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Divis i on des th'~ses "canadtennes

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A ,MAJO~ TECHNICAL REPORT ',:'

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. Presented 'in partial fu~~ilment ~f the ·requi~eJD.eil't8 of

II' ", the Degree' of M~ster of Engineering at ,"

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• . ,.,' ..,' ~ t Mo~tre.al, Canada, "', "

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. 1976

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ABSTMCT .

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J,ohn ~, McGrath

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,"Sh~ar Wall-Fr.ame Interacti~n 'In ,},., M~l ti-:,Storey' ~u~ldingh

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The interaction of frames and shear walls'in '

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't-evlewed I!J1d the' resul ts are. appli.~d to ~

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,arbitrary percent~ges of the lateral forces were tak~n .-

by th'e ahear walls'., The Portland Cement AssociS.tlon .. "

frame'-,shear wall interaction and flat pl~'t'a computer,

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programmes,are used In ~he analysis an~ the res~lts are

, included in the appendices;

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'TABLE OF CONTENTS •

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIO,NS .' • • • .'. • • .. • '. _-:.,.... .'. 111·

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1.

. INTRODUCTION.

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2.

CHARACTERISTICS' OF SHEAR WALLS AND FJWrtES. .".

J 2.1 . Frame' 'ariq .She~r. Wall Action

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,: '3 ,,' COMPUTER PROGRAMMES • • .' ~'.' • '. • t. .i: \' •

.3\1'" Flat 'Plate progra~e D.~sc~ion ~ •• ~ ,:

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2.2

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Methods of Solution

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3.2. L~tera1'Load Analysis 00£ Multi-Storey Frames . .' wi th Shear Wa1,ls PrQgramme. DeS$:ri'ption • .' • , •

. 3.2',1 Pr.pgz:amme Limitati~ns ahd Assumptions .,' J. 2.2; The 'Method of Solution ., ,(t':' ,,' '" .. t

'J t 2 t J Description ~J: 'Outpu:t; ,t '. " ., • • • t'

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~NALYS.IS OF EXISTI~G ',STRUCTURE.,..

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,Description . ~f B~il~ing' ••••

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Design Loads' .'.'. • _'. " • •

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Input Data for P~ogrammes • t •

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DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUS.IqN

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'!FERENCES ", " : , ','" • ", , • , " ' , , , • , , , ,

APPENDIX ~ ~ Fra~~-~hear Wa'll ,c,omputer.'· Programme Results' .. ~ • .' ~ t".' •• t •• ,., .'.' t

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AP.PENDIX B - Flat Pla,~e Computer Programme,

,Resu1 t~ . • • • • .', •.•. t t • • • • • t

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, . LIST OF ni,USTRATI.O~S' .

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Peformation'Modes. • • '. '.

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'Cost ,of Cons'tructionl He,ight', ._ ,. • • • • •

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Bistributfon' of Applied 'Horiz,ontal Load' Qetween Frame. and Shear Wall, ••••••

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T'Yi~ore with Exterior', Colu~r:s '.

Buiiding Frame Deforma,tion • • • •

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Un! ts 'frQm Loaded B,ulldings r • • • ..',' •

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Ef:f~ctive . Width' of Slab' ~ .'.

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Id~ali~ation, for Plane Frame Ana1ys~s

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Effect of ~ on' Frame Defornatlon • •

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Floor Slab Ideali:sa~'iol1 • • • • • • I~

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, Idea"ti~ed St~ucture _ for, 'W;nd ,Load' Analysis,

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Flow 'Chart' of the Fla~ Plate' P~ogramme ~ •

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,TY1'ical, Link~d ',Fr~es, ' • • '. ,. ~ .• ' • .'" •

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·E.ffect 01"' Wid,th of Members ,.'. • • .'.. • •

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Typical Floor Pl~ '. ',' .'. • • • 9.. . ., .

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Typica.l Cross-Section • ., .' • .'. • •

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Frame #1 (columns. and slabs only) .. Column .. ' ,

, f;Ipinents, Sh~ars and DireC~~dS per, F~e _ ,45 ..

Ul timate Moments in Slabs d Columns ~for

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.',. -Moments: in Frame' and' Shear Wall~ wi th . "

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~i'stribut'f~n of ~om~ntB in .'Fr~m~'1 ~~d She:~ ', ., . . ,~

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Sheat' itt :Frame arid' Shear .Walls ~1 th Arbitrary' . ,_,.

Di-stribution .: of 15% to, Shear Wall$' ano.'~ 2Sfo .::

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INTRODUCTION

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• .The p~rpose 'of thiS,report 1~ tj analyse an

existing t9n;';8t~I'ey;~ ~at pl'llte •.. ~indu~tri 1 bU~ld1"g cO~8idering the shear wall-!:~me interact on and to " compare.the re~~l~B' to ~he origi~ design'assumption that ,75% of the lateral forces were resisted~Y thet .

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..' shea~ .~llti, and '25% by ~he ~ame •.

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Two, computer prosrammes, proyided by the

land Cement Association. a~e uS~d to anal~s, t~e' Btru~ture. onl programme is ,for.',the ;nlit-:slab analysis (l}

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.and the other ts' tor the ahear' wall-frame 'ina1ysis (2)'.

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Jl'he prin'_outs of the .... resul ts.'are inc1~ded in t~e' r~port.

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cation~ .• .to» ex~mple the ie,'teral force,s' on ,·th~'. bui'ldi.~g

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the ,frame action· or the shear walls alone'. The use of·

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standard computer progz.ammss,.for, d~tailed analysis and"

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CHAPTER '~ ,CHARAC.TERISTICS "OF

.S~R WAL~S AND FRAMES '(3),: (4)", (5)

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The~framing was designed 't'o translilit.lateral

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load's \0 the foundation i; mul ti-st'~~ey buildings '-u~

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the whole building were ob{ained ,by using elastic metho~s

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of frame design .•. ft' The' st~~ngth ~nd stlffne~s of the

,

building was clearly' provided by' the walls and frame -bu t .'

., ..... .

~ /" re;ul ts obtained· 'by C!aiculat'in~ -tlle composite action -:"afr~d <: . widely' because of :,the di;f!re~t but 'justi~ia~le assumptions .~.

. . 1 "\ •

, , ' - , ' , ..

At tne'present time the nee~to .~llow for the ~ff~cts of, ,

r , \, ~ ~ •

-walls, becomes 'mor-e itl1Portan~' with .th,e construc~ton of'

, ,

, , '

"

: in:c'reasingly tall.er ~uildings. ,

"

. .,

The wa~ can, be coriS~~d ',to.; resi,st a~'l

horizontal loads and the frame to. take the vertical

,.

the'

1oa\is ,0

I

. '

I

...

onl~. but-this a~~in is a si~plification. When, the 'buildl~g

i~ ~ery "~~il,' 'however, t' shear ~~'~l flexUral 'defor~a tion'~

v • • • '. • ".~ ~

'become very pronounced atid, hence Lnduce ' deformationEl "in the'

,- ' <' ' .. ' .," •• •• , • ':, '

frame whi,c~ must· be" a,J..l·owed f~or in t,he' design analysi~. "

i

f

...

,

,

The, compos l te aotd.on -of the combined struc·ture ....

cause~ the' frame to res train trie shear wal'l 'in the upper

. -

. , '~ , ,

storeys and tlle s.heaJ;\ -wall ~o r,es,train the frame in the 16w~r

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storeys, he~~e red~oing the ~ee deflection and improving )'

"the' ove~l~ ~fiCien.c~ Of, th~ stru~,tural .. system., 'Figur~ 'l(a) shows'the shear ~~e deflection ot ~ frame which can' be defined',as a ,syste,m of ,inter .. oonnected vertioal columns

. ' ." ..J,,' .. "

arid horizontal elemel}ts. " Figur'e' 1(0) shows the predomi-

, ..~' ' .

