHaCpe,itHoBeKOBHa, VIII-XIVB .. if B'bapc»KAeHCKII XVIII--XrXJlB,.:S1JJlra'PRH, ."'- B: MelKJl)iHilptltoHrpf:le no ~apIkTHKa;,. 1.~eq>Hjf" }981. .l{OI(-JllI,I(H. 'T. L ~~KU. 5;' KH.3:

BtiJ'ifa~KB'ta .. KyJI'typa Hl'I:r8lfMqJ(¥ftt'l'sRTa H'c.1.C CBeroBH8:TftiKynTypa. . :'1)-'L3~eH-CKs} KyJlTy-pa. B'bJlr. 'k)tnrypll', 1878-.'944- r. Cup. ·61Hir. KyJlTypa., C.;', 11)83,

76-94. " ",' i"

lJ,'l1p08,H6at-6!' HoB{)()'tKj)HTM 6pOH3()BH cpeAHOBel(OBHH 'KP'b~~ Be. - 'M3B. M13eH're C~B. B1>Jltapl1'R., 10,1984, 55-:58, 2 c. -.TI. 'HjI.

CJallt!o,a-:J¥'treclU1:. H. GTap'O()'bJIr~pcKa1'iI ... ~'bpHOBHa .. apxaTeI{Typa ......... B: MelKAYH.Ilpi. KOHrpec no ,,6MrapHCTllK8',; 1;'01'}IjllHlI981..l{oKJllli(H',T.· t;~~U:. 'S, Kli. 1: B'hJIraptKIl'Ps" 'KyJirypa,iI B3aHMOJleAcTBHeTO if. C'hC . ditTosRafa" ~Jl1'ypa:l(wrYPWra- aa

cpe,!{HoiftoM ,,1) 'hIIJi'&pHJi; .; C;

1983,'135-,143.' .,

lJ':UAUH.ZUP08, A;"" Tpll.llHUHSI H Hoillt HAe" B 6'bJlrapcKOTQCpeAHOBeKOBHO H3i<YCTBO. - B:MelKAYHap. xonrpec tIOJI'I'bJIrapHCTHK8, 1. C~1l193J.! lloKJta.llH;L ·I;,(;:eKU. -I), !Of. 1: B'hIIJrapcitliT8 K:yJi:Typa 'H B3aHMo~eACTBlleTO "1i'c'&<"'caetol;Jaara KyJl'Typa: "l(yntyp:a1'll' ltacpeJlfI'OBeKO&HaBloJJrapflH •. Co, 19&3'.

17--.;.33. .

f1K06cOH, :A. 0 nepH~'H9auIIH pa!d!eepE,l(HeBeKOBoA ~PXHTeI(Ty~ Pili A)~1kifl'·,,:""B: . .MelKlYffllp. KOHr,pee ~f!9 .15'bJlrapMcTHKA, .l!; £0;-

t1JRlI:r9$f-"llloKRa,,!,fh\(T ;'l;:ee~. 5, KH.l:',B~cJkttllJtyili'Y'Pa· JI B3aHM6aeAc1'BHIm)"; ~/ ct.c, 'C~(jBaara KynTYPa.! I\YJIItYj)SfiiH8 cpe.ttffOBeKoBlfaB'IHlr8i>'irit ... 'C,., '1983, 367:....0..374. '."~

B~l'arrotJa, .' Mi:iJtdal~na,IJie Arcilaologle iibertfie; PfI'al1ze.l'Iptoduktion bel·, den 'If, unmm,A war~ . una Prot~I}lRgaren; .'",:"" "_Pllmatky archeol., 1986, N'0:1 ,"31 ....... 103.

Bottger,B.Zut KonUriuitiit lier' Kera mlkp'i'odtikfioD' i 1!1 Ober. gangvotl" det Spiitliritikezu.m: ftuJ1:'en MittelaIter. +. B: MeJK)'{YHap. KOHrpec "(it?i~ QMrapHCTtU(a<;. 1. C6cltIfJl' i98I.' llQKnaJl.H; T. 2: ,·q.l:

QliMlf03HYM CJI!SJtHH H' iTp'it<YbJIra-

·PH. Co', .98~,'22.L'30;'" :

· Bu"",~, ·eIJ,"fi<!onpgraPtJic<Feafur'es 'Of BU'lfarianlcons 'of. :Saint Geo.,ge; -.B~ 'MeJIt.ItYHsp!}(OHrpec no'6,;Jttaplfer1ik8'; 'I ~ C6cltH;I' 1981. .uOKnaAH:~ T; Ii CeRn; 5. KH:--l:

B'bJIrapCKaTa • K)'.irtY'PlI: HltS8H'MOJleiicTBfleTO 'M . C'bC,. CBeTOBHaTa ,1('11£Typa:' KYJlTyparaaa ·cpe.llHOlleKOBftaB1>iIlrapHlf; C., 1-983, 225 t: 2atj.

