MPLS Deployment – Best practices

Yogesh Jiandani, Consulting Engineer, India and SAARC Vagish Dwivedi, Consulting Systems Engineer


© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Classroom basics
• This session is for people who already have an understanding of how MPLS, MPLS L3 VPNs and MPLS TE work • Cellphones off or in vibrate mode. If important, calls to be taken strictly outside the classroom • No Internet/Email/Chat etc access while in the class. In short, please shut off your laptops. • PLEASE ASK QUESTIONS. THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A STUPID OR DUMB QUESTION.


© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Session objectives
• Main new developments • Set-up services • Best practices & designs


© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Inc.MPLS . . All rights reserved.The Big Picture L3 VPN CsC IP VPN DS-TE Sub-VPN L2 VPN IP QoS µcast Protect IGP + LDP TE FRR IPv6 VPN over VPN EoMPLS VPLS H-VPLS Internet transport 4 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

MPLS Innovation & Standards VPLS VPWS IPv6 6PE 6VPE Carrier supporting Carrier Multicast over 2547bis VPN BGP/MPLS VPNs ATOM 3209 Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels Virtual Private Networks Any Transport over MPLS IP switching DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) (DiffServ) BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM 3031 Multiprotocol Label Switching LDP Architecture * RSVP 3270 MPLS Support of Differentiated Services 3032 MPLS Label Stack Encoding * 3271 Definition of the Differentiated Services Field in 3034 Label Switching on Frame Relay Per-Label* Forwarding. Queuing.. Multicast. ATM. Inc. POS.. .) Specification * 3036 LDP 2698 A Two Rate Three Color Marker 3037 LDP Applicability * 3260 New terminology and clarifications for DiffServ 3443 TTL processing in MPLS Networks IPM-T02 5 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Restoration IP Headers CEF Networks 2474 An Architecture for Differentiated Services Mechanisms 3035 MPLS using LDP and ATM VC 2597 Assured Forwarding PHB Group * Switching * 2598 An Expedited Forwarding PHB * 2697 A L2 protocolsColor Marker Single Rate Three (PPP. FR. GRE. Enet. All rights reserved. Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) .

POS. ATM.txt DiffServ Multicast IP • 3985 PWE3 Architecture Traffic Fast IP • EncapsulationCoS Methods for aware Routing Engineering Rerouting switching of ATM Over MPLS Transport (DiffServ) TE (PIM v2) Networks draft-ietf-pwe3-atm-encap-10..txt • BGP-MPLS VPN extension for IPv6 VPN VPLS VPWS IPv6 6PE 6VPE Carrier supporting Carrier draft-ietf-l3vpn-bgp-ipv6-07. Multicast. GRE.txt • Virtual Private LAN Services over MPLS draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-ldp-08. .txt IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 6 . All rights reserved. Queuing.MPLS Innovation-in-Progress • L2VPN Framework draft-ietf-l2vpn-l2-framework-05. FR. Restoration Per-Label CEF draft-ietf-pwe3-ethernet-encap-10. Inc.) MPLS TE MPLS Networks draft-ietf-pwe3-hdlc-ppp-encapmpls-05.txt OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP • Encapsulation Methods for Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) RSVP Transport of Ethernet Over MPLS NetworksForwarding.txt • 3270 MPLS Support of Mechanisms • Encapsulation Methods for Differentiated Services Transport of PPP/HDLC Over • 3564 Support of DS-aware L2 protocols (PPP.txt Multicast over VPN ATOM Any Transport over MPLS BGP • Multicast in Virtual Private Networks MPLS/BGP VPNs LDP draft-ietf-l3vpn-2547bis-mcast00.. Enet.

All rights reserved. transferred to MPLS WG) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 7 .IETF at work Working Groups related to MPLS MPLS L3vpn Pwe3 L2vpn L1vpn Ccamp Isis Ospf Pim BFD = Multi-Protocol Label Switching = Layer 3 Virtual Private Networks 39 RFCs / 19 Drafts 6 RFCs / 19 Drafts = Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge to Edge 3 RFCs / 24 Drafts = Layer 2 Virtual Private Networks = Layer 1 Virtual Private Networks 11 Drafts (VPN over GMPLS) = Common Control and Measurement Plane (GMPLS) = IS-IS for IP Internets = Open Shortest Path First IGP = Protocol Independent Multicast (as consultant for MPLS) = Bi-directional Forwarding Detection + Personal contributions (draft & Informational RFC) TE Internet Traffic Engineering (Concluded.

Inc.Agenda • L3 VPNs Create VPN Internet access Security considerations BGP advanced features • MPLS L2 Transport Virtual Private Wired Services Virtual Private LAN Services • MPLS OAM and Traffic Management OAM Fast-convergence Traffic Engineering • Manage L3-VPN services Troubleshooting / Diagnostics Configuration IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 8 . All rights reserved.

9 .Agenda • Create L3-VPN service Create VPN Internet access Security considerations BGP advanced features Vagish Dwivedi IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

VPN Taxonomy Virtual Networks Virtual Private Networks Virtual Dialup Networks Virtual LANs Overlay VPN Layer 2 VPN X. 10 . Inc. All rights reserved.25 GRE Frame Relay IPSec ATM Layer 3 VPN Peer-to-Peer VPN Access Lists (Shared Router) Split Routing (Dedicated Router) MPLS VPN IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

0.0 10.0 CE VPN_B RR RR VPN_A CE 11.0 VPN_A PE CE VPN_B P PE CE VPN_B 10.1.0 Do not build a fully meshed iBGP network: Use Route Reflector (RR) Easy add of new site / Central point for routing security Stability Two RR (or three) are enough in general in Enterprise Each RR can store easily up-to 200.MPLS-VPN BGP peering design Route Reflectors VPN_A 10.0. 11 . Inc.0.0.0 11.0. All rights reserved.0.1.0 VPN_A P CE CE PE1 CE PE2 P P 10.6.000 Routes Larger design is easily feasible IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

Route-Target (RT) are acting as Import/Export filters No limitation on number of RT per VRF a VRF may belong to multiple VPN IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 12 .2 3 4 PE2 RT Import : 2 & 3 RT Import: 1 RT Import : 2 PE1 The RD is prepended to IP address to make it globally unique. All rights reserved. RT: RT Export: 1 & 2 RT Export: 3 RT Export: 4 1. RT: RD4@Net4. RT: RD2@Net3.VRF Route Distribution control Interconnect Private Virtual Routers across the network MP-iBGP (RFC2858) RD1@Net1. The RD serves as a VPN identifier for simple VPN topologies but may not be true for complex topologies. Inc.

Simple ip vrf VPNA rd 500:18 route-target export 500:18 route-target import 500:18 VPN A VPN A ip vrf VPNA rd 500:18 route-target export 500:18 route-target import 500:18 SITE-1 MP-iBGP SITE-3 P Router SITE-2 VPN A SITE-4 Site-1 routes – Lab xx Site-2 routes – Lab yy Site-3 routes – Lab zz Site-4 routes – Lab tt © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.Intranet Model . Site-1 routes – Lab xx Site-2 routes – Lab yy Site-3 routes – Lab zz Site-4 routes – Lab tt VPN A IPM-T02 13 .

Inc. ip vrf VPNB rd 500:18 route-target export 500:18 route-target import 500:18 14 .Intranet Model . All rights reserved.Complex ip vrf VPNA-central rd 500:28 route-target export 500:28 route-target import 500:28 route-target import 500:18 VPN A VPN A-central ip vrf VPNB-central rd 500:28 route-target export 500:28 route-target import 500:28 route-target import 500:18 VPN B VPN B-central SITE-1 MP-iBGP SITE-3 P Router SITE-2 VPN A SITE-4 VPN B ip vrf VPNA rd 500:18 route-target export 500:18 route-target import 500:18 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Avoiding Routing Loop Must block loops: •BGP: •AS number or Site of Origin route-map •OSPF: MPLS-VPN Backbone PE-3 PE-1 PE-2 Area 1 •Down-bit or External Tags … CE-1 CE-2 Network = Net-1 Area 2 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 15 . All rights reserved.