. 1 . '

. nantl~ bending inQde /deforma ti~n of a shear wall, or simpl'e

" • I ,

cantilever. The bena~iour of stair wells, elevator shafts

. ' ,~ ... . ,

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.and walls normally conform to this mode! Figu~e l(Q) shows the interaction forces between a frame and,. shear

..

wall.

, '

! '

!

Th~ m~deB of deformation are not alWays ,easy, to

I· \ " • "

"categorise, for exampie a .ro~ or rows ot op~nings in a

, t , '

shear wa~l may change the d~fiection ,characteristic,s from

, ' .

, 'a ben,ding to a' s~ear ~o·d,e. t, • and conversely an in:(illed

• I ,,~

~rame will tend to d~form in a Qending mode.

... )

.' If' the height ~o 'depth rlltio of a1 shear' Wall is

'lOW: for. e~myle less, th~on~, t~/shear 'deformation' can

be mor-e important. than ;the bending defo~'tion. ,"" ~

, , '~

\ .

The arrangement of the structural members 'is

~ " l-

..... . . .

usually restr~cted by the archit,ectural requlremEmts ,but

. '

, there' still rem~iins aJllple 'scr~pe' for the engineer to, desl~

, ~ . '.

", ~ :

an economic structure. Figure 2 shows how the cost of

, '. ' .

constr~cti'on' varies with, t'h~, height ,a~d 'th~~ oportion of

the cost. which is,r~quired for wind or lateral loads.

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,.cost', of Coristruot~on·. He1Ih,t': ...

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'Th'e lateral 'drift or deflection' is often the'

,t .: ; " 'L "". "

:design criteria -in "high slender buildings' and Jtay~er-

mine the ,type ot structural system employed.

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. the applied storey shear at these levels. Distributing < "

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,

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The d~8trlb~tion of apJill~d" h,orizontal, load on

a frame-shea~ wall ,structur~ can 'be demonstrated ':Ls ,shown' ,

~ , , ,- "" ',' '"

i~ Figure 3 where the 'variation ot'shears carried by the '

, . . .

I el~ments' Elre 'indicated., It should be' ,not'ed that tlleAotal

', .. '

shear ca:rried, by the' 'trame', at the t9P'storeys can exceed ...

~ '* • • • •

t'

. . \.

th~ applied 'she~r'to the resisting elements in propo~tion

. ~,' - .

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, .

to .'their re~atl'Ve stiffness can' 'leid to ~rr~neous results.

. , " \ .

The' large variation in th& shears at the lower storeys is

, .

,

,The a.~gemen~ of the /structural elements may,

, ,

cause~"by the, shear wall being ~a:rried by .colu~s and_

'.

, .

indicate the force concent;-a~ions"which occur in regions

D· _

:- of, sh$8.r ~lil. discoht'inui ties',-

, . .

easily modity the mode of deflection as indicated in r

',' . Figure 4.

)

'.~

Lateral load ana~ysis 'is ~o~parativelY'81mple

. '"

.--~. - "'£t;, tf!'li&!~ .. ", -7;-~:~._!."'"':::~:::::, :~, :::::1 '=:=: ::"::::':::;0 :::Ef#;;ra;!,.=:::.:::.===::::::::z::.:-~ ...... ::........-..i.:.:.( ,:...... _-=-=:- ====:::::::::::::=-::-

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if all the vertical component~ of a structurebeh~ve in ~

. .

~ similar ~nner due to,lateral ~oa~. , For exam~le~ 'if they' '~

are 'all shear walls or all rigid trames the load, can be

. ' ,

. ,

dis~ributed direqtly to the ~its in proporti~n to t~~ir

, . '

stiffness. When walls and frames are combined in a' .\

struQture. n~>n-un!·r9rril, interac,ting forces' ~re developed by

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Fig. J

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'Di~~ribution of applied ~orizontal load betw~en frame and shear'wall (Ref. 3) ,

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Fig. '4 Tying, cote' with 'exterior columns .:

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the'.dlfference in ~e8p'ons'e und.~r lateral load 'in com-

\ " bination with the in-plane' rigidi ty' of' the floor slabs.

. ....... , .

It is the non-um rorm interacting forces which make the

analYsis ,more complex.

. ,

Fla·t s;Lab' buildings consist of reinforced con-

..

'.

. .

crete 'floors ,of uniform thickness or with drop panels,at

the' C:~jmfiB' Buprted by, columns. The nat slab b~l1ding .... in Its most regular form ,thus becomes a structure consisting' .

; "

" _Jl 'series of parallel p~at~s pie~ced by, a series \~~i-

'form oolumns. In 'reality, the flat' slab ,building 'departs

. .' . , .. ~ , .

~om this simple de~inition due to such features as st!f-

, .

fening,beams openings and

either around the perimeter or' around interior

" ....' \ !? .'

irregtl'lar qolumn' si~e and layout. . . \

. . . ,

.

. Floor slabs are, usualiy conside~ed to be ~lly

rigid within the1l:- own planes for analy'sis. ,which means .

~ '" ". ,

, '

that there will be no r,elative movement be'tween the 'verti-

.

"

, .

cal ~its at each storey level. It is possible to allow'

, '.

, • ' ",; .. II .

in-plane deformati<h:l"'}~f 'the slabs bu~' this deformation

is seldom of, any signif~caht, importance ~ ,

"F).~re 5 .(a) shows ,~he geometry of a :rrame before

-t

I~' lateral load' is applied r Figure S (b) shows the displaced

• ,_. I)" • '0

~ositi'on o~ the frame due' t~· lateral loading. 'l'he .columns

, . ,

and girders, or the coluDUls and floor slabs 'in the' case of

. .' . " .

.. • I -

, a fl:at slab struc'ture, combine to resis,t the load by.

bending and take, the displaced' profile of. the classic

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a) BUILDING SUBJECTED TO LATERAL LOA;DS

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b) FRAME A~ION OF LOA'DED BUILDING

Fig~: 5, Btff.i.cl.ing fram~ deformation

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r "framel action".'

. ,

,A ':typical ,frame joint is shown in Figure 6, the

, ~,' ,

columns are cut at· mid-height above and pelow the joi~t

'anJ the girders' and, 8lab~ at mid-span. The deflected·

, posi tiona are' indicated by dashed lines and the unloaded , \

position by so+.id lines.

, "

i Figure 6'(a) shows th~ fun4~mentally- two-dimen-

~ , u

,sional ac~ion of the slab in t~e·flat plate buildi~.

,~ ~\

• t .. •

Maximum deflections occur a~ ~he x-x axis and ,deflections

of points on any er-ose section parallel to y-y vary along

. ,

the section. The lines o~ Inflection AB and ct show how

. tJ:le shear Q'varies across the' section., Some mo~ent, MY 'on \.th{~anel centre lines Be' an, d ADAs'trB:hsferred to adjoi,n-

. \1 /,-

ingtUnits'.

, t

,'The fundamentally one-dimensional character- of the column and gi~d~rs is contrasted in, Figure 6" (b) from poin~s 'AB and CD t~ the column. Moments. and. deflections are considered. constant acrcaa any transverse section of the girder and the end ~hear Q is evenly distributed. The

",

perpendfcufar girder 'F,G rot8;.~es, wi th th~ joint but due' to ("

the assumed symme'try does not twist and hence does not

. ,

apply a moment, to,the'unit. Heibe f~r the cOl~mn,~d

girder structure it can be assumed that there 1S no trans-

, '

verse" interacti6n betwe~n various units' ·of' the frame or

transverse vari,ation of deflec.tion moment 'or sheal:" wi thin, an element of the flC?ot:' ",system.

