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APPENDIX 1:
MEAN SQUARES FOR ADULT BODY MEASUREMENTS OF TWO
ECOTYPES OF MUSCOVY DUCK IN NIGERIA
Trait Sources of variation df Mean square
BWT Ecotype 1 052ns
Error 447 611
BDL Ecotype 1 10.697ns
Error 447 10.246
BDD Ecotype 1 166.800 ***
Error 447 6.325
BLL Ecotype 1 11.404ns
Error 447 18.395
BLD Ecotype 1 1.815ns
Error 447 1.309
BLH Ecotype 1 24.655*
Error 447 3.052
SHL Ecotype 1 5.358ns
Error 447 7.627
BH Ecotype 1 190.141***
Error 447 11.071
HL Ecotype 1 30.924***
Error 447 776
NL Ecotype 1 78.506***
Error 447 2.936
HD Ecotype 1 3.112*
Error 447 642
WL Ecotype 1 540.526***
Error 447 20.180

BWT= Body weight, BDL= Body length , BDD= Body width, BLL= Bill Length, BLD
=Bill width, BLH =Bill height , SHL= Shank length, BH= Body height, HL= Head length
NL= Neck length, HD =Head width, WL= Wing length, *=P<0.05 , ***=P<0.001 R2 =
adjusted value, df = degree of freedom, ns =not significant , ms= mean square

142***  Sex x ecotype 1 4.696***  Ecotype 1 25.599  Wing length Sex 1 6647.980ns  Error 447 2.974***  Error 447 .054***  Ecotype 1 510.279ns  Error 447 7.01.557ns  Error 447 7.298  Bill height Sex 1 .172  df = degree of freedom *=P<0.218*  Error 447 178  Body Sex 1 1127.165*** Length  Ecotype 1 24.001.617***  Sex x ecotype 1 201.219  Body height Sex 1 699.071***  length Ecotype 1 3.829***  Error 447 8.766ns  Error 447 14.184ns  Error 447 2.640***  Ecotype 1 89.120***  Weight  Ecotype 1 0.555***  Ecotype 1 9.01ns  Sex x ecotype 1 1.275  Head width Sex 1 20.05 .216***  Ecotype 1 296.629ns  Error 447 3.468ns  Sex x ecotype 1 18.032  Bill length Sex 1 315.692ns  Error 447 .340  Body width Sex 1 1210. **=P<0.360*  Sex x ecotype 1 1.898ns  Sex x ecotype 1 11. 181 APPENDIX 2: MEAN SQUARES VALUES FOR THE EFFECT OF SEX AND ECOTYPE ON ADULT BODY MEASUREMENTS OF THE NIGERIAN MUSCOVY DUCKS .042  Shank Sex 1 197.445***  Ecotype 1 3.691ns  Ecotype 1 0.351  Head length Sex 1 133.865ns  Sex x ecotype 1 16.479  Neck length Sex 1 264.116***  Sex x ecotype 1 .058***  Sex x ecotype 1 8.018***  Error 447 5.753  Bill width Sex 1 6.022**  Sex x ecotype 1 10.833***  Sex x ecotype 1 237.618ns  Sex x ecotype 1 0. .038ns  Error 447 1. ***= P<0. Trait Sources of Variation DF MS  Body Sex 1 185.190***  Ecotype 1 119.966*  Ecotype 1 1.

072*** Ecotype x Batch 5 15. Mean square Day old body weight Ecotype 1 724.488 3 Weeks body weight Ecotype 1 6565.OLD TO 2O WEEKS OF AGE Age / body weight Sources variation Diff. 182  APPENDIX 3: MEAN SQUARES FOR BODY WEIGHT OF THE MUSCOVY DUCK ECOTYPES (GUINEA SAVANNAH AND RAINFOREST ECOTYPES) FROM DAY.923** Batch 5 238.160ns Ecotype x Batch 5 1401.01.782ns Error 278 2666.308** Batch 5 3479.260ns Ecotype x Batch 5 5720.605ns Error 289 942.264 1 Week body weight Ecotype 1 8.699* Error 315 5. **=P<0.765** weight Batch 5 524537.214* Error 340 3.242ns Error 275 527306. R 2= adjusted value .617 10 weeks body Ecotype 1 6049438.039ns Ecotype x Batch 5 645829.884*** Batch 5 14.091ns Error 214 404272.05.195ns Error 254 343809.592ns Ecotype x Batch 5 326841. ***= P<0.488** weight Batch 5 117071.233 15 weeks body Ecotype 1 1460465.001 ns=not significant.146ns Ecotype x Batch 5 253220.887 20 weeks body Ecotype 1 27467.902 *=P<0.994 ns Batch 5 55.313** Ecotype x Batch 5 8.502 5 weeks body weight Ecotype 1 9782.187ns weight Batch 5 193184.