. The route from the superbackbone is inserted as an interarea route.Loop Avoidance An OSPF route is received by a PE router. 16 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Down PE Router The route is never redistributed back into the MP-BGP backbone. and propagated across the MPLS VPN backbone. All rights reserved. BGP Backbone PE Router PE Router The OSPF route is propagated with the down bit set. redistributed into MP-BGP. Inc. Area 1 IPM-T02 Area 2 The local subnet is announced without the down bit.

AS Override The customer wants to reuse the same AS number on several Sites IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. 17 .

AS Override IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 18 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Implementing SOO with route-map helps in Loop Prevention IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.Site of Origin • AS path-based BGP loop prevention is bypassed with ASoverride. 19 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Insertion of MPLS VPN into an existing network • As MPLS VPN relies on BGP A smooth insertion into an existing IGP network is not by default • Two approaches: External Autonomous System insertion ( from Edge ) Insert MPLS VPN at boundary points.requires GRE Splitting of existing network – Core does not run MPLS Core Still carries normal traffic Transparent insertion ( from Core ) Core runs MPLS and exchanges labels – no configuration change of existing CE router Smooth integration into area or AS More complex definition IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 20 . Inc.

IPM-T02 21 . Inc. All rights reserved.MPLS VPN insertion in an OSPF network: PE acts as ABR or ASBR Network splitting MPLS VPN Super Backbone VPN red VPN red area 0 VPN red area 0 area 2 area 3 area 1 If same Domain-ID then LSA 1/ LSA 3 are redistributed as LSA 3 else LSA 1/ LSA 3 are redistributed as LSA 5 (By default domain-id is equal to OSPF process-id) id © 2005 Cisco Systems.

and the MPLS network is seen as an intra-area link IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. but add more complexity OSPF link in parallel of the MPLS network are supported any area Works into The PE acts like an intra-area router. All rights reserved. 22 . easy migration. Inc.MPLS VPN inserted into any Area PE is intra-area router Use Sham-link to keep LSA type 1 MPLS VPN Super Backbone Sham link LSA Type 1 VPN red area 1 Low Bandwidth Backdoor VPN red area 1 Low Bandwidth Backdoor VPN red area 1 More transparency.

44. .255 Warning: Sham-link loopback must be learned thru Core MP-BGP router ospf 12 vrf OSPFCustomer area 1 sham-link 255.4 255. All rights reserved.146.0 0.255 area 1 ! router bgp 1 address-family ipv4 vrf OSPFCustomer redistribute ospf 12 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.255.0 interface Loopback44 desc Sham-link interface ip vrf forwarding OSPFCustomer ip address 100.OSPF Sham Link PE config. Inc. 23 .0.10.4 100.5 cost 2 redistribute bgp 1 subnets network 100.Sham-link Connection ip vrf OSPFCustomer rd 10:1 route-target both 10:1 interface Serial0/1 ip vrf forwarding OSPFCustomer ip address

24 . All rights reserved. and Centralized Services VRF Common QoS • Zoning for Security management Raising need: Some VRF. but may increase in future VRF are used to group users with same rights Firewalling is acting between VPN (users & Servers) Common QoS • Enterprise acts like an Internal-SP Requires security and per VPN QoS • Customer is an SP IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc.Sub-VPN on a Site • Separate Intranet / Internet Need one VRF and Global access • Enterprise is composed of independent groups à la Holding. add & remove easily entity Need a few VRFs.

25 . All rights reserved.Multi-VRF CE . ATM VC’s.Extending MPLS-VPN Ability to create VRF without MPLS switching SubInterface Link Any Interface type that supports Sub Interfaces. FE-Vlan. Frame Relay. Inc. GRE Clients Multi-VRF CE Router PE Router PE Router Clients MPLS Network SubInterface Link * Allows to push ‘PE-like’ function to CE • Independance of core versus edge (no peering between CE & all PEs) • Using simple CE : no MP-BGP / no LDP Most of CE functions are supported into a VRF IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

Local Inter Multi-VRF routing Route-target export 10:12 Route-target import 10:21 Route-target export 10:21 Route-target import 10:12 Local Red is routed with local Green. Inc. 26 . but VPN are still separated Requires MP-BGP to be enabled on CE (you can control export/import using Route-map) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Agenda • Create L3-VPN service Create VPN Internet access Security considerations BGP advanced features Vagish Dwivedi IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 27 . All rights reserved. Inc.

28 .Internet Access • Facts: Basic MPLS switching allows not to distribute Internet routes into the core No label is given to external BGP routes One label is given to Next-Hop @ Some customer requires optimum access to Internet @ The Internet table is too big to be populated in multiple VRF Ex: 100 VRF * 130.000 !!! And even 130.000. Inc. All rights reserved.000 VPNv4 @ is consuming … IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.000routes = 13.

VPN access to Internet
1. Default route into a VRF
Most common Internet access, only single point need to be secured All traffic from all site goes across the central site.

2. Full routing to a dedicated Internet-PE
Insecurity is physically restrained, additional security needed on CE Shared Internet/VPN core (no need of full-routing into core)

3. Full routing into the PE global routing table
Shared Internet/VPN core (no need of full-routing into core)

4. Full routing into dedicated Internet-VRF
Shared Internet/VPN core (no need of full-routing into core) Access thru VRF-lite concept

5. Full routing only into the CE
MPLS to the edge (CsC)
© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


MPLS/VPN Internet Connectivity Dynamic Default Route
Extranet Central Site


Global Internet

Internet traffic from all site Goes through central site
Sub-optimized routing
VPN-IPv4 Update Net= RT=17:22

Export VPN A default with RT=17:22 and VPN B default with RT=17:28

VPN-IPv4 Update Net= RT=17:28

(Import RT=17:22)
© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

MPLS/VPN Backbone
VPN B VRF (Import RT=17:28)



MPLS/VPN Internet Connectivity Dual parallel access using VRF.lite
Achieved by using a second interface to the client site
either physical, or logical such as sub-interface or tunnel
(sub)interface associated with VRF With VFR.lite into CE
VPN Site



Push Internet Routes


MPLS VPN & Internet Backbone


Global Internet

(sub)interface associated with global routing table


© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


255.0. Packets toward temporarily unreachable VPN destinations might leak into the Internet.0.0.0. Benefits: A PE does not need Internet routes. 255. security issues arise.0 Internet-PE global ip route serial 1/1 Drawbacks: Internet and VPN packets are mixed on the same link.0 serial 1/0 ip route All rights reserved.0 Internet-PE global ip route 195.0/24 ip route vrf VPN_A 0. Inc.0 NH=Internet PE MPLS/VPN & Internet Backbone Internet Routing Table Global Internet Access VPN B 146.0 255.0. 32 . VPN B VRF 0.0 NH=Internet PE ip route vrf VPN_B 0.0 255. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.255.MPLS/VPN Internet Connectivity (Packet Leaking) Static Default Route to Global Internet gateway The PE router is also the Internet access router VPN A 0.0 Internet-PE global ip route vrf VPN_A only an IGP route toward the Internet gateway.0 serial 1/0 VPN A VRF 0.2.0.

All rights reserved.Import from global table to VRF Feature allowing for dynamic import from global table to vrf Use uRPF check. • imports up to 1000 unicast prefixes that pass through the route map named UNICAST. Inc. Router(config-vrf)# import ipv4 unicast 1000 map UNICAST •Creates an import map to import IPv4 prefixes from the global routing table to a VRF table. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.g. 33 . Internet routes leaking Should be used with max-prefix per vrf CLI: import [ ipv4 unicast|multicast [<prefix limit>] ] map <name> e.