Burns,:.y;:,SOme. T;ibg\'dstic 'and ·lconograp'-fb;1; .'~s~s. ',ofc~r John .. Alexander~ G~pel;' ~·'"a:

Me>ft~YffajJ. "i<OHl'peC' hO'61iHl"aPHCTHK8i LC9WHJt"1981..l{oKJiliJlH. T ,'4'.-c~. 5, ,!,Cit: J:;. f',>-hJII,'itpexaTB Kymypa· 'HBaaHMOAeAc.fBffeTah C'bC clleroBHaTaKYJlrypa: "KyJtTYpaTaHacpe.llHoBeKOBIf~·S'6JlrapHSI·

C., 1983, 214,-:-:2~4,. . .,

Dekown.a,M. ':RecherChes' sur .la- techniql1ed'execution G~:objets en verre dl,1 Haut Moyen'Age • ._ In: -Anna:feS';du ge congresde' I' As'SQdafiotl lnternat, poat ,1'ltistoire duverre; Nancy 22:..2~ m.lti 1983. Liege, 1985;, 1511u!1~.'· .' . CT'bMOTO . OT l1~aKoBlOI"l'e.B 9.1l'b'~lInp~.;1961":"'F982;' 1' .• :. us ,ofeKT':' ~T' :,' • ...L.. VI H'X,":",~lf '8.

•... '·Diac6hu"cP1!tre,- Pun~ de vedert\ 'fJ.f.J.:Vinit ~tea'de li( PaetH at . ki-i' Sd!te~".....:;;ln:,· CuUura,i§i,'dviHzafie I'll' Dl,trilir.ettf de' J OlS.COitc ti'ibutiLcaI8ril~iil985.I07""-I·H.

. Dufrenne,S. ~efl~xions sin

l'artmedieval de' la,'8ulpi're. Patri moinenstioniilf;,\~t realites 'Wedievales. ---B:·· Me)K'AYllap.,· KQH~pec no'6'DiIJrapHCTHKa,I:'~11 ,'198ll )~bKJlIl'Jaf.· 'T, L' Geltn,. 5,

,::~.it~Jle~::=lW~a ~~J~rJ~hY

aata KYJJry~:KYJJTypaT~HIi~p* 1lbtieK08lla' 'B'bJft'i'pirl1. eN': {.983 ,

107",--1I5;'i ," . . :'i'. :"

"'EIb~fn, -v.Vtin:den ThraRetp tum, Mitt~laltterd' di~, BeiRs¢lti'enei-Irn Schutz von Yraca; .w B:

MeB(Jty~at>. k.(Jllf"pt;C> no 'GMrap"CTHKa,·1. 'CocpHSI lA.181. .l{'OK,IIa),{H. :r;kiC~tkli, KH, 1 : BytaptKara KyJlTYpaf:i mmroJle'AciittieruH ~c..~It.Ta' ;'KynTypa:. Kymy-

g~i;:~~~oB~a 'B'bJIi'bPH~~

.; i Fii!dIh,',UttJe.: j ZtitD'afietung

~:d' ~~~:~~L'~~1:r~

1(f0rrespori'd'erizbIe~t ,! 'MJ86 'j No '4' 1f5r~6&;'u:' ".! '," .,~,. '

';'Pa3i'J1elK'1I;a' ykpel1HTeJlIlH're sa;. ;loBe"H' 'tiO 6'bJlrapcKHllJ(YHa8tif~

6p#r.'··, . ". ..... .,'

,'(jagot'(l,' /(rasimitq, .. ,Pr9bte'm$ qf tM Me~raevalT'op<>nhny HI :rliraee' (Ml!d'otQpony ms:'oro~lYrili; and·· HYdronjtiilS). ~JEtMf.;balk., f986, NO: i 4, 'IH;i.;..'lO(y;'" .:".

Feni, :''6. 'Lif~ora -. archi tetta.nic8'bliJgllraditritnte .·Hsecon'do regno;;·-'-;. 8: MelKAYHap.- j{OHrpec n06'&nrap'nciIfKa, l~' Coq,HH 1'981 •

II.oK~a)lH. 'T. T. ,-CeRn: 5, KH.' 1:

B1.JIrap·c·KaTa, KYJFyp.a HB33.!IMOlIeiicTBHeTo' Ii CbC CBeTOBHaTa' KyJI~ Typa: I\YJITypaTa aa Cpe)lHOBeKOBna:Bb.iJrapMSI.C., 1983; 144_:_164. : "Tecaque, P. Quelques rerriar-' ques,· a propos des donateurs de I 'eglise de Zemen. _:_ B:: Me}K)lYHap.' -xoar'pec n06bJIrapaCTHK3" I.CO<pHSI 1981. :UoKJIa)lH. T... L CeKU. 5, KH. !: BbJIrapCK;;ITa KYJITypa H B3aHMO)leHcTBHeTo II CbC ~Be'fOBH3TaKyJITypij: , .... KYJITypaTa na CPMHOBeKOBHa,Bb.iJrapHSI. C,

1983165-175. ,. . - .

. Newall, JI., Th''; ,D,og-Headed St. Christopher in Bulgarian Iconography. - B:Me>K)ly!jap.KoHrpec no 6'bJIrapHCTliKa, I.' CO¢HSI 198 L II. 0 KJI a)lH,. L 1. Ceku. 5, RH. I: BbJIf1ipCKaTa xynrypa H B3aHMot\eHcTBHeTo H CbC CBelOBaara KyJ'jTypa: KYJITypaTa aa cpennosexoaua BiJIrapHSI~ C., 1983,

237 :"_246. ' .

