P. 1
CFD_HELP

CFD_HELP

|Views: 120|Likes:
Published by Fred Chen

More info:

Published by: Fred Chen on May 02, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/10/2015

pdf

text

original

ANSYS CFX Tutorials

ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 275 Technology Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com http://www.ansys.com (T) 724-746-3304 (F) 724-514-9494

Release 12.0 April 2009
ANSYS, Inc. is certified to ISO 9001:2008.

Copyright and Trademark Information
© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use, distribution, or duplication is prohibited. ANSYS, ANSYS Workbench, Ansoft, AUTODYN, EKM, Engineering Knowledge Manager, CFX, FLUENT, HFSS and any and all ANSYS, Inc. brand, product, service and feature names, logos and slogans are registered trademarks or trademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark used by ANSYS, Inc. under license. CFX is a trademark of Sony Corporation in Japan. All other brand, product, service and feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Disclaimer Notice
THIS ANSYS SOFTWARE PRODUCT AND PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION INCLUDE TRADE SECRETS AND ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS OF ANSYS, INC., ITS SUBSIDIARIES, OR LICENSORS. The software products and documentation are furnished by ANSYS, Inc., its subsidiaries, or affiliates under a software license agreement that contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, compliance with exporting laws, warranties, disclaimers, limitations of liability, and remedies, and other provisions. The software products and documentation may be used, disclosed, transferred, or copied only in accordance with the terms and conditions of that software license agreement. ANSYS, Inc. is certified to ISO 9001:2008. ANSYS UK Ltd. is a UL registered ISO 9001:2000 company.

U.S. Government Rights
For U.S. Government users, except as specifically granted by the ANSYS, Inc. software license agreement, the use, duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to restrictions stated in the ANSYS, Inc. software license agreement and FAR 12.212 (for non-DOD licenses).

Third-Party Software
See the legal information in the product help files for the complete Legal Notice for ANSYS proprietary software and third-party software. If you are unable to access the Legal Notice, please contact ANSYS, Inc. Published in the U.S.A.

2

Table of Contents
1. Introduction to the CFX Tutorials .................................................................................................................... 1 Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode ........................................... 1 Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench .......................................................................... 1 Starting CFX-Pre ............................................................................................................................. 2 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .............................................................................................. 2 Obtaining a Solution in CFX-Solver Manager ....................................................................................... 2 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ........................................................................................................ 2 Creating CFX Component Systems for Multiple Simulations (As Required) ............................................... 3 Closing the Applications ................................................................................................................... 3 Playing a Tutorial Session File ........................................................................................................... 3 Changing the Display Colors ............................................................................................................. 4 Editor Buttons ................................................................................................................................. 4 Using Help ..................................................................................................................................... 4 2. Simulating Flow in a Static Mixer Using CFX in Standalone Mode ........................................................................ 5 Tutorial Features ............................................................................................................................. 5 Overview of the Problem to Solve ....................................................................................................... 6 Before You Begin ............................................................................................................................ 6 Starting CFX-Pre ............................................................................................................................. 6 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre .............................................................................................................. 6 Synopsis of Quick Setup Mode ........................................................................................................... 7 Workflow Overview ......................................................................................................................... 7 Creating a New Case ........................................................................................................................ 8 Setting the Physics Definition ............................................................................................................ 8 Importing a Mesh ............................................................................................................................ 8 Using the Viewer ............................................................................................................................. 8 Defining Model Data ........................................................................................................................ 9 Defining Boundaries ........................................................................................................................ 9 Setting Boundary Data .................................................................................................................... 10 Setting Flow Specification ............................................................................................................... 10 Setting Temperature Specification ..................................................................................................... 10 Reviewing the Boundary Condition Definitions ................................................................................... 10 Creating the Second Inlet Boundary Definition .................................................................................... 10 Creating the Outlet Boundary Definition ............................................................................................ 11 Moving to General Mode ................................................................................................................. 11 Setting Solver Control ..................................................................................................................... 11 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File ............................................................................................ 12 Playing the Session File and Starting CFX-Solver Manager .................................................................... 12 Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager ................................................................................ 12 Start the Run ................................................................................................................................. 13 Move from CFX-Solver to CFD-Post ................................................................................................. 13 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ...................................................................................................... 14 Workflow Overview ....................................................................................................................... 14 Setting the Edge Angle for a Wireframe Object .................................................................................... 15 Creating a Point for the Origin of the Streamline .................................................................................. 16 Creating a Streamline Originating from a Point .................................................................................... 16 Rearranging the Point ..................................................................................................................... 17 Configuring a Default Legend .......................................................................................................... 18 Creating a Slice Plane ..................................................................................................................... 19 Defining Slice Plane Geometry ......................................................................................................... 19 Configuring Slice Plane Views .......................................................................................................... 20 Rendering Slice Planes .................................................................................................................... 20 Coloring the Slice Plane .................................................................................................................. 21 Moving the Slice Plane ................................................................................................................... 22 Adding Contours ........................................................................................................................... 22 Working with Animations ................................................................................................................ 23 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. iii

ANSYS CFX Tutorials Showing the Animation Dialog Box ................................................................................................... 23 Creating the First Keyframe ............................................................................................................. 24 Creating the Second Keyframe ......................................................................................................... 25 Viewing the Animation ................................................................................................................... 26 Modifying the Animation ................................................................................................................ 27 Saving a Movie .............................................................................................................................. 28 Quitting CFD-Post ......................................................................................................................... 28 3. Simulating Flow in a Static Mixer Using Workbench ......................................................................................... 29 Tutorial Features ............................................................................................................................ 29 Overview of the Problem to Solve ..................................................................................................... 30 Before You Begin ........................................................................................................................... 30 Starting ANSYS Workbench ............................................................................................................ 30 Starting CFX-Pre from ANSYS Workbench ........................................................................................ 31 Creating the Simulation Definition .................................................................................................... 32 Setting the Physics Definition ........................................................................................................... 32 Defining Boundaries ....................................................................................................................... 32 Setting Boundary Data .................................................................................................................... 32 Creating the Second Inlet Boundary Definition .................................................................................... 33 Creating the Outlet Boundary Definition ............................................................................................ 33 Moving to General Mode ................................................................................................................. 33 Using the Viewer ........................................................................................................................... 33 Setting Solver Control ..................................................................................................................... 34 Refresh the Project ......................................................................................................................... 35 Obtaining a Solution ....................................................................................................................... 35 Display the Results in CFD-Post ....................................................................................................... 36 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ...................................................................................................... 37 Workflow Overview ....................................................................................................................... 37 Setting the Edge Angle for a Wireframe Object .................................................................................... 38 Creating a Point for the Origin of the Streamline .................................................................................. 39 Creating a Streamline Originating from a Point .................................................................................... 40 Rearranging the Point ..................................................................................................................... 40 Configuring a Default Legend .......................................................................................................... 41 Creating a Slice Plane ..................................................................................................................... 42 Defining Slice Plane Geometry ......................................................................................................... 43 Configuring Slice Plane Views .......................................................................................................... 43 Rendering Slice Planes .................................................................................................................... 44 Coloring the Slice Plane .................................................................................................................. 44 Moving the Slice Plane ................................................................................................................... 45 Adding Contours ........................................................................................................................... 45 Working with Animations ................................................................................................................ 46 Showing the Animation Dialog Box ................................................................................................... 47 Creating the First Keyframe ............................................................................................................. 47 Creating the Second Keyframe ......................................................................................................... 48 Viewing the Animation ................................................................................................................... 49 Modifying the Animation ................................................................................................................ 50 Saving a Movie .............................................................................................................................. 51 Closing the Applications .................................................................................................................. 51 4. Flow in a Static Mixer (Refined Mesh) ........................................................................................................... 53 Tutorial Features ............................................................................................................................ 53 Overview of the Problem to Solve ..................................................................................................... 53 Before You Begin ........................................................................................................................... 54 Starting CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................................... 54 Defining a Simulation using General Mode in CFX-Pre ......................................................................... 54 Workflow Overview ....................................................................................................................... 54 Creating a New Case ...................................................................................................................... 54 Importing a Mesh ........................................................................................................................... 55 Importing CCL .............................................................................................................................. 55 Viewing Domain Settings ................................................................................................................ 56 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. iv Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ANSYS CFX Tutorials Viewing the Boundary Condition Setting ............................................................................................ 56 Defining Solver Parameters .............................................................................................................. 56 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File ............................................................................................ 57 Playing the Session File and Starting CFX-Solver Manager .................................................................... 57 Obtaining a Solution with CFX-Solver ............................................................................................... 58 Workflow Overview ....................................................................................................................... 58 Starting the Run with an Initial Values File .......................................................................................... 59 Confirming Results ........................................................................................................................ 59 Moving from CFX-Solver to CFD-Post .............................................................................................. 59 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ...................................................................................................... 60 Creating a Slice Plane ..................................................................................................................... 60 Coloring the Slice Plane .................................................................................................................. 61 Loading Results from Tutorial 1 for Comparison .................................................................................. 61 Creating a Second Slice Plane .......................................................................................................... 62 Comparing Slice Planes using Multiple Views ..................................................................................... 62 Viewing the Surface Mesh on the Outlet ............................................................................................. 63 Looking at the Inflated Elements in Three Dimensions .......................................................................... 63 Viewing the Surface Mesh on the Mixer Body ..................................................................................... 64 Viewing the Layers of Inflated Elements on a Plane .............................................................................. 65 Viewing the Mesh Statistics ............................................................................................................. 65 Viewing the Mesh Elements with Largest Face Angle ............................................................................ 65 Viewing the Mesh Elements with Largest Face Angle Using a Point ......................................................... 66 Quitting CFD-Post ......................................................................................................................... 66 5. Flow in a Process Injection Mixing Pipe .......................................................................................................... 67 Tutorial Features ............................................................................................................................ 67 Overview of the Problem to Solve ..................................................................................................... 68 Before You Begin ........................................................................................................................... 68 Starting CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................................... 69 Defining a Simulation using General Mode in CFX-Pre ......................................................................... 69 Workflow Overview ....................................................................................................................... 69 Creating a New Case ...................................................................................................................... 69 Importing a Mesh ........................................................................................................................... 70 Setting Temperature-Dependent Material Properties ............................................................................. 70 Plotting an Expression .................................................................................................................... 71 Evaluating an Expression ................................................................................................................. 71 Modify Material Properties .............................................................................................................. 71 Creating the Domain ....................................................................................................................... 72 Creating the Side Inlet Boundary ...................................................................................................... 72 Creating the Main Inlet Boundary ..................................................................................................... 73 Creating the Main Outlet Boundary ................................................................................................... 74 Setting Initial Values ....................................................................................................................... 74 Setting Solver Control ..................................................................................................................... 74 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File ............................................................................................ 75 Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager ................................................................................ 75 Moving from CFX-Solver Manager to CFD-Post ................................................................................. 75 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ...................................................................................................... 76 Workflow Overview ....................................................................................................................... 76 Modifying the Outline of the Geometry .............................................................................................. 76 Creating and Modifying Streamlines Originating from the Main Inlet ...................................................... 76 Modifying Streamline Color Ranges .................................................................................................. 76 Coloring Streamlines with a Constant Color ........................................................................................ 77 Creating Streamlines Originating from the Side Inlet ............................................................................ 77 Examining Turbulence Kinetic Energy ............................................................................................... 78 Quitting CFD-Post ......................................................................................................................... 78 6. Flow from a Circular Vent ............................................................................................................................ 79 Tutorial Features ............................................................................................................................ 79 Overview of the Problem to Solve ..................................................................................................... 80 Before You Begin ........................................................................................................................... 80 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. v

ANSYS CFX Tutorials Starting CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................................... 80 Defining a Multiple-Analysis Simulation in CFX-Pre ........................................................................... 81 Importing the Mesh ........................................................................................................................ 81 Creating an Additional Variable ........................................................................................................ 81 Renaming the Analysis .................................................................................................................... 82 Creating the Domain ....................................................................................................................... 82 Creating the Boundaries .................................................................................................................. 82 Setting Initial Values ....................................................................................................................... 85 Setting Solver Control ..................................................................................................................... 85 Creating a Transient Flow Analysis .................................................................................................... 85 Modifying the Analysis Type ............................................................................................................ 85 Modifying the Boundary Conditions .................................................................................................. 86 Initialization Values ........................................................................................................................ 88 Modifying the Solver Control ........................................................................................................... 88 Output Control .............................................................................................................................. 88 Configuring Simulation Control ........................................................................................................ 89 Writing the CFX-Solver Input File .................................................................................................... 90 Obtaining Solutions to the Steady-State and Transient Configurations ...................................................... 90 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ...................................................................................................... 91 Displaying Smoke Density Using an Isosurface ................................................................................... 91 Viewing the Results at Different Time Steps ........................................................................................ 92 Generating Titled Image Files ........................................................................................................... 92 Generating a Movie ........................................................................................................................ 93 7. Flow Around a Blunt Body ........................................................................................................................... 95 Tutorial Features ............................................................................................................................ 95 Overview of the Problem to Solve ..................................................................................................... 96 Before You Begin ........................................................................................................................... 96 Starting CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................................... 96 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ............................................................................................................. 97 Importing the Mesh ........................................................................................................................ 97 Creating the Domain ....................................................................................................................... 97 Creating Composite Regions ............................................................................................................ 98 Creating the Boundaries .................................................................................................................. 98 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 100 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 101 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 101 Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager .............................................................................. 101 Obtaining a Solution in Serial ......................................................................................................... 101 Obtaining a Solution in Parallel ....................................................................................................... 102 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 105 Using Symmetry Plane to Display the Full Geometry .......................................................................... 105 Creating Velocity Vectors ............................................................................................................... 106 Displaying Pressure Distribution on Body and Symmetry Plane ............................................................ 108 Creating Surface Streamlines to Display the Path of Air along the Surface of the Body .............................. 108 Moving Objects ........................................................................................................................... 109 Creating a Surface Plot of y+ .......................................................................................................... 109 Demonstrating Power Syntax .......................................................................................................... 110 Viewing the Mesh Partitions (Parallel Only) ...................................................................................... 111 8. Buoyant Flow in a Partitioned Cavity ............................................................................................................ 113 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 113 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 114 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 114 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 114 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 115 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 115 Analysis Type .............................................................................................................................. 115 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 116 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 117 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. vi Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ANSYS CFX Tutorials Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 118 Setting Output Control .................................................................................................................. 118 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 119 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 119 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 120 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 120 Simple Report ............................................................................................................................. 120 Plots for Customized Reports ......................................................................................................... 120 Customized Report ....................................................................................................................... 123 Animations ................................................................................................................................. 123 Completion ................................................................................................................................. 123 9. Free Surface Flow Over a Bump .................................................................................................................. 125 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 125 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 126 Approach to the Problem ............................................................................................................... 126 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 126 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 126 Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre ................................................................................................... 126 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 127 Creating Expressions for Initial and Boundary Conditions .................................................................... 127 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 128 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 129 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 132 Setting Mesh Adaption Parameters .................................................................................................. 132 Setting the Solver Controls ............................................................................................................. 133 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 134 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 134 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 135 Creating Velocity Vector Plots ......................................................................................................... 135 Viewing Mesh Refinement ............................................................................................................. 136 Creating an Isosurface to Show the Free Surface ................................................................................ 138 Creating a Polyline that Follows the Free Surface ............................................................................... 139 Creating a Chart to Show the Height of the Surface ............................................................................. 139 Further Postprocessing .................................................................................................................. 140 Using a Supercritical Outlet Condition ............................................................................................. 140 10. Supersonic Flow Over a Wing .................................................................................................................... 141 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 141 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 141 Approach to the Problem ............................................................................................................... 142 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 142 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 142 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 142 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 143 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 143 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 143 Creating Domain Interfaces ............................................................................................................ 145 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 146 Setting the Solver Controls ............................................................................................................. 146 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 147 Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager .............................................................................. 147 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 147 Displaying Mach Information ......................................................................................................... 147 Displaying Pressure Information ..................................................................................................... 148 Displaying Temperature Information ................................................................................................ 148 Displaying Pressure With User Vectors ............................................................................................. 148 11. Flow Through a Butterfly Valve ................................................................................................................. 151 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 151 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 152 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. vii