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a) . FLAT PLA~E'

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b)' COLUMN.AND GIRDER

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Unfts

from loaded buildings

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2.2 METHODS OF SOI:,UTION ' .

- I

Methods of solution are easily- :ro,rmula~ed for

, \

the' relatively: simple behavd oun. of tne, c o Lumn 'and, girder

, ,

frame as oppoaed-rtc- the complexity of the flat 'plate' J~ analysis. Slope deflection equations f.otm the basis for

,1

'I

., ,

to repeated attempts to 'reduce the basically,three-dimen-

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sional plate, struc~ure, to an appr~ma~ely equivalent ,

'two-dimensiont.l frame. The current. A.C .:1. bull ding code

\.

/'

.J I.'

,

a method of solution which' is well suited for the

, ," ~ " \ "

analysis of frames for gravity and lateral loads, this

" , " - t

~, '

. . "'"

method is readily adaptal:lle' for electronic c,o~puter

. . }, . . ,

'0,

comp~tation •.

'The s~m~le methods ~vailabl~ for a two-dimeu; sional analysis of a column'and,girder f~ame have led

, ,/,

"

.' .'

I 0

,

uses this approach and represents the. flat, pla-te as a

.two-dimensional' nfa.th~matical 'model:' A ~ow of columns and that portion of the slab ~ith~n the panel centre lines on

, ..' ,-

-

- 0

either side'is consideFed the equivalert structure. One.

, ,

" 'qf -th.e provisions included is ~hat joints .can be consid!!red

" ' ,

~tigi~with the rigidity'extending in the slab and column

·to the limits ot the cross-sectional area 'common to' 'both. ,The code has only one direct reference to lateral load

/)f
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,! ~esign, which reads . .in part. . that are, C /2'/+ I-,S t

. .

"A ,slab width between lines,

, .

l" -r _( •

• _,,1'';

, ' ~; ~ ~Ir~ ,·.~.;;t:. :' ~.i;\;f1

: .. ': ~;;~:

'each side of the column centre line.

may be considered effectiye, for transfe'r of bending "f.

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colunin".' \ Successful field ~xperience is evidently the,

bas.i~ 'of this' provision.

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12.

, p

mOl\en't be'tween' c'o~umn and solab, where t is the' t}:llcknesB O'f the slab at the c~lumn- and' c is the width of the

" ~/' The problem of "effective width", see FigUre 7, .

has pro~uc'ed ma.~y e~erime~ta1 and ~lytical ~tudies

'J •

which have considered the column to'panel width ratio ~~

the ,toverning variab1e ~nd ha've recommended ~f;.ective slab width ratios rang~ng from ~., to values greater than unity.

/" As, the cOlumn to panel width ratio increases, the effective W~dth increases. However, there may be o~her factors which

I

,-'

have significant ef~ects on the effectiye sl'~b'Wl.dth. suoh

as,'the slab stiffness, ',the slab ~n :0 width ratiof"and i the dimensions of the column, in the plane of the frame'

_). ,~.

; 'r~'lative to the slab span':' Adjustments may be necessary

in the' values of 'both s.tiffness and ca:r;'ryoVle~ 'factors' of" the equivalent beam when. adjacent frames differ ~ignifi-

I: "

. I

I . I.

,,,_

.-

-

- .

, . \'

cantly i~ the sp,acing. or stiffn~SSCln0f the vertical el~ments •. '

. I'

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, '\To properly ,model the ac on o~ a slab, .: for, use In'

\

~

a plane trame analysis', the ~tiffness properties of an .

"equival~nt frame" must be dete~!1l1ned (6). A distinction has to be drawn between the cri tarion of eq,\,li valenc'e .to . be:' used depending' on the object of {he analysis'. Thus an

. analysis undertaken' to provide vaiues of slab design moments' . ...

\ .

may require different,equivalenc~ criteria. compared to an

• • I· '

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. ...

. . .

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: analysis intended·:to 'serve as a basis for column design or

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,'--' _'~ .. ". ~ ...... --:- .. ---- ... - -"1',....,"'-~-;;. •. :._ ...... ---- ..... --- l-_

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......

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Effective width' or slab

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I11III1 (frOlllll

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'Ales 011' ~ry

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Fig'. 8

'Id~alisation," for Plane-frame analys'is

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'14 '

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~n analysis of ove~ll frame deformation. 'For the' purposes

, . I'

, of this ,report 'the Jffectl ve

, ~'

.' ' ~.', ,

the distance between t~e panel centre lines

of. th-e c'!lumn. " .. '. '

width has been "assumed to be

/ '

on each rdde

( .

, I,

. . ':.'

A plane, (rame c~m;mter p!~amme ,can be used to,·

analyse a shear' wall ... frame sttitc'ture. provided in-plan'~,

. ,

, ,

,deformation of floor 'slabs and ,torsion can be neglected.'

, '0 " _J " ", ,

. Th~ basic ~dealisation ~~wn in ~igur.e 8. ,The verticai

'a" •

uni~s are, connected at each floor level by link,~s that

~i~ulate t~e 'effect D,! the noor slabs, in transmitting 'the

\ '

,loads' in \theit' own plan~.

-

The effect of tpe paramet~r ,A ttl (e~ 1c./~)J(E" X"'jf)

, " • .• . " if

'f the ratio of the' col~mn to beam stiftn~~s iQ'~hown in '

, "

, FiglIre 9. I~).. is low, the 'bea~s are 'stiff and t~~ f_me' ,

tf., , .' '

.. 'deflects in $hear mode, 'Figure 9(a) 1 AS,A ;ncrea?s, the ' ,

beams beriome less effeotive'until, when they have no

\ bending stiffness and ~he load is resisted by the columns'

~. . '

alone,. ~s in Fl~re 9(b). "

, ,', ~A'

-. '

\.,

" ",_ Vi tor~ion: is ~on,sidered 'if! 'the d'es,is'i, of- a

, • I • , ... ~_

building;frame~ork,. a space frame an~lysis must be,carried \

, " ( .' .

out. . The' ~n-plane 'stiffness, \of the fioors' 'can, ~~ 'idealised.

. ,

as shoWl! in FIgure 19. The prope~ties of the link 'bars can

be es\tablish~~ .on th~ bas~s' ~f' a framework -,an~~. '~n analysis of this t~.~' is ?ey~nd the sc~pe Of. thf's~epo~t'.·

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C.OMPUTER PRO GfW,lMES'

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~HA~ER' 3~

COMPUTER PRO'GRAMMES

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The nat plate u ) . anCl'-trame-shear wall inter-

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action (2} programmes supplied by the Portland Ce~ent ,

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·Association are 'the basic tools used.in thi~ repor~ and

(are descri'~ed at length in :this chapter.. "

The flat plate 'programme is not very complex,

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the' analysis 'part could be carried out 0 u~1ng any :tram~ ~aly~i~procedure, for example matri~ analysis, slope'

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d~flection or H~dy-Cross.

, •

The 'bulk of the programme

time 'is 'used to calculate the numbe~ and size ot rein-' torcing bars' and to, check the code requirements., ;, ' /

,

. The t.rame~shear wafl interaction programme "

" (STMFR~6o) is very c~~l~x ~nd a ~tudy of' the theor~ticai .

'\

ba'sis would be a major investigation in itself. The

programme is not' documented i~ de",il but has been based '

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on reference' (7,) which is. mainly concerned with th~

manipulation of ,iarge matric~s'. I.

