Form 2 Science Chapter 4

Interdependence among Living yschow@smkbpj(a) 1 Organisms and the Environment

Content
1. Interdependence Among Living Organisms 2. Interaction Between Living Organisms 3. Food Webs 4. Photosynthesis 5. The Importance of The Conservation and Preservation Of Living Organisms 6. Role of Man in Maintaining the Balance in Nature
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4.1
Interdependence Among Living Organisms

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Habitat
• A habitat is the natural living place of plants and animals. • A habitat provides an organism with air, space, food, shelter and a place in which to breed.

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Species
• • • A species is a group of organisms that have the same shape and structure. They can also breed together to produce offspring that are fertile. Penguins , rat, cat and elephant are examples of the different species of organisms.

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Population
• A population is a group of organisms comprising the same species that live together in a habitat. • For example, (a) a population of monkeys in a tree (b) a population of elephants on a grassland
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Community
A community consists of several species of animal and plant population that live together and interact with one another in a habitat.

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Ecosystem
• An ecosystem consists of several communities that interact with one another and with the physical environment (nonliving things such as water, air, soil, light and mineral salts). • For example, (a) a pond ecosystem (b) a tropical rainforest ecosystem
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Learn more : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XJ6VtduDSyY&feature=related
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4.2
Interaction Between Living Organisms

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1. Prey-predator
• A predator is an organism that kills and eats another organism. • A prey is the organism that is eaten.
predator

prey
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1. Prey-predator
• A predator usually has special physical characteristics such as sharp claws and fangs, or a sharp beak, with which to kill its prey. • A prey usually has the ability to run away a from a predator.

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Symbiosis
• Symbiosis basically means ‘living together’ . • There are three types of symbiotic relationships, namely i. Commensalism ii. parasitism and iii. mutualism.

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I .Commensalism (Symbiosis)
• In commensalism one species benefits from the interaction, as the other is unaffected. • The unaffected species is the host.

Staghorn fern obtains sunlight, Tree is not effected .

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I .Commensalism (Symbiosis)

remora and the shark The anemonefish lives among the forest of tentacles of an anemone and is protected from potential predators.
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ii. Parasitism (Symbiosis)
• Parasitism is another type of interaction between two organisms. • Only one organism benefits. • The other organism suffers some disadvantage.
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Louse suck blood from their host

Rafflesia absorb minerals from roots of other plants.

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ii. Parasitism (Symbiosis)
• A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside the other organism. • The host is the organism on or in which the parasite lives.
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Two groups of parasites :
1. Parasites that live out side the host organism. • For example mosquitoes, lice and fleas suck blood from their host . 2. Parasites that live inside the host organism. • For example, tapeworms and hookworms inside the intestines of humans and animals.

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iii. Mutualism (Symbiosis)
• In mutualism, the interaction is beneficial to both species. • Mutualism is a form of cooperation. • They obtain nutrition and shelter from each other.
The bird eats the fragments of food left between the crocodile teeth. So the crocodile gets its teeth cleaned.
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iii. Mutualism (Symbiosis)

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Competition
• Competition occurs when organisms compete for the same basic resources. • Animals compete to obtain water, food, living space and mates for reproduction.

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Competition
• Plants compete to obtain water, sunlight, minerals and living space.

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Summary so far ...

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Biological control
• Biological control is a method in which a predator, the natural enemy to a certain pest, is used to control the population of that pest in an area.
The aphid is a pest to the gardeners, damaging his plants. The ladybirds helps the gardener by ridding him of these pests

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Biological control
• Biological control has many advantages as compared with using pesticides. • Some of them are: (a) it does not pollute the environment (b) it does not kill other organisms except the pests (c) it is cheap and safe to use
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Biological control

Barn Owls (Tyto alba) a proven natural predator of rats in Oil Palm

When the eggs hatch, the ichneumon larvae feed on the body of the host .

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Biological weed control involves the release of organisms that attack plants to control weeds.

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4.3
Food Webs

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Food Chain
• A food chain is an energy flow showing how energy in food is passed from plants (producers) to animals (consumers).

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Food Webs
A food web consists of several food chains that are interlinked to one another

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Pyramid of numbers
• A pyramid of numbers shows the number of organisms at each stage of the food chain.

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Pyramid of numbers
• From the base of the pyramid to its peak: (a) the number of organisms decreases (b) the size of the organisms increases (c) more energy is lost

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4.4
Photosynthesis

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• Photosynthesis is a process that occurs in green plants, in which food is made from water and carbon dioxide in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight.
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Photosynthesis equation
chlorophyll Carbon dioxide water sunlight Glucose (food) oxygen

The glucose produced is transported to other parts of the plant to be: (a) oxidised through the process of respiration to provide energy (b) stored as starch
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The role of photosynthesis
a) enable green plants to make their own food. b) regulate and maintain carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere. c) increase oxygen content in the atmosphere.

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Experiment 1
break the cells.

Test for starch . Turn blue-black. soften the leaf

remove chlorophyll

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Experiment 2
Aim : To show plant need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis .

Info : Sodium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide

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The carbon cycle
• The carbon cycle is the circulation of the carbon element on the Earth. • These processes take place continuously. • The carbon cycle maintains the content of carbon dioxide in the air.
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The carbon cycle
• The processes that release carbon dioxide into the air include: (a) respiration and breathing (b) combustion (c) decomposition • Photosynthesis, which takes place in green plants, removes carbon dioxide from the air.
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The oxygen cycle
• The oxygen cycle is the circulation of oxygen on the Earth. • These processes take place continuously. • The oxygen cycle maintains the content of oxygen in the air.

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The oxygen cycle

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4.5
The Importance of The Conservation and Preservation Of Living Organisms
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The greenhouse effect
• The greenhouse effect occurs because a layer of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere prevents a portion of heat from escaping to the outer space.

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The greenhouse effect
• The greenhouse effect raises the Earth's temperature. • This is known as global warming. warming • This phenomenon causes changes in the world's weather and climate.

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Result of global warming

The sea level increases and this results in the flooding of low-Iying coastal areas.

The melting of ice caps at both of the Earth's poles.
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The depletion of the ozone layer
• The ozone layer absorbs most of the ultraviolet rays before it reaches the Earth's surface. • Chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used in the manufacture of aerosol sprays, refrigerators and air conditioners, are pollutants that break down the ozone molecules in the ozone layer.
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Ozone hole

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Ozone depletion effects
• Ultraviolet rays that reach the Earth cause: (a) skin cancer (b) cataract of the eyes (c) the human immune system to malfunction

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Acid rain
• Gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide dissolve in rainwater to form acid rain.

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Acid rain effects
Acid rain can: a) destroy sculptures . b) lower the soil pH value and make it unsuitable for plants. c) River water that is polluted by acid rain is no longer suitable for aquatic organisms.

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4.6
The Importance of The Conservation and Preservation Of Living Organisms
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• Managing environmental pollution can save our Earth. • The following are steps that can be taken to reduce environmental pollution: (a) use unleaded petrol (b) ban nuclear testing (c) create special places to burn rubbish (d) implement stricter law enforcement on the disposal of toxic waste from factories (e) hold campaigns to prevent pollution (f) recycle, reuse and reduce materials
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