ANSYS CFX Tutorials Approach to the Problem ............................................................................................................... 152 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 153 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 153 Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre ................................................................................................... 153 Creating a New Case ..................................................................................................................... 153 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 153 Defining the Properties of the Sand .................................................................................................. 153 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 154 Creating the Inlet Velocity Profile .................................................................................................... 157 Creating the Boundary Conditions ................................................................................................... 158 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 161 Setting the Solver Controls ............................................................................................................. 161 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 162 Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager .............................................................................. 162 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 162 Erosion Due to Sand Particles ......................................................................................................... 162 Displaying Erosion on the Pipe Wall ................................................................................................ 163 Setting the Particle Tracks .............................................................................................................. 163 Creating the Particle Track Symbols ................................................................................................. 164 Creating a Particle Track Animation ................................................................................................. 164 Determining Minimum, Maximum, and Average Pressure Values .......................................................... 165 12. Flow in a Catalytic Converter .................................................................................................................... 167 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 167 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 168 Approach to the Problem ............................................................................................................... 168 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 169 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 169 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 169 Importing the Meshes .................................................................................................................... 169 Creating the Fluid Domain ............................................................................................................. 171 Creating the Porous Domain ........................................................................................................... 172 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 173 Creating the Domain Interfaces ....................................................................................................... 174 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 174 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 175 Setting a Discretization Option ....................................................................................................... 175 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 176 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 176 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 176 Viewing the Mesh on a GGI Interface ............................................................................................... 176 Creating User Locations ................................................................................................................ 177 Creating Plots .............................................................................................................................. 178 Exporting Polyline Data ................................................................................................................ 180 13. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in an Annulus .................................................................................................... 181 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 181 Background Theory ...................................................................................................................... 181 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 182 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 183 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 183 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 184 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 184 Creating the Fluid ......................................................................................................................... 184 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 185 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 186 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 187 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 187 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 188 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 188 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. viii Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ANSYS CFX Tutorials Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 188 14. Flow in an Axial Rotor/Stator .................................................................................................................... 191 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 191 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 192 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 194 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 194 Defining a Frozen Rotor Case in CFX-Pre ......................................................................................... 195 Basic Settings .............................................................................................................................. 195 Component Definition ................................................................................................................... 195 Physics Definition ........................................................................................................................ 196 Interface Definition ...................................................................................................................... 196 Boundary Definition ..................................................................................................................... 196 Final Operations ........................................................................................................................... 197 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 197 Obtaining a Solution to the Frozen Rotor Model ................................................................................. 197 Obtaining a Solution in Serial ......................................................................................................... 197 Obtaining a Solution With Local Parallel .......................................................................................... 198 Obtaining a Solution with Distributed Parallel .................................................................................... 198 Viewing the Frozen Rotor Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................. 198 Initializing Turbo-Post ................................................................................................................... 198 Viewing Three Domain Passages ..................................................................................................... 199 Blade Loading Turbo Chart ............................................................................................................ 200 Setting up a Transient Rotor-Stator Calculation .................................................................................. 200 Playing a Session File ................................................................................................................... 200 Opening the Existing Case ............................................................................................................. 200 Modifying the Physics Definition .................................................................................................... 200 Setting Output Control .................................................................................................................. 201 Modifying Execution Control ......................................................................................................... 202 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 202 Obtaining a Solution to the Transient Rotor-Stator Model ..................................................................... 202 Serial Solution ............................................................................................................................. 202 Parallel Solution ........................................................................................................................... 203 Monitoring the Run ...................................................................................................................... 203 Viewing the Transient Rotor-Stator Results in CFD-Post ...................................................................... 203 Initializing Turbo-Post ................................................................................................................... 203 Displaying a Surface of Constant Span ............................................................................................. 203 Using Multiple Turbo Viewports ...................................................................................................... 203 Creating a Turbo Surface at Mid-Span .............................................................................................. 204 Setting up Instancing Transformations .............................................................................................. 204 Animating the movement of the Rotor relative to the Stator .................................................................. 204 Further Postprocessing .................................................................................................................. 205 15. Reacting Flow in a Mixing Tube ................................................................................................................. 207 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 207 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 208 Modeling Approach ...................................................................................................................... 209 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 210 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 210 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 210 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 210 Creating a Multicomponent Fluid .................................................................................................... 211 Creating an Additional Variable to Model pH ..................................................................................... 214 Formulating the Reaction and pH as Expressions ................................................................................ 214 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 219 Creating a Subdomain to Model the Chemical Reactions ...................................................................... 220 Creating the Boundary Conditions ................................................................................................... 221 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 224 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 225 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 225 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ix

ANSYS CFX Tutorials Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 225 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 226 16. Conjugate Heat Transfer in a Heating Coil ................................................................................................... 227 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 227 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 228 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 228 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 229 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 229 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 229 Editing the Material Properties ........................................................................................................ 229 Defining the Calcium Carbonate Deposit Material .............................................................................. 230 Creating the Domains .................................................................................................................... 230 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 232 Creating the Domain Interface ........................................................................................................ 233 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 234 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 234 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 234 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 234 Heating Coil Temperature Range ..................................................................................................... 235 Creating a Cylindrical Locator ........................................................................................................ 235 Specular Lighting ......................................................................................................................... 237 Moving the Light Source ............................................................................................................... 237 Exporting the Results to ANSYS ..................................................................................................... 237 Exporting Data from CFX-Solver Manager ....................................................................................... 237 17. Multiphase Flow in a Mixing Vessel ............................................................................................................ 239 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 239 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 240 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 241 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 241 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 242 Importing the Meshes .................................................................................................................... 242 Creating the Domains .................................................................................................................... 244 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 246 Creating the Domain Interfaces ....................................................................................................... 249 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 253 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 254 Adding Monitor Points .................................................................................................................. 254 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 255 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 255 Examining the Results in CFD-Post ................................................................................................. 255 Creating a Plane Locator ................................................................................................................ 256 Plotting Velocity .......................................................................................................................... 256 Plotting Pressure Distribution ......................................................................................................... 256 Plotting Volume Fractions .............................................................................................................. 257 Plotting Shear Strain Rate and Shear Stress ....................................................................................... 257 Calculating Torque and Power Requirements ..................................................................................... 258 18. Gas-Liquid Flow in an Airlift Reactor ......................................................................................................... 259 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 259 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 260 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 261 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 261 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 261 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 261 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 261 Creating the Boundary Conditions ................................................................................................... 263 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 266 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 267 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 267 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. x Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ANSYS CFX Tutorials Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 267 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 268 Creating Water Velocity Vector Plots ................................................................................................ 268 Creating Volume Fraction Plots ....................................................................................................... 268 Displaying the Entire Airlift Reactor Geometry .................................................................................. 270 Additional Fine Mesh Simulation Results ......................................................................................... 270 19. Air Conditioning Simulation ...................................................................................................................... 273 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 273 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 274 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 275 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 275 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ........................................................................................................... 276 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 276 Importing CEL Expressions ........................................................................................................... 276 Compiling the Fortran Subroutine for the Thermostat .......................................................................... 278 Creating a User CEL Function for the Thermostat ............................................................................... 278 Setting the Analysis Type ............................................................................................................... 279 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 280 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 281 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 283 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 284 Setting Output Control .................................................................................................................. 285 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 286 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 286 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 287 Creating Graphics Objects ............................................................................................................. 287 Creating an Animation .................................................................................................................. 289 Further Steps ............................................................................................................................... 290 20. Combustion and Radiation in a Can Combustor ............................................................................................. 291 Tutorial Features .......................................................................................................................... 291 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................... 292 Using Eddy Dissipation and P1 Models ............................................................................................ 294 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................................... 294 Starting CFX-Pre ......................................................................................................................... 294 Defining a Case Using Eddy Dissipation and P1 Models in CFX-Pre ...................................................... 295 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................... 295 Creating a Reacting Mixture ........................................................................................................... 295 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................................................... 296 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ 296 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 299 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 300 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File .......................................................................................... 300 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................... 300 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................................................... 301 Temperature Within the Domain ...................................................................................................... 301 The NO Concentration in the Combustor .......................................................................................... 301 Printing a Greyscale Graphic .......................................................................................................... 301 Calculating NO Mass Fraction at the Outlet ....................................................................................... 302 Viewing Flow Field ...................................................................................................................... 302 Viewing Radiation ........................................................................................................................ 303 Defining a Simulation Using Laminar Flamelet and Discrete Transfer Models in ANSYS CFX-Pre .............. 303 Playing a Session File ................................................................................................................... 304 Creating a New Case ..................................................................................................................... 304 Modifying the Reacting Mixture ..................................................................................................... 304 Modifying the Domain .................................................................................................................. 305 Modifying the Boundaries .............................................................................................................. 305 Setting Initial Values ..................................................................................................................... 306 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................................................... 306 Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. xi

......................... 328 Importing the Mesh .............................................def) File ........................................................ 320 Modifying Solver Control ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 307 Viewing Temperature within the Domain ................................. 317 Exporting Pressure Distribution Data ........................................................... 307 Obtaining a Solution Using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 322 22..................................................................................... 333 Setting Solver Control ...................................... 313 Creating the Boundaries ................................................................................................................ANSYS CFX Tutorials Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.......................................................................................................... 317 Plotting Pressure Distribution Data .......................... 328 Importing the Required Expressions .............. 308 Calculating CO Mass Fraction at the Outlet ................................................................. 316 Setting Solver Control ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 307 Viewing the Results in ANSYS CFD-Post ....................................................... 317 Obtaining an Initial Solution using CFX-Solver Manager .........def) File ..................................................................................................................................... Fluid Structure Interaction and Mesh Deformation ............................................................................. 335 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ..... 326 Modeling the Ball Dynamics ................... 335 Creating a Slice Plane ...............................................................................................© 2009 ANSYS........ 313 Creating the Domain ................................................. 335 Creating a Point .............................................................. 313 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ...................... xii Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 327 Before You Begin .............................................................................................................................................................................. 313 Importing the Mesh ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 309 21....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 327 Starting CFX-Pre ............................................................ 329 Creating the Domain ..................................................................................... 333 Setting Output Control ............................ 312 Creating an Initial Simulation ........................................................................................ 330 Creating the Boundaries ........................................................ 321 Modifying Execution Control .................................................................... 312 Starting CFX-Pre ........................................................................................... 334 Obtaining a Solution using the CFX-Solver Manager ............................................................................................................................................................. 331 Setting Initial Values ............................................................. 321 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 328 Setting the Analysis Type ... 320 Adding Cavitation .......................................................................................... 335 Release 12..................................................................def) File .....0 ..................................................................... 328 Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre ............................................................................ 316 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (................................................................................................................................................ 330 Creating the Subdomain .................... 321 Viewing the Results of the Cavitation Simulation ......................... ............................. All rights reserved........................ 320 Modifying the Initial Case in CFX-Pre .............................................................................................................. 319 Saving the Post-Processing State ....................................................... and its subsidiaries and affiliates............................... 308 Calculating NO Concentration ...................... 308 Viewing CO Concentration .... 327 Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre .............................................................................................. 312 Before You Begin ..... 325 Tutorial Features ........................................................................................ Inc.................................. 334 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.........def) File ......................................... 308 Further Postprocessing ............................................................................................ 325 Overview of the Problem to Solve .. 314 Setting Initial Values ........................................................................................................................... 311 Tutorial Features ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 307 Viewing the NO Concentration in the Combustor ................................ 321 Obtaining a Cavitation Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................... Cavitation Around a Hydrofoil ...................................................... 320 Preparing a Simulation with Cavitation ....................... 311 Overview of the Problem to Solve ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc.................................................................................................. 317 Viewing the Results of the Initial Simulation ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 313 Loading Materials ..........................

............................................© 2009 ANSYS........................................................ 347 Creating Named Selections for the Project ....................... 374 Viewing the Optimization ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc................................................................................................. 356 Creating an Animation ...................... 340 Before You Begin .................................................................................................................................................... 343 Defining the Physics in the Mechanical Application ....................................................................................................... 382 Creating the Topology ... 383 Specifying Mesh Data Settings ...................... 349 Defining the Physics and ANSYS Multi-field Settings in ANSYS CFX-Pre .......................................................................... 341 Adding Analyses Systems to the Project .............................................................................................................................................. 351 Creating the Boundaries ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 361 Creating the Solid ................ 372 Using Design of Experiments ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 345 Basic Analysis Settings ....................................................................................................... 344 Generating the Mesh for the Structural System ........................................................................................................................................................................ All rights reserved........................ 351 Creating the Domain .......................................................................................... 352 Setting Initial Values ....................................... 340 Creating the Project ........... 361 Creating the Project ....................................................................................... 379 Reviewing the Centrifugal Compressor Geometry in BladeGen ...................................................... 386 Generating the CFD Mesh .............................................................................................................. 359 Tutorial Features ............................................................................................................................................0 .......... 341 Adding a New Material for the Project ...................................................................................................................... xiii ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 342 Adding Geometry to the Project ........................................................ 357 24................. 381 Defining the Shroud Tip .. 387 Obtaining a Solution to the Aerodynamic Simulation using CFX-Solver ..................................................... 355 Viewing Results in ANSYS CFD-Post ......................................................................................................... Inc....... 377 Tutorial Features .................... Aerodynamic & Structural Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor ................................................................. and its subsidiaries and affiliates......................................................................... 339 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................ Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS....................................................................................................................................... 339 Tutorial Features .. 368 Setting the Output Parameter in CFD-Post ..... 345 Inserting Loads .......................... 336 23.................................................................................................................................................................................ANSYS CFX Tutorials Creating an Animation with Velocity Vectors ................................................. Oscillating Plate with Two-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 361 Creating the Geometry in DesignModeler ..................................................................................................... 387 Creating a New Case ............................................................................ 377 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................... Optimizing Flow in a Static Mixer ...................................... 360 Setting Up ANSYS Workbench ........................................................... 350 Setting the Analysis Type ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 375 25........................................... 382 Modifying the Topology ......................................................................... 387 Defining an Aerodynamic Simulation using CFX-Pre ...................................... 379 Starting ANSYS Workbench and Creating a BladeGen System .......................................................................................................................................................... 347 Generating the Mesh for the Fluid System . 374 Viewing the Response Surface ...................................................................................................... 353 Setting Output Control .................................................................. 345 Assigning the Material to Geometry ............................... 389 Release 12........................................................ 371 Investigating the Impact of Changing Design Parameters Manually ............................................................... 381 Creating a CFD Mesh using ANSYS TurboGrid .................................................................... 359 Overview of the Problem to Solve ..................................................................... 345 Completing the Setup for the Structural System ............................................................................................... 368 Setting up the Case with CFX-Pre .............. 378 Before You Begin ................................................................................................... 362 Creating the Mesh with CFX-Mesh ....................................................................................................................................... 353 Setting Solver Control .......................................................................................................................................... 356 Plotting Results on the Solid ............................ 354 Obtaining a Solution using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager ................................................. 350 Creating the Fluid ...................................