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~ The programmes are written tor an 'I:.B.M. 360 computer and" the time of 'aolution. was 1 minute"12 seconds

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for'the fiat plate programme Md 4 ,minutes 33 seconds for

the ~ame-Sh~at wall interaction programme.

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There is a,supple~en~ary programme CK DAT-60 available wh~ch checks ,"tt1e inp~t' data for 'the trame-sh~ar'

. ,

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wall( interaction ptogramme. , \

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DESCRIPTION '(1)

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I' 1

).1 PLAT PLATE PROG

. I

,This programme _,is capabl~ of ~alysin§-/arld designing flat plates. at slabs (flat plates ·with drop,

panels'). waffle slabs ant' contiiluous frames. It can ~

combine ve~tical and hor zon~ load~.and design the'

.', ' I ', .. , -

structure, in acccrdance fit~ .the ~.C.I.-3l8 1971 code.

The equivalent ,trame method of analysi-a is the. , basis of .~he pr~gramme i~ accordanee with'section,l3.4 of t~e A.C.I. code. The st oture is oonsidered divided into a series" 'of bents. each <IJ~sist~ ot a strip ,ot' slab

.

b supported b~ ~olumns\

,The p~ograD6lie " npt.l:t consists of the physical dimensions of the struc 1:'e • conditions 0'. loading', pro~" perties of th~ ~oncrete d ,reinforcing steel. specifl-~;. cati~~ of de8i~,~~thOd d lateral lo~d8. if the'

"

, combination "ot lateral

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loads is requirea.

Two types, of 's ructute c~n be ~lYSed. ~ither ' flat slabs'and columns 0 beams and columns. The programme also allows the user to hoose between llghtwefght and

.normal weight ccncr-e te

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b~tween ultimate .strength ' T,he sequence of operations

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and working stress des1

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is in accordance' with th pertinent design cri ter'ia of the code.

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The carryover f'aqtors. fixed end mOIll~nts and . stlffness\factors. are 'calculated ~sing numerical lnte~

·gration. The elimination ~ethod is used 'to solve the "

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set of simultaneotis ~qu~tions fo~ ea~ b~~t. Punching

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shear and momtht transfer shear are treated together

unde~ the heading "shear stress", it is assumed ·t~~ e~ch

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~ype o~ shear acts on the same critical section. The

·A.C.I. code defines the critical section as a peripheral vertical surface through the ·slab i~c~ted at a constant

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distance of tAl2. from the face of support, wher'~ d is the

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thickness of the slab or. drop panel ,at the co'lumn •

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At ·an interior joint the algebraiC diff~rence between the end mome~t~ of the· two continuous members is

., .

the unbalanced moment. whereas at an exterior joint it is

" .

\the. member'end moment. Tests have shown that for square,

. .

~olumns 60~,of the moment should.be considered transfe~ed

by flexure across the periphery.of the critical section and 40% by eccentric'! ty o,~' the s~ear about ~he centroid of "the

. .

,critical section. The A.C.I. ~Qde states fo~.the general

case of square or rectangular ¢olumns that the po~tlon of the moment transferred bY', flexure increase,s -tc; a . fract~on

,gi~~n by '/ll +~Jh:~,)~ . where(c,uct) is the. 'width of .the ". face of' the. critical section resisting the moment and

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(t I'" c() . is ,tl1e w~dth of the face a\right angles to (cu cA.)

. The remai.nin~ moment produces shear stresse,s in. the sanie_ peripheral area used for the punching shear calculations

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19

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a,t the supports'. _The shear stresses resulting 'from

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transfer. of moment .ar-e o'f opposite sign and are added, or"

subtrac'ted ft:om the punohing shear stre2?ses as appropriate, /

see Figure ·11.

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The lateral loads can be _e'nte~ as direc~ 'fo~es q,r

.

as 'moments, ~t'the joints.

The programme will generate the

la~eral load moments. internally with the stiffness'matrix'

metho~ based on the assumption that points of inflection L..'

, ,

. ,

are 'at the-mid-height of the columnsr the idealised struc-

~ure is shown in Figure 12.

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This assumption produces

.. . .

reasonable results for the intermediate floors with similar' storey 'height and floor thic'knesses. The colUmns outside

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the 'simplified frame a!e disregarded and the yalue, of t I

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is taken for the moment'of inertia of the floors above

and below to compensate for thi.s assumption.

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At the top and bottom of the building the lateral-

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load moments snould be used as direct iriputf . ,

The pro~e oonsists of' three ~in line pro- ~

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grammes', fourteen sub .. routines, and three' function sub-

programmes. . .

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general a's fo~lo"s I

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b) EDGE, 'COLUMN ",'

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Fig. 12,

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Idealised struct~re-for wi~d load analysis

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PLAT 1'. reads input d~ ta .: .' soI'~s da t~ 'an~ prints out,

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PLAT 2

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determines stlffnesB.es ~ carryo"ersj \ al)d fixed \

end mpments.

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PLAT 5·.

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PLAT' 7 . PLAT 8

PLAT 9

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determines loading to ~e·use4 ,in each loading

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patt~rn, i uses sub-.routine SALAD to determine

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end moments in slabs and columns, and computes

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end shears for all cases. ~

determin~s reactions •. shears. unit shears. ~d

outputs resul tI3 and opt~onal 'table ot statics',

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determines negative 'moment, points· of contra"flexure. area o.t top ~ei~f'orC~ required 'for column and middle st~ips, and outputs results;

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determines positive JIloment. points of contra-

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flexure, arid ar~a of bottom reinforcing required

for column and middle bands and, outputs results II

details rein~orcing steel over c~lu~s.

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details ,bottom .reinforcing, calculates weight

of' reinforci~ and .vol~~e of' concrete.

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computes deflections. checks against code

requirements.

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A .now chart for the pr 0 gramme , i~ shown in 'Figure 13"

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which also indic,at'es data' interfaces.

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'Flow chart 'of ~he flat ~late'programme ,~

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Bottom Reads Title Page and ,....-----_,

Part of Title 'Printout' , ' "'\

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r------P~L~A~T~I----------~ Re,adl input, arrange. data,

in proper ~ray, and check. input error. Alao read, wind' load tr;Icimcnt 01' generatea m'bments due t'o' wind load, if

lie able, '

Geometry of

.. t.ructure, loading. 'material pr oper ties, de.ign speciIic-atioDS wind lo~d rnornent or wind load' if ap- , licabIe.

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, ,PLATZ, ,

Generate,. loading pattern propertie., secticp propertiel, carryover facto ., fixed end oments.

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Analyze. structure apd det~rmines shear forc;es"

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Shear stresses: requ\red steel' area to transfer

unbalanc e ci l

inOme~t.

PLA'T4.

Calc;ulatu Ihear strellea and deterxnilau r'eqUired. steel area to trander unbalanced moment.

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R.equired area PLAt6
of bottom re- I Determine. required area of,
Worcing. bottom rein[orcinl!

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Rein£orcing de- _ '.
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taU, of column ReiD.fort.ing schedule over
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Over colwnn •. ~olllmJ),s.
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ReinIorcing de ... PLATS
tail. o! cohunns I+- ~e~oreing "iIchedule, in .pans
and ~ddl.e stripi and material qu~titie so'.
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weight of liteel ..
and volume of
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,24

3.2 LA~RAL LOAD ANALYSIS OF MULTI-STOREY FRAMES WITH SHEAR WALLS

, ,

Programme Description.(2)

.: This programme perfQrms a st~tic ,anal~sis to obtain me~ber ~nd, forces and joint displacements ,of a

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linear, 'elastic, rigid, J~inted f~me" or sev:eral frames

,~~ " "

linked toge~her, subjected t~gravity an~or lateral,loads.