All rights reserved. User authenticated. Tag 100 Next Hop VHG/PE Label (*) IP Data PPP IP Data IP L2TP PPP IP Data IP Data (*): at least 2 labels inside (1 label where we do pen-ultimate hop popping) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. L2TP set up between LAC and VHG VHG/PE PE router 8.1 Outg. Int Int x Local Tag Outg.MP-BGP update received from VHG/PE Cust 7.10.1 Outg.1. User calls in LCP starts 2.1. IPCP negotiated Host route installed in VRF table Data packet transfer: CE router VPN Cust 1 FIB 10. Inc. VA created user specific settings include to which VRF the VA belongs VPN Cust 1 FIB 10. Int VA1 Local Tag 100 Outg. Response to challenge 5. LAC sends challenge 3.Remote-access L2TP to MPLS VPN Global AAA Or per VRF AAA) Data 4. Realm/DNIS info used to build tunnel 6.10. 34 . Tag untagged Next Hop - MPLS Cloud LAC 1.

traffic between them must not be switched locally ! Upstream VRF only requires a route-target import statement Imports the default route from the hub PE router (@WholeSale Provider) Downstream VRF only requires a route-target export command Used to export all of the /32 (virtual-access ints) addresses toward the hub PE-router •This feature prevents situations where the PE router locally switches the spokes without passing the traffic through the upstream ISP. All rights reserved. Inc. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 35 .Hub & Spoke Connectivity With Half-Duplex-VRF A Spoke Site PE VPN port Single VRF table PE VPNport B MPLS CORE VPN port HUB Site PE CE HUB ISP If two subscribers of the same service terminate on the same PE-router. which causes the wholesale service provider to lose revenue.

x.x network .1.VPN Selection Broadband access network 20.x.Remote-access Source based .255.1. All rights reserved. ! ISP4 owns 40.7.x.1.1.1 VPN1 VPN2 VPN3 MPLS VPN PE VPN2 CE ISP2 owns 30.255.1.x network vrf Retail IPM-T02 36 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 1 VPN3 CE Customers with high speed (broadband) links can connected to any ISP providing VPN capabilities New market: Service Providers can offer corporate VPN connectivity to broadband users Traditionally physical interface was associated with one VRF table.x network PE 30.x.x.128 vrf Trading vrf selection source 196.25.128 255.1 VPN1 PE CE ISP1 owns 20. in situations where multiple customers are connected over single link this provide vrf selection source 255.x.

MPLS VPNs VLANs IP 37 .Remote-access IPSec + MPLS PE Branch Office Access/ Peering PoPs Leased Line/ Frame Relay/ATM/ DSL Dedicated Cisco IOS MPLS Access PE MPLS Internet Cable/DSL/ ISDN ISP Remote Users/ Telecommuters Cisco VPN Client Software Is Tunnel Source for Access VPNs and BranchOffice. All rights reserved. Inc. Router Originates Site-to-Site Tunnel with VPN Concentrator IP IPM-T02 MPLS Core Corporate Intranet Local or DirectDial ISP MPLS VPNs VLANs Bi-Directional IPSec Session Cisco Router Terminates IPSec Tunnels and Maps Sessions into MPLS VPNs 21223*228 IPSec Session © 2005 Cisco Systems.

VRF-Aware IPsec Packet Flow No Limitations! Works for Both Site-to-Site and Client-toConcentrator Type of IPsec Tunnels. 38 . AAA passes the VRF ID to the router for the tunnel. All rights reserved. Inc. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Based on the IKE authentication. the IPsec tunnel is directly associated with the VRF. By implementing VRF-aware IKE/IPsec solution only one public IP address is needed to terminate IPsec tunnels from different VPN customers without penalty of additional encapsulation overhead.

39 . All rights reserved. Inc.Agenda • Create L3-VPN service Create VPN Internet access Security considerations BGP advanced features Yogesh Jiandani IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.General VPN Security Requirements • Address Space and Routing Separation • Hiding of the MPLS Core Structure • Resistance to Attacks • Impossibility of VPN Spoofing IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 40 . Inc.

VPN label IP data 41 . All rights reserved. Inc.A hierarchy of Labels VPN A VPN B VPN C IP data VPN label VPN label VPN A MPLS SP Core VPN B VPN C IP data RD IPv4 MP-iBGP IP data IP data Core label IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

routing protocol) . 42 .Intrusions (telnet.Attack MPLS VPN VPN A VPN B Only insertion point VPN C Label X IP VPN A MPLS SP Core VPN B VPN C MP-iBGP • Where can you attack? Address and Routing Separation. …. Inc. thus: Only Attack point: peering PE • How? . SNMP. All rights reserved.DoS IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

EIGRP BGP dampening.Security Recommendations Conformity to “draft-behringer-mpls-security-10” • Protect routing protocols from CE to PE: Use static when possible Using ACL (source is only CE) MD5 authentication BGP [RFC2385]. 43 . Inc. All rights reserved. filtering. OSPF [RFC2154]. maximum-prefix • Protect PE ressources VRF number of routes limitation CAR (Commited Access Rate) to control traffic (specially UDP) • Validate CE-CE exchanges thru PEs CE may write/check BGP-Community with customer identification MPLS is as secured as Frame/Relay or ATM (Miercom / Gartner / …) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. RIP2 [RFC2082].

Inc. All rights reserved.Limiting the Number of Prefixes Received from a BGP Neighbor router(config-router-af)# neighbor ip-address maximum-prefix maximum [threshold] [warning-only] • Controls how many prefixes can be received from a neighbor • Optional threshold parameter specifies the percentage where a warning message is logged (default is 75%) • Optional warning-only keyword specifies the action on exceeding the maximum number (default is to drop neighborship) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 44 .

Configuring VRF Route Limit router(config-vrf)# maximum route number { warning-percent | warn-only} • This command configures the maximum number of routes accepted into a VRF: • Number is the route limit for the VRF. • Warning-percent is the percentage value over which a warning message is sent to syslog. Inc. 45 . All rights reserved. • Syslog messages generated by this command are rate-limited. • With warn-only the PE continues accepting routes after the configured limit. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

222. Inc.10. All rights reserved. 46 .MD5 Authentication – OSPF and BGP • MD5 authentication between two peers password must be known to both peers • OSPF authentication area <area-id> authentication message-digest (whole area) ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 <key> • BGP neighbor authentication neighbor 169.1 password v61ne0qkel33& IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

2.0/24 le 32 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 47 .0.BGP Dampening • Fixed damping router bgp 100 bgp dampening [<half-life> <reuse-value> <suppresspenalty> <maximum suppress time>] • Selective and variable damping bgp dampening [route-map <name>] route-map <name> permit 10 match ip address prefix-list FLAP-LIST set dampening [<half-life> <reuse-value> <suppresspenalty> <maximum suppress time>] ip prefix-list FLAP-LIST permit 192. All rights reserved.

• This command disables IP TTL and label TTL propagation. 48 .IP TTL Propagation – Stop discovery of the network router(config)# no mpls ip propagate-ttl • By default. IP TTL is copied into label header at label imposition and label TTL is copied into IP TTL at label removal. All rights reserved. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. • The TTL propagation has to be disabled on ingress and egress edge LSR. • TTL value of 255 is inserted in the label header.

All rights reserved.IP TTL Propagation—Extended Options router(config)# no mpls ip propagate-ttl [forwarded | local] Selectively disables IP TTL propagation for: • Forwarded traffic (traceroute does not work for transit traffic labeled by this router) • Local traffic (traceroute does not work from the router but works for transit traffic labeled by this router) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 49 . Inc.

Disabling IP TTL Propagation for Customer Traffic C1#trace 164 msec 132 msec 128 msec 2 44 msec 36 msec 32 msec 2 C2. IPM-T02 A#trace 1 148 msec 156 msec 152 msec 3 C2.provider. 50 .com 180 msec * 181 msec C1 A B Cat6000 C C2 Provider Network ip cef no mpls ip propagate-ttl forwarded interface hssi 1/0 mpls ip Selective IP TTL propagation hides the provider network from the customer but still allows 1 Tracing the route to Tracing the route to 180 msec * 181 msec © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.cust.cust. Inc.provider.

All rights reserved. Inc.Internet core transport isolation A switching of Labels VPN A VPN B Internet IP data Core label VPN A MPLS core VPN B Internet IP Core label data iBGP IP data IP data P routers do not participate in IP routing IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 51 .