................................................................................ 415 Creating Expressions for Time Step and Total Time ..................................................................... 416 Creating the Domains ..... 423 Obtaining a Solution for Simulation using CFX-Solver Manager ...... 404 Obtaining a Solution for the Equilibrium Case ....................................................................................................................... 395 Overview of the Problem to Solve .................................................................................... 415 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre .................... 429 Overview of the Problem to Solve .... 398 Defining the Equilibrium Case in CFX-Pre ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 422 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (......................................................................................................................................................................... 429 Release 12.......................................... 401 Modifications to Domain and Boundary Conditions ....................................ANSYS CFX Tutorials Viewing the Results of the Aerodynamic Simulation in CFD-Post ..................................................................... 413 Tutorial Features ........................................................................................................................................def) File ............. 426 28..................................... Inc............................................................................... 406 Modifying the Domains ...................................................................... 390 Simulating Structural Stresses due to Rotation ....................... 403 Setting Initial Values ....................................................... 413 Overview of the Problem to Solve ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 414 Before You Begin ........ 423 Creating a Chart of Mass Flow versus Time .................................................... ........................................def) File ........... Axial Turbine Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Steam Predictions .............. 417 Creating the Rotating Fluid Domain .............................................................................................................................................................................. 396 Before You Begin ............... 425 Generating an Animated Movie ......................................... 400 Interface Definition ............................................................ 401 Final Operations ........................................ 406 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (................................... 418 Creating the Domain Interface ................................... 404 Viewing the Equilibrium Case Results in CFD-Post ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 416 Creating an Immersed Solid Domain ........................ 421 Inlet Boundary .............................................................................. 389 Simulating Structural Stresses due to Pressure Loads ................................. 400 Boundary Definition .................................................................... 429 Tutorial Features .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 421 Outlet Boundary ........................................................................................................... 395 Tutorial Features ............................. 392 26.......................................................................... 405 Defining the Non-Equilibrium Case in CFX-Pre ........ 405 Displaying the Equilibrium Solution Variables using Contour Plots ................... 417 Creating the Stationary Fluid Domain ..... 399 Component Definition ................ 406 Opening the Existing Simulation ........... and its subsidiaries and affiliates................................................ Modeling a Gear Pump using an Immersed Solid ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................© 2009 ANSYS............................................................................................................................................ 398 Starting CFX-Pre ............ Inc....................................... 415 Importing the Mesh ......................................... Drop Curve for Cavitating Flow in a Pump ...................... 409 Viewing the Non-Equilibrium Case Results in CFD-Post .............. 421 Setting Solver Control ........................................................... 401 Defining the Properties of Water ....................................................................... 424 Creating a Velocity Vector Plot ...................................0 ...................... 421 Setting Output Control ........................................................................... 419 Creating Boundary Conditions .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 416 Setting the Analysis Type .......................................... 424 Changing the Appearance in Preparation for a Movie ........ 399 Basic Settings .................................................... 399 Physics Definition .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................def) File .... 409 Displaying the Non-Equilibrium Solution Variables using Contour Plots ....................................................................... 410 27.................... xiv Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS................................... 423 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ................................................................................................................................................................................... 409 Obtaining a Solution for the Non-Equilibrium Case ............................................................................................................... 415 Starting CFX-Pre .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 403 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ All rights reserved...............................................................................................................................................

......................... 437 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager ....................................................... 461 Importing the Coal Combustion Materials CCL File ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 442 29................................................................................................................. xv ................. 447 Tutorial Features ....................... 439 Post-Processing the Solution for High-Pressure Simulation of Pump with Cavitation Model ........................ 453 Setting Solver Control ................................................................................def) Files for Lower Inlet Pressures ........... 435 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (....................................................................................................................................................... 441 Obtaining Solutions using CFX-Solver Manager ................................................................................ Coal Combustion ............................ 431 Importing the Mesh ................... Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Spray Dryer ....................................... 472 Release 12........................................................................................................ 449 Defining a Steady-State Simulation in CFX-Pre ............................................. 434 Setting Solver Control ..................................................................................................................................................... 454 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................def) File ................................................ 456 Displaying the Liquid Water Temperature Using Particle Tracking ........................................................................ 450 Creating and Editing the Boundary Conditions .................................................................................................................................................................... 440 Writing CFX-Solver Input (................ 455 Displaying the Water Mass Fraction Using a Contour Plot .............................................................................................................................................................. 451 Creating a Domain Interface ................................................................. 449 Importing the Evaporating CCL Drops Model Template .............................. 471 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ........................................................... 456 Displaying the Liquid Water Averaged Mean Particle Diameter Using a Contour Plot ................................................................................................................. All rights reserved.................................................................................................................................................................................... 431 High Pressure Simulation of Pump without Cavitation Model ................................................. 464 Setting Solver Control ..........................ANSYS CFX Tutorials Before You Begin ................................. 431 Creating the Domain ................................................................................................... 436 Post-Processing the Solution for High-Pressure Simulation of Pump without Cavitation Model ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 471 Coal Combustion Simulation with Swirl ................................................................................................................................................................ 441 Viewing the Solution for the Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model ........ and its subsidiaries and affiliates.. 430 Starting CFX-Pre ............................................ 461 Importing the Mesh ........... 455 Displaying the Temperature Using a Contour Plot ......................... 454 Setting Output Control ....................................................... 462 Creating the Domain ......... 457 30............ 456 Displaying the Liquid Water Averaged Temperature Using a Contour Plot .............................................. 459 Overview of the Problem to Solve ............ 431 Loading Materials ................................................................................................. 440 Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model Over Range of Inlet Pressures ...................................................................................................... 433 Setting Initial Values ................................... Inc..................................................... 436 Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager .................. 454 Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager ............................................ 470 Obtaining a Solution for the Simulation using CFX-Solver Manager ..............................................................................def) File ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 456 Displaying the Diameter of a Water Drop Using Particle Tracking ..................................................................... 459 Tutorial Features ...................................................................................... 432 Creating the Boundaries ....... 461 Coal Combustion Simulation .............................................................................................................................................................0 .......................................................... 459 Before You Begin ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc...................................................................................def) File ................................................................................. 437 Defining the Simulation in CFX-Pre ................................................................................................. 449 Starting CFX-Pre ......................... 449 Editing the Domain ......................... 436 High Pressure Simulation of Pump with Cavitation Model ................ 447 Before You Begin ................................................. 463 Creating the Boundary Conditions .... 455 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post ..............................................................© 2009 ANSYS............... 447 Overview of the Problem to Solve ...................................................................................................... 432 Creating Domain Interfaces ............................................... 449 Importing the Mesh ........................................................................................................................... 461 Starting CFX-Pre ............................................ 469 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (......................................

.............................................................................................................................................................. Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow ......................... 477 Obtaining a Solution for the Simulation with Swirl and Nitrogen Oxide using CFX-Solver Manager ...................... 511 Show Velocity on the Symmetry Plane ................................................................................................................................................................. 476 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.............................. 524 Review and Modify a Report ........... .......................................................................................................................... 482 Creating the Domain ............................................................. 473 Editing the Boundary Conditions ........................................................................................ 498 Launch ANSYS CFD-Post ............................................................................. 499 Display the Solution in ANSYS CFD-Post .... 532 33.... 494 Displaying the Gas to Liquid and Liquid to Gas Phase Transfer Rates in Synchronous Views ...... 505 View Simulation Values using the Function Calculator .......................................................................................................................................................... xvi Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS........ 497 Create a Working Directory ....................................................... 476 Opening an Existing Simulation ........ 474 Obtaining a Solution for the Simulation with Swirl using CFX-Solver Manager ................................................................................................. 474 Viewing the Results for Simulation with Swirl in CFD-Post .................. 476 Editing the Domain ............................................................................................... 495 Creating a Chart to Plot the False Time Step Along a Line ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 514 Show the Vortex Structure ................. Distance ...... 492 Setting Solver Control .............0 .................................................................................. 494 Displaying the Liquid to Gas Mass Transfer Rate .....................................................................................def) File ................................................. 495 32..................................................... 481 Creating a Steady State Analysis ......... Inc................................................................................................................................................ 480 Defining a Case in CFX-Pre ............... 486 Creating Boundaries ............. 493 Obtaining a Solution for Simulation using CFX-Solver Manager ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 502 View and Check the Mesh .................................................................................................... 483 Creating Subdomains .................................................................................................. 520 Create a Table to Show Mixing ..................................................................................... 478 31.............................ANSYS CFX Tutorials Opening an Existing Simulation .......................................................................................................... 493 Viewing the Results in CFD-Post .................................................................. 494 Displaying the Gas to Liquid Mass Transfer Rate ... Turbo Postprocessing .............................................. 508 Become Familiar with the Viewer Controls .......................................................................... 530 Generated Files ...................................................................... 480 Importing the Mesh ...................................................© 2009 ANSYS............................................................................................................................... 481 Importing the Steam Jet CCL .....................def) File ............... 509 Create an Instance Reflection .......................................................................... 533 Problem Description ........................................................ 526 Create a Custom Variable and Animate the Display ........................................................ 490 Creating a Time Step Expression .............................................................................................. All rights reserved........................... 528 Save Your Work ................................................ 480 Starting CFX-Pre .................................................................................. 517 Compare a Contour Plot to the Display of a Variable on a Boundary .............. 473 Creating a Domain Interface .................. 533 Create a Working Directory .................................................. 493 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (............... 479 Before You Begin ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 482 Creating and Loading Materials .......................................... Inc....................................................................... 479 Tutorial Features ................................................................................................................................... 475 Coal Combustion Simulation with Swirl and Nitrogen Oxide ...................................................................... 526 Loading and Comparing the Results to Those in a Refined Mesh .............................................................................. 474 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ and its subsidiaries and affiliates............ 512 Show Flow Distribution in the Elbow ........................................... 479 Overview of the Problem to Solve .......... 494 Displaying the Steam Molar Fraction .............. 534 Launching ANSYS CFD-Post ............................ Steam Jet .................. 477 Viewing the Results for the Simulation with Swirl and Nitrogen Oxide in CFD-Post ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 518 Chart Temperature vs....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 535 Release 12......................def) File ...............................................................

................. Displaying Contours on Meridional Isosurfaces .................. Inc...............................© 2009 ANSYS..................................................... 539 540 541 543 544 544 547 548 551 Release 12.............. and its subsidiaries and affiliates..................................................................................................ANSYS CFX Tutorials Displaying the Solution in ANSYS CFD-Post .... xvii ..................................... Initializing the Turbomachinery Components ......................................................... Inc......................................................................... Generating and Viewing Turbo Reports ............................................................................ Displaying the Inlet to Outlet Chart ...................................................................... Displaying a 360-Degree View .......... and 3D Views ............................ Comparing the Blade-to-Blade................................ All rights reserved.......................................................................................................... Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS..................... Meridional.....................................0 .................. Calculating and Displaying Values of Variables .................................. Index .........................

0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS.Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . Inc.

............ a Contour Plot of Pressure ........................................................ 530 33..................................... 518 32..1..................... Modifying Control Points on the Shroud Tip Layer ....1.4.............. External Air Flow Over a Generic Vehicle Body ......................... 513 32..........................13........1..................................... Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe ................... Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe .............................................................................................................2..........3............. 137 13.............................................. Problem Specification ........................... Chart of Output Temperatures at the Outlet ...........1...............1............................................................................14.................................................................... Modifying Control Points on the Hub Layer ......................8.... Displaying Differences in Contour Plots of Temperature on Two Mesh Densities ........ 524 32..................................................1...... 385 25.... All rights reserved.................... 384 25..........................2.........................................1....................................................... 498 32................................................................................. Vector Plot of Velocity ............1.................................................................1........ Boundary Pressure vs.........10.......................... 96 9. 514 32.................................................................................. xix ................................................................................................................. Injection Mixing Pipe ............... 516 32..................................................................... Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe ..... Inc..............12........... Apparent Viscosity of a Shear-thickening Fluid ... Cut-away Diagram of the Mixer ....................................... Impeller Mesh Region ................................... Problem Specification ............. Project setup for two-way FSI analysis .................................................2.........6. Chart of Output Temperatures at Two Locations ..... 342 24...................7.................. The Hexahedral Grid for the Mixing Elbow ............................................................................................................... 506 32..............................1................. Velocity on the Symmetry Plane (Enhanced Contrast) ............................ 30 5......................................... 511 32............................ 529 32....................................................9................3.......0 .................................. Adding Edge Split Controls near the Leading Edge on the Hub Layer .....................................© 2009 ANSYS...... Geometry subsection .................1........................................1........1.............2........ Shear Stress of a Shear-thickening Fluid ............................................. 520 32..................................... 522 32.......... 515 32............................................... 510 32......... and its subsidiaries and affiliates.................................... 260 23..........5...................................................... Mesh around the bump ...................................................1................................................... 242 18... Streamlines of Turbulence Kinetic Energy ....................... Inc..................... 182 14.....List of Figures 2................ Cut-away Diagram of the Airlift Reactor ......... Right-click Menus Vary by Cursor Position ................................................................................................................................ Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS..... 386 32.......... 361 25....................................... 534 Release 12......... Orientation Control Cursor Types ............................................................... Comparing Contour Plots of Temperature on Two Mesh Densities ............................................................................................................ Absolute Helicity Vortex ... 182 13............................................. 68 7........................................... Velocity on the Symmetry Plane . 241 17.................. 194 17........................................ 6 3..............................................................................................11.....................................

Release 12. Inc.0 . .© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.

......................... 15....................1.........List of Tables 15.....© 2009 ANSYS................ and its subsidiaries and affiliates......................................... Pump Performance Data .........2.. 15. Inc................................................ All rights reserved.......... xxi .........................................3... 28................0 .................... Inc.................... 208 209 209 440 Release 12...................................... Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.................. Properties of the Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution ....... Properties of the Salt Water Product ..........................................................1......... Properties of the Dilute Sodium Hydroxide Solution ..

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved.0 . .Release 12.

Introduction to the CFX Tutorials The CFX tutorials are designed to introduce general techniques used in CFX and to provide tips on advanced modeling. In a DOS window that has its path set up correctly to run CFX. 3. enter cfx5 in a terminal window that has its path set up to run CFX. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. CFX-Solver Manager. These files are located in <CFXROOT>/examples and <CFXROOT>/etc/model-templates.def) File Obtaining a Solution in CFX-Solver Manager Viewing the Results in CFD-Post Creating CFX Component Systems for Multiple Simulations (As Required) Closing the Applications Release 12. • Before you start CFX-Pre.© 2009 ANSYS. The initial tutorials introduce general principles used in CFX. you must create a working directory. Click the CFX-Pre 12. enter cfx5 (otherwise.0 button. is set to Load only the last results. • If you plan to run through the whole tutorial. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Before you run a tutorial. If you were directed here at some point during a tutorial. You can start the ANSYS CFX Launcher in any of the following ways: • On Windows: • • • 2. you prevent accidental changes to any of the files that came with your installation. you will need to type the full pathname of the cfx5 command). All rights reserved. From the Start menu. The topics presented under this section are: • • • • • • Starting CFX-Pre Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 4.0 > Fluid Dynamics > CFX. there is no need to copy any files. under the Load Results File dialog box in CFD-Post. On UNIX. Inc. If you plan to run the provided tutorial session file so that you can immediately run the simulation in CFX-Solver. copy the files that are listed near the beginning of the tutorial to your working directory. running CFX-Solver and visualizing the results in CFD-Post. Note All tutorials assume that the CFX run history and multi-configuration options. the later tutorials highlight specialized features of CFX. By working with copies of the example files in a new directory. where <CFXROOT> is the installation directory for ANSYS CFX. select All Programs > ANSYS 12. Inc.Chapter 1. This section includes the steps required to run these tutorials in ANSYS Workbench. including setting up the physical models.0 . Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench Most ANSYS CFX tutorials are written to work in Standalone Mode. 1 . set the working directory. The procedure for setting the working directory and starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone is listed below: 1. Start the ANSYS CFX Launcher. return to that location. Select the Working Directory on the ANSYS CFX Launcher window. or CFD-Post. Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode ANSYS CFX uses a working directory as the default location for loading and saving files for a particular session or project.