Equal lateral deflections, imposed by' the assumption o.f

" • ILo •

rigid' floors, 'is ,modeled by using hinged rlgi'd "lhtka to

.. ,. " "

t~e the "frames iogetherr see Figu~e 14. Ficti tiou~

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members with negligible s'Ufffiess can :t>e u~ed to 'accom-_ .r

mod~~e irr,egtilar frames,.-

. ,

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, The programme. can analyse a structure with a maximum of three 'linked :frames, each, havirlg a maxilnum, of

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t.. si~ty storeys and ten column lines. The loads may consi'at

of 'vertica~ loads, uniformly: ,loaded, and, one concentrated 'load on each beam span combined wi th concerrtr-ated lateral

Loads at the floor levels,.

gramme I

l!/~ The follo~ing options are included in ~he pro- F

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1) Finite widths of members can, be ponsidered, ·:particular~y

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useful whe.~ frames .irite~-connected with shear w9.J.ls are/'

being considered.

2) The effect' of shear I de formatioll' 'in-columns can be con":'

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sidered. This may be -desirable'for the'analysis of

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shear walls. ' ,

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Max,,,no. of ~t frames = 3 ~

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Max. no. of , stories=60

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Max. no. of column ' lines I frame: 10

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Frame No.1 ' Frome No'. 2',

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Fig. 14 TyPical 'linked f~a~s

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Column Column
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, -1' Actual Structure YI \

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f- Mathematical ~ctdel

Fig. 15' Effect of finite wfdth" of members

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J) par~ial f:~~~ faotors withreapeot to:~otat:o~,~). ; . , v:er,tical dlsplaoement can, be specified for the bases

. .

. of the lowest storey ~oiu.mns •. Settling~ or' bases' ·can, .be handl.ed ~sl!lg this option.'

,

4) eo,ncentrat~d vertioal loads, moments, and a single

'.

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qon~entrated horizontal load, applied to' t~e top storey

"" . joints' can be, specified. This option may be u'sed when a st~cture,is segmented.

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..

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).2.1 PROGRA~Thm LIMITATIONS A~ID ASSUMPTIONS .,

a) The frame to be ',analysed ~~st 'be· rectan~larf Le. f the, 'columns ,are veI,"tical and the beams horizontal.

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c) Maximum number of storey leyels = 60 •.

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dr'Maximum'number of qolumn.'Iines per- ~,e =:: 10.

e) Axial deformation in the beams is neglected, 1.e~.' the' ,

, ,. , . '

" beams 'are as's~ed to be infinitely stiff' with respe'ct

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to. ,axial deformat'ion. " Axial deformation in columns 1s

considered.

\

f)~he frame members ire assumed to be of uniform crcse-

section th~oughout tbeir entire length( i.e •• for a

, colu1lU'i in,~' storey l~vel or a beam between two, adjacent

columns.

. g) The effect of th~ finite width of members' is considered' by assuming the segments from th.e ,face of the member', to

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its centre line as having infinite flexural stiffness

(s~e Figure 15).

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//h} The types o~ lO,ads i~ the plane ,of the/ ,irame are,

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\. / I inii ted, tc' uniform'ly 'tii'ert;ri b~ted vtrtlc';\l lpad:s on

,enti~ span, of 'beams, one concentrated vertical load

, ' ,

. ,

. ,

'per'beam span and copcentrated lateral loads at the

floor: l~vels.

t~ •

~ "

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. :3.2.2 THE METHOD OF SOLUTION

. .

Il',respecti ve of tne procedures employed. the

, .,

determination c·f ,the, interaction of shear walls and

, \

,

frame's 'ina mu1 ti .. storey building resolves to the' task

,. ~ ,

, ' . " 'II.

of making th~·lat~ral disp!acementscf the frame or,

, ,

framesr an .. d the shear walls compatible at, 'eaCh, noor level. The strUct~ral ~~iisis :of large building. frames

. . " ,

\ constd tutes an important fi.~la of· application for digital.~,

comp~ters because of the large number of co~put~tions

. '

. . ".

require~ to evaluate their complete stress and deflection.

• ,/ • " &. '.

di,stribution. To BJ'lalyse such large structural systems

"'.l' ')

, ' '

efficiently it is, n~cessary to use special t~chni~ues to

t~ke, adva~ta~e of,the ~arse nature of the sti~fness

, ,

. matrice's. Th.e basic tachnique is to use the displacement'

. ~ .-. . ,J

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~~ethOd of'structural analysis, ~rrange th~ sji~:ness ~ix

. in the form of a tri-diagonal system of submatrices, and

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then obtain 'the solutionoy means of a recu~~ion equat'i0I?-'

, '

This method has the advantage' that manipulations' (i. e.

inversions, etc'.) of matrices involve re1.ativ-elY ~mail,sized I'(latrices" the size 'being dependent on the, number of

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fr' ,

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co'Lumn lines in each frame., The fi~al :lB:teral s:t;iffne-ss ~ 'matr:ix is an ~ x N matrix, where N~, is the'~total number 'of

storey levels.

" 4

" ,

I

,Standard p~ane; frame pr"ogratnmes a~e avai~able' that will determine iihe member :forces .and joint', displace- ' ..

, .

mants in an arbitrary 'plane frame, given' o~y the nodal

, ' ...

'j

"

I

point "geometry, the 'member prope'rtie{:J ~d tile ~pplied l'oads.

, ' .

,"

..

H.owever; the difficulty-'arises not from"~y defieien-cie.s 'in,

'\: , ", .

the ~heory, but in the size o~ the qomputational. problem.

. " , : ~

A'typicaL pl'ane frame analys~s is gen,erally limited by

the storage capacity of the computer to the' direct analysis

~ I • : .'

. , ,

,of' j(rames having 'f'j.:rty joints, this number,~:f' joints' would" ,

,"

, t '. • •

. lead to a s,tiffness matr~x of: 150th O~der, composed of

22 J 500 e,lem~nt,s. On ,the " other hang, - a :prac,tical large s~~le 'build~ng f,rame a?alys-is programme should perm'~ t t~eatm~nt' of at ;t~~st 1, 000,' joint~f, 'f,?r e~mple fifty

1 '" • I "

storeys b; twenty c~itmn lines. 'Tlius' the buildirlg an~lysi"~

,r- programme involves an en:tire,ly different ~rder' of' magni tud~,

\ ,(

,- .

,in the volume of data to be considered, and hence the

J 0,

o develo~me~ or. new met;h~ds of' solution to" 'take advant~g~,

of tfte- spec ial characteristics, of, the' 'r$ctangular 'plane

\ ' \

... , ~ t ,

The' la,rge size of the tY.PiLal· ~uil~~g' ~r~e-

( ,

,

, ! _ l

,

, " .;,

, , . :analysis prol;>lem causeE! two', distinct types of, difficulties;' "

1 , /' ~ , .

~ I • "

o : • First" thedefiniti:~ of' the p~eqd:e~ ~h. """"

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'. cati:on ~f ~:'tremf!ndOUS volunie"'of /d~~aJ: ~d, second,' the

, I

, '

simultaneous equation system ,is larg~,and lis'solution

'() , .

is, a major' computatio~al task. For,tunately, th'e regula;

, " '\ . ~

natur~ of the recta~lar building frame 'makes possible

\, '

I I'" .' \ •

great ~impliti~ati'pns cr£ :both th$se 'problem~.~'

Q'

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,-

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Because the-reduction of.the frame stiffness

. ,

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matrix involves .the inv:~rsion. of relatively small,

, ... ' , '4 " '

matrices, the0~ou~d~O~f. er~ors that c~ractfr~8e ~~e

dir~ct solution of larg~ ~ystems of'equa~ions is avoided.