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- . Stojkov, A~ ,.Ober-die \Vechsel· beziehungen: zwischen. der mittelalter ltch-bulgarischen uno . , byzantinfschen Kunst. '.'- In: Bulgar ien. 'Internattonale Beziehungen in Geschichte, Kultur und Kunst, Ellwangen 19.-24. Mai

1982. Neuried, 1984, 223-228

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Ursul, G. Bulgarian Influences in the Formation of Medieval Romanian Culture. - B: Me>K)lYHap. xoarpec no 6bJIrapHCTHKa, I. CO¢HSI 1981. II.oKJIaJ{H. T. 1. Cexu, 5, KH. I: BbJIrapCKaTa xyxrypa H B3aHMO)leHCrBHeTO H CbC CBeTOBnara xy.rrypa: KYJITypaTa na Cpe)lHOBeKOBHa BbJIrapHSI. C., 1983, 194-205.

HYMH3MaTHKa

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B'sueapoe, Hean, 3a HSiKOH npo- 6JIeMH na BTOPH'IHO npenenaraHHTe Cpe)lHOBeKOBHH 6bJIrapCKH MOHeTH. - HYMH3MaTHKa, 1987, NQ I, 19-21.

B7J'leapoe, Hean, HaXO)lKa 0'1' rerp anp axxn na AJIeKCaH)lbp I II BeJIHKH 0'1' c. Kpanono, CHJIHCTpeHCKH oxp sr. - II.06p Y)I>Ka , 3, 1986, 85-89.

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85---;-94." ..

. Esexuee, Cepeeti. 3a HyMH3MarH'IHara )leiiHOCT na II.HMHT'l>P MHJIa)lHHOB. - HYMH3MaTHKa, 1987, NQ I,' 34,-38._

)/(eKoe, Focnoiiun, ·II.Be HMHTaIlHH' na BH33HiHHCKH Me)lHH MOnern or VI BeK.' - HYMH3MaTHK3, 1987; N~ I" 22-24.

fiOpaaHoe, Hean, MOJIHB)lOBY' ,1H na AJIeKCHH KOMHHH, aaxepeHH B 6'l>JIrapCKHTe 3eMH. - HYMH3- M3THKa, 1987, NQ I, 12-18,

fiop8aHoe, Hean II Teopeu FuNee. C'l>KpOBHlUe 0'1' BH33HTI!I1CKH nepnepn 0'1' c. naii,l(YIllKo, T'sprOBHIUKH OKp'l>r. - ApXeOJIOrHSI, 1987, NQ I, 27-38.

Koe«, Iiaeui) B. 3a npenaera na acrop asecxara MeTpOJlOrHSI H HSiKOH no-paanpocrpaaean CTapH MepKH aa )I'l>JI>KHHa H TerJIO B B'l>JIrapH!! H O'l>JIr3pCKHTe 3eMH. - Apx. nper-nen, 1986, NQ I, 42-59.

K »nueea, Tamnna. KOJIeKTHBna HaXO,l(Ka 0'1' MapoHeHcKH H raCOCKH rerpanpaxun H TeXHH nonpa>KaHH!! 0'1' HOBa 3aropa. - H"lB. MY3eHTe IOroH3T. B'l>JIrapH5I, 9, 1986, 23--31.

Jlasapoe, .H7J'le3ap. MOHeTH 0'1' MY3eHHaTa c6HpKa B 516JIaHHlla [JIoBeIllKH OKP'l>f). - HYMH3MaTHxa , 1987, NQ 1, 25-34.

Ilenuee, Bxaitu uup . Panxa BH- 3aHTHHcKa 3JIaTHa MOHeTa 0'1' ~OH)la Ha HI1M - CO¢H!!. - HYMH3MaTHKa, 1987, NQ I, 10-12.

Ilposonoe, NIlR u !l.uMUm7Jp Heanoe. Haxomca OT TaCOCKH rerp azpaxun. - MnK, 1986, NQ 4, 48-51.

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B'l>JIrapCKH B'l>3pO>K)leHCKH nan-

nHC 0'1' CHJIHC'rpa. ' .

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!l.JlcaM60e, Hean, E,l(HH HeH3- HeCTeH nanrtnc 0'1' Conor. - 113B. MY3eHTe 1O>K. B'bJIrapHSI, 12, 1986, 95-98.

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fiOH'leB, Bacus . .aBe MO)lYJIHH a36YKH 0'1' cpeaara aa IX B. - Flpon. ecrerrnca. Zlexop. H3KYCTBO, 1986, NQ 3, 12-15.

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II.eBeT Ha)lrp06HH aaanaca na apxencxz e3HK 0'1' XVI I I B.

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," ,

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Ileqnrw,o.. H AUR. PecraBpanHtITa'Ra. KOHaKlB"BBeJlHKO Top· HOBO~' ! -- . ApltB1'tK11pa, 1986, Nt 3/-4, 35-38." ... ' , ,

MIlH'U!8,~.-caHnp;' MYaeRT al MosaRKHTe B'.lleBH.~- MnJ(, 1986, Nt 4,38;.....36.·'. '\

llOItOtItI-Mopos,Btuitt. nposopIJ.H K"If' ApeBROCTT.. PtiJlIIWlIIHaJ{ alt1'HIfR'HTeY .... 1I It. t'{l'jII CDAaR'" CKH -.. &mUa1l, t'ltXplHfe'HH R ••• eKcno~HH. :.....;OreIIecruo. t987" 1'&4, c. 33. ' • ,. ,

Ona3HHel'i' .XaRTHpaHe lIa aR" THQHOTO J1aqI~CTBo. Ha rpaAa. .