The CFX-Solver Manager appears with the Define Run dialog box displayed. you need to launch the CFX-Solver Manager and subsequently use it to start the solver: 1. The name will be highlighted. Release 12. Alternatively. ignore it and proceed to the next step. the Results cell in ANSYS Workbench prompts you to refresh: 1. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. a message saying This run of the ANSYS CFX-Solver has finished. Click OK. Right-click on the Results cell and select Refresh. 3). from the Start menu select All Programs > ANSYS 12. When the refresh is complete. 3. At this point. Obtaining a Solution in CFX-Solver Manager Once the simulation setup is complete.def) File When running ANSYS CFX within ANSYS Workbench.0 . 5. 3). If you want to create the geometry and mesh. you will start with a Fluid Flow (CFX) system. From the tool bar. double-click on the Results cell to open CFD-Post. In the Toolbox pane. right-click on the Setup cell and select Edit to launch CFX-Pre. Note You use a CFX component system because you are starting with a mesh. Continue with. If this is the final section of your tutorial. Continue with Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre section of your tutorial. Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager section of the tutorial. Continue to Obtaining a Solution in CFX-Solver Manager (p. 2. a completion message appears in a dialog box. Continue with. 2. Inc. Double-click on the ANSYS Workbench Solution cell. In the Project Schematic. All rights reserved. 6. In Microsoft Windows. 2 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3. Alternatively.0 > Workbench. you can use CFD-Post to review the finished results.out file in the CFX-Solver Manager. 2. 4. is displayed in the final line of the *. A CFX system opens in the Project Schematic. click Save As and use the Save in field to set the directory to which you want to save the project file. you can right-click on the first cell in the system and select Rename. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post section of the tutorial. open Component Systems and double-click CFX. . 2). continue to Closing the Applications (p. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post When CFX-Solver has finished. The required files are automatically transferred between the cells within the CFX component system. the Solution cell prompts you to refresh: • Right-click on the Solution cell and select Refresh.© 2009 ANSYS. Set the project name in the File name field and click Save. This directory will be referred to as the working directory. Start ANSYS Workbench. Type in the new name System 1 to replace the highlighted text below the system. To obtain a solution. Now you can change the highlighted text by typing in the new name. Inc. no action is required for this section of the tutorial.Starting CFX-Pre Starting CFX-Pre 1. Once CFX-Solver has finished. Note If the Solution cell displays a prompt to perform an update. If you are Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials with a Sequence of Multiple Simulations continue to Creating CFX Component Systems for Multiple Simulations (As Required) (p.

To duplicate the existing CFX component system: 1. Inc. 4. ANSYS Workbench prompts you to save all your project files. you can run the tutorial session file specified in the tutorial1. If required. 2. ignore the steps that tell you to set the initial values file in the Define Run dialog box for CFX-Solver Manager. Click on the Solution cell of the System 1 and drag it to the Solution cell of the System 2. each covers a particular set of CFX-Pre setup instructions. On the ANSYS CFX Launcher click the CFX-Solver Manager 12. 7. Dragging the solution cell between systems automatically sets the initialization options in CFX-Solver Manager. The Define Run dialog box appears. select File > Define Run. right-click on the first cell in the System 1 system and select Duplicate. If you want to skip past those instructions and have CFX-Pre set up the simulation automatically. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1 Some tutorials have more than one tutorial session file. On the CFX-Solver Manager menu bar. 3 . Once. Closing the Applications Close ANSYS Workbench (and the applications it launched) by selecting File > Exit from ANSYS Workbench. Select Session > Play Tutorial. Type in the new name System 2 to replace the highlighted text below the system. 2). 4. Note Session files and tutorial session files can be played only in ANSYS CFX standalone. select File > Quit. 8. 5. In the ANSYS Workbench Project Schematic. This file is located in <CFXROOT>/examples and <CFXROOT>/etc/model-templates. On the CFX-Pre menu bar. 3.def) in the directory set as your Working Directory. launch CFX-Pre. 6. CFX-Pre writes a CFX-Solver input file (filename. 2. All rights reserved. 3. You will now see a line. click OK. Playing a Tutorial Session File Every tutorial involves instructions for setting up a simulation in CFX-Pre. you have set up the new CFX component system. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Creating CFX Component Systems for Multiple Simulations (As Required) Creating CFX Component Systems for Multiple Simulations (As Required) Now that you have set the physics in the initial state. Click Open. This file is written in the background while CFX-Pre remains open. A new system named Copy of System 1 will appear in the Project Schematic.0 . where <CFXROOT> is the installation directory for ANSYS CFX. Note In the tutorial. If an Information dialog box appears. indicating a transfer connection.© 2009 ANSYS. button. you will duplicate the CFX component system created earlier and edit the physics in the new system. continue to Step 5 of Starting CFX-Pre (p. not in ANSYS Workbench To play a tutorial session file: 1. Release 12.pre) for the tutorial. Select the required tutorial session file (. going from Solution cell of the System 1 to the Solution cell of the System 2. Inc.

Adjust the color settings under CFX-Pre > Graphics Style (for CFX-Pre) or CFD-Post > Viewer (for CFD-Post). Using Help To invoke the help browser. then press F1. Context-sensitive help is provided for many of the object editors and other parts of the interface. click the browse button choose the filename. Reset returns the settings for the object to those stored in the database for all the tabs. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. You may also try using context-sensitive help. return to that location. which are described next: • • • • • Apply applies the information contained within all the tabs of an editor. 10. you can change the colors for improved viewing. Inc. The Options dialog box appears. The Options dialog box appears.def file and click Open. Changing the Display Colors If viewing objects in ANSYS CFX becomes difficult due to contrast with the background. Release 12. except that the editor automatically closes. . The color options are set in different places. . depending on how you run CFX: 1. ensure that the feature is active. 2. select Help > Master Contents. select Help > Master Contents and try using the search or index features in the help browser. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. place the mouse pointer over it. Editor Buttons The ANSYS CFX interface uses editors to enter the data required to set up and post-process a simulation.0 . Inc. 4 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The settings are stored in the database each time the Apply button is clicked. If you were directed here at some point during a tutorial. On the Define Run dialog box.Changing the Display Colors 9. 3. The editors have standard buttons. return to that location. Select Edit > Options. If context-sensitive help is not available for the feature of interest. Defaults restores the system default settings for all the tabs of the edited object. OK is the same as Apply. All rights reserved. To invoke the context-sensitive help for a particular editor or other feature. 4. In the CFX-Solver File dialog box that appears. Cancel and Close both close the editor without applying or saving any changes. If you were directed here at some point during a tutorial. Not every area of the interface supports context-sensitive help.

Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details Quick Setup Wizard Steady State General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Animation Contour Outline Plot (Wireframe) Point Release 12. Simulating Flow in a Static Mixer Using CFX in Standalone Mode This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 5) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 6) Before You Begin (p. Viewing temperature using colored planes and contours in CFD-Post. 6) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. 14) This tutorial simulates a static mixer consisting of two inlet pipes delivering water into a mixing vessel. Inc. Modifying the outline plot in CFD-Post. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 2. Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • Using Quick Setup mode in CFX-Pre to set up a problem. Inc. 6) Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Using streamlines in CFD-Post to trace the flow field from a point. 12) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. 5 Component CFX-Pre . the water exits through an outlet pipe. Creating an animation and saving it to an MPEG file. A general workflow is established for analyzing the flow of fluid into and out of a mixer. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . All rights reserved. 6) Starting CFX-Pre (p.

review the following topics: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. . Water enters through both pipes at the same rate but at different temperatures. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • 2.gtm StaticMixer. The first entry is at a rate of 2 m/s and a temperature of 315 K and the second entry is at a rate of 2 m/s at a temperature of 285 K.1. Inc. Your goal in this tutorial is to understand how to use CFX to determine the speed and temperature of the water when it exits the static mixer. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. All rights reserved. A general workflow is established for analyzing the flow of fluid into and out of a mixer. StaticMixerMesh.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Slice Plane Streamline Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial simulates a static mixer consisting of two inlet pipes delivering water into a mixing vessel. you can immediately use CFX-Pre to define the simulation. the water exits through an outlet pipe. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.pre Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. This is how CFX-Pre will look with the imported mesh: Release 12. Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe Before You Begin Before you begin this tutorial. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Figure 2. 6 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . The radius of the mixer is 2 m. Inc. 1) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre Because you are starting with an existing mesh.

6. 8) Setting the Physics Definition (p. 10) Reviewing the Boundary Condition Definitions (p. 8) Defining Model Data (p.0 . When you double-click items in the Outline. and view objects. if you double-click the Wireframe object.© 2009 ANSYS. 10) Setting Temperature Specification (p. the details view can also be referenced by the name of the object being edited. Synopsis of Quick Setup Mode Quick Setup mode provides a simple wizard-like interface for setting up simple cases. This is useful for getting familiar with the basic elements of a CFD problem setup. 9) Defining Boundaries (p. 2. 8) Importing a Mesh (p. 10) 10. the left pane of CFX-Pre displays the Outline workspace. modify. All rights reserved. Creating the Second Inlet Boundary Definition (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 10) Release 12. 7. Creating a New Case (p. the Outline editor opens and can be used to create. followed by the word “details view” (for example.Synopsis of Quick Setup Mode In the image above. the Wireframe details view appears). Note In this documentation. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 8. Workflow Overview This tutorial follows the general workflow for Quick Setup mode: 1. 9. 9) Setting Boundary Data (p. 4. 3. 10) Setting Flow Specification (p. Inc. Inc. This section describes using Quick Setup mode to develop a simulation in CFX-Pre. 5. 7 .

Click Zoom Box Click and drag a rectangular box over the geometry. 11) 12. 1. a message box will appear notifying you that automatic generation of the default domain is active. select File > New Case. 4. Release 12. 5.gtm. 5. 1. 2. Creating the Outlet Boundary Definition (p. Inc. select CFX Mesh (*gtm *cfx). In Simulation Definition. 1. In CFX-Pre. click Browse The Import Mesh dialog box appears. 4. Setting the Physics Definition You need to specify the fluids used in a simulation. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. type: StaticMixer Click Save. which is defined to be water at 25°C. 2. 3. Moving to General Mode (p. 2. take a moment to explore how you can use the viewer toolbar to zoom in or out and to rotate the object in the viewer. 1. Under File name. To avoid seeing this message again uncheck Show This Message Again. All rights reserved.Creating a New Case 11. 12) Creating a New Case Before importing and working with a mesh. From your working directory. select StaticMixerMesh. Select File > Save Case As. Select Quick Setup and click OK.0 . The mesh loads. Importing a Mesh At least one mesh must be imported before physics are applied. Click Next. Release the mouse button to zoom in on the selection. Note If this is the first time you are running this software. a simulation needs to be started using Quick Setup mode. 8 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. under Mesh File. Using the Zoom Tools There are several icons available for controlling the level of zoom in the viewer. Under Fluid select Water. 3. Ensure that Simulation Definition is displayed at the top of the details view. . 11) 13. Inc. A variety of fluids are already defined as library materials. Click Open. 2. Water.© 2009 ANSYS. The New Case File dialog box is displayed.def) File (p. For this tutorial you will use a prepared fluid. Using the Viewer Now that the mesh is loaded. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. . 3. Under Files of type.

Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z Up). Click Rotate on the viewer toolbar.Defining Model Data The geometry zoom changes to display the selection at a greater resolution. Under Model Data. 1. Set Turbulence to k-Epsilon. The k-ε turbulence model is a commonly used model and is suitable for a wide range of applications. 4. 5. 4. 3. Click and drag within the geometry repeatedly to test the rotation of the geometry. Click Next. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Turbulence is modeled using the k-ε turbulence model and heat transfer using the thermal energy model. set Reference Pressure to 1 [atm]. 2. Rotating the Geometry If you need to rotate an object or to view it from a new angle. All other pressure settings are relative to this reference pressure. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 4. Ensure that Physics Definition is displayed. 1. Notice how the mouse cursor changes depending on where you are in the viewer: 3. 9 . Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards-X. A clearer view of the mesh is displayed. 2.0 . The geometry rotates based on the direction of movement. Defining Model Data You need to define the type of flow and the physical models to use in the fluid domain. Ensure that Boundary Definition is displayed. The thermal energy model neglects high speed energy effects and is therefore suitable for low speed flow applications.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Release 12. You will specify the flow as steady state with turbulence and heat transfer. Click Fit View to re-center and re-scale the geometry. Set Heat Transfer to Thermal Energy. you can use the viewer toolbar. 1. All rights reserved. Defining Boundaries The CFD model requires the definition of conditions on the boundaries of the domain.

1. then select Add Boundary. Here the settings are reviewed for accuracy.© 2009 ANSYS. Right-click in the blank area where Inlet and Outlet were listed.0 .1. 1. you need to create associated data. Setting Boundary Data Once boundaries are created. you know the second inlet boundary condition consists of a velocity of 2 m/s and a temperature of 285 K at one of the side inlets.1. you will define the velocity and temperature for the first inlet. Inc. Delete Inlet and Outlet from the list by right-clicking each and selecting Delete Boundary. All rights reserved. the boundary needs to have temperature assigned. Click OK. Based on Figure 2. Based on Figure 2. The boundary is created and. 1. 2. Set Location to in1. 10 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 6). Ensure that Boundary Data is displayed. 4. “Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe” (p. 2. 3. 6). 2. Set Normal Speed to 2 [m s^-1]. Setting Temperature Specification Once flow specification is defined. Ensure that Temperature Specification is displayed. 3. Set Option to Normal Speed. 5. “Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe” (p. the boundary needs to have the flow specification assigned. 1. Ensure that Flow Specification is displayed. right-click in the selector area and select Add Boundary. 2. Set Static Temperature to 315 [K]. You will define that now. Setting Flow Specification Once boundary data is defined. Under Boundary Definition. Set Name to in1.Setting Boundary Data 2. properties related to the boundary are displayed. • Review the boundary in1 settings for accuracy. Set Boundary Type to Inlet. Create a new boundary named in2 with these settings: Release 12. They should be as follows: Tab Boundary Data Setting Boundary Type Location Flow Specification Option Normal Speed Temperature Specification Static Temperature Value Inlet in1 Normal Speed 2 [m s^-1] 315 [K] Creating the Second Inlet Boundary Definition Based on Figure 2. “Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe” (p. Reviewing the Boundary Condition Definitions Defining the boundary condition for in1 required several steps. Inc. 6). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. when selected. . 3. the first inlet boundary condition consists of a velocity of 2 m/s and a temperature of 315 K at one of the side inlets.1.

Click OK. 2. Create a new boundary named out with these settings: Tab Boundary Data Setting Boundary Type Location Flow Specification Option Relative Pressure 2. 1. The time scale can be calculated automatically by the solver or set manually. Click Next. 3. Setting Solver Control Solver Control parameters control aspects of the numerical solution generation process. The three boundary conditions are displayed in the viewer as sets of arrows at the boundary surfaces. the same concepts can be applied to building the outlet boundary. convergence. • Set Operation to Enter General Mode and click Finish. Click Solver Control . Release 12.Creating the Outlet Boundary Definition Tab Boundary Data Setting Boundary Type Location Flow Specification Option Normal Speed Temperature Specification Static Temperature Value Inlet in2 Normal Speed 2 [m s^-1] 285 [K] Creating the Outlet Boundary Definition Now that the second inlet boundary has been created. leading to reliable. 11 . Value Outlet out Average Static Pressure 0 [Pa] Moving to General Mode There are no further boundary conditions that need to be set. 4. It is often possible to accelerate convergence by applying a time scale factor or by choosing a manual value that is more aggressive than the Automatic option. set Advection Scheme > Option to Upwind. you will select a physical time scale. it is also more robust.0 . Outlet boundary arrows are directed out of the domain. All 2D exterior regions that have not been assigned to a boundary condition are automatically assigned to the default boundary condition. Inc. 1. The Automatic option tends to be conservative. Inlet boundary arrows are directed into the domain. All rights reserved. This advection scheme is suitable for obtaining an initial set of results. Set Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control to Physical Timescale and set the physical timescale value to 2 [s]. On the Basic Settings tab. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. While an upwind advection scheme is less accurate than other advection schemes. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. leading to convergence that is twice as fast as the Automatic option. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In this tutorial. but often slow. but in general should not be used to obtain final accurate results.