718** Batch 5 29939.978ns Sex 1 39630912.254ns Batch x Sex 5 111502.34*** Ecotype x Batch 1 9558.044*** Error 277 363.842** Batch 5 88.178*** Batch x sex 5 1123.258ns Sex 1 147190.370*** Ecotype x Batch 5 984.695* Ecotype x Sex 1 26055.061ns Ecotype xBatch xSex 5 731.469ns Ecotype x Batch x Sex 1 31334. 183 APPENDIX 4: MEAN SQUARES FOR THE EFFECT OF ECOTYPE.660*** Ecotype x Batch 4 643947.890ns Ecotype Batch x Sex 4 556564.090* Ecotype x Sex 1 12431.732ns Batch 5 90559.716ns Error 225 60640.193 Week 20 Ecotype 1 38582.961ns Sex 1 401175.262ns Batch x Sex 5 898238.416ns Sex 1 8232905.118* Ecotype x Sex 1 2543.580** Batch 5 74587.866ns Ecotype x Batch x Sex 5 146206.712ns Error 232 55411.541** Batch 5 2982.084ns Ecotype x Sex 1 21483.659 Week 15 Ecotype 1 646333.271ns Error 154 47404.55*** Ecotype x Batch 5 209126.547 ns Ecotype xBatch xSex 5 2964.134*** Ecotype x Batch 5 2357.318 Week 10 Ecotype 1 115287.917ns Batch x Sex 5 37083.326ns Error 266 801.060ns Ecotype x Sex 1 1446992.887 Week 5 Ecotype 1 12352.241** Batch x Sex 5 552.037ns Sex 1 24791469.809 .SEX AND BATCH ON BODY WEIGHTS OF NIGERIAN MUSCOVY DUCKS Age Sources variation Dif Mean square Week 3 Ecotype 1 3137.

735ns 531673.232 10142.193ns 468864.471** 7360. MEAN SQUARES FOR BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND AVERAGE DAILY GAIN AT FIVE WEEKLY INTERVALS FOR TWO ECOTYPES OF MUSCOVY DUCKS Sources DF BWG1 ADG1 BWG2 ADG2 BWG3 ADG3 BWG4 ADG4 of Variation Ecotype 1 2898. 184 APPENDIX 5 .497ns 808797.697*** 595.918 BWG=body weight gain.090*** Error 279 4001.488 30042.979 19199.189 21808.137 23.789 2.225ns 6.431 154763.015ns 53095. ADG= average daily gain BWG1 (0-5) weeks ADG1 (0-5) weeks BWG2 (6-10) weeks ADG2 (6-10) weeks BWG3 (11-15) weeks ADG3 (11-15) weeks BWG4 (16-20) weeks ADG4 (16-20) weeks .

807*** Ecotype 1 11.560ns 1433891.657** x Sex Error 277 10240.202ns 297170.566 10186.31*** 845.254ns 157697.152 13392.411*** 254.846ns 31259502.963ns 22831. BWG3= 11- 15weeks.642 BWG=body weight gain. . ADG4=16- 20weeks .130ns 403901. ADG2=average daily gain 5-10weeks.428*** 1080.185 - APPENDIX 6: MEAN SQUARES OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE EFFECTS OF ECOTYPE AND SEX ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND AV. ADG3=11-15weeks.638*** Sex 1 3173133. BWG2=body weight gain 5-10weeks. DAILY GAIN 5 WEEKLY Sources DF BWG2 ADG2 BWG3 ADG3 BWG4 ADG4 of Variation Ecotype 1 619304.622ns 863993. BWG4=16-20weeks.995*** 815.167 29814.382** 63665.705*** 2991.328 37399.284ns 7728.61*** 84688.986 26. ADG= average daily gain.

01 BWFE = body weight at first egg AFE = age at first egg NELFE = number of eggs laid at first egg EGM = egg mass . AND EGGMASS OF TWO ECOTYPES OF MUSCOVY DUCK. NUMBER OF EGGS LAID AT FIRST EGG. Source of df BWFE AFE NELFE EGM variation Ecotype 1 107183. .186 - APPENDIX 7: MEAN SQUARES FOR BODY WEIGHT AT FIRST EGG.498 4.767ns 10055.666** Error 61 9263.865 df= degree of freedom **=P<0.719** 7.336** 4510.363 10598. AVERAGE AGE AT FIRST EGG.655 366.