….Intrusions (telnet. Inc. 52 .Attack MPLS VPN from Internet Internet VPN B VPN C iBGP Main Accessible point • Where can you attack? Address and Routing Separation. SNMP. All rights reserved. thus: Main Attack point: peering PE P should be safe if not into iBGP full-routing Internet MPLS SP Core VPN B Core is more VPN C exposed • How? . routing protocol) .DoS IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

and on FTP: Internet security into PE • uRPF • NAT • ACL • ICMP limiting VPN A MPLS core VPN B Internet ftp://ftp-eng.Internet ISP Security Essentials VPN A VPN B Internet iBGP • The “bible” for Core Security • Available as book. management. traffic. Inc. … IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco All rights reserved. routing. 53 .com/cons/isp/security • How to secure the core Security for devices.

Summary MPLS as secure as any L2
• Meircom performed testing that proved that MPLSVPNs have met or exceeded all of the security characteristics of a comparable layer two based VPN such as Frame-Relay or ATM • Address space and routing separation
Unique addressing utilizing VPN-IPv4 addresses Routing separation by the use of VRFs

• Service Providers core structure is not revealing
Only information shared is already part of the VRF

• The network is resistant to attacks
Mechanisms in place to limit the impact of DoS attacks
IPM-T02 54

© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

If more security than L2 is required Use IPsec if you don’t trust enough the core

• Address space separation • Traffic separation • Routing separation • Authentication • Confidentiality • Data integrity
© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

“VPN” “Secure VPN”


• Create L3-VPN service
Create VPN Internet access Security considerations BGP advanced features

Vagish Dwivedi
© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


. As-override Allows all sites of the same customer to be into the same splitted AS IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.AS-Override AS= 1 / 65001 / 65001 / … AS= 1 / 1 / 1 / … AS 65001 AS 1 AS 65001 Neighbor . Inc. 57 .

0. Inc.Allowas-in • VPN A connected to VPN-B via CE-BGP-A1 • CE router has two connections to AS 115 • PE-1 announces network 10. 58 . All rights reserved.1.0/16 to CE-BGP-A1 • PE-2 drops the update because it’s AS number is already in the AS-Path • AS-Override is needed on CE-BGP-A1 • This modifies BGP loop prevention mechanism IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

0 PE1 PE2 PE A CE2 PE B CE • iBGP Multipath PE A (and PE B) see two next-hop PEs towards 10. Inc.2/16 Installs all two next-hops in the BGP table Must use different RDs on PE1. 59 .0. PE2. Can use MPLS TE forwarding adjacency to impose equal IGP cost Can do unequal IGP load balancing (max-paths ibgp unequal-cost) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.2. as RR will select vpnv4 best path CEF resolves next-hops and load balances over them (via src/dest hash) Limit of 6 paths for BGP multipath !!! • Note – IGP cost should be equal by default. All rights reserved.Load Balancing – iBGP Multipath for MPLS/VPN Customer Site CE1 CE RR Cluster Traffic 10.

All rights reserved. PE2 via MP-iBGP • eBGP path will always be preferred (lower admin distance) • eiBGP multipath (on PE1) allows load balancing thru PE1 and PE2 toward 10.0 PE A Traffic CE2 PE2 • Consider implications of load balancing traffic from CE* towards 10. Inc.PE to CE Load Balancing eiBGP Multipath for MPLS/VPN Customer Site CE1 CE PE1 * CE A 10.2/16 from CE1 and from PE2 CE1 via eBGP.2/16 • PE1 will have learnt 10.2.0. 60 .2/16 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

Per VPN TE VPNV4: If RT=Green then Force NH=Green VPN Site VPN Site Ip route NH=Green to TE_Green VPN Site VPN Site IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 61 . Inc. All rights reserved.

1.52 And why not to use Source-@ VPN selection ! 62 .255 Tunnel70 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. One one side: address-family vpnv4 neighbor 1.52.1 activate neighbor 1.1 route-map set-pref-nh out ip extcommunity-list 70 permit rt 10:70 route-map set-pref-nh permit 10 match extcommunity 70 set ip next-hop 10.1 send-community extended neighbor 1. Inc. All rights reserved.52.10.Per VPN TE Or even inside VPN TE And in addition: ip vrf green rd 10:2 export map Set_RT70 route-target both 10:2 ! access-list 1 permit ! route-map Set_RT70 permit 10 match ip address 1 set extcommunity rt 10:70 additive « Or even per Subnet into the VRF » On the other side: ip route 10.52 255.12.1.

Agenda • Manage L3-VPN service a.k. 63 .a L3 OAM Yogesh Jiandani IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

NMS Best Practices for MPLS VPN Operational Efficiency and Effectiveness • Automate. Inc. All rights reserved. Automate. 64 . Automate … however…… • The MPLS VPN Assurance/Troubleshooting Process The Problems Troubleshooting Workflows IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

IP. MPLS ? Remote PE Not in trace PE-PE ping Check (IP) Problem Inspect Routing Configuration Troubleshooting OK Problem LSP ping\trace (IGP label) Inspect MPLS Configuration OK Problem LSP ping\trace (VRF) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inspect VPN Configuration 65 .VRF data plane VRF ping Fail (IP) Detection VRF traceroute Remote PE in trace Possible Access/Customer Network Problem Inform operator VRF.Troubleshooting Workflow . All rights reserved.

20 Serial1/0.100 Ethernet0/0 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 66 .show ip vrf Router#show ip vrf Name SiteA2 SiteB SiteX Router# Default RD 103:30 103:11 103:20 Interfaces Serial1/0. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. default RD 103:30 Interfaces: Serial1/0.100 Connected addresses are not in global routing table Export VPN route-target communities RT:103:11 Import VPN route-target communities RT:103:11 RT:103:20 No import route-map No export route-map IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. default RD 103:11 Interfaces: Serial1/0. 67 .show ip vrf detail Router#show ip vrf detail VRF SiteA2. Inc.20 Connected addresses are not in global routing table No Export VPN route-target communities Import VPN route-target communities RT:103:10 No import route-map Export route-map: A2 VRF SiteB.

37 Serial1/0.33 Ethernet0/0 150. Inc.31.168. 68 .1.3 VRF SiteA2 SiteB SiteX Protocol up up up IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco ip vrf interfaces Router#show ip vrf interfaces Interface IP-Address Serial1/0.100 150. All rights reserved.

OSPF inter area N1 . L2 . L1 .168.0/24 [110/782] via 150.EIGRP external.103. IA .OSPF external type 1.OSPF NSSA external type 1.0/24 [200/1] via 192. U . Inc. O .1.20 203.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . 02:52:13.IGRP.103. B .IS-IS level-2. Serial1/0. M .3.2.1. * .periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set O O B B B B i .1.1. 01:14:32 … rest deleted … IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco S . Serial1/0. 69 .101. 02:05:38 203.0/32 is subnetted.20 R .101.1.ODR P .1.1. EX .3.1 [200/1] via 192.168.IS-IS ip route vrf Router#show ip route vrf SiteA2 Codes: C .1 [110/782] via 150. 1 subnets 203.BGP D . 02:05:38 203.candidate default. o .IS-IS. I . E2 .1. 01:14:32 203.0/24 [200/1] via 192. All rights reserved.3. 02:52:13. N2 . E .0/24 [200/782] via 192.38.134. 1 subnets 203.31.OSPF external type 2.1.0/32 is subnetted.per-user static route.20.EIGRP.

remote AS 65032. 0 notifications. All rights reserved. 0 in queue Route refresh request: received 0.32. 0 notifications. neighbor version 416 Index 4. Inc. withdrawn 63 … rest deleted … IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 0 in queue Sent 646 ip bgp vpnv4 vrf neighbor Router#show ip bgp vpnv4 vrf SiteB neighbors BGP neighbor is 150. vrf SiteB. 70 . Mask 0x10 Community attribute sent to this neighbor 2 accepted prefixes consume 120 bytes Prefix advertised 107. sent 0 Minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds For address family: VPNv4 Unicast Translates address family IPv4 Unicast for VRF SiteB BGP table version 416. keepalive interval is 60 seconds Neighbor capabilities: Route refresh: advertised and received Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received Received 549 messages. suppressed 0. up for 02:01:41 Last read 00:00:56.34. remote router ID 203.10. external link BGP version 4.1.1 BGP state = Established.2. Offset 0. hold time is 180.