A rea'Bo~abie ~olution time ai well as ~OOd accu~cy is

, " . ..

'" '. , ~ t.

obtained 'as' a result. " ,The programme' lists l'f desired the~., ,

,.-' .' . .

. unbalanced 'forces at each joii1j:' and storey level', which is

" ;. '.

" '~me~spre 6f the ,acc~~cy' obtained for a ,particu~a~o

J

'probleJll. The, yaJ,.ues of the unbalanced . fore es must be

, •• ~I I \~

clo~e to zero~to eatist,y 'the equl1ibr~um check.

, j ,

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.

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"The flow cha~~' of the 'frame~ro~.~e is shown

.. ,

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in Flgur~ '1,6 Ii •

, .......

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r:. '-

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, T~e method pf analysis used in, th,e, P. C .A ~

I

, • ~ • • I

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. ~r_ogram S/TM~-60, .:r tn~ ~lYS~S of multi-storey' frames,

. , . 1'.'

the form .... atio~' and metl:l~ of. eOlu'tion of the equilibrium :

,t., , . . .' t ..

equa+Lona (s d~scu~Qed in de~11 iii. reference, (7).

.... ,

• t"

\ . ').2.3.

DESCRIPrlON OF OUTPUT

,I

!.' The cfutput consists 'of tabulat~Q.ns ,ot the following' pri.c ipai items I

.....

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F~g. ,16

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Flow chart for frame ... She,a~ ~~ pytramme,

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Input Dota • 'O.c:k

. ,

, '~

, .

"

, Subroutb:le (a) UTlTL

R~ad header information '__nd print

,HUe block8 '

"

/

I I

, \ Sub;ooutine No. (1)

Read 'general data oD !ramu:!rom card.,

Subro¢ine· 'No. (2) - .DAT~ Read ,da.ta"on me~r propertie. It load • .#om card;

No

Subroutine No. (3) - RlTDA Write out in~ ·da.ta

Subrotdine- No. (") _ FXFoa Compute £1X6d-cnd {o~ce. and red",

, tant joint force.

.. : .

/

Subroutine No. (5) '_ STFAC Calculate .tif!ne II {a.ctora

\

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-------~ ... --.,.. ... - ...... ~~---~-:-~-.---~.~~~_---.

"M,~ ~ - ~ .... ~_. _~ .. ;-.....;..;. ......... .. _, ... , _ ........ , __ , ... ' ....... \ __ .......... ~ _

,

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."'-

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~ Sub~outine No., (6)· .. STMAT'

j A ... mb '. (tn-diagonall frame .tIff-

. I. ------~.-, ~---n-e-.-.-ma~-tr-ix--~--'-------J

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to,

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JoIC\t . QisPlmt. cOfI'pon.nf. to M'mb.r-.nd forelS'

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, . ~ . . . ,,~ ... ~ .

-;1 ,,- I

"

. Sub ioutille No. (7) .. R:tDLl Preliminary reduction' of .tilfn.1I

matrix .

.. REDLZ' it ltiHn ...

No'

A1l frame'. in structure con.idexed?

, '

'Subroutine No. (9) S,oLFN

Solve lat~llorce equilibrium -eqn •• ~or horiz~l story di.place~eub

Subroutine No. (1 0) ." 'DCOMP' Ca1~la.te. joint rotatiOu. ~l1d Verti~~l . displacement.

, ,

Su;broutine No. (11) .. MBFOB Calculate member-e~c1 toree.

..

,.

I : ...

"

, v

I Subroutine No., (11) .. Rl'l'Df

. Write out joint cliiplacement t=~po. neut. and member-end forces

.'

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, Subroutine No. (13) - CHEQJ3- Check aatia!action of equiliprium conditiolll ' '

, ,

, Dhplac-ement. IUld forces ~

all frame II of structure e .. l~lated?

/

ii

Con.id~r next'st~cture" it a.ny t-----~

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.a) F~e dimensions a~d membe:t' ,propert.ies'

(I .. 'I

'b) Applied loads"

. .

c) Fix~d end ~orces' ~nd' resul, tant 'joint' fo'rce$' d) 'La:teral displaqement or .. "-drlft"

",'.' '.

e) J',o~nt displacem~nt' cOnlporients, '.

, , ,

/ >f)' Member-end force.s .( L e. J tnotnent's. shearSc and 'ak!al

• •••• • t' \

. . ,

, .forc~st.i.n columns)

. j' '.

g), Un~liUlc~d' j~'i~t ~o+c'es and stqrey shears.'

. .' , . Ii . _

T'he output .can be' controlled and any 01' the above,

.' • I. • .'

i tem~1 in t}af! output IT.I,ay be s~ppre~se~,.

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Sign Convention

The stgh' conventions, used for t.he princ~pal output items are explain~d'at the begi~ing of ,the

, \ - ...

,{} listing for, each item,',

"

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a) , Sign. convent Lon for joint displ~cement. compon,en~s. '.

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,., .

Horiz6ntal component, ~ -' ,pos1 tiv& ~hen dire,ted to' right,

. . , . t ., \

Vertical.: c~"Ilp~nent, 11, - posi tive' wh~n directed uP.t/ard

Rotation, ~ - positive when directed clockwfse

, .

~) S1gn conventiori' for ,member-end forces. .

All'· the for,ces actlng on the member ... end shown below are

posi~ivel

·t ... (T\ ,

....

, '

. Cl--o.;.I.-J)

'In, B,eams'

In 'Columns

'.

...

A column iEJ ~den.tified by the pair of ' indices (i...,j ) denoting "Storey·.L~~l" number, and "Column L,ine" number, 're-

I .;> , •

sp~ctively, attached to the 'joint at, its upper end, while a beam iEt identified by the indices descri'blng.the joint at its left end.

,

. ,

,

Column line

Joint (i,j}~'S!

' J .

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: Stbry ~ ... .... __ :-- __ +

Level \~_/-c --- - 'L' ,

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--- COIu_mo (i,n

i+1 ----~------~11--~----+

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.. '

CHAPTER 4

ANALYSIS OF EXISTING STRUCTURE

, . ~,

4.1 DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING

"

Montreal.

The puild~ng.analysed is/located in th~ ci~y of Thfdimensio~s, of the' building together with' a

- '

cross-section showing the main structural details 'are

, . , \.. , ' " "

, 0 •

shown in figures I? and 18~' The building 1-s orientated

.. ..

\ '

so that its longest axis runs e~st-west, in ,the north-

south direction there are,~~ven b~ys and in trye east-,

west direction thirteen bays on a 24: -0 grid. The, building is ten storeys high with a mechanical penthouse on the

rDo,f and a,fu11 basement. ~he stqrey heights are'1J'-6 from the f'0und, .to second floor and 12' -6 from the secondfloor'to the roof. A ten inch wall extends from the ground

"

flo.or to the foundations to enclose the 'basement • ..

'The ,structural framework oohsists of a combined 'system of~a frame and shear 'walls, both constructed in

\

reinforced concrete. The frames consist of, a flat plate (the siab is '8" thick with drop panels '8' ... 0 x 8 ',-0 ~ '12" 'thick around·the columns) and 'columns (interior columns

. '.,

are 24" x 24" aM the exteri.or columns are 20'" x 20").