'Pa8tiIUJ8;' 3UpaiJKO. . Mep'kR .3a aall8aURe ·lta .. ael8MlKK'urre eTap.litH yi' Ractl8'18-19441'.).Hnf), 1~,Nt 11, 49'::...sh:

!i~, '~'/~' ZtHl'llgffor~tnnili"'~'·"',"ilfn_.~t>!1fKtd Kup~t" fd' 8uJprlel1:. 'w.... .JIt:

Daserste GoldfierMemcbheit-

die iilteste Zivilisa~ion in Europ'a Fl(anuror Itli 1130110,*68 .. ' •.. 2. A.n. ft. 'r~, '1986. 1I--21~ ,

',' ./JIotjfttlrt,' 100ft S. Die Attsstelt';.l)b' ~ Gold der Meit$eh:tI ~' die' ilteste Zh,flisatlon

In,cEuro." .~.,~' "-;.;' =-; 'lo: Das. en .. te (lold Iter . ~ht" :.....; tfi'~ ilt~e

Zlvifi~lonl.J1 ~uropa. f~8'l'a.llor Hall3JtOdtt. ~. Awl. f'reilUq,

1986,' ~tO; ';, . .

. .'. 'IvtiriiJii, 'lfJfi" 'S.: et Vassil Hiklilov. Katalor:;)~ln~Das el'ste <i(>ld . derMe~ni......;.:die Ifte': ste ZlvlfisaUoo WI 'fEuf~ .. (I(_Ta~ ,lJOl" HB H3,IJoxdSal. '!:AUft~ Prii~

bu ;1986,' 5 .• ""'-144.. , r.:>,

'f CJaIlOV, looft~. Dle'R:u"fer· zeitfiche Ftiedhof in Varna. ·';_'In: nJls erst.~ o.>fddef 'Meftschheit--' cHe ilt~te livilisatloIFi"Eijr~; fl(atlJlOl" ftaRsJtO'lKdat:' 2.: Auft. i"relburg; .1986,'3&~!.'. . ".

Niftolov, Vassil."DI'e·Kunst"det' spiten J(upfMeit In B\t,g~en.--, In: Das erste Gold .der M~lttIeit ~dfe 'Ilte$t~ ZMli~,,~~·'~n:Ruro. PI; IKaTIJlor 'He, H~.CJjJ,~''-., Aun. f'reibtlJl' 1986.22 __ 29.. , ;,,' . 'Penfrt'fll" .. Coltll. '. Va'i'bi' urid

de!' soil ale·f(ontextfrilher'Metal"u'rgle. ._:_ In:' Das' ente;Gofd der Menschheit ...,.. die luteSt~ flv'~t~or:t .in., Europa~fl(.,.i.ltor It.: UJfo~J. 2. AuH. Frellmrg', t_, 4a~50. . .. ' ",". . ' ..

'':'',' :' 'CTOJ".A'l1ETPOBA

";-J-:_--ti :_':f;,r:'{;'~-~::'):_i!/- .;-; jiS ~

.. <) tJ

r;

G'b J1. b P )KA H.Ii E

Mapeapuma TalWlQ - ApxeonorH'lecKH ".IIBII,,·

, 3a A8THpaHe Ha Por03eHCKOTo CbXPOIIR- .

",e. Jl'oGne ..... H,.CT~HO"'I!'8 ',' ,'.' • • nem."plf.,.. ~ ~,", . ~",~"K, II ,0" ",~r:"p.,."H., H8 ,TpaK~c~otO ~,~,,~~.,~:;P'j""H. eJll(~H'

31>M ••••• ' .• ,' ; " •••• " '.' t~

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rapH. , .• ~ 4 •. ,,~_,t.:".1~·~~· •• i-.",·~'" :~ " .' .• ·30

:' s , ~ .: i ~ l ,- "~; '; ,

MATEPHAJIH H C'boSDlEHH$I'

BeHl{utMuJ t'll,. ..... MeAn" HaxbJl,il:II' 0'1' Rpalc· -rop, .. eckoto CUll •• B If. Pe.lynrre npR t..tUHIb, n .... llcu' OKp'Lr. • ..: « TeoiJo/KI K ...... -Heo6Ii.poA .. HH n.MeTH.UH

H.,.n..... . ..... '. . . . . . . . . 55

I(IlMi!H JltoIklUltl.- 3HalleHileTO 'JIB ,ltep6l1nHAHTe a bn ... 1teTO HSSpXeMOCHqeeKII'ie ns·

. MeTHHIlH y HaC. • • • • • • .; • • • • 60

KPHTHKA H PEUEH3HH

XeHp~1ft4 ToiIopoIa -B.H. M .• P K 6 B HIl.