Example Workflow Troubleshooting the MPLS core Standard Checks Check for Software/Hardware Problems Check Routing Status Check Route Validity Check Label Bindings Troubleshooting Check CEF Status Check Label Distribution Check MPLS Interfaces IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Ping Neighbours 71 .

All rights reserved.1 Yes (tdp) No No (ATM labels) labels) ATM3/0.1 Yes (ldp) No Yes (ATM ATM3/0.2 Yes (tdp) No Yes IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 72 . Inc.1 Yes (ldp) No Yes (ATM labels) labels) ATM0/0.2 Yes (tdp) No Yes ATM0/ mpls interface Router#show mpls interfaces [interface] [detail] Router#show mpls interfaces [interface] [detail] Interface IP Tunnel Operational Interface IP Tunnel Operational Ethernet1/1/1 Yes (tdp) No No Ethernet1/1/1 Yes (tdp) No No Ethernet1/1/2 Yes (tdp) Yes No Ethernet1/1/2 Yes (tdp) Yes No Ethernet1/1/3 Yes (tdp) Yes Yes Ethernet1/1/3 Yes (tdp) Yes Yes POS2/0/0 Yes (tdp) No No POS2/0/0 Yes (tdp) No No ATM0/0.1 Yes (tdp) No No (ATM ATM0/0.

31. Output fast flags 0x0 ifindex 3(3) Slot 1 Slot unit 0 VC -1 Transmit limit accumulator 0x0 (0x0) IP MTU 1500 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 73 .1. All rights reserved. Inc.20 is up (if_number 18) Internet address is 150.37/30 ICMP redirects are always sent Per packet loadbalancing is disabled IP unicast RPF check is disabled Inbound access list is not set Outbound access list is not set IP policy routing is disabled Interface is marked as point to point interface Hardware idb is Serial1/0 Fast switching type 5. interface type 64 IP CEF switching enabled IP CEF VPN Fast switching turbo vector VPN Forwarding table "SiteA2" Input fast flags cef interface Router#show cef interface serial 1/0.20 Serial1/0.

Inc.168. label Stack{29} 18718847 0001D000 18718847 0001D000 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. MTU=1504. MTU=1504.3/32 0 Se1/0. label Stack{29} MAC/Encaps=4/8.4/32 0 Se0/0.4 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/ point2point MAC/Encaps=0/0. MTU=1504.3 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/8.168.3 point2point 26 Unlabeled 192. 74 . label Stack{} MAC/Encaps=4/4. label Stack{} MAC/Encaps=0/0.168.3. label Stack{} 27 Pop label 192.4 point2point 27 Pop label 192.168.3 point2point 28 29 mpls forwarding-table Router#show mpls forwarding-table detail Router#show mpls forwarding-table detail Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes label Outgoing Next Hop Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes label Outgoing Next Hop label label or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface label label or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 26 Unlabeled 192. All rights reserved.168.4/32 0 Se0/0.3.4/32 0 Se1/0. MTU=1500.3/32 0 Se1/0.168.3. MTU=1504. label Stack{} 20618847 20618847 28 29 192.4/32 0 Se1/0. MTU=1500.

16. rev 8 local binding: label: 27 local binding: label: 27 remote binding: lsr: 19. label: lib entry: 192.3.1/32.168. label: remote binding: lsr: 19.168.3. rev 6 local binding: label: imp-null(1) local binding: label: imp-null(1) remote binding: lsr: 19.1/32.3:0.16. rev 8 lib entry: 192.16.3:0. label: lib entry: 192.3.16. label: remote binding: lsr: 19.2/32.3.3:0. rev 7 local binding: label: 26 local binding: label: 26 remote binding: lsr: 19. label: 28 28 27 27 impimp- 26 26 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.16. rev 9 lib entry: 192. All rights reserved. rev 9 local binding: label: 28 local binding: label: 28 remote binding: lsr: label: remote binding: lsr: label: null(1) null(1) lib entry: 192.3. 75 .3:0.3. rev 7 lib entry: 192. Inc.2/32.10/32.3.16. label: remote binding: lsr: 19.168. rev 6 lib entry: mpls ldp bindings Router#show mpls ldp bindings Router#show mpls ldp bindings lib entry: 192.3:

All rights reserved.Agenda • L2 transport over MPLS AToM EoMPLS VPLS H-VPLS Yogesh Jiandani IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 76 . Inc.

FRAD L2transport over IP = L2TPext or L2TPv3 L2transport over MPLS = pwe3-mpls-cp IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. FRAD CPE Router.IETF : L2transport (Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge to Edge) Emulated Virtual Circuit IP or MPLS Backbone Attached VC PE Pseudo-Wire SE = Service-Edge router or switch L2 Network PE = Pseudo-wire Edge L2 Network CPE Router. All rights reserved. Inc. 77 .

txt draft-ietf-pwe3-satop-xx.txt draft-ietf-pwe3-ethernet-encap-xx.txt draft-ietf-pwe3-atm-encap-xx.1Q (Ethernet VLAN) • Cisco-HDLC (LAPD) • PPP Circuit Emulation (L1 emulation) • Structured E1/T1 • Unstructured E1/T1/E3/DS3 • Unstructured STMx/OCx Management Plane • OAM’s • MIB’s IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.txt draft-ietf-pwe3-vccv-xx.txt draft-ietf-pwe3-frame-relay-xx. Inc. 78 .txt draft-ietf-pwe3-sonet-xx.PWE3 MPLS based drafts draft-ietf-pwe3-control-protocol-xx.txt draft-ietf-pwe3-cesopsn-xx.txt draft-ietf-pwe3-hdlc-ppp-xx. All rights reserved.txt draft-ietf-pwe3-mib-xx.txt Control plane Data plane (L2 emulation) • ATM AAL5 PDU • ATM cells (non AAL5 mode) • FR PDU • Ethernet • 802.

Layer 2 VPN Taxonomy ATM Frame Relay Ethernet VPWS AAL5 over Pseudo Wire FR over Pseudo Wire Ethernet Relay Service (ERS) VPLS Ethernet Multipoint Service (EMS) Muxed UNI Muxed UNI Muxed UNI Unmuxed UNI Cell Relay w/ Packing over Pseudo Wire PPP/HDLC over Pseudo Wire Ethernet Wire Service (EWS) Ethernet Relay Multipoint Service (ERMS) Muxed UNI Unmuxed UNI Unmuxed UNI Other Variants… Muxed UNI PPP/HDLC IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 79 . All rights reserved.

80 .What is an L2VPN? IETF’s L2VPN Logical Context • An L2VPN is comprised of switched connections between subscriber endpoints over a shared network • Non-subscribers do not have access to those same endpoints Provider Edge SP Interconnection SP Network Remote Subscriber Location Provider Edge Pseudowire ATM HDLC Ethernet FR Many subscriber encapsulations supportable PPP Some Layer 1 frame encapsulations are transportable under the framework of L2VPN. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. This is acceptable because (unlike native L1) Frames can be dropped due to congestion. Inc.

• Relevant MIBs L2VPN VPLS. 81 . etc.Pseudo Wire – IETF Working Groups Internet Area L2TPEXT L2TP(v2 & v3) • Extensions to RFC2661 • Control Plane Operation • AVPs • Updated data plane • Relevant MIBs Transport Area PWE3 AToM • PWE3 Architecture • PWE3 Requirements • LDP Control Channel • L2 Service Encap Specifics • TDM. CES. IPLS • Solution Architectures • PE Discovery • Signaling (with PWE3) • L2VPN OAM extensions • Relevant MIBs IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. VPWS.

L2VPNs: Pre-Network Consolidation T1s HDLC DS3 MSC 2G DS3 T1s HDLC MSC DS3 2. Inc. National Data Center Regional Switching Center MSC 82 .5G DS3 MSC 3G OC-3 OC-3 MSC MSC IPM-T02 Regional Switching Center © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

L2VPNs: Post-Network Consolidation Serial Connections terminated locally on MPLS enabled Edge Router DS3 MSC MSC DS3s OC-3s RSC 3G OC-3s RSC RSC DS3s MSC MSC NDC AToM PWs running HDLC encap form overlay for legacy systems MSC IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. MPLS Domain MSC 83 .