There'are no perlmeter beams. As shown in 'figure 17 the ~

shear walls consist' of the shafts for'the elevators ~nd

\

sta-irs., The walls of' all tl)e shafts ar-e 8" 'thick and' are reinforced to resist the moments and .tea~s,produced by

the la teraI' loads. ' -,

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1 -' ) ... :' - ~h~ ~~ ---------" ........ ,--._~ .. H .. _~ •
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36
"-- .......
The shear ~ll8 are grouped close. to the centre . '"

,l\ • of the building and because- of the· large number of frames'· r

,~t is not considered necessary to include an analysis for .

, torsion. Based on the cross-sectional areas of the concrete II

.sections. the ratio of the sum of moments of inertia of the shear walls to tha~ of the sum of the individual columns is

. of the order ot 50/1 -in the N-S 'direc'tion •

. ·The flat plate floor can b~ considered as a system 6f ~onnect~ng ~embers between the ~olumna in two

. .

directions, hence the number of horiz'ontal members is 200'0,

\,

\

. .

vertical members 1080 and number of joints 1188. The .cost

of analysing this structure as a th~ee- 4imensional space frame would be prohibitive therefore ,the· advantage of using

'0

. ,

a' specialised programme becomes apparent.

The slab concrete, ~treng~ is' ),000 ·~.s'-i. 'at

...

28 days and the concrete in the cqlumns' 'and shear'lwalls from 5,000 p.s.i. at the ground ·floor to ).000 p.s.i. at the' root. The rein:f'orc'ing yield ,stres_!1l-is 60,.oOO'p.s.1.

.

for all structural·elements.

The column and she~r wall foundations are ·bearing' on rock, therefore differential settlement could'be

. \

. ignored. The condi ton at the ground, fioor will be '

'conside'red as "fixed", as it can be assumed that the

, .

. '

basement perimeter walls are very stil:.l ahd the vertic,al

, .

\ elements are not free to displace horizontally due to the

in-plane rigidi·ty· of the ground floor.

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Fig. 1-8

Typioal cross-section •

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.. -----~-- ... ~ .... - ..... ~_....,--"'!"'"-----~-:----.----

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The ii,oor live,load was 125.'0 pos.t. 'toJ"llght: '

\ '

~_. :J._ru1.us~fial occupancy, Th~ 'llteral, .Lcad analysis was

'. ,,'

carri~d' out ~,UE!ing the rN~tioi1al. Buildihg Code ot Oanada r-:

(1970) and" the earthqu~k_,e lateral lo~ds: gQvern~d, in ea~h'

direction". ' ., . . ' , u,

I •

~ , "

39 '

.'

-.

,'.

. ,

4·.2 'DESiGN LOADS,

,~he earthq~ake loads were' calculated 'using the.

1 '. •

, .

,statio an~lys~B ~ac'tors' as t~llows I '

, ,

.

, I

" '

. . . .

, R Ii '2. 0 ~ sel,srnie regionalisatlo!'l factor ,

,K III 1.0 ... Numerical coef'ticient that re'flects '

. .

t,ype of 'construction 1 I; r.e - ,Impo;otance fac:~or

F :·1.0' ~ Foundation factor

\ .

, "

-- "

, LEVEL':'

FORCE (KIPS) ,465,.8" '1" .1'352.0,

)13.9 275.7 : 2)6'.4 '

.

197.8,

" ' .. 158.9

, 119.4 ,79.9 " 40~4

, '

Main Roof' loth Floor '<

, .

. 9th .. '

. ~th ,",'

\

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'.'

\

7th ..
'6th ..
, ' .
5th, II
.'
4th it .,
'~ , .
3rd' ..
2nd. ..
).; . ~;
~.,J INPUT DATA FOR PROGRAMMES '\

. \

.. " ~

The structure was idealised as three' fr,ames tor

"input. into ~he progr~e" Th~ first .(Prime 11) consisted of a combination, or all the columns and slabs, ',lin~s 1 .to

. , \ '

,1 .

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.

,to earthquake, des~rib~d in section 4.2 are ~he ohl~ input

loads 'for the frame~shear wall intera~tion prQgramni,~.'

The moments in the slabs, due to, the lateral loads, are

'\ " '

obtained from the f~ame-shear wall ihtera~tion programme

lJ"-. ' -

and are then used ~ as par,t\ of, the, input data for ,the, flat

p~ate programme:. ThE! remainder of ~he input' consfets of the floor live load and ,the physical. proper~ies·~f the members and'steel and concrete strengths~ The ~lat plate 'pro~amme c~mbines the ~eadt live and earthq~ake loads

"

, /

, '

l

, , .

~_~ '--, _ _:__:.._,---_--------

.~

"

40

\' .

5 .and ..10 to 14, this' is the portion of ';h~ s,tructur.e

, " \

that does not include a shear wall •. The second frame

!-- .

" ' a, ,

(Frame #2), conai.ated of the stJilir and elevator shafts

\ '

" i

l

}

, ' .

and columns on, lin~s' 6 'and 7, and the third frame (Frame #')

, \

consisted of the stair shaft and'columns on l~ne~ 8 and 9 • .,

The ~ame-shear wall,inteFaction programme' dQes,

, , ,

: not, have. the capacity ,to .Incorpora'te members .having a

" ,

variable moment of inertia, hence the additional joint

~

,stiffness due to the drop paliels cannot be included. ,The'

,.

~nput data for the frame~shear wall programme includes the

dimensions and properties of the members' and the dimensions of storey heights and bay widths. , The lateral forces due

. .

, "

1:'

and applies: the necessary factors to obtain the ul,timate momentsan~ 'shears, in t,he', 'slabs and, ~<?lumns at one !IOOr

level.' , ,,', ...

: \

, ,

~ .. " ~ --.»

,,~,;:~\

, "

'. "

i."

'. ,

. The e~rthquake analysis ~s only" cQnsidered in the

, , .

N-S direc,tlon" for the' purposes of 'this report.-

, .

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CHAP~ER ',5 ..

'DISCUSSION .OF.! RESU~TS A,ND ,CONCLUSION

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41 :.

I,'

"

l' " '

,CHAPT;ER S DISCUSSION'OF RESUL~S AND CONCLUS10~_

__, "

... _

r~\

The motkent's and "'sheans in th~ slabs and columns

, . -

'of one typical frame are shown in Figures 19 and 20, the

" ,

maximum v~t~es occur at the sixth. floor ahd these values

.... t. .

. ~ .... ,

.ar-e used to analyse the flo'or slab. ' The maxdmummomerrt

in the slao is' 48'.6 kip-t:t \('6.5.6 ~~p-ft nl:t1mate)' which " , .

, ,

is combined with 460.5 kip-ft. the ultima~e moment ,due. to

,

, t. ~ea~ and live loads, in the flat plate ,pro'gr~mm~., The

results from'the flat plate prog~amme (Figures 21(ah and

c

2l(b),) shoW' that the de'sign Ipoments due to dead and live

, loads are almost -lhe s,ame as the c~mb.ined de'ad'.+ l~ve +, ~art~quake loads" in this e~ple.' The. weight of r-e-infor~irig ..

\ '

.. st,eel is 1.47.5 pounds 'per square foot 'fo~ dead +, live loada, '

\_ , c •

• r ~ • -<..I....~ ,

compared to l.478 pounds per, square foot for dead + live + .

,., ,

earthquake loads, this is an insignificant' increa~e.

• ' • f \\ .. ,

'. 'Ph.e effects of the lateral"loads on the frame

...