10. Release 12.def. 6. 7. allowing you to complete (if applicable). 2. launch CFX-Pre.cfx. if desired. The CFX-Solver input file (StaticMixer.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . If you are notified the file already exists. Events in CFX-Pre can be recorded to a session file and then played back at a later date to drive CFX-Pre. Launch the CFX-Solver Manager from CFX Launcher. Select File > Quit. select File > Define Run. 1.def) is created. 12).def) File The simulation file. click Overwrite. 12). contains the simulation definition in a format that can be loaded by CFX-Pre. on the Define Run dialog box. When you are finished. Select Session > Play Tutorial. Proceed to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p.pre. 12 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. restore. and modify the simulation definition. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. All rights reserved. the Solver Input File is set. 4. Select StaticMixer. 12). Inc. Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager CFX-Solver Manager has a visual interface that displays a variety of results and should be used when plotted data needs to be viewed during problem solving.def) File Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 5. Inc.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Playing the Session File and Starting CFX-Solver Manager Note This task is required only if you are starting here with the session file that was provided in the examples directory. If you have performed all the tasks in the previous steps. 1. located in the working directory. Click Define Run Click Save. . 3. Under CFX-Solver Input File. StaticMixer. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Select StaticMixer. click Browse . This file is provided in the tutorial directory and may exist in your working directory if you have copied it there. proceed directly to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p.cfx. 6.def. 4. select File > Quit in CFX-Pre. Click Open. Two windows are displayed when CFX-Solver Manager runs. A CFX-Solver input file is written. If prompted. click Yes or Save & Quit to save StaticMixer. If required. 5. The simulation file differs from the CFX-Solver input file in that it can be saved at any time while defining the simulation. 8. Session files have been created for each tutorial so that the problems can be set up rapidly in CFX-Pre. There is an adjustable split between the windows. . 9. 2. Proceed to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. which is oriented either horizontally or vertically depending on the aspect ratio of the entire CFX-Solver Manager window (also adjustable). After the CFX-Solver starts. 7. Set File name to StaticMixer. 3.

All the text is written to the output file automatically (in this case. When CFX-Solver is finished.0 . 13 . This is a very quick way to launch into CFX-Solver without having to define settings and values. Let the process run. Note Once the second iteration appears. The text lists physical properties. Ensure that the Define Run dialog box is displayed. 2. Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. boundary conditions and various other parameters used or calculated in creating the model. 1. Move from CFX-Solver to CFD-Post Once CFX-Solver has finished. When CFX-Solver Manager is launched automatically from CFX-Pre. Inc. StaticMixer_001. 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. You do not need to alter the information in the Define Run dialog box. Click Start Run. data begins to plot. Inc.out). The panes continue to build as CFX-Solver Manager operates. select the check box next to Post-Process Results. all of the information required to perform a new serial run (on a single processor) is entered automatically. Start the Run The Define Run dialog box allows configuration of a run for processing by CFX-Solver. All rights reserved. Plotting may take a long time depending on the amount of data to process.Start the Run One window shows the convergence history plots and the other displays text output from CFX-Solver. you can use CFD-Post to review the finished results. CFX-Solver launches and a split screen appears and displays the results of the run graphically and as text.

You can use the mouse or the toolbar icons to manipulate the view. Workflow Overview This tutorial describes the following workflow for viewing results in CFD-Post: 1. Inc.0 . After a short pause. 15) Creating a Point for the Origin of the Streamline (p. All rights reserved. If using Standalone Mode. exactly as in CFX-Pre.© 2009 ANSYS. Click OK. The viewer displays an outline of the geometry and other graphic objects. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. 16) Release 12. .Viewing the Results in CFD-Post 2. 14 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 3. CFX-Solver Manager closes and CFD-Post opens. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post When CFD-Post starts. Setting the Edge Angle for a Wireframe Object (p. the viewer and Outline workspace are displayed. 2.

The edge angle determines how much of the surface mesh is visible. under Definition. 24) 16. Modifying the Animation (p. click in the Edge Angle box. under User Locations and Plots. The check boxes next to each object name in the Outline control the visibility of each object. then that edge is drawn. the entire surface mesh is drawn. 23) 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Creating the Second Keyframe (p. a setting of approximately 15° lets you view the model location without displaying an excessive amount of the surface mesh. Coloring the Slice Plane (p. do so to explore the practical uses of this feature. 19) Configuring Slice Plane Views (p. Tip While it is not necessary to change the view to set the angle. 23) 15. 8. 27) 19. 22) 12. Release 12. 7. If the edge angle is set to 0°. and select Isometric View (Z up). 25) 17. then only the most significant corner edges of the geometry are drawn. 6.© 2009 ANSYS. 28) Setting the Edge Angle for a Wireframe Object The outline of the geometry is called the wireframe or outline plot. 3. 21) 11. For this geometry. 16) Rearranging the Point (p. Viewing the Animation (p. Right-click a blank area anywhere in the viewer. 26) 18. In the Outline. You can control the amount of the surface mesh shown by editing the Wireframe object listed in the Outline tree view. This sometimes means that when you first load your results file. 4. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. double-click Wireframe. Creating a Streamline Originating from a Point (p. CFD-Post displays only some of the surface mesh.0 . Inc. An embedded slider is displayed. If the edge angle is large. All rights reserved. By default. 15 . Currently only the Wireframe and Default Legend objects have visibility turned on. Type a value of 10 [degree]. If the angle between two adjacent faces is greater than the edge angle. Adding Contours (p.Setting the Edge Angle for a Wireframe Object 3. 4. Notice that more surface mesh is displayed. Showing the Animation Dialog Box (p. the geometry outline is not displayed clearly. 2. Moving the Slice Plane (p. 20) 10. 20) Rendering Slice Planes (p. In this module you can also modify the zoom settings and view of the wireframe. 17) Configuring a Default Legend (p. Saving a Movie (p. 5. 9. select Predefined Camera from the shortcut menu. Creating the First Keyframe (p. 18) Creating a Slice Plane (p. 22) 13. In the Wireframe details view. Inc. Click Apply to update the object with the new setting. 5. 19) Defining Slice Plane Geometry (p. 1. Working with Animations (p.

-1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Less of the outline of the geometry is displayed. Type a value of 15 [degree]. Creating a Point for the Origin of the Streamline A streamline is the path that a particle of zero mass would follow through the domain. Creating a Streamline Originating from a Point Where applicable. 2.Creating a Point for the Origin of the Streamline 6. Inc. This accepts the default name. Click OK. You can also use the toolbars to create a variety of objects. Click Apply. 1. Click Apply to update the object with the new setting. 1. 3. enter the following coordinates: -1. Later modules and tutorials explore this further. streamlines can trace the flow direction forwards (downstream) and/or backwards (upstream). Inc. All rights reserved. Select Insert > Location > Point from the main menu. The point appears as a symbol in the viewer as a crosshair symbol. 9. This is a point near the first inlet. 5. Click Apply to update the object with the new setting.0 . select Insert > Streamline. Under Point. 1. Drag the embedded slider to set the Edge Angle value to approximately 45 [degree]. ensure that Method is set to XYZ. From the main menu. 16 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Under Definition.© 2009 ANSYS. 8. Release 12. . Click OK. 4. 2. 7.

6.© 2009 ANSYS. but as the fluid mixes the temperature drops. Set Mode to Variable. Tip In this module. -2. where you can use the Ctrl and Shift keys to pick multiple locators. set these coordinates: -1. All rights reserved. The streamline shows the path of a zero mass particle from Point 1.0 . Tip To create streamlines originating from more than one location. Under Point. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Set Definition > Start From to Point 1. Inc. 8.9. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Release 12. 17 . a point can be rearranged manually or by setting specific coordinates.Rearranging the Point 3. you may choose to display various views and zooms from the Predefined Camera option in the shortcut menu (such as Isometric View (Z up) or View Towards -X) and by using Zoom Box if you prefer to change the display. The temperature is initially high near the hot inlet. 1. Set Variable to Total Temperature. 5. Set Range to Local. This displays the Location Selector dialog box. 4. Click Apply. Inc. click the ellipsis icon to the right of the Start From box. 2. Rearranging the Point Once created. Click the Color tab. Properties for the selected user location are displayed. under User Locations and Plots double-click Point 1. 1. 7. In Outline.

Tip You can also click in the viewer area. 8. A way to pick objects from Viewing Mode is to hold down Ctrl + Shift while clicking on an object with the left mouse button. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 7. such bands are colored using a color that is extrapolated slightly past the range of colors shown in the legend. The color pattern on the legend's color bar is banded in accordance with the bands in the plot1. 18 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 12. In the viewer. The point is moved and the streamline redrawn. To maintain a legend definition during a CFD-Post session. The point position is updated in the details view and the streamline is redrawn at the new location. -1. Double-click Default Legend View 1. In this case. 2. 9. The Definition tab of the default legend is displayed. this module allows you the freedom to experiment with them. The default legend appears whenever a plot is created that is colored by a variable.© 2009 ANSYS. While in select mode. therefore. click Default. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -X. 1. This can happen only when a user-specified range is used for the legend. you can create a new legend by clicking Legend . based on the default legend. 6. with a minor modification to the position. Tip When editing values. The streamline color is based on temperature. drag Point 1 (appears as a yellow addition sign) to a new location within the mixer. Click Apply. you can restore the values that were present when you began editing by clicking Reset. reset these coordinates: -1. The default legend displays values for the last eligible plot that was opened in the details view. the legend shows the temperature range.Configuring a Default Legend 3. you cannot use the left mouse button to re-orient the object in the viewer. Inc. 4. The point appears at its original location. Apply the following settings 1 An exception occurs when one or more bands in a contour plot represent values beyond the legend's range. and press the space bar to toggle between Select and Viewing Mode. Click Rotate . Under Point. 5. In the viewer toolbar. All rights reserved.0 . The point moves normal in relation to the viewing direction. Configuring a Default Legend You can modify the appearance of the default legend. Because there are many settings that can be customized for the legend. 1. In the last steps you will set up a legend. To restore the factory-default values. Inc. click Select and ensure that the adjacent toolbar icon is set to Single Select . Click Apply.

1. You already have some objects defined by default (listed in the Outline). 0.1). 4. in User Locations and Plots. except that the normal is defined to be normal to the indicated plane.1. Modify a variety of settings in the Appearance and click Apply after each change. Click the Geometry tab. Select the Appearance tab. The graphic object could be an isosurface. select Insert > Location > Plane or click Location > Plane.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. clear the check boxes for Point 1 and Streamline 1. To view results within the geometry (that is. If required. Inc. expand Definition. You want the plane to lie in the x-y plane. a vector plot. type: Slice Click OK. 3. YZ Plane. 2. and XY Plane: similar to Point and Normal. You can use the following methods to define a plane: • • • 1. under Geometry. Release 12.0. a plane. 9. 7. 5. you will create new objects. the associated legend no longer appears. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Creating a Slice Plane Tab Definition Setting Title Mode Title Horizontal Location > Y Justification 3.0. hence its normal vector points along the z-axis. The appearance and position of the legend changes based on the settings specified. 8. Color. Under Normal enter 0. or in this case. 19 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. on non-default locators). but you will choose the most obvious (0. 6. Click Defaults. Click Apply. The object can be a fixed color or it can vary based on the value of a variable. Since both are no longer visible. Under Outline. 4. (Selected) Bottom Creating a Slice Plane Defining a slice plane allows you to obtain a cross-section of the geometry. 1. You can specify any vector that points in the z-direction. Under Method select Point and Normal. ZX Plane. Click Apply. 2. Value User Specified Streamline Temp. Render. In the Insert Plane window. All rights reserved. 3. Modify various settings in Definition and click Apply after each change. Under Point enter 0. You can view results on the boundaries of the static mixer by coloring each boundary object by a variable. In CFD-Post you often view results by coloring a graphic object. From the main menu. Three Points: creates a plane from three specified points. 4. The Geometry. Defining Slice Plane Geometry You need to choose the vector normal to the plane. Inc. and View tabs let you switch between settings. Point and Normal: defines a plane from one point on the plane and a normal vector to the plane.

Inc. All rights reserved. Click and drag the mouse pointer down slightly to rotate the geometry towards you. Click Apply. 1. 4.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Rotate . 2. 20 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. 1. 6. Click Zoom Box . various objects may not appear because they fall in a 2D space that cannot be seen. Select Isometric View (Z up) as described earlier. Configuring Slice Plane Views Depending on the view of the geometry. Release 12. Inc. In the details view for Slice.0 . Select Show Mesh Lines. 5. Under Show Mesh Lines change Color Mode to User Specified. Click and drag a rectangular selection over the geometry. 7. 3. The slice is now visible in the viewer. 3. 4.Configuring Slice Plane Views 5. Rotate the view to see the plane. Slice appears under User Locations and Plots. Rendering Slice Planes Render settings determine how the plane is drawn. select the Render tab. Click the current color in Line Color to change to a different color. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Clear Show Faces. Release the mouse button to zoom in on the selection. . 5.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. click the ellipsis to use the Select color dialog box. Apply the following settings to Slice Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Value Variablea Temperature (Selected) (Cleared) a You can specify the variable (in this case. Release 12. 1. Click Apply. Zoom in on the geometry to view it in greater detail. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +Z. The end points of each line segment are located where the plane intersects mesh element edges. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 7. Coloring the Slice Plane The Color panel is used to determine how the object faces are colored.Coloring the Slice Plane For a greater selection of colors. All rights reserved. The Constant mode allows you to color the plane with a fixed color. 53) (in the section Creating a Slice Plane (p. Inc. The line segments show where the slice plane intersects with mesh element faces. The image shown below can be used for comparison with Flow in a Static Mixer (Refined Mesh) (p. 21 . 60)).© 2009 ANSYS. 8. Inc. 2. where a refined mesh is used. Hot water (red) enters from one inlet and cold water (blue) from the other. Click Zoom Box .0 . 6. temperature) used to color the graphic element. 9. Click Apply.

Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up) from the shortcut menu. .© 2009 ANSYS. Click Apply. Set Point settings to 0. Adding Contours Contours connect all points of equal value for a scalar variable (for example. 5. Colored bands fill the spaces between contour lines. Temperature) and help to visualize variable values and gradients. 7. 22 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. 1. To view colors with highest accuracy.Moving the Slice Plane Moving the Slice Plane The plane can be moved to different locations. Important The colors of 3D graphics object faces are slightly altered when lighting is on. Show Contour Bands Value Slice Temperature Slice (Selected) . 1. 3. The graphic element faces are visible. 4. Inc. 3. 6. Click Rotate . go to the Render tab and.0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Release 12.0 . As you drag the mouse. Click Apply. Review the settings in Definition under Point and under Normal. 2. Click the Geometry tab. clear Lighting and click Apply. Click Single Select . 4. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up) from the shortcut menu. the viewer updates automatically. Click and drag the plane to a new location that intersects the domain. Set Name to Slice Contour. Inc. Each band is colored by the average color of its two bounding contour lines (even if the latter are not displayed). Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Locations Variable Plane Type Render 6. Turn off visibility of Slice by clearing the check box next to Slice in the Outline tree view. 5. producing a contour plot as shown. 2. Click OK. under Show Contour Bands. Note that Point updates with new settings. 8. Select Insert > Contour from the main menu or click Contour The Insert Contour dialog box is displayed. All rights reserved.

The Animation dialog box can be repositioned as required. 3. Workflow Overview This tutorial follows the general workflow for creating a keyframe animation: 1. 26) Modifying the Animation (p. Inc. 23) Creating the First Keyframe (p. 25) Viewing the Animation (p. 5.Working with Animations Note Make sure that the visibility for Slice (in the Outline tree view) is turned off. 2. 28) Showing the Animation Dialog Box The Animation dialog box is used to define keyframes and to export to a video file. Release 12. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. 6. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 24) Creating the Second Keyframe (p. 4. • Select Tools > Animation or click Animation . Showing the Animation Dialog Box (p. Working with Animations Animations build transitions between views for development of video files.0 . 27) Saving a Movie (p. 23 .© 2009 ANSYS.