IlO3JlHe-TpHnoJlbCK-.e a.-eateH.' CeaepHoll ,Mo.IlAllBHH~ KRIbIl.eB,I984 '. . • ••.. 64

Cepeetl <T ...... ,-:Mdg 0 r za: t aBI e 1'n.tt,~. ·,L tl.,b .• n's,ka.; I'Tbe ~om8n

and Early-By.zantine Fortifications of Lower '~. Moat.·, 'and Northern' Thr.et. Wrocl.w etc.,i982. 285 p •• ill •• ~. • . 65

Apa MdPlOC - A H TOR H II ,X a H A IK H A· e Ie H. 06l1TeJlH 8 CKM"Te. C.. 1985.

154 .c. • ••. , ••....• ,. • • 68

nPEfJIE,n

M. Pexo-BYM60A064 - H3J1ollt6a .. IOaeJl,!pcTBO· TO or EI"IIHCTH"ecKa'i'a _OXa. Tap.H·

ro·, HTun .•.••••..••.. 70

1(. Pa60i)",uetI ,- DTOp. BallHOHaJleH CHtlnosHYM

.. nOCUlUl(eH '1(llIIor8: TpUIiJI" •• . •• 72 JI. !1OHWIII4-Me)KJl.)'a.poaew cHlfn03RytI· no

.CJIB8.UICi:it apxf:OiJlor •• ' • ' •• ; ;'; • • 74

P. Pa~ ..- 'BTopa *e*.YH8po.Ha KOH""eH'

UK. nonp.6'W1ra'pc~ •• pxeMor .. iallly·

flltlf .'. .•.• 76

~~oo~ m

01,

i ;;·'dt1Si· ',"; !ii:-:=LJ' >'-};;~C

,t tll'

