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North American Civilizations Brandi Branham HIS/115 March 20, 2011
The first documented groups of people to settle in North America were migrants who were able to make their way to the continent without the use of ships to cross the ocean because of a climate change. With these explorers. Christopher Columbus was an Italian-Spanish explorer that led a general awareness of the northern and southern continents.NORTH AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 2 North American Civilizations The new Northern Americans came from Italy. to America. creating the Columbus Day that we all know and celebrate still today. Columbus might not have been the first to settle it still had an impact on the sailors of the future exploring new lands. Christopher Columbus led and made voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to explore the continents four times. The Actual first landing was on October 12. explorers would soon begin making their way across the ocean to come stake their claim to the lush. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506). Isabella I of Castile was more than happy to give him the money needed. and through migration from Mexico. is one of the most recognized names still today in America. Columbus wanted to colonize the New World and to turn it European. where a better and more user friendly climate meant more plants and vegetables for eating and more animals to hunt. The early migrants and Native Americans would not inhabit the land alone for too long though. unfit for much farming or raising livestock. Portugal and from Spain. sparsely populated continent. he wanted to settle an island called Hispanola. . These voyages were not cheap and Christopher needed money. 1942. These people came from a frozen land. came the outside influence that would change life for early Americans.
work and to establish a certain social standing. When early Americans arrived. There was so much of the earth that was covered with frozen water that allowed the settlers to come from Asia to America by the Bering Strait. there were a group of people called the Pueblos where hunting.NORTH AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 3 During the Ice Age Early North Americans traveled from Asia tens of thousands of years ago. so began the ³agricultural revolution´ (Davidson. The women of the clan also provided for their daughters families as well. Growing crops meant food for themselves and their families. 2005). other than just barely getting by from it. . more present In the southern parts of the continent. 2005. Cultivating crops came from Mexico. The men not only were providers for their families they would hunt in groups of men from one tribe or community and then would divvy up their food among the whole tribe. but most did not settle into permanent villages to plant and harvest food at first. This did eventually change as people moved farther south and the idea of growing yearly crops for gain spread northward. 11). Within a group called the Pueblos. Social roles became more and more prevalent in most groups of people. p. they lived off of what the land provided. fishing and farming took on a more common form. They hunted animals and gathered foods that were already growing. it meant they were able to trade. Native Americans were being turned into more civilized groups of people. Agriculture changed the way of life for many people including the Natives. providing housing as well as tending to the crops growing food for all and keeping up with the homestead. They were taught and were learning to thrive on the land. In each culture men were the hunters and women played roles in society pertaining to agriculture (Davidson. but more importantly.
The Spanish cartographer that created the map did not want to make people stay away from the Americas it was a totally unbiased map to him. bound for an entirely different part of the Americas than those presumed home to cannibalistic Native American tribes.). but it was used for both.NORTH AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 4 Some people saw these tribes as a not so peaceful culture even though they seemed to be. Europeans were assured that their landing in North America would be a peaceful one. to Philip II in the summer of 1559´. after all. According to Dr. Hebert (n. namely the marriage of Elizabeth of Valois. but the map did leave you to believe that they were all savages. in certain rituals performed by native South Americans human flesh was eaten (Davies. 2002). 2005). The representation of the map just seems to be opposite of what it was really. meaning that the cannibalistic tribes were in the southern parts only. A series of treaties known as Treaty of Cateau Cambrési was being signed. There was an important thing happening in Europe at the same time that Spain claimed its territory in the new world.d. daughter of Henry II. In one representation of Native Americans on the Gutierrez Map they were even shown as cannibals. The idea of the natives being cannibals swayed the Europeans from wanting to inhabit the continent. The depiction is not entirely untrue. The agreement to maintain peaceful relations as well as a . He also did not create this map for a navigational tool or anything symbolic advancement in cartography for that matter. King of France. the first between Spain and France and the second between France and England. the land under the line of demarcation was under their influence and they would ultimately have control over it (Davidson. They were. ³Concluded with the treaty was a French-Spanish agreement. The Gutierrez made to map to project the claims of the Spanish Empire.
NORTH AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 5 marriage that united the two kingdoms. they still recognized the fact that there would be some influence though. 2009). The positioning suggests a ³less privileged´ Portuguese kingdom (Aguirre. . The inhabitants were under a lot of influence from all of the new migrants. There was a lot of consideration given that there would be influence throughout northern America. The Europeans upon arrival began to give away land to the settlers for the work that they do. There were claims of land that became common even though the land had been claimed already. Combining new things to what they already do is what made America the greatest melting pot in the world. The Spanish thought that there would not be much influence from Portugal as what they would. In the bottom portion of the map the Portuguese coat of arms appears. Different religions came as well as slavery and colonizations. Changes were going to come and being adaptive and adjusting to some of the new ways of living by the different cultures and people were what the new Americans were doing. is likely to have influenced the close placement of the Spanish and French coats of arms on the map.
o Includes descriptions of the meaning behind the Spanish. (2010).net/christopher_columbus. You do get to it on the second page though ± this part looks good Good discussion of map . French. Retrieved day. Retrieved from http://www. are supported by specific details. y Describes early North American cultures. accurate. A. New worlds. Major points are stated clearly. 168179 Axia College.html from http://columbus- Davidson. S. (2009). and are organized logically. y The paper is 700 to 1. (2005). or analysis.html T. including information on: o From where early North Americans migrated o How early North Americans reached North America o Lifestyles of early North Americans y Answers all questions related to the Gutiérrez Map. G. o Includes information on how and where Native Americans are presented on the map. examples.F. Taming the land of the Monsters:DutchMaps of Brazil.123holiday. Fathom. E-perimetron. The content is comprehensive. HIS/115 website. Christopher Columbus Biography. In G Davidson. and persuasive.NORTH AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 6 References: 123Holiday. Retrieved from Axia College.com/feature/122273/index. The paper develops a central theme or idea directed toward the appropriate audience. The McGraw-Hill Companies Davis. but not what the prompt is looking for. Content and Development 60 Points All key elements of the assignment are covered in a substantive way.fathom. Old World. Old World. (2005).-W-P. The affective perspective of early maps.Iturrios Aguirre. and Portuguese coat of arms on the map. (2002). Nation of Nations (p 7-9). o Includes information on how the map might have strengthened European claims of sovereignty. Points Earned 60/60 Additional Comments: Your first page is all good information. The paper links theory to relevant examples and uses the vocabulary of the theory correctly.050 words in length. New Worlds.
Reference list provided in APA format. Sentences are well constructed. The introduction provides sufficient background on the topic and previews major points. The tone is appropriate to the content and assignment. In-text citations of original works within the body of the paper follow APA guidelines. strong. Spelling is correct. and punctuation are followed. font styles. Total 80 Points Overall Comments: See notes above Points Earned 8. usage. and varied. Points Earned 9/10 Additional Comments: Why does the formatting change in the middle? Points Earned 77. clear. logical.5/10 Additional Comments: Needs an introductory paragraph ± your introduction should preview all of the main points of your paper. and reviews the major points. flows from the body of the paper. Sentence transitions are present and maintain the flow of thought. Mechanics 10 Points The paper follows APA formatting guidelines.5/80 . and white space. Rules of grammar. The paper is laid out with effective use of headings.NORTH AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 7 Readability and Style 10 Points Paragraph transitions are present. This includes the textbook. The conclusion is logical. concise. and maintain the flow throughout the paper.