. under User Locations and Plots. You need to define the first viewer state. This represents the current image displayed in the viewer. Select the Keyframe Animation toggle. and set the number of interpolated intermediate frames.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. click New . Release 12. 24 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1. a second (and final) viewer state.Creating the First Keyframe Creating the First Keyframe Keyframes are required in order to produce an animation. Inc.0 . 4. turn off the visibility of Slice Contour and turn on the visibility of Slice. A new keyframe named KeyframeNo1 is created. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In the Animation dialog box. All rights reserved. In the Outline. Inc. 3. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up).

double-click Slice. In the Outline. 4. This number is displayed in the Frames column for KeyframeNo1.0 . 25 . set Point coordinate values to (0. KeyframeNo2 is at frame 22 since you have 20 intermediate frames (frames 2 to 21) in between KeyframeNo1 and KeyframeNo2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. under User Locations and Plots.Creating the Second Keyframe Creating the Second Keyframe Define the second keyframe and the number of intermediate frames: 1. KeyframeNo1 appears at frame 1 since it defines the start of the animation.-1. click New . The Frame # column shows the frame in which each keyframe appears.© 2009 ANSYS. Release 12. KeyframeNo2 is created and represents the image displayed in the viewer. Click Apply. Inc. Select KeyframeNo1. 5. 3. 6. In the Animation dialog box.99). Inc. On the Geometry tab. The slice plane moves to the bottom of the mixer. 7. Set # of Frames (located below the list of keyframes) to 20.0. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This is the number of intermediate frames used when going from KeyframeNo1 to KeyframeNo2. 2. Press Enter.

Viewing the Animation Viewing the Animation More keyframes could be added. Release 12. Click Play the animation . 2. 1. This ensures that the animation will begin at the first keyframe. The number of frames listed beside the last keyframe is ignored. The controls previously greyed-out in the Animation dialog box are now available. but this animation has only two keyframes (which is the minimum possible). .0 . Inc. The animation plays from frame 1 to frame 22. 26 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click To Beginning . The number of intermediate frames between keyframes is listed beside the keyframe having the lowest number of the pair. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. It plays relatively slowly because the slice plane must be updated for each frame. Inc.

1. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. you will set the starting position of the plane to be at the top of the mixer.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings to Slice Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Range Min Max 7. The object properties for the slice plane are updated according to the settings in KeyFrameNo2. 6. Double-click KeyframeNo2. If you had double-clicked KeyFrameNo1. 1. Near the bottom of the mixer (where the water flows out) you can see that the temperature is quite uniform. 8. Value Variable Temperature User Specified 295 [K] 305 [K] Release 12. If this happens. Click Apply. 3. You will also modify the Range properties of the plane so that it shows the temperature variation better. Inc. Click Apply. single-click KeyframeNo2. 5. The image in the viewer replaces the one previously associated with KeyframeNo1. The new temperature range lets you view the mixing process more accurately than the global range used in the first animation.Modifying the Animation Modifying the Animation To make the plane sweep through the whole geometry. Click Set Keyframe . you can see the hot and cold water entering the mixer. Apply the following settings to Slice Tab Geometry Color Setting Point Mode Variable Range Min Max 2. the plane and viewer states would have been redefined according to the stored settings for KeyFrameNo1. As the animation is played. Click Set Keyframe to save the new settings to KeyframeNo2. and try again to select the keyframe. 9. Inc. click Undo 4. single click (do not double-click) KeyframeNo1 to select it. 0. All rights reserved. Value 0.© 2009 ANSYS. 27 . In the Animation dialog box. In the Animation dialog box. The slice plane moves to the top of the static mixer.99 Variable Temperature User Specified 295 [K] 305 [K] Note Do not double-click in the next step.

Under File name type: StaticMixer. every other cycle is played in reverse order. . Click More Animation Options to view the additional options. Select the check box next to Save Movie. 28 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click the Options button at the bottom of the Animation dialog box.Saving a Movie Saving a Movie 1. select File > Quit to exit CFD-Post. starting with the second. 14.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . Click Browse next to Save Movie. the animation repeats itself the number of times defined by Repeat. The Loop and Bounce radio buttons determine what happens when the animation reaches the last keyframe. 2. but the animation has not yet been produced.mpg If required. 5. The animation you produced contains a total of 22 frames. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Quit if prompted to save. The animation plays and builds an MPEG file. you can see that a Frame Rate of 24 frames per second was used to create the animation. 9. Click Play the animation 10. 3. Review the animation in third-party software as required. 13. Inc. When Bounce is selected. 2. exit the current window: 1. Release 12. 8. Click To Beginning . 12. The movie file name (including path) has been set. Inc. 4. All rights reserved. Quitting CFD-Post When finished with CFD-Post. If prompted to overwrite an existing movie click Overwrite. Set Format to MPEG1. In Advanced. When you are finished. Close the Animation dialog box. set the path location to a different directory. 7. 6. so it takes just under 1 second to play in a media player. When Loop is selected. 11. . Click Cancel to close the dialog box. Click Save.

the water exits through an outlet pipe. Modifying the outline plot in CFD-Post. Inc. Using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager to obtain a solution. see ANSYS CFX in ANSYS Workbench (p. Simulating Flow in a Static Mixer Using Workbench This tutorial simulates a static mixer consisting of two inlet pipes delivering water into a mixing vessel.Chapter 3. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details Quick Setup Wizard Steady State General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic Timestep CFD-Post Animation Physical Time Scale Keyframe Component CFX-Pre Release 12. 43) in ANSYS CFX Introduction. Inc. Using Quick Setup mode in CFX-Pre to set up a problem. 29) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p.0 . 30) Starting ANSYS Workbench (p. 35) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. 31) Obtaining a Solution (p. All rights reserved. 30) Starting CFX-Pre from ANSYS Workbench (p. 29 . 37) For introductory information about ANSYS Workbench. A general workflow is established for analyzing the flow of fluid into and out of a mixer using ANSYS Workbench. Viewing temperature using colored planes and contours in CFD-Post. Using streamlines in CFD-Post to trace the flow field from a point. This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 30) Before You Begin (p.© 2009 ANSYS. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Creating an animation and saving it as a movie file. Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • • Using ANSYS Workbench to set up a project.

2.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Plots Details Contour Outline Plot (Wireframe) Point Slice Plane Streamline Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial simulates a static mixer consisting of two inlet pipes delivering water into a mixing vessel. A CFX system opens in the Project Schematic.© 2009 ANSYS. Starting ANSYS Workbench 1. In Microsoft Windows. open Component Systems and double-click CFX. The radius of the mixer is 2 m.0 . the water exits through an outlet pipe. Water enters through both pipes at the same rate but at different temperatures. A general workflow is established for analyzing the flow of fluid into and out of a mixer. . 30 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The directory you create will be referred to as the working directory. 2. Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe Before You Begin It is important to do the following before beginning the tutorial: 1.0 > Workbench. Copy StaticMixerMesh.1. Figure 3. Use your operating system's tools to create a directory for your project's files. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The first entry is at a rate of 2 m/s and a temperature of 315 K and the second entry is at a rate of 2 m/s at a temperature of 285 K. Start ANSYS Workbench. Inc. Inc.gtm from the <CFXROOT>/examples directory to the working directory. Release 12. from the Start menu select All Programs > ANSYS 12. where <CFXROOT> is the installation directory for ANSYS CFX. In the Toolbox pane. Your goal in this tutorial is to understand how to use CFX in Workbench to determine the speed and temperature of the water when it exits the static mixer. All rights reserved.

Click OK. 4. change the background color of the viewer in CFX-Pre for improved viewing: a. CFX-Pre opens. 2. 3. Release 12. Right-click on the blue CFX cell (A1) and select Rename. All rights reserved. enable View > Files and View > Progress so that you can see the files that are written and the time remaining to complete operations. c. browse to the working directory. Starting CFX-Pre from ANSYS Workbench Because you are starting with an existing mesh. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If you wanted to create the geometry and mesh. In the Workbench Project Schematic. Change the name of the system to Static Mixer. The Options dialog box appears. 3. 31 . In ANSYS Workbench. give the File name as StaticMixer. you could set the Background > Color Type to Solid and the Color to white. and click Save.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc.0 . For example. Select Edit > Options. b. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Starting CFX-Pre from ANSYS Workbench Note You use a CFX component system because you are starting with a mesh. Inc. double-click the Setup cell of the CFX component system. click Save As . Optionally. To launch CFX-Pre: 1. Adjust the color settings under CFX-Pre > Graphics Style. you would start with a Fluid Flow (CFX) analysis system. In the dialog that appears. you can immediately use CFX-Pre to define the simulation. From the tool bar.

3. Set Name to in1. All rights reserved. 1. This is a fluid already defined in the library of materials as water at 25°C. which enables you to apply physics. click Browse . Click Next. Inc. “Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe” (p. k-Epsilon. 2. 5. 1. In CFX-Pre. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.gtm and click Open. Set Location to in1. In the Boundary Definition for in1. The Quick Setup Wizard opens. 3. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. you need to create associated data. Leave Turbulence at its default setting. Turbulence is modeled using the k-ε turbulence model and heat transfer using the thermal energy model. Delete Inlet and Outlet from the list by right-clicking each and selecting Delete Boundary. select StaticMixerMesh. then select Add Boundary. The boundary is created and. 4.Creating the Simulation Definition Creating the Simulation Definition Before importing and working with the mesh. 2. when selected. 4. Set the Flow Specification Option to Normal Speed and set Normal Speed to: 2 [m s^-1] Set the Temperature Specification Static Temperature to 315 [K] (note the units). Setting Boundary Data Once boundaries are created. Set Heat Transfer to Thermal Energy. .© 2009 ANSYS. Quick Setup mode provides a simple wizard-like interface for setting up simple cases. Under Working Fluid select Water. in this example.1. Click OK. Release 12. Based on Figure 3. you will use Quick Setup mode.0 . The thermal energy model neglects high speed energy effects and is therefore suitable for low speed flow applications. 2. This is useful for getting familiar with the basic elements of a CFD problem setup. 3. 4. note that the Reference Pressure is set to 1 [atm]. Right-click in the blank area where Inlet and Outlet were listed. set Boundary Type to Inlet. 1. All other pressure settings are relative to this reference pressure. 4. Defining Boundaries The CFD model requires the definition of conditions on the boundaries of the domain. enabling you to define this single-phase simulation. 2. The mesh loads. The k-ε turbulence model is a commonly used model and is suitable for a wide range of applications. you will define the velocity and temperature for the first inlet. properties related to the boundary are displayed. Click Next. Under Mesh File. you need to create a simulation. Inc. 3. 30). 1. Setting the Physics Definition You need to define the type of flow and the physical models to use in the fluid domain. 32 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. From your working directory. select Tools > Quick Setup Mode. Under Model Data. The flow is steady state and you will specify the turbulence and heat transfer.

1. Value Outlet out Average Static Pressure 0 [Pa] Moving to General Mode There are no further boundary conditions that need to be set. 2. Create a new boundary named out with these settings: Tab Boundary Data Setting Boundary Type Location Flow Specification Option Relative Pressure 2. 1. Under Boundary Definition.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. 33 . you know the second inlet boundary condition consists of a velocity of 2 m/s and a temperature of 285 K at one of the side inlets. right-click in the selector area and select Add Boundary.Creating the Second Inlet Boundary Definition Creating the Second Inlet Boundary Definition Based on Figure 3. All rights reserved. Click Zoom Box Release 12. 2. You will define that now. All 2D exterior regions that have not been assigned to a boundary condition are automatically assigned to the default boundary condition. the same concepts can be applied to building the outlet boundary. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 30). Using the Zoom Tools There are several icons available for controlling the level of zoom in the viewer. take a moment to explore how you can use the viewer toolbar to zoom in or out and to rotate the object in the viewer. The three boundary conditions are displayed in the viewer as sets of arrows at the boundary surfaces. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. Using the Viewer Now that the simulation is loaded. 1. “Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe” (p. Outlet boundary arrows are directed out of the domain. Set Operation to Enter General Mode. Inc. Click Next. Inlet boundary arrows are directed into the domain. Click Finish. Create a new boundary named in2 with these settings: Tab Boundary Data Setting Boundary Type Location Flow Specification Option Normal Speed Temperature Specification Static Temperature Value Inlet in2 Normal Speed 2 [m s^-1] 285 [K] Creating the Outlet Boundary Definition Now that the second inlet boundary has been created.0 . 1.

Click and drag a rectangular box over the geometry. The Automatic option tends to be conservative. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards-X. but often slow. It is often possible to accelerate convergence by applying a time scale factor or by choosing a manual value that is more aggressive than the Automatic option. Set Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control to Physical Timescale and set the physical timescale value to 2 [s]. but in general should not be used to obtain final accurate results. Setting Solver Control Solver Control parameters control aspects of the numerical solution generation process. Release 12. On the Basic Settings tab. While an upwind advection scheme is less accurate than other advection schemes. All rights reserved. you can use the viewer toolbar. it is also more robust. leading to convergence that is twice as fast as the Automatic option. The geometry zoom changes to display the selection at a greater resolution. click Solver Control . you will select a physical time scale. In this tutorial. Rotating the Geometry If you need to rotate an object or to view it from a new angle. 3. Notice how the mouse cursor changes depending on where you are in the viewer: 3. leading to reliable.0 . 3. A clearer view of the mesh is displayed. set Advection Scheme > Option to Upwind. 2. The geometry rotates based on the direction of movement.© 2009 ANSYS. 1. 4. In the CFX-Pre tool bar. convergence. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z Up). Click Fit View to re-center and re-scale the geometry. Release the mouse button to zoom in on the selection. The time scale can be calculated automatically by the solver or set manually. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 4. 2. Click OK.Setting Solver Control 2. This advection scheme is suitable for obtaining an initial set of results. 4. Click Rotate on the viewer toolbar. Inc. . 1. 34 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Click and drag within the geometry repeatedly to test the rotation of the geometry.

Release 12. The Define Run dialog box enables configuration of a run for processing by CFX-Solver. In this case. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. refresh the project: 1. The panes continue to build as CFX-Solver Manager operates. right-click on the Solution cell and select Update. 2. In ANSYS Workbench. Click Start Run. you need to launch the CFX-Solver Manager and subsequently use it to start the solver: 1. Obtaining a Solution To obtain a solution. all of the information required to perform a new serial run (on a single processor) is entered automatically. Double-click on the ANSYS Workbench Solution cell. The text lists physical properties. enable View > Files and View > Progress so you can see the files that are written and the time remaining to complete the refresh. One window shows the convergence history plots and the other displays text output from CFX-Solver. StaticMixer_001. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3.Refresh the Project Refresh the Project Now that the simulation setup is complete. If the Solution cell displays a prompt to perform an update. CFX-Solver launches and a split screen appears and displays the results of the run graphically and as text.out). All the text is written to the output file automatically (in this case. 35 . You do not need to alter the information in the Define Run dialog box. and various other parameters used or calculated in creating the model. Inc. Inc. 2. Right-click on the Solution cell and select Refresh. All rights reserved. boundary conditions. The CFX-Solver Manager appears with the Define Run dialog box displayed.

you can use CFD-Post to review the finished results: Release 12. Display the Results in CFD-Post Once CFX-Solver has finished. data begins to plot. Plotting may take a long time depending on the amount of data to process.0 . Inc. 36 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. . All rights reserved.Display the Results in CFD-Post Note Once the second iteration appears.© 2009 ANSYS. Let the process run. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Optionally. Inc. When CFX-Solver is finished. In ANSYS Workbench. change the background color of the viewer improved viewing: 1. All rights reserved. CFD-Post appears. 3. You can use the mouse or the toolbar icons to manipulate the view. a message is displayed and the final line in the . Setting the Edge Angle for a Wireframe Object (p. 2. The viewer displays an outline of the geometry and other graphic objects. 39) Creating a Streamline Originating from a Point (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. The Options dialog box appears.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post 1.0 . Adjust the color settings under CFD-Post > Viewer. 2. 38) Creating a Point for the Origin of the Streamline (p. double-click on the Results cell. When the refresh is complete. Click OK. 40) Release 12. Inc. select Edit > Options. exactly as in CFX-Pre. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post When CFD-Post starts. In CFD-Post. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. the viewer and Outline workspace are displayed. you could set the Background > Color Type to Solid and the Color to white.out file (which you can see in the CFX-Solver Manager) is: This run of the ANSYS CFX Solver has finished. For example. right-click on the Results cell and select Refresh. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Workflow Overview This tutorial describes the following workflow for viewing results in CFD-Post: 1. 37 . 3.

then that edge is drawn. 7. This sometimes means that when you first load your results file. 5. In the Wireframe details view. Right-click a blank area anywhere in the viewer. The edge angle determines how much of the surface mesh is visible. 43) Rendering Slice Planes (p. Type a value of 10 [degree]. 6.Setting the Edge Angle for a Wireframe Object 4. In the Outline. and select Isometric View (Z up). 46) Setting the Edge Angle for a Wireframe Object The outline of the geometry is called the wireframe or outline plot. 40) Configuring a Default Legend (p. Tip While it is not necessary to change the view to set the edge angle for the wireframe. All rights reserved. 5. If the edge angle is large. Notice that more surface mesh is displayed. under User Locations and Plots. then only the most significant corner edges of the geometry are drawn. 8. The check boxes next to each object name in the Outline tree view control the visibility of each object. . the entire surface mesh is drawn. 44) 10. 9. Rearranging the Point (p. 45) 12. 38 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 44) 11. Inc. click in the Edge Angle box. You can control the amount of the surface mesh shown by editing the Wireframe object listed in the Outline.© 2009 ANSYS. 45) 13. Click Apply to update the object with the new setting. Moving the Slice Plane (p. An embedded slider is displayed. Inc. For this geometry. CFD-Post displays only some of the surface mesh. Adding Contours (p. Working with Animations (p. 2. Coloring the Slice Plane (p. under Definition. If the angle between two adjacent faces is greater than the edge angle. Release 12. 42) Defining Slice Plane Geometry (p. Currently only the Wireframe and Default Legend objects have visibility turned on. 1. 3. 4. In this module you can also modify the zoom settings and view of the wireframe. a setting of approximately 15° lets you view the model location without displaying an excessive amount of the surface mesh. select Predefined Camera from the shortcut menu. double-click Wireframe. the geometry outline is not displayed clearly. 43) Configuring Slice Plane Views (p. 41) Creating a Slice Plane (p. By default.0 . doing so enables you to explore the practical uses of this feature. If the edge angle is set to 0°.