'J'. -

fA B LE ',D ESMA,TI E R ES

MarfaTila Taaoo - Donnees archeologlques pout

la datation du tresor de Rogozen, Proble~es eld.9int " vue ~ ; . •. .• 11 Petar .~.~ PrciIfa._ ..... entatiIs .dans I'~rt, thrace d .... l.uut. ,epoque beUeni-

~~~I~ ;.!;.»i·tin .. ;;;,_.:).r .. ,. __ ._- •• il •• • ~

Evgen/ll ~ __ l'lpolQC{t,etdat.tiondes fi-

buies de, Iii ~a~t~ cSPQCJlJe rpllNli~ ... la Bulcarie"clu. Sud·." •. '., .•• T·" •••• 43

MA'rERIAUX, ET COMMUNICATIONS Venceslav OerPv , __ , Trouvaut~, encuivre,'duslte

prebistorique au lieu ditRedutlte ,pres

" dl,l yi)laae Teljs s.. ~~$em~n~~P~ev~, 54

Teodotq.. ,t(~ltrxJ- .Mol1~,uents, nQRPu~He.s . de

Kamelii::en~ ., 'L;j';p;"lanc~ ~e~h';bi'ciit~ 60

dans lapreservahon, des inomiments ar-

cheologiques en Bu1aarie • • '. . • 63

CRITIQUE ET. Om/RAGES RECENSES Henrieta ,Tod~: '..... B,: H. M. pK e B 11'1.

OOUltOoTPHRO.IIbCKIlt 1I.neMeHa CeaeplloA M,OJIJlaBHJI. KIIWlllleB. 1984. • • . . • • 64

SergejTorbtlloo -M .• llorz,.t. Bier·

n a c k a - Lu ba n s ka.:The Roman

a, nd Earlf·Bizantine ·For.Ufications of Lower Moesia and Nuthern Tbraee. Wroclaw etc.., 1982. 285 p. Ill .• j • • 65

Ara MfUaos - AliT, 0 II Kit" X a .. .II JK H II· 'lK H.06itTaTUH • cit ......... , C.. 1985.

154. c. .' . . ...• • ' •. 68

REVUE

M. ReAo-Bulnbalom ExpOSltion,;L 'orfEvreo

rle de l~poque hell~lstique A Taranto",

I talie .........;..... '.. 10

K. RabGdlltv - Deultt~me sympOsium natl~.V ,,vIe d'habltat en Thraee- ;, .• .", • 72 L. DOIfIi:mJ --Symposium ,International .d'.rehEoIOIlesllve ,: .. ' ....•.. '. . '14

R. Ra""_' Deuxl4me eoftf«en~lfttem.ttonale

, d'arcbeolOflie proto~ulpr.': A"'Su'men 76

DibIiOlt.~ • ' .. ;;"" . ';'; ' •. "; ., . 18

• . 1 ~ . , . • ~

e ,

::;

r o a H llLHO' , C])ll"HP)t(A H PIE

···;lI:ii. 'c.

. - ~-;}{ I 1::

BaCU.AeB, . BacIM.· n.·...;.:. HaX.().ziKaTaoT·P~b-

3eH . .:...... .• ._1l.0H.fnf . tfH·OIllf: eJleMeHTH "B.T,aKHitcxaTlI"T~peBTHKa;· .":; •••. 3 13 BaCU/leBfl,. !l aq,UIla ~. fp06KHllaT.a npa 0Beui:il-

'PH::~' ,npdeKTApalle< opaSMepftBaHe H'

KOlIC'I'PYKIUlli ,:,'.; ':. " .';.:; '.. .. .: • .' .,' 2

reH'te8(l, EtlUHUR .-. THIIOJlotHJI HA8THpllile na paanopnxcxare «pH6yJlH OT IO)f<Ha lh.JI-

rapHft .• " .' " •. '.·in. -: • ..;. • • 4 30

IreoPzu88, B.1aiJ~Mup H. r~ IieJle)f(KH OTHOC- . ',:

'IW'HAAttHCllTeBipxy C'L}J.oBeTe'ci1: J>or:Q~' ,

geH":, .. ': ;',; .", .. ";',;",".3 36 teopei/Pea, ,ne'TlJt>-MateP~aJlH" oTnpex6JUinn

· ·neI'Hb.ltM~)f(}J.y· ·k'a1ieufloMe}J.H3Ta' l4;)~Pl?iI~ .

· soeara enoxe OT·<;:e.~~p~a Q'bJlr a;p ,!JI., (n~ 0;. ','

I5neMH Hal1poY~lIaRero'l • •..• ;.. t .1

Fepeoea, l!;riaHd:':';;' 3lf:cl!lCpailr,!si ,!~~Ttplfa. .

· . HaXO}J.K8T8 OT POi'd3el1 • ....~. ;. 3 4 MuxauA08, Feopeu - Ha}J.nHcHTe OT Por03eHCKOTO.· ~J(poBHJ1(e ,. ; ..... • ,.; t. • , •. '. :: ,,: •. 326 MuxauA08a, TOHICa - Clf!ePOKOHYCH OT nJlHCKa I 15 MycaK08a; EAucaselna .- I('LM iI'bnpoca'aa, B'L9"" 'npHeMa1fe ·,sa . XPHCTHftIlCKtmI'eHMilOJIH-

.; . xa . B cTap06'&JO'apcK8Ta·KYJlTypa,;,;",.:i. 2 9

Taueea; Mapeapuma -'- Apx~ornecKH" "AaH-' . '

'HH3a }J.aTHpue HaPOroaeHC'K().'f0'ct.KpoBHJ1(e; IlIp06neMHH,eTaa68iJ~ • ";R. 4 t <1>004, .AAeKttlHiJ-ap· ........ ·.>(i)nH"'~ ~3.~?f('tia cenHJ1(a:iA' OT d>or.6SellcKne; ·':~mtH 3 llauoe, ,fle.m.7iip !,...:.t,. H:r06pasfl1UHK. ~rtP()r.pli'lili "i . r It'a·, TpaiudlewOTu; H3«YCTBO'8 '1"'8hHHS; 8J1i-

. HH3'b". • . ~'" . 4 12

MATEPHAJIH H CbOBIUEHH5I

50"'"fI{J8a, /Qi(lflJl,. B,q.:ceTm. . P!JC.UH06>-;:-'l'PH .. Hap.,' ·fP!l(5,H.H·naMeT!lHI~a!, .I)T,J1.Od~a,!:A lia

" Cpe.!lHa CrpYMa ......:..., 0");' I 24

reop~lI:~,;' {l,inio. ·OSQH·. s'OwpOa· ~ I?H¥C,KH.·'