155* Error 324 36.660** 1.070 0.680* 0.187 - APPENDIX8 : MEAN SQUARES OF EXTERNAL EGG CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRST CYCLE LAY BY ECOTYPE (WEIGHT. .025 WFE = Average weight of egg at first lay LFE = Average length of egg at first lay WDFE = Average width of egg at first lay .277 0. LENGTH AND WIDTH) Sources of Variation Df WFE LFE WDFE Ecotype 1 332.

878*** 7.680 8.76 420.042*** 625.762 30550.41 54.188 - APPENDIX 9 : MEAN SQUARES OF SECOND LAYING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TWO ECOTYPES Sources df NEL EGM PLT EWT EL EWD variation .001 EGM = egg mass PLT = pause length EWT = Average egg weight EL = Average egg length EWD = average egg width .830*** 409092.568 398ns Error 54 6.387 0. .55 NEL = number of eggs laid *** = P<0. ns Ecotype 1 81.024*** 25.

50 P 0.92 Lysine 1.66 0.5 3.3 15.25 0.65 0.68 0.25 17 Palm kernel cake 5.0 5 Fish waste 3 2.0 10. .189 - APPENDIX 10.70 Ash 8. 6 Limestone.45 0.25 0.25 Methionine 0.44 11.69 .5 20 Soybean meal 22.97 11.67 3.00 3.25 .25 0. PERCENT COMPOSITION OF THE FORMULATED DIET USED IN THE EXPERIMENT Type of feed Feed stuff(%) chick mash Growers mash layers mash Maize 53.00 1.0 50 45. 0.25 0.1 15.0 3 Bone meal 3 .45 Moisture 12. - 0.70 ME kcal 3010 2710 2600 Fibre% 4.0 14.25 0.92 Analyzed proximate composition Crude protein(%) 20 17 18 Methionine 0.92 3.5 2.94 4.25 Total 100 100 100 Calculated composition Crude protein(%) 20 17 18 ME kcal/kg of feed 2800 2680 2600 Ca 1.5 Maize offal 13 19.25 Lysine 0.00 1.00 0.08 Ether extract% 3.25 Salt 0.19 4.25 Premix 0.

. MATING AND REPLICATION PROCEDURE FOR GENERATING STRAIGHT BRED Ecotype Pen1 Pen2 Pen3 Pen4 Pen5 Pen6 Pen7 Pen8 Pen9 Pen10 Guinea 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ Rainforest 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 1♂ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ 6♀♀ Note ♂ male drake ♀♀ female duck .190 - APPENDIX 11.

.70mouth Duru et al... 2006 5weeks male weight 503 Ola 2000 5weeks female weight 393 Ola 2000 9 weeks weight of drake 2868 Ngopongora et al.191 - APPENDIX 12 .... 2004 .33 Etuk et al. PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCOVY DUCK Traits age authors Sexual maturity 28 weeks Ola 2000 Age at first egg 7. . 2001 Body weight gain 18. 2006 Age at sexual maturity 300-365 Kalita and Deka 2005 Sexual maturity 20-24 weeks Panda and Kumar 2004 Egg number 14-15 Sauveur and DeCarville 1985 Incubation days 28-35 Banerjee 1991 Hatchability 80-85 Mopate et al. 2004 9weeks weight of duck 1821 Ngopongora et al. 1999 Hatch weight(g) 45 Baeza et al.

3 Romboli et al 1987 Egg weight 65-100 Chengkang et al 1999 Egg fertility % 92-93 Nickolova 2004 Egg fertility % 96-97 Tikk and Viht 1998 . EGG CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCOVY DUCK Parameter mean±se authors Egg weight at first lay 84. .192 - APPENDIX 13.

HERITABILITIES OF PRODUCTION TRAITS OF MUSCOVY BY SOME SELECTED AUTHORS Parameters h2 authors Feather length(male) 0..23 Hu et al...2006 Female length (female) 0.37 Hu et al . 1998 Age at first lay 0...24 Richard et al.l 2006 Body weight(at10wks) 0. 1983 Body weight(at53days) 0.193 - APPENDIX 14 .40 Mignon Grasteau et al.20 Hu et al. . 1994 Body weight (at 6wks) 0.17 Ponjardien et al..14 Hu et a. 2004 Number of egg laid 0. 2004 ..

194 - ..

Weight Laid Hatch Days hatch BI WEEKLY WEIGHT INDIVIDUAL 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 . ECOTYPE Pen No Sire No. Sire Dam Dam Egg Egg Incubation Date of weight No. 180 194 APPENDIX 15: ON–STATION DATA COLLECTION SHEET.

180 TYPICAL MUSCOVY DRAKES AND DUCKS FROM RAINFOREST ZONE .

181 TYPICAL MUSCOVY DRAKE AND DUCK OF GUINEA SAVANNAH ZONE .

180 am .