Creating a Point for the Origin of the Streamline 6. -1. 7. Drag the embedded slider to set the Edge Angle value to approximately 45 [degree]. Creating a Point for the Origin of the Streamline A streamline is the path that a particle of zero mass would follow through the domain. 9. Click Apply to update the object with the new setting. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Less of the outline of the geometry is displayed. Select Insert > Location > Point from the main menu. Inc. enter the following coordinates: -1. You can also use the toolbars to create a variety of objects. This accepts the default name. Later modules and tutorials will explore this further. Click Apply to update the object with the new setting. 8. 4. Set Definition > Method to XYZ. All rights reserved.0 . 1. 39 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The point appears as a symbol in the viewer as a crosshair symbol. 5. Release 12. Type a value of 15 [degree]. Under Point. Click OK. 2. Inc. This is a point near the first inlet.© 2009 ANSYS. 3. 1. Click Apply.

The streamline shows the path of a zero mass particle from Point 1. 4. Set Variable to Total Temperature.Creating a Streamline Originating from a Point Creating a Streamline Originating from a Point Where applicable. From the main menu. Tip To create streamlines originating from more than one location. Click the Color tab. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . 7. Inc. The temperature is initially high near the hot inlet. click the ellipsis icon to the right of the Start From box. Release 12.0 . Click Apply. select Insert > Streamline. This displays the Location Selector dialog box. 3. 2. streamlines can trace the flow direction forwards (downstream) and/or backwards (upstream). Rearranging the Point Once created. Click OK. Set Range to Local.© 2009 ANSYS. 40 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. a point can be rearranged manually or by setting specific coordinates. 8. where you can use the Ctrl and Shift keys to pick multiple locators. 1. 6. but as the fluid mixes the temperature drops. Inc. 5. Set Mode to Variable. Set Definition > Start From to Point 1. All rights reserved.

8. Properties for the selected user location are displayed. In the viewer. The point moves normal in relation to the viewing direction. you may choose to display various views and zooms from the Predefined Camera option in the shortcut menu (such as Isometric View (Z up) or View Towards -X) and by using Zoom Box if you prefer to change the display. This can happen only when a user-specified range is used for the legend. Under Point.9. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. 41 .0 . While in select mode. To maintain a legend definition during a CFD-Post session. Configuring a Default Legend You can modify the appearance of the default legend. The streamline color is based on temperature. 5. 1 An exception occurs when one or more bands in a contour plot represent values beyond the legend's range.Configuring a Default Legend Tip In this module. In the viewer toolbar. Under Point. The color pattern on the legend's color bar is banded in accordance with the bands in the plot1. The point position is updated in the details view and the streamline is redrawn at the new location. and press the space bar to toggle between Select and Viewing Mode. A way to pick objects from Viewing Mode is to hold down Ctrl + Shift while clicking on an object with the left mouse button. such bands are colored using a color that is extrapolated slightly past the range of colors shown in the legend. the legend shows the temperature range. The point is moved and the streamline redrawn. -1. 1. 2. 4. drag Point 1 (appears as a yellow addition sign) to a new location within the mixer. 1. 6. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -X. Click Apply. Click Rotate . Inc. Inc. The point appears at its original location. set these coordinates: -1. reset these coordinates: -1. 1.© 2009 ANSYS. -2. 7. Tip You can also click in the viewer area. In Outline. 3. Click Apply. Release 12. The default legend appears whenever a plot is created that is colored by a variable. In this case. click Select and ensure that the adjacent toolbar icon is set to Single Select . you can create a new legend by clicking Legend . The default legend displays values for the last eligible plot that was opened in the details view. therefore. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. under User Locations and Plots double-click Point 1. 9. you cannot use the left mouse button to re-orient the object in the viewer.

a plane. on non-default locators). Since both are no longer visible. Apply the following settings Tab Definition Setting Title Mode Title Horizontal Location > Y Justification 3. based on the default legend. Three Points: creates a plane from three specified points. The appearance and position of the legend changes based on the settings specified. In the Insert Plane window. a vector plot. 7. Click Defaults. To restore the factory-default values. Click Apply. You already have some objects defined by default (listed in the Outline). with a minor modification to the position. The object can be a fixed color or it can vary based on the value of a variable. Inc. 5. click Default. 9. ZX Plane. You can use the following methods to define a plane: • • • 1. this module allows you the freedom to experiment with them. 2.0 . you can restore the values that were present when you began editing by clicking Reset. In CFD-Post you often view results by coloring a graphic object. 6. Modify various settings in Definition and click Apply after each change. (Selected) Bottom Creating a Slice Plane Defining a slice plane allows you to obtain a cross-section of the geometry.Creating a Slice Plane Because there are many settings that can be customized for the legend. and XY Plane: similar to Point and Normal. From the main menu. type: Slice Click OK. In the last steps you will set up a legend. except that the normal is defined to be normal to the indicated plane. 8. To view results within the geometry (that is. or in this case. The Definition tab of the default legend is displayed. You can view results on the boundaries of the static mixer by coloring each boundary object by a variable. . All rights reserved. Double-click Default Legend View 1. select Insert > Location > Plane or click Location > Plane. Under Outline. 4.© 2009 ANSYS. Modify a variety of settings in the Appearance and click Apply after each change. YZ Plane. The graphic object could be an isosurface. Inc. Tip When editing values. Click Apply. clear the check boxes for Point 1 and Streamline 1. Select Appearance. 1. Value User Specified Streamline Temp. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. in User Locations and Plots. 42 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. you will create new objects. Point and Normal: defines a plane from one point on the plane and a normal vector to the plane. 3. 2. the associated legend no longer appears. Release 12.

1.Defining Slice Plane Geometry The details view for the plane appears.1). Click Zoom Box . but you will choose the most obvious (0. You can specify any vector that points in the z-direction. All rights reserved. 2. Rotate the view to see the plane. expand Definition. 5. Configuring Slice Plane Views Depending on the view of the geometry.0. and View tabs let you configure the characteristics of the plane. Slice appears under User Locations and Plots.0 . On the Geometry tab. Release 12. Under Point enter 0.1. Click Apply. Defining Slice Plane Geometry You need to choose the vector normal to the plane. 4. 2. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0. You want the plane to lie in the x-y plane. Under Normal enter 0. 1. 3. 1. Under Method select Point and Normal.© 2009 ANSYS. 43 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Render.0. Inc. Inc. various objects may not appear because they fall in a 2D space that cannot be seen. hence its normal vector points along the z-axis. The slice is now visible in the viewer. Color. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). the Geometry.

60)). Select Isometric View (Z up) as described earlier. 6. Click the current color in Line Color to change to a different color. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +Z. The image shown below can be used for comparison with Flow in a Static Mixer (Refined Mesh) (p. 8. Click Zoom Box . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 44 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 7. 9. 53) (in the section Creating a Slice Plane (p. Click and drag a rectangular selection over the geometry.Rendering Slice Planes 3. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. Clear Show Faces. Inc. The line segments show where the slice plane intersects with mesh element faces. The end points of each line segment are located where the plane intersects mesh element edges. 4. Rendering Slice Planes Render settings determine how the plane is drawn. Under Show Mesh Lines change Color Mode to User Specified. where a refined mesh is used. 1. Zoom in on the geometry to view it in greater detail. Select Show Mesh Lines. All rights reserved. For a greater selection of colors. Release 12. 5. Coloring the Slice Plane The Color panel is used to determine how the object faces are colored. 7. . select the Render tab. 4. Click Apply. In the details view for Slice. 2.0 . Click and drag the mouse pointer down slightly to rotate the geometry towards you. 3. Release the mouse button to zoom in on the selection. click the ellipsis to use the Color selector dialog box. 6. Click Rotate . 5.

Click OK. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up) from the shortcut menu. Click Rotate . 2. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up) from the shortcut menu. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Locations Variable Release 12. 8.© 2009 ANSYS. 5.0. Adding Contours Contours connect all points of equal value for a scalar variable (for example. 7. Moving the Slice Plane You can move the plane to different locations: 1. Select Insert > Contour from the main menu or click Contour The Insert Contour dialog box is displayed. 3. Temperature) and help to visualize variable values and gradients. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3. Note that Point updates with new settings. 2. 5. 4. Click Single Select . 45 Value Slice Temperature .0 . 1. Review the settings in Definition under Point and under Normal. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings to Slice Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Value Variablea Temperature (Selected) (Cleared) a You can specify the variable (in this case. Set Name to Slice Contour. Click Apply. Type in Point settings of 0. 4. Turn off the visibility for Slice by clearing the check box next to Slice in the Outline tree view. 2. Each band is colored by the average color of its two bounding contour lines (even if the latter are not displayed). 6. Click and drag the plane to a new location that intersects the domain.1. the viewer updates automatically. Colored bands fill the spaces between contour lines. temperature) used to color the graphic element. Hot water (red) enters from one inlet and cold water (blue) from the other.Moving the Slice Plane 1. The Constant mode allows you to color the plane with a fixed color. . All rights reserved. As you drag the mouse. Inc. Click Apply. Click the Geometry tab. Inc.

46 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Setting Show Contour Lines Value (Selected) Important The colors of 3D graphics object faces are slightly altered when lighting is on. under Show Faces. Click Apply. The graphic element faces are visible.Working with Animations Tab Render 6. producing a contour plot as shown. All rights reserved. Inc. go to the Render tab and. 47) Creating the First Keyframe (p. 47) Release 12.0 . Inc. 2. Note Make sure that the visibility of Slice (in the Outline tree view) is turned off. Showing the Animation Dialog Box (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Working with Animations Animations build transitions between views for development of video files. To view colors with highest accuracy.© 2009 ANSYS. Workflow Overview This tutorial follows the general workflow for creating a keyframe animation: 1. clear Lighting and click Apply.

Inc. Release 12. 2. In the Animation dialog box. All rights reserved. under User Locations and Plots. In the Outline. 50) Saving a Movie (p. 3. and set the number of interpolated intermediate frames.© 2009 ANSYS. 6. 5. A new keyframe named KeyframeNo1 is created. 4. turn off the visibility of Slice Contour and turn on the visibility of Slice.Showing the Animation Dialog Box 3. 49) Modifying the Animation (p. 47 . This represents the current image displayed in the viewer. a second (and final) viewer state. 48) Viewing the Animation (p. 2. You need to define the first viewer state.0 . 1. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). Creating the Second Keyframe (p. click New . Select Tools > Animation or click Animation Select Keyframe Animation. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Creating the First Keyframe Keyframes are required in order to produce a keyframe animation. 1. 51) Showing the Animation Dialog Box The Animation dialog box is used to define keyframes and to export to a video file.

5.-1.Creating the Second Keyframe Creating the Second Keyframe Define the second keyframe and the number of intermediate frames: 1. Click Apply. double-click Slice.99).0. under User Locations and Plots. 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. KeyframeNo2 is created and represents the image displayed in the viewer. click New .0 . Release 12. Inc. set Point coordinate values to (0. All rights reserved. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. 4. In the Outline. On the Geometry tab. Select KeyframeNo1 so that you can set the number of frames to be interpolated between the two keyframes. The slice plane moves to the bottom of the mixer. Inc. In the Animation dialog box. . 48 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

This is the number of intermediate frames used when going from KeyframeNo1 to KeyframeNo2. KeyframeNo1 appears at frame 1 since it defines the start of the animation. but this animation has only two keyframes (which is the minimum possible).0 .Viewing the Animation 6. Set # of Frames (located below the list of keyframes) to 20. Press Enter. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This number is displayed in the Frames column for KeyframeNo1. 7. Viewing the Animation More keyframes could be added. Inc. Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. KeyframeNo2 is at frame 22 since you have 20 intermediate frames (frames 2 to 21) in between KeyframeNo1 and KeyframeNo2. 49 .© 2009 ANSYS. The Frame # column shows the frame in which each keyframe appears. All rights reserved.

© 2009 ANSYS. Apply the following settings to Slice Tab Geometry Color Setting Point Mode Variable Range Min Max 2. Inc. If this happens. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1. The number of frames listed beside the last keyframe is ignored. 3. click Undo 4. Inc. 2. . Value 0. It plays relatively slowly because the slice plane must be updated for each frame. You will also modify the Range properties of the plane so that it shows the temperature variation better. and try again to select the keyframe. 0. Click Apply. Click To Beginning . The animation plays from frame 1 to frame 22. In the Animation dialog box. 6. The new temperature range lets you view the mixing process more accurately than the global range used in the first animation. single click (do not double-click) KeyframeNo1 to select it. The object properties for the slice plane are updated according to the settings in KeyFrameNo2. As the animation is played. Click Set Keyframe . the plane and viewer states would have been redefined according to the stored settings for KeyFrameNo1. 1. The number of intermediate frames between keyframes is listed beside the keyframe having the lowest number of the pair. 1. Near the bottom of the mixer (where the water flows out) you can see that the temperature is quite uniform. Apply the following settings to Slice Tab Color Setting Mode Value Variable Release 12. The image in the viewer replaces the one previously associated with KeyframeNo1. you can see the hot and cold water entering the mixer.Modifying the Animation The controls previously greyed-out in the Animation dialog box are now available. 50 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.99 Variable Temperature User Specified 295 [K] 305 [K] Note Do not double-click in the next step. If you had double-clicked KeyFrameNo1. Double-click KeyframeNo2. The slice plane moves to the top of the static mixer. All rights reserved.0 . you will set the starting position of the plane to be at the top of the mixer. 5. Click Play the animation . Modifying the Animation To make the plane sweep through the whole geometry. This ensures that the animation will begin at the first keyframe.

so it takes just under 1 second to play in a media player. StaticMixer. 51 . starting with the second. and Design Point files). View the animation using a media player. If prompted to overwrite an existing movie click Overwrite. . you can see that a Frame Rate of 24 frames per second was used to create the animation. All rights reserved. Click Play the animation 10. take a moment to look at the files listed in the Files view. CFX-Pre Case. In Advanced. 9. Click Apply. The Loop and Bounce radio buttons determine what happens when the animation reaches the last keyframe. CFX-Solver Results. Click Set Keyframe to save the new settings to KeyframeNo2.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.wbpj. every other cycle is played in reverse order. Click To Beginning . Release 12. Inc. Click More Animation Options to view the additional options. 7. Closing the Applications Before you close the project. Click Save. the animation repeats itself the number of times defined by Repeat. Click Browse next to Save Movie. 4. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The animation plays and builds an MPEG file. You may want to set the directory to your working directory so that the animation will be in the same location as the project files. When Bounce is selected. ANSYS Workbench prompts you to save all of your project files. CFX-Solver Output.© 2009 ANSYS. Select Save Movie. set the path location to a different directory.mpg If required. 14. Value Temperature User Specified 295 [K] 305 [K] Saving a Movie 1. 11. CFD-Post State. 6.Saving a Movie Tab Setting Variable Range Min Max 7. In the Animation dialog box. When Loop is selected. single-click KeyframeNo2. 2. The animation you produced contains a total of 22 frames. Inc. The movie file name (including path) has been set. You will see the project file. Set Format to MPEG1. Close ANSYS Workbench (and the applications it launched) by selecting File > Exit from ANSYS Workbench. ANSYS Workbench will not store the file as part of the project. 8. 9. Any files that you added to that part of the file system (such as the movie file) will not be listed. however. but the animation has not yet been produced. Click Cancel to close the dialog box. 12. 13. Close the Animation dialog box. Under File name type: StaticMixer. and the files that ANSYS Workbench created (CFX-Solver Input. 3. Click the Options button at the bottom of the Animation dialog box. 5. 8.