All rights reserved. Inc. 84 .Agenda • L2 transport over MPLS AToM EoMPLS VPLS H-VPLS Vagish Dwivedi IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.AToM semantic Attachment VC Pseudo Wire (VC Label) Tunnel PSN (Tunnel LSP) Attachment VC CE Ingress PE P P P Egress PE CE Directed LDP Ingress and egress interfaces (attachment VCs) are non-MPLS interfaces Ingress PE encapsulates into MPLS. Inc. Second label (“VC-label”) identifies outgoing interface in egress PE LDP has been extended to carry VC-FEC IPM-T02 85 A directed LDP session is used from PE to PE to exchange VC labels © 2005 Cisco Systems. egress PE de-encapsulates Label stack of two labels is used Top-most label (“tunnel-label”) used for LSP PE to PE. .

very similar to RFC2547 (MPLS-VPN) • The label used to route the packet over the MPLS backbone to the destination PE is called the “tunnel label”. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. • The egress PE creates a VC label and binds the Layer 2 egress interface to this VC. 86 .AToM Idea • The layer 2 transport service over MPLS is implemented through the use of two level label switching between the edge routers. All rights reserved. then sends this label to the ingress PE using the directed LDP session. Inc. • The label used to determine the egress interface is referred to as the VC label.

All rights reserved. Inc. 87 .AToM : Label forwarding Vla n 101 L27 L27 L30 From Left to Right L27 L25 L27 L20 L27 L27 Vlan 1 01 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. 88 . Inc.Method to distribute VC Labels • Static assigned label • LDP with PWid FEC TLV • LDP with Generalized FEC TLV IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.AToM: PWid FEC signaling VC1 PE1 Directed LDP xconnect <PE2> <VCID> PE2 VC2 xconnect <PE1> <VCID> Based on xconnect command. Inc. both PE’s will create directed LDP session if doesn’t exist already • LSP can be LDP only or TE IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 89 .

Inc.AToM: VC Label distributed through directed LDP session VC1 PE1 NH: PE1 VC: VCID Label: A Circuit type: FR NH: PE2 VC: VCID Label: B Circuit type: FR PE2 xconnect <PE2> <VCID> VC2 xconnect <PE1> <VCID> PWid FEC TLV IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 90 . All rights reserved.

E802. useful to withdraws many labels at once VC ID : ID for the transported L2 vc Int.1Q.LDP: PWid FEC TLV VC TLV C VC Type Group ID VC ID Interface Parameter VC info length VC TLV = 128 or 0x80 VC Type: FR. Param: MTU… IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. ATM. 91 . Eth… C: 1 control word present Group ID: If for a group of VC. All rights reserved. Inc.

C/R When transporting L2 protocols over an MPLS backbone: The sequence of the packets should be preserved. DE. BECN. C/R IPM-T02 92 ATM: AAL5 or cell. . Small packets may need padding if MTU of medium is larger than packet size Control bits carried in header of Layer-2 frame may need to be transported in Flag fields: F/R: FECN.AToM : Control word Label (LSP) EXP 0 TTL Label (VC) EXP 1 TTL 0000 Flags Length L2 PDU sequence number ATM FR TELC Transport type. sequence number 0 indicates that no sequencing is done. All rights reserved. C/R © 2005 Cisco Systems. CLP. DE. EFCI. FECN. C/RC/R BFDC BECN. Inc. CLP. EFCI.

All rights reserved.AToM: Lost of connectivity and Label Withdraw Label Withdraw (LDP TVL) NH: PE2 VC: VCID L2 loss of connection update -LMI -ILMI. Inc. ATM AIS OAM PE2 PE1 Label: B -SDH AIS (port mode) -… IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 93 .

Agenda • L2 transport over MPLS AToM EoMPLS VPLS H-VPLS Yogesh Jiandani IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. 94 .

95 .1q VLAN transport.Transport of Ethernet over MPLS 2 main requirements for transport of Ethernet frames 1. Ethernet port to port transport IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.1q VLAN to 802. 802. 2.

96 . Inc.EoMPLS Transport Formats Ethernet II Encapsulation <7 octets> Preamble <1 octet> SFD <6 octets> DA <6 octets> SA <2 octets> TPID <2 octets> TCI <2 octets> Ethertype <46-1500> Data <4 octets> FCS Transported using AToM Preamble SFD DA SA TPID TCI Length AA-AA-03 AA. All rights reserved.3/802.00- Data FCS <7 octets> <1 octet> <6 octets> <6 octets> <2 octets> <2 octets> <2 octets> <3 octets> <3 octets> <2 octets> <46-1492> <4 octets> 802.2/SNAP Encapsulation IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.AA- OUI Ethertype 0x00-00-00 0x00.

4 313 pw-class ethernet-mpls IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.7 312 pw-class ethernet-mpls ! Interface GigabitEthernet1/0.0.2 encapsulation dot1q 56 MPLS xconnect 172.0.0. Inc.7 313 pw-class ethernet-mpls VLAN 56 Customer Site VLAN 41 PE1 172.7 VLAN 41 Customer Site Customer Site Interface GigabitEthernet0/0.2 encapsulation dot1q 56 xconnect 172.4 VLAN 56 PE1 172.0.0. 97 .0.0.1q VLAN Transport Interface GigabitEthernet0/0.0.0. All rights reserved.2 encapsulation dot1q 41 xconnect 172.0.2 Customer Site encapsulation dot1q 41 xconnect 172.0.0.Ethernet 802.4 312 pw-class ethernet-mpls ! Interface GigabitEthernet1/0.

Inc. 98 .Agenda • L2 transport over MPLS AToM EoMPLS VPLS Vagish Dwivedi IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Forwarding states). In Some implementation those timer a tunable. Inc.Spanning Tree Protocol .1d) with default timers allow to have NO more than 7 switches/bridges from the root. Listening.Reminder Primer and general issue. Standard STP (IEEE802. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. • Wait 15s to change from (Blocking. All rights reserved.1d) • Sent BPDU (info about root of the tree) every 2s to peer bridges onto native VLAN. wait 20s before considering peer bridge down. • On missing hello’s. Learning. 99 .(1) Standard Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE802.

Reminder Primer and general issue.(2) Rapid STP (IEEE802. Recommendation to keep STP domain within a MAN area and not to create inter MAN domain. 100 . • This allow to increase convergence and number of switches allowed from root.1w) sent BPDU every 2s or triggered when receiving new BPDU from peer switches. • Still need to be in 15s time-frame end-end to prevent loops.Spanning Tree Protocol . All rights reserved. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved.The network will simulate a L2 switch IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 101 .VPLS (Transparent LAN Services) .

All rights reserved. Attachment VCs (native Ethernet or 802.transport is provided by pseudo-wires (emulated VCs). Inc.1Q VLAN). An MPLS-enabled core.transport is provided over Label Switched Paths (LSPs). and full mesh directed LDP sessions between PE routers are prerequisite for VPLS services IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.VPLS – An Example PE VFI PE VFI CE -1 PE Attachment VC VFI Emulated VC Emulated Tunnel CE -2 CE 3 - In VPLS . 102 . In ATOM .

Called Virtual Forwarding Instance (VFI) VFI will participate to learning. Usage of “network split-horizon” to prevent loops in VPLS domain. Create full-mesh (or partial mesh) of emulated VCs per VPLS. forwarding process. Inc.1w) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.VPLS: VPN L2forwarding instance • Requirement for this solution MAC table instances per customer and per Customer VLAN (L2-VRF idea) for each PE. 103 . All rights reserved. Use of VLAN and Ethernet VC-Type defined PWE3-WG (Optional) New MAC TLV (LDP) to accelerate MAC withdraw equivalent function to IEEE Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.