::" . 6pOH30~ ~JI.eMO'l'.KOJIeJ{IlHnTa'ija: OKp'L>K' HH"HcrQPH'I.Cl~H "'l~i\·il "R. CHnH~p,a2. 18 repz08,. B.eHI{~CJla8 -:- ,M.e.!l!lH. HlI}H?A!<IFQT"npa.'H,qT,9PII"eqJ{9TO~.~e "PH' C • .'lfeJIHIU,k , , nJleil~HcKHi.oJ{p:~r'i"'" ':~';"';""';" 4 44 IIppiJait08!' Hea»; Feopeu. rUHe/! :-.CJ>~;.,Ui Or BH38HTHAcKH nepneps OT c. naiiAYw-

KO, T'bprOBHJ1(KH OKp'Lr ....••. I 27

Koeaueea, TeoiJopa - He06Hapo}J.B3HH naxer-

HHUH Ha ,llHaHa . . . . . . • . • • . 4 55 JlIoOeH08, KaMeH - 3HalJeHHeTO na xep6HUH-

.!lHTe B onaasaaero aa apxeonorauecxn-

Te naMeTHHUH B B'bJirapHJI . . . . . . 4 60 Mapa808, HsaH - BorHHIITa Me)f(.llY KeHTaBpH

(Nt 158 OT POT03eHCKoTo CbKpOBHJ1(e) 3 55

Hetueea, Buosema - Me}J.Ha anJlHKaUHJI C H30- 6pa)f(eHHe aa rpHcpoH OT MeJlHHK. . • . 2 34 HUltO.ll08. 50ziJaH - rOJlJlMaTa '1awa OT Poro- 3eHCKOTO C'bKpOBHJ1(e . • . . . . . . . 3 38 HUICOA08, !luMUm7>p - 3a xapaxrepa na Poro- 3eHCKOTO C'bKpOBHJ1(e . . . . • . . . . 3 65 02HeH08a-MapuH08a. JItI}OO - Bene)f(KH B'bpXy cpHaJlaTa OT Poroaeacxoro C1tKpOBH~e

C MOTHB OT MHTa aa Xepaxsa H Aare 3 47 CMfliJOOCICU, cmeea« - Errarpaipcxo-rexcroaorH'IHH }J.06aBKH B'bpXY ome ABa nanna-

ca (3) ••.•••.•....... I 38

Cm01lH08, TomlCo - 3a mrrepnperaunara sa ra-

xa napesenaa ncf>PH3 na 3.!lpaBeHOcHHTe (0)f(eC'lBa" OT cf>HJlHnonon . . . • . . . 2 25 Tomes, Koncmasmun - 300MOp!f!HH Me'raJlHH

HaXO.!lKH 01' CeaepOH3TO'lHa B'bJirapHJI 2 29

86

S 0 M M A IR· E' D E' i:h 1\ N 'N F: E

ARTICLES

t. p .

. '.

Vasue»; .vtJ~~frlb..:;i~jltg;~~~!td.eri~~::~i\'"

.. , . dans Iii fbfl~vti"que:thtice .' : .": :. " 3 26 Vilsi*rJfi.:pjJ/ind.':': '~e,~~R#Jp-e r,re\\,'M Sv~~a,

- , ri -p~~Jet1'i m~Il~'Vi~ .e ,.cJ?A~tru!!hon 2 9

Genc8u(t, Evgenia -. r.ypol~ie. et datatiotf des fibules de la haute epoque romaine de

la Bulgarie .du: Sud. ,', ., '. ~"r) ;.'4:,.3

[Georgietl,.VladinU,J.I. "'7.}{ates au., ,Srlljl,\tqtlli"./··, iBscr.ipti-e.ns aut les,Lvases de. Rogozen 336

(Jeorgieqa,. peti(v 7"" M1!ieriux,:' de ,la' ;.p~riode .uans.j,toire', _re.oEage>: de . pierc.re''I'et de.. · .;:uivr.eet.l'~g.e tie, bronze de la &lgarie

.j 1l~,tN-or·(hWrobktmes.del'.etude~j\,;,.i;.'." • 1 .15 Guerlloua,~ana·"_ ·Sir.,}e,;<,arader~,~ de la

' .. trouvallle .deRogozQn, '~!" .ii.', ;". 3 12 Mihai/ou, Georgi - Les inscriptions du tresor

de Rogozen .. I··.·~:~;;.:· •.. ' •• y;.3;,35 Mihajioua, Tonka- Cones spheriques de Phska 1 23 Musa.kol)Q;' Elisavela;'-.Sur.lk quest~:.t'adop. ,.' diEm, de hl'·symboJi.que chretienne .dans

· lsculture ancienne"bulglll"e' •.• :.,.;. •. ~.:. 2 17 Taeev4,. Mllrgariitl" +, ponnees areW.ol~ques.

.. ".·g:,fj)t~ .. ~ .. a .: ';da.,r~~~~. (~ ... ~.'J!~.~.:.,~.;~~. '~. n.:.: 4 Ii

Fol, <4~~1~ii~is ~'J1et:IOCflt"'fion 1h!sto·

,.. . pOPY:,tne$:: deS,o,i1l$'Ci'~n~ .• de '/IU,g~ 3 3 CacofJj,,pl!tll( '.' -to ,~Programme$ OJ tteI»:~eotatij$ l..

rums I.'art..t.br,aee dans ':htqflaite epQf{tte

· be\lel1i!lti.!lu.e., .' .' " " ... , ~ • ..' .'; . 4 30

MATERIAUX ET COMMUNICATIONS

.. (if. Il;,"··,tj:~/. ,'~-; ·<~:"·,:·;::.;.;~1~'; -;}:;_-~~~

BozinQua!.J ulia, Valeri ,R:usi1NW'·, •• dlrois monu. . lJIellt$ tu mulalres deIa vallee de.la Stru-

ma· ;J»oyenne:·.',,· •. _ .... > ".';,t,.~ .• ·,.A 21 Georg.iell, Petko, "/uan; 1J4loorlJU .. -+' :G)asqu.e.:de bron:w.r{llJ1lain deJa"coll~lltion du Musee. .

~ . iJi's.toriqu~ pepartem,entaL:'a; SUiatr.a; fe' .. 2 25

Gergov.,·f-e,nceslau,;_." ·:tool-tvailieselli'·tbivre.·"dl1: .

'4Ue., prmslorique ~Aieu.:"ibReduiite

· Ilr~ .dlJ .viJlage. J'eHs.; .dtWl4l't~mentde

-. , . Pleven , , • , , , , .' • , , , • . 'UI L., fl • .fi4 iomano». loan, Georgi Gine» - Tresor de per-

peres byzantins du village Pajdusko, departement de Targovlste . . . . . . I 38 Kooateoa, Teodora - Monuments non publics

de Diane • • . • . . . . . . . . • . 4 60 Liubenoo, Kamen - L'I mportance des herbici-

des dans la preservation des monuments archeologiques en Bulgarie . . . . . . 4 63 Marazou, Ivan - La Deese parmi les centaures