All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. . Inc.Release 12.0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Slice Plane Sphere Volume Other Viewing the Mesh Component CFX-Pre Overview of the Problem to Solve In this tutorial. you use a refined mesh to obtain a better solution to the Static Mixer problem created in Simulating Flow in a Static Mixer Using CFX in Standalone Mode (p. Flow in a Static Mixer (Refined Mesh) This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 53) Before You Begin (p. 53) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 54) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 53 . 60) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • Using the General Mode of CFX-Pre (this mode is used for more complex cases). 5). Rerunning a problem with a refined mesh. Using the Report Viewer to analyze mesh quality. Inc. Importing CCL to copy the definition of a different simulation into the current simulation. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 58) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. 54) Defining a Simulation using General Mode in CFX-Pre (p. 54) Obtaining a Solution with CFX-Solver (p. Viewing the mesh with a Sphere Volume locator and a Surface Plot.Chapter 4. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS. You establish a general workflow for analyzing Release 12.0 . Inc. All rights reserved.

This tutorial uses a specific problem to teach the general approach taken when working with an existing mesh. 5. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 54 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 4. StaticMixerRefMesh. The physics for this tutorial are the same as for Simulating Flow in a Static Mixer Using CFX in Standalone Mode (p. All rights reserved. 57). 6. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p.pre StaticMixer. Inc. 55) Importing CCL (p. 3. 56) Defining Solver Parameters (p.Before You Begin the flow of fluid into and out of a mixer. This tutorial introduces General Mode-the mode used for most tutorials-in CFX-Pre. Release 12. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1.def StaticMixer_001. 1) Defining a Simulation using General Mode in CFX-Pre After having completed meshing. Creating a New Case Before importing and working with a mesh. therefore.res Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. Inc. you can set up the simulation automatically by following the procedures in Playing the Session File and Starting CFX-Solver Manager (p. 54) Importing a Mesh (p.© 2009 ANSYS. a simulation needs to be developed using General mode. 5). 2. 54). 55) Viewing Domain Settings (p. 56) Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. you can import the physics settings used in that tutorial to save time.gtm StaticMixerRef. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • • 2. You start a new simulation in CFX-Pre and import the refined mesh. . 7. CFX-Pre is used as a consistent and intuitive interface for the definition of complex CFD problems. Creating a New Case (p. 57) As an alternative to these steps.def) File (p. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. 56) Viewing the Boundary Condition Setting (p. Workflow Overview This section provides a brief summary of the topics so that you can see the workflow: 1. To begin this tutorial and create a new simulation in CFX-Pre. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. continue from Creating a New Case (p. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 .

Select the Outline tab. However.res) CFX-Solver input files(*. you will get errors. Select File > Save Case As. Each assembly can contain only one mesh.gtm from your working directory. 3. 3. All rights reserved. Click Open. 1. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up) from the shortcut menu. Under File name. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The CCL contains settings that reference mesh regions. 2. Select General in the New Case dialog box and click OK. Select StaticMixer. you can copy this file from the examples directory. but multiple assemblies are permitted.cfx) Results files (*. Importing a Mesh At least one mesh must be imported before physics are applied.Importing a Mesh Procedure in Standalone 1. 55). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Select File > Import > Mesh or right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. Under File type. a number of other files can also be used as sources to import CCL including: • • • Simulation files (*. Inc. An assembly is a group of mesh regions that are topologically connected. 5. 6. 3. 55 . The Mesh tree shows the regions in Assembly in a tree structure.def) Note If you import CCL that references non-existent mesh regions. Release 12. The physics for a simulation can be saved to a CCL (CFX Command Language) file at any time by selecting File > Export > CCL. The Import CCL dialog box appears. select CFX-Solver Files (*def *res). 2. Click Open. the outlet boundary condition references the mesh region named out. 4. select StaticMixerRefMesh. select Replace. you can click these to toggle visibility. In the Import Mesh dialog box. Under Import Method. Importing CCL Since the physics for this simulation is very similar to that for Tutorial 1. Proceed to Importing a Mesh (p. the name of the mesh regions are the same as in Tutorial 1. If you did not work through Tutorial 1. you can save time by importing the settings used there. type StaticMixerRef and click Save. 2. select File > New Case. Select File > Import > CCL. The check box next to each item in the Mesh tree indicates the visibility status of the object in the viewer. The level below Assembly displays 3D regions and the level below each 3D region shows the 2D regions associated with it. 4. For example. This is a mesh that is more refined than the one used in Tutorial 1. so you can import the CCL without error. In this tutorial. In CFX-Pre. 4. Inc.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. 1. Replace is useful if you have defined physics and want to update or replace them with newly imported physics. 5.def created in Tutorial 1.

In Tutorial 1 you set some solver control parameters. • Fluid Models Sets models that apply to the fluid(s) in the domain. 5. but do not change. • Initialization Sets the initial conditions for the current domain only.0 . double-click Default Domain. This is a sensible setting if you do not know the turbulence properties of the incoming flow. 1. double-click in1. but can also be used to initialize single-domain simulations. the current settings. buoyancy and whether the domain is stationary or rotating. These include: • Basic Settings Specifies the location of the domain. the current settings. This is more accurate than the Upwind Scheme used in Tutorial 1. Inc. An option absent in Tutorial 1 is Turbulent Wall Functions. the current settings. Click Close. High Resolution is used for the advection scheme. For the k-epsilon turbulence model. Viewing the Boundary Condition Setting For the k-epsilon turbulence model. Various domain settings can be set. under Simulation > Flow Analysis 1. the default setting of Medium (Intensity = 5%) is used. but do not change. turbulence. All rights reserved. 2. which is set to Scalable. and radiation models. Click Fluid Models and review. On the Outline tree view. Wall functions model the flow in the near-wall region. while other parameters were set automatically by CFX-Pre. such as Advection Scheme and Timescale Control. 4. Click Close. In this tutorial. Click the Basic Settings tab and review. 56 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This is generally used when multiple domains exist to allow setting different initial conditions in each domain. 1. in2. You usually require a smaller timestep when using this model. Mesh motion can also be set. Global initialization allows the specification of initial conditions for all domains that do not have domain-specific initialization. . You also reference pressure. Some items may be recognized from Tutorial 1-for example the boundary condition objects in1. The tree view displays a summary of the current simulation in a tree structure.Viewing Domain Settings Tip To select Outline you may need to click the navigation icons next to the tabs to move ‘forward' or ‘backward' through the various tabs. Click Initialization and review. The domain Default Domain is opened for editing. Defining Solver Parameters Solver Control parameters control aspects of the numerical-solution generation process. Mass and Momentum. Turbulence and Heat Transfer. combustion. 3. you should always use scalable wall functions. and out. Inc. For this simulation. such as heat transfer. coordinate frame settings and the fluids/solids that are present in the domain. Viewing Domain Settings It is useful to review the options available in General Mode. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Under Default Domain. 2. Click the Boundary Details tab and review the settings for Flow Regime. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. You can also expect the solution to take a higher number of iterations to converge when using this model. you must specify the turbulent nature of the flow entering through the inlet boundary. but do not change. Release 12.

All rights reserved. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 4. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click Define Run . Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. The CFX-Solver input file is an encapsulated set of meshes and CCL defining a solver run. 3.def) File 1. 58). The simulation file differs from the CFX-Solver input file in two important ways: • • The simulation file can be saved at any time while defining the simulation. and modify the simulation definition. Select Insert > Solver > Solver Control from the menu bar or click Solver Control Apply the following Basic Settings Setting Advection Scheme > Option Convergence Control > Max. Release 12. If required. Click Save. Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Physical Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale a 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3. Iterationsa Value High Resolution 150 . If you are notified in CFX-Pre that the file already exists.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. the CFX-Solver will stop. Click Apply. and is a subset of the data in the simulation file. 58). Proceed to Obtaining a Solution with CFX-Solver (p. Click OK. Inc. 5. Inc. set the path to your working directory. Click the Advanced Options tab. 5. The simulation file-StaticMixerRef. the Solver Input File is set. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. 6. 2.0 . 2.def) is created.© 2009 ANSYS. saving the simulation (. click Overwrite.cfx-contains the simulation definition in a format that can be loaded by CFX-Pre.cfx) file. on the Define Run dialog box. allowing you to complete (if applicable). proceed directly to Obtaining a Solution with CFX-Solver (p. Ensure that Global Dynamic Model Control is selected. 1.5 [s] If your solution does not meet the convergence criteria after this number of timesteps. The CFX-Solver input file (StaticMixerRef. Quit CFX-Pre. 6. 57 . 4. The Write Solver Input File dialog box is displayed.def Playing the Session File and Starting CFX-Solver Manager If you have performed all the tasks in the previous steps. 7. restore. Value StaticMixerRef.def) File Once all boundaries are created you move from CFX-Pre into CFX-Solver.

6. depending on the aspect ratio of the entire CFX-Solver Manager window (also adjustable). 7. 58 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 8. 2. 5. launch ANSYS Workbench. 4. 7. located in the working directory. Launch CFX-Solver Manager from CFX Launcher. A CFX-Solver input file is written. click Browse . Select Session > Play Tutorial. Select Session > Play Tutorial. Procedure in ANSYS Workbench 1. Depending on your installation of CFX follow either the standalone procedure or the ANSYS Workbench procedure. Click the CFX-Solver tab. All rights reserved.pre. 10. . 12. 9. After CFX-Solver starts. Inc. Under CFX-Solver Input File. Proceed to Obtaining a Solution with CFX-Solver (p. 3. A CFX-Solver input file is written. 9. 3.def. Click Start CFX-Pre. 59) Release 12. Select StaticMixerRef. 58).© 2009 ANSYS. Click Empty Project. Procedure in Standalone 1. 59) Confirming Results (p. located in the working directory. 2. launch CFX-Pre. Select StaticMixerRef. 2. Select StaticMixerRef. If required. 4. Obtaining a Solution with CFX-Solver Two windows are displayed when CFX-Solver Manager runs. click Browse .0 . Under CFX-Solver Input File. Inc. select File > Define Run. There is an adjustable split between the windows which is oriented either horizontally or vertically. Click Open.Obtaining a Solution with CFX-Solver Two procedures are documented. Workflow Overview This section provides a brief summary of the topics to follow as a general workflow: 1. 10.def. type StaticMixerRef and click Save. Click Open. 6. If required.pre. 59) Moving from CFX-Solver to CFD-Post (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 5. Select File > Quit. Select File > Define Run. 3. Select File > Save or click Save . Under File name. Starting the Run with an Initial Values File (p. 11. Select StaticMixerRef. 8.

The following text appears before the convergence history begins: +---------------------------------------------------------+ | Initial Conditions Supplied by Fields in the Input Files +---------------------------------------------------------+ This lists the variables that were interpolated from the results file.res. 5.res is set. click Browse directory). Inc. If it is not. Select Initial Values Specification. 3. Note Convergence information is plotted once the second outer loop iteration is complete. To confirm that results interpolation was successful. Confirming Results When the run is finished. you can use StaticMixer_001.res from your working directory.def. specific information appears in the text window of CFX-Solver Manager. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. When CFX-Solver is finished. Release 12. Set Initial Values Specification > Initial Values > Initial Values 1 > Initial Values 1 Settings > File Name to StaticMixer_001. Click Start Run.res) will be used to initialize the solution: 1. select Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. 2. Configure the settings so that the results from Tutorial 1 (contained in StaticMixer_001. If you did not complete the first tutorial. After the final iteration. 1.res file as a basic initial guess for the solution. look in the text window in CFX-Solver Manager.0 . a message similar to the following content appears: CFD Solver finished: Tue Oct 19 08:06:45 2004 CFD Solver wall clock seconds: 1. This option is not required in Workbench. and will cause the iteration count to start from 1 instead of from the last iteration number in the initial values file. Inc. next to Results File.7100E+02 This indicates that CFX-Solver has successfully calculated the solution for the problem to the specified accuracy or has run out of coefficient loops. ensure that StaticMixerRef_001. and select StaticMixerRef_001. Clear Initial Values Specification > Continue History From.© 2009 ANSYS. the Define Run dialog box is visible and Solver Input File has automatically been set to the CFX-Solver input file from CFX-Pre: StaticMixerRef. This will cause the CFX-Solver to use the results in the StaticMixer_001. 59 . 1. 2.Starting the Run with an Initial Values File Starting the Run with an Initial Values File In CFX-Solver Manager. you can use CFD-Post to review the finished results. Click OK. Set Use Mesh From to Solver Input File. In the Start ANSYS CFD-Post dialog box.res (located in the working 3. Select Tools > Post-Process Results or click Post-Process Results in the toolbar. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. 4. Review the results on the Out File tab for details on the run results. If using CFX-Solver in Standalone Mode. All rights reserved. This forces Standalone CFX-Solver to close. Moving from CFX-Solver to CFD-Post Once CFX-Solver has finished. ensure that the check box next to Post-Process Results is cleared to prevent CFD-Post from launching at this time.

2. • Around the edges of the mixer geometry there are several layers of narrow rectangles. 5) (in the section Rendering Slice Planes (p. 60 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The bulk of the geometry contains tetrahedral elements. select Insert > Location > Plane or under Location. Inc. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post In the following sections. 7. Color. CFD-Post starts. All rights reserved. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +Z. type Slice and click OK. you will explore the differences between the mesh and the results from this tutorial and tutorial 1. Click Apply.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). From the menu bar. Render and View tabs let you switch between settings. 3. In the Insert Plane dialog box. 8. 4. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Domains Definition > Method Definition > Z Plane Type Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines 5. There are three noticeable differences between the two slice planes. 20)). The curves of the mixer are smoother than in Tutorial 1 because the finer mesh better represents the true geometry. Once a new slice plane is created it can be compared with Tutorial 1. Release 12. The Geometry. Creating a Slice Plane More information exists for use by CFD-Post in this tutorial than in Tutorial 1 because the slice plane is more detailed. Click Zoom Box . click Plane. After a short pause. Zoom in on the geometry to view it in greater detail.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post 4. This is because the slice plane intersects with more mesh elements. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Value Default Domain XY Plane 1 [m] Slice (Cleared) (Selected) • • 1. . 6. Click OK. There are more lines on the plane than there were in Tutorial 1. Compare the on-screen image with the equivalent picture from Simulating Flow in a Static Mixer Using CFX in Standalone Mode (p. This is the region where the mesh contains prismatic elements (which are created as inflation layers).0 .

0 . To load the results file from Tutorial 1. Apply the following settings Tab Color Setting Mode a Value Variable Variable Range Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