VPLS L2signalling and forwarding

A E1




VCID 111 VCID 333 VCID 222




© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


VPLS L2signalling and forwarding

A E1

VFI VPN 1 - E1 :A



VCID 111

VCID 333

VCID 222




© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


VPLS L2signalling and forwarding

A E1

VFI VPN 1 - E1 : A

VFI VPN 1 - VCID 111 :A


VCID 111 VCID 333 VCID 222

A->B VFI VPN1 - VCID 333 :A



© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


1 Loopback PE3 3.2. Inc.2 Loopback CE-2 PE1 1.3. 107 .2.1.3 Loopback UPE-3 CE-1 CE-3 VFI: green VPN-ID: 100:1 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.3.Sample of CLI… PE2 2.1. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.3. Create a VFI and attach neighbour VFI C7600-1(config)# l2 vfi green-vfi manual C7600-1(config-vfi)# vpn id 100:1 C7600-1(config-vfi)# neighbor 2.1 encapsulation mpls C7600-2(config-vfi)# neighbor encapsulation mpls C7600-1(config-vfi)# neighbor 3.3.1 encapsulation mpls IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.3 encapsulation mpls C7600-2(config)# l2 vfi green-vfi manual C7600-2(config-vfi)# vpn id 100:1 C7600-2(config-vfi)# neighbor encapsulation mpls C7600-3(config)# l2 vfi green-vfi manual C7600-3(config-vfi)# vpn id 100:1 C7600-3(config-vfi)# neighbor 2. 108 .2 encapsulation mpls C7600-3(config-vfi)# neighbor 1. Inc.3.

2. Configure direct attached CPE and UPE CE-2 Interface FE 2/2 Interface GE 3/3 PE-VLAN 100 UPE-3 CE-1 CE-3 Interface GE 1/1 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 109 . Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.1002-1005 C7600-3(config)# interface vlan 100 C7600-3(config-inf)# xconnect vfi green-vfi C7600-3(config)# interface vlan 105 C7600-3(config-inf)# xconnect vfi red-vfi IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. Configure direct attached CPE and UPE C7600-3(config)# interface GigEthernet3/3 C7600-3(config-inf)# switchport C7600-3(config-inf)# switchport mode trunk C7600-3(config-inf)# switchport trunk encap dot1q C7600-3(config-inf)# switchport trunk allow vlan 100.2.105. 110 .

All rights reserved.MPLS L2-VPNs Today’s market acceptance • Is widely deployed Ethernet. 111 . Frame Relay • Is fairly deployed ATM (Cell and AAL5) VPLS • Is sparsely deployed PPP Interworking IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved.Layer 2 Service Interworking CE Frame Relay CE Ethernet CE ATM Frame Relay CE CE Ethernet IP/MPLS ATM CE CE PPP/HDLC Frame Relay CE How to connect different encapsulations and retain a Layer 2 service… IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 112 . Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved. 113 .Agenda • Build an MPLS core OAM Fast-convergence Traffic Engineering Yogesh Jiandani IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. SONET. 114 .… IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.AIS/RDI Proactive error signalling AIS RDI • AIS: Alarm Indication Signal • RDI: Remote Defect Indicator Media: SDH. ATM. Inc.

Continuity Check (Data Plane. Control Plane) Connectivity Aliveness Continuity Check multi-hop CC CC CC CC signalling ( AIS+RDI or upper / lower signalling protocol ) signalling Media: FR. IP IGP/EGP. Inc. 115 . RSVP.… IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. ATM. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved. … IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 116 .Loopback & Traceroute Path Troubleshooting Loopback Traceroute LB (ping) TR-1 TR-2 TR-3 Media: ATM. MPLS. IP ICMP.

Inc. • Provider contracts with Operator(s) to provide equipment and networks.The OAM Landscape Customer Service Provider MPLS Core Ethernet Access Customer CE Access CE Customer Domain Provider Domain Operator Domain Operator Domain Operator Domain • Customer contracts with Provider for end-to-end service. All rights reserved. 117 . • Provider and Operator(s) may or may not be the same company or same division. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

1ag Link OAM IEEE 802. All rights reserved.3ah — Ethernet in the First Mile Specification (Port Ethernet Keepalive.0 IEEE 802. 118 .0 • IEEE 802. CC) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.3ah Connectivity Fault Management E-LMI MEF ELMI UNI 1. AIS/RDI) • E-LMI — Draft Ethernet Local Management Interface Specification • IEEE 802.Ethernet OAM’s Example: Metro Ethernet Architecture PE CE UNI Provider Network PE UNI CE Link OAM IEEE 802.3ah E-LMI MEF ELMI UNI 1. TR.1ag — Connectivity Fault Management Specification (MAC Ping. Inc.

SAA) … • Control Plane layer IGP Hello’s : OSPF Hello’s.IP OAM’s • Data Plane layer IP Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) IP Ping IP Traceroute IP SLA (RTR. All rights reserved. Inc. ISIS Hello’s. 119 . RIP Hello’s EGP Hello’s : BGP TCP keepalive.… IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

Inc.IP VPNv4 OAM’s • Data Plane layer VRF aware IP Ping VRF aware IP Traceroute VRF aware IP SLA (RTR. 120 .… IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. SAA) … • Control Plane layer EGP Hello’s : MP-BGP TCP keepalive.

which is independent of media and routing protocols.Bi-directional Forwarding Detection (BFD) Goal A sub hundred milliseconds forwarding plane failure detection using single. common. 121 . Inc. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. standardized mechanism.

All rights reserved. all output features are bypassed for locally generated BFD control packets. • Active & Passive modes. • Destination port 3784 and source port between 49252 to 65535. • Because of the fast nature of the protocol.BFD Protocol Overview • BFD control packets will be encapsulated in UDP datagram. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 122 .

Inc. • The system reporting the slower rate determines the transmission rate. Negotiate rates Desired Receive rate = 50 ms Desired Transmit rate = 100 ms Green Transmits at 100ms Desired Receive rate = 60 ms Desired Transmit rate = 40 ms Purple transmits at 50ms IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.Timer negotiation • Neighbors continuously negotiate their desired transmit and receive rates in terms of microseconds. 123 . All rights reserved.

faster than any IGP hellos IGP BFD X Asynchronous BFD control packet Detect-timer Inform BFD client (IGP/BGP) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 124 .BFD – Asynchronous Bi-directional mode BFD will detect in a few hundred of milliseconds Layer 3 neighboring failure. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved.BFD Application • Forwarding plane liveliness • Tunnel liveliness detection • IP/MPLS FRR • BFD over Ethernet • MPLS LSP data plane failure IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 125 .

… RSVP Hello’s & fast RSVP Hello’s IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.MPLS OAM’s • Data Plane layer MPLS Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) MPLS Ping (IPv4 + LDP / Traffic Engineering Tunnel) MPLS Traceroute (IPv4 +LDP / Traffic Engineering Tunnel) Virtual Circuit Connection Verification (AToM Ping) • Control Plane layer LDP Hello’s : TCP keepalive BGP Hello’s : TCP keepalive. 126 . Inc. All rights reserved.

integrity of defined pseudowire • VCCV capability is negotiated when the AToM tunnel is brought up • A new pseudowire interface parameter is defined • 2 data plane methods defined Inband : One bit from pseudowire Control-Word is defined VCCV bit.k. .a L2 OAM’s VC Connection Verification (VCCV) • VCCV goal is to verify aliveness. All rights reserved. egress PE are going to intercept all packets with VCCV bit set 1 outband : An additional VCCV label is defined. Inc. egress PE are going to intercept all packets with this label.Pseudowires a. IPM-T02 127 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

255.16.255. Inc.16. All rights reserved.1 encapsulation dot1q 100 xconnect 172.4 102 pw-class pw-mpls PE2 Attachment VC IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.Connectivity Trace Using VCCV PE1# ping mpls pseudowire 172.4 102 Attachment VC PE1 VCCV Packet Is lost interface ethernet 1/1. 128 .

Customer Bridge Router Router Router Bridge Bridge Bridge Ethernet over SONET switch switch Customer Bridge Ethernet over MPLS 10G Ethernet ATM RFC1483 129 . All rights reserved. • Creates dependency on Physical layer and inter-operability issues. IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. and translated to new transport’s OAM format when crossing physical media boundaries. visible to ETH layer (when present).What is OAM Inter-working? This is NOT OAM inter-working! Operator A Edge Bridge Operator B Edge Router ATM Switch ATM Switch • Transport OAM message with embedded MAC address carried from bridge to bridge.