" \'

c 01 umns are saown in ~ igure 20. and the maximum axi,a1 force .,

is • 34.4 ,~ips on the e~'t~rior columns at the grt)und, f'loor~. '

The additional :axial 10a4 on the col~mn is not great com-

. ,

pared to the comb~ned dead ~d l~ve load of 840.0 kips and

.

can be carried by the column ~ithou:t modifying the reinforc-'

ing steel.

An important aspect to be considered in the

. .

, ,

analy~is of the columns is the definition of a "braced" as

,:

, . , .

.

o~posed to an' unbraoed frame'). The A.e.I. -code defines a

braced column as a member. in a storey in which ·the bracing_

'.

, ,"','

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,. ,~--_......---

.. 42

\ " '
l. I ('
,t ~ _'

elements have a total stiffness resIsting lateral movement. \ at' ~east six' times the su~' of ~h~ stif~e8~es' of all

eoluIDl'ls resisting lateral movement. For the bu~lding considered in·this r~port the 'shear walls are more' than six times st~ff~-r than ~_~lumns, therefore ~h~e frame .is " braced and the slenderness factor is, not significant, but the:

t

• .t

, i

....

. ,

slenderness of the.columns'must be carefully checked in all

:, /;~?ki~S where' th~ columns are part ~f the' l~t~~l' +oad '

. ,. -

,

. _

..

resistingCfraine •

" ' .

.... _t

'J.

The results show','that the' moments, and shears in

• l

\'

, '

f~ame in ,the analysis. The moment at the gro~d floor ,in '

. \, " tlle freight,,~le~a':tor 'shaft, for ex~m1?le, (Figures 22 ~!1' 2J) '.

(, . .,,' , . ,

~B reduced t,rom 24\.1J9~J kip'_ft to·lJ,7JJ.'1 kip-ft. a'

", '

'I \.. • ~ ,

reduction of'45% and.hence a reduction 'in th~ quantity of

'. '. ..... ' ,

~ ..',

, reinforcing steef requi~ed for bending. Tne sh~ar (Figu!es ,

. ". . './

, . .', I

' .. _ 24 ~nd~) t~ken ~by the walls a?ove, th,e first storey, is

_. • 1.1" ' , i

.. reduced by includ~ng the frame." In the firat storey, the

. '"".'

",» sbe(\r 1s higher for ,the combined' frame and' shear wall by

. ", \ ~ " ,

, ',' approxl~telY 20~~. ,this Increaae in shear' is not 81~iticant

, • 1It.. \, • ,

~ ,

'. ~s the . Sr~!\~~ \ capac i ty o~ the wa!ls can easily be medl~~~,d,; by

Increaamg the concrete strength. ' , . y' . , I,

The most si~ificarit. aspect . o~ the frame programme

. . ..-

. ) teBults 'in the.non uniform distribution of the shear forces

• , T" •

. ....

. and' bending moments between, the' shear walls and the fr~me.

f

.. ' , The, percentage

,I ~

'l incre'ases 'wi th

of shear-s ant moments taken by the framt!s .

~,\J . . .

height: as s,p...in __ Figures 2J .. and 24, as

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ca~s~ r~vers~'b~ndin¢ in ~he.~lis as.shown in Figure l(a).·

, i '

The~e results demonstrate that the frame action becomes, !

The results 'from 'tlie fraine and' fiat plate prQ-" g.-a .... s cleatly show the economies· possible by ~on~id.rinl'·

. ~' .

. ,

the ~e,tnteracting'with the shear walls. It would be

. . .

/ 'I

. Thill report has deDionstra~ed that the ~aDl;e action '.

'should be :co~~iqered. in buiidi~g$ to resist lateral.' ~oads

iri order'to take advantage of .the inherent·strength of the

1 •

. . .. . .._.... ~"

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) !

n. 1 • /} ~ ,

. i i> ' .

opposed to the original' design whioh assumed a fixed '.

, . .

. per'c4ttage of tl;le totat . shear assigne,d to . I

at' ea.Jh :rloor~

' ..

I

the elements

Th~.frame programme resu~ts show the

perQentage ot.the total shear taken by. the .trames\~ries

, \ \, V' •

from ~ at·the base tb 57% at the tenth.floor. while at

. ~

, .

,. th~ roof level the frame induces -forces in the walls which

/ .

dominant in'.the upper f~oors~

,

.

,impt.tical to c~cUla,te. the 'intera~tion forces' by m8n':t,l.

.' \ ., . ~

methodQ bacauae 'of the large. number ot joipts to be '

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consider~d" '

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join~s in reinforced concrete constrUction •

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(colu~s land:. slabs o~y).

Per frame'·' . ,

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Slab mo~ents ~d s~ears

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F.rame #1

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\ 'Moment,s in fraJl)e and she~r 100.000' 150.000 100.000

MOIo4ENTS (!C.IP F:u:r-)

wall~·with,ar~itr~ry

. '

~lBtrib~ti~n of 75% to' shear ~lB ~d 25% to'frame

~ .

Fig. 22

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'C>~ODO 150.000 loa O()D ,

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, • M,OMENTS (I(lP FEET) .

'D~Btri~ution'of mqme~tB 'in frame' and ~ear wail~

. r

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Fig,_ 23

. ' '.'

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til

--- ------

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3tt.o fl. .

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'._ • .. __ •. _ "-'I_~ ._ .. _~ _: ~-~--L

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"

. 5'?O. 1000

, \,.

walls wi th ~rbl:trary

1500 2000

tHE· ... 9.. .(k'P$)

Shear in frame and 'shear

distribution o£ 75% to' shear wal.l.s and 2t' to :t'ra.ne !

\

.Fig. 24 I

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. .

"10"" Ft..

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..

, , . ,5HEA1l,(lIPS)'

she~~ ~lls trom

-

J- -l't"

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Distributioh of shear 'in fram~ and

" . "'.' ' " .

frame-shear wall programme

.'

Fig. 25

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'REFERENCES

~

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f
'\ '\
" .,. .. ~.
-
" -. "

. :

t.,' \

' ..

. . ;'

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(i)

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,. '.f

,REF$R~CES

, """ ,:,)-

" , ,'\_ '_' '"

Lee'" ',B. t AnalYSiy' and Design of' Flat- ;elates, " Flat Slabs, 'Waff e Slabs ,and' ContInuous Frames,: ,:

Portland Cement A i3sc.cia fion,. (1972) ' •

. :

'(2) : perecho, A.r:r.,'Anal;ysis ot'Pl~e<Multistorey Frame-Shear Wall Structures Under Later,a1 and Gravity Loads; Portland Cement AssocIation, (1971).

, .

': Derecho, A.T., "Frames and Frame-Shear Wall Sys:" temsl'·R,esponse of Mul_iistor-ey Concre~e Structures to L~teral Loads", Publication SP-J6, American

Con~rete Institu~e'" (-1973). "

'Carpenter', J., Flexural Characteristics of Flat Plate Florre', in Buildings. PUrdue University Ph.D.

,~hesIs, 1965). , , _' " , : ',,'

MacLeod,' I.A.', Shear Wall;""Frame Intera.ction, ,Port-

'iand 'Cement A"soclatiolt, (1971)., 0 ,

Simnonds.' S.H ,_, and Misic, 'J. ,., '" Design Factors for the Equivalent, Frame Method", AMerican 'Concrete ,

Instit\lte Journal, (~ovember, 'l971l. - , '

,,' ' "'.

Clough, R.W •• King, I.P., and,Wilson, E.L., '

"Stru~,tural ,Analysis ot Mul tl st,orey, Buildings" , Journal of,the 'Structural Divi!ion, ASeE, (June,

1964). i

1

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APPENDIX A WALL, C,OMPUTER 'PROGRAMME 'RESUIirs

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