(N 158 du tresor de Rogozen) .•.• 3 63

Neseua, Violeta - Application en cuivre avec reo presentation de griffon de Melnik . . . 2 38 Nikolo», Bogdan - La grande tasse du tresor

de Rogozen ••.•.•••••.•• 3 47 Nikolo», Dimitlu - Sur Ie caractere du tresor

de R ogozen . . . • • . . . . . . . . 3 66 Ognenoua-Marinoua, Ljuba - Notes sur la phiale du tresor de Rogozen avec motif

d'Heracles et d'Auge ......•. 3 55

SmjadotJSki, Stefan - Supplements epigraphotextologlques sur encore deux inscrip-

tions (3) .........•...• 1 40

Stolanou, Totko - Sur l 'Jnterpretation de la-

dite .Frtse des divinites salutaires" de

Phlllppopolis 2 29

Toteu, Konstantin - Trouvailles metalliques zoornorphes de la Bulgarie du Nord-Est 2 33

KPHTHKAH PEUEH3HH

Bell/we, BellL1ap' - R en at e Pi I i n-

. g e r . (Hrsg:).Spiitalitike und friihbyzantinische Kultur Bulgariens zwischen Orient und Okzident. Refer ate," genalten i In' R'ah'men einesgemeinsamen mit dem . Bulgar ischen . Forschungsinstitut in -Osterreich 'organisierten .Arbeltsgespr aches, '(Ostetreichische . Akaderni e der Wissenschaften. Schriften der Balkankommission. Antiquarische Abtei-

lung. XVI). Wien 1986. 124 p ..... I 41

BUmIlRItOIl, CmORIt - T. H. K 0 po 6 y 1lI K H-

H a. 3eMe.l\eJIHe aa TepHTopHH Beaopy-

CHH B X-XIII BB. MHHCK. Havxa H rexHHKa, 1979. 115 c., 5 Ta6Jl" 23 pHC ... I 43

BUmIlRIt08, CmORIt - M. CPo I' y P H H. .upeBHee lKeJIe30 Beaopycxoro Iloauenposae. MHHCK, HaYKa H TeXHHKa, 1982. 121 c.,

108 pHC., 18 Ta6JlHUH . . . . . . . . 3 67 JJ.aItKOB, Eenoeu - )I( a H - K JI o a I' a p .l\ e H,

Teoperuuecxaa apXeOJIOfHlI. M., Ilpo-

rpecc, 1983. 295 C. . . . . . , . . . 2 39

Mapeoc, Apa - A H T 0 H H fi X a H .l\ 1I{ H ~I-

CKH. 06H'feJIll B cxanure. C., 1985.

I 54 C. ........,',.... 4 68

Il anauomoea, Kp-scmuna - 0 Tap JI 0 P .l\-

K H n a 1-1 H .l\ 3 e. .upeBHa KOJlXH.l\a.

MHT H apXeOJIOl'HlI. c., 1985. 286 c.,

64 CHHMKH, 4 nxaua, I peKoHcTpYKUHlI 2 43

Tooopoea, Xeupuema - B. H. Map K e B H 'I. 5JlH3KOe H nanexoe, Kmunnea, 1985.

45 c. leKCT ua MOJl.l\aBCKH, PYCKII H allrJlllficKH, 207 unerun HJlIOCTpaUHH . . , I 42

Toiiopoea, Xenpuema - J. L ii h n i n g, Eine Siedlung der mittelneolithischen Gruppe Bischteim in Schernau. Ldkr. Kitzinr en, Kallrnunz, 1981 .. , .. , 2 42

Toiiopoea, Xenpuema .:._ B. I1. Map K e B II 'I. il03.l\HeTpHnOJIbCKHe nJleMella Ceaepnori Mo.1J.l\aBHH, Knurunea, 1984 . . . , , . 4 64

Toptiamoe, Cepeeu - M a I g 0 r z a taB i-

ern a C k a - L u ban s k a. The Ro-

man aud Early-Byzantine Fortifica-

tions of Lower Moesia and Northern Thrace. Wroclaw etc., 1982. 285 p. ill. 4 65

Tomeo, Koncmanmun - II H .l\ H 1I K B H H T O.

CTeaTHTOBa HKOHa ua Boroponnua c MJla.l\eHeua OT T'spuosrp an, - ApXeOJlOrHlI,

XXVI!, 1985, 2, c. 45-53 1 44

; ... y , )\ ~ ~~. ','.. !; .

CRITIQUE ET OUVRAGES RECENSES

Velkoo, Vetizar- R ~ nat e Pi.I ling e r

. . (Hrsg.).' Spat ant ike und friihbyzantini-

sche Kul tur Bulgariens zwischen Orient und Okzident. Reler ate, gehalten im Rah-. , men eiries g:emei_ns,aITIen mit dem Bulgarischen Forschungsinstltut inOster •. reich organisierten Arbeitsgespreches.

. (Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Schriften der Balkankom mission. Antiquarische Abteilung. XVI).

Wien, 1986. 124 p. , , I 41

Vitlijanuu, Stojan - T. H. K 0 p 06 y 1lI K H -

H a. 3eMelleJlHe na repuropuu Benopy-

CHH B X-XII BB., MHHCK, HaYKa H rexHHKa, 1979, 115 c., 23 pHC. , . , ... 143 Vitlijanou, Stojan - M. CPo I' y P H H . .upeBHee

lI\eJIC30 Benopycxoro Ilonuenponae.

MHHCK, HaYKa H TeXHHKa, 1982. 121 c.,

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ISSN 0324-1203

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I 20203 I

QEHA 1,80 JIB.

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