. All rights reserved.What is OAM Inter-working? Operator A Operator B • Strict OAM layering should be honored: messages should not cross layers Edge Router • OAM Messages should not leak outside domain boundaries within a layer • Inter-working is event translations & not necessarily 1:1 message mapping • Inter-working may be inter-layer and intra-layer Ethernet over SONET Ethernet over MPLS Customer Bridge Router Router Router Bridge Bridge Bridge switch switch Customer Bridge Edge Bridge Event Translation 10G ATM inter-domains intraEthernet RFC1483 layer Server Layers feed events into Client Layers ATM Switch ATM Switch Service OAM Network OAM Network OAM Transport OAM IPM-T02 Transport OAM Transport OAM Transport OAM 130 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc.

131 .Summary on OAM’s Signalling Media type ATM VP ATM VC FR Ethernet last mile Ethernet provider bridge MPLS LDP MPLS TE MPLS PW IPv4 IPv4 VPN LDP RSVP LDP AIS/RDI F4 F5 LMI E-LMI Aliveness CC CP ILMI CC DP F4 (VC-3) F5 (PT 100) Keepalive IEEE 802.1ag IEEE 802. All rights reserved.1ag IEEE 802. Inc.1ag LDP Hello RSVP Hello LDP Hello IGP/BGP Hello IGP/BGP Hello VCCV BFD BFD BFD VCCV Ping IP Ping IP SLA IP TR MPLS BFD IEEE 802.1ag LSP Ping LSP TR Troubleshooting Loopback Performance Traceroute F4 (VC-4) F5 (PT 101) IP Ping (VRF) IP SLA (VRF) IP TR (VRF) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

Agenda • Build an MPLS core OAM Fast-convergence Engineering of traffic Vagish Dwivedi IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 132 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.MPLS Core convergence RR1 RR2 PE3 P1 PE1 CE1 P2 PE2 CE2 CE3 P3 MPLS Core Technologies to consider for convergence • Core options: – P Links/Node protection FRR – PE/P IGP restoration Fast IGP + LDP • Edge: – PE-PE iMP-BGP Fast BGP via RR – CE-PE edge routing IGP or BGP / OAM IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. 133 .

134 . Inc. Detection of Link / Node failure Link down (ms detection) Neighboring failure IGP Hello detection = 1 second detection BFD = Sub-second detection (or below) 2. All rights reserved. Alternate path computation IGP flooding / SPF (sub-second or even 200ms computation) Alternate path pre-computation: MPLS Fast-ReRoute (sub-100ms or even sub-50ms convergence) IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.Core Fast convergence 1.

All rights reserved. Node down IGP detection 135 . Inc.Fast Detection of Link / Node failure interface FastEthernet1/1 ip address … carrier-delay msec 0 ip router isis isis network point-to-point dampening Link down interface FastEthernet1/1 ip address … ip router isis … isis circuit-type level-1 isis hello-multiplier 10 level-1 isis hello-interval minimal level-1 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

10. All rights reserved.18 dampening IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. faster than any IGP hellos IGP BFD X Asynchronous BFD control packet interface Vlan600 ip address … ip router isis bfd interval 10 min_rx 10 multiplier 3 bfd neighbor 10.Bi-directional Forwarding Detection BFD will detect in a few hundred of milliseconds Layer 3 neighboring failure. Inc.0. Detect-timer Inform BFD client (IGP/BGP) 136 .

IGP alternate path re-computation thru SPF router isis net 49. All rights reserved. Allows Traffic-Engineering attribute propagation Fast reaction. Inc.0001.00 is-type level-1 metric-style wide spf-interval 20 100 20 prc-interval 20 100 20 lsg-gen-interval 1 1 20 fast-flood 15 IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. but backoff protection: • SPF computation • IP addresses changes • LSP advertisement Fast flooding for first LSP 137 .5555.0000.6500.

Agenda • Build an MPLS core OAM Fast-convergence Traffic Engineering Yogesh Jiandani IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 138 . Inc.

All rights reserved.Which problems are we trying to solve ? Core SLA Loss/Latency/Jitter High Availability Buy Bandwidth Optimize bandwidth Fast IGP Convergence MPLS TE FRR Diffserv IP Traffic Engineering DiffServ aware TE IPM-T02 IGP Metric Based TE MPLS TE 139 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. .

Inc. lower delay) to be offered with the existing backbone bandwidth Meet very tight SLA requirement (refer to MPLS QoS part) Or … the existing SLA targets to be achieved with less backbone bandwidth or with delayed time to bandwidth upgrades IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. lower loss. All rights reserved. 140 .IP Traffic Engineering: The Benefit for traffic SLA • The more effective use of backbone bandwidth potentially allows: Either … higher SLA targets (higher availability.

141 .MPLS Traffic Engineering • MPLS Traffic Engineering gives us an “explicit” routing capability (a.a. Inc. All rights reserved. “source routing”) at Layer 3 • Lets you use paths other than IGP shortest path • Allows unequal-cost load sharing • MPLS TE label switched paths (termed “traffic engineering tunnels”) are used to steer traffic through the network IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.k.

LSP establishment 6.MPLS TE Components – Refresher 1. Assign traffic to tunnels IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. Inc. Link admission control 5. 142 . RSVP for tunnel signaling 4. Constraint based path computation 3. TE tunnel control and maintenance 7. All rights reserved. Resource / policy information distribution 2.

Strategic Deployment: Full Mesh • Requires n * (n-1) tunnels.900 tunnels in total max 99 tunnels per head-end (may go up to 600) max ~1. where n = # of head-ends • Reality check: largest TE network today has ~100 head-ends ~9. All rights reserved. 143 . Inc.500 tunnels per link (may go up to 5000) • Provisioning burden may be eased with AutoTunnel Mesh IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems.

Strategic Deployment: Core Mesh • Reduces number of tunnels required • Can be susceptible to “traffic-sloshing” IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. 144 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. 145 .MPLS TE Deployment Considerations Statically (explicit) or dynamically established tunnels • Dynamic must specify bandwidths for tunnels Otherwise defaults to IGP shortest path Dynamic tunnels introduce indeterminism Can be addressed with explicit tunnels or prioritisation scheme – higher priority for larger tunnels • Static (explicit) More deterministic If strategic approach then computer-aided tools can ease the task IPM-T02 © 2005 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Tunnel Sizing
• Determine core traffic demand matrix
Full mesh of TE tunnels and Interface MIB NetFlow or BGP Policy Accounting

• Also key is the relationship of tunnel bandwidth to QoS • Offline sizing
Statically set reservation to percentile (e.g. P95) of expected max load Periodically readjust – not in real time, e.g. weekly, monthly

• Dynamic Sizing: autobandwidth
Router automatically adjusts reservation (up or down) potentially in near real time based on traffic observed in previous time slot: Tunnel bandwidth is not persistent (lost on reload)
© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


• MPLS Technology has evolved to enable provisioning of many services • MPLS accommodates both connection-oriented and connectionless environments • MPLS provides many technological advances to enable a reliable, controlled, stable infrastructure • All of these advances have been leveraged with standards driven through appropriate bodies – Cisco a major contributor in these efforts


© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


MPLS, The Foundation for the NGN A quick recap of the Benefits
• MPLS is a Services Creation & Convergence platform
Layer3 MPLS based IP-VPN Services (RFC 2547bis) Layer2 VPN Services (VPWS & VPLS) Legacy Frame-relay and ATM Services New Ethernet based Wire and LAN Services Wide range of Value Added Services (Voice, Video…)

• Quality of Service and Traffic Engineering • Network Reliability via Link and Node Protection and Restoration • IP & ATM Integration (Routers and Switches) • IP & Optical Integration (G-MPLS) • Large End-user acceptance as enabler of Business IP Services

IPM-T02 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ©


Inc. 149 . Inc. © 2005 Cisco Systems.Q and A Presentation_ID IPM-T02 © 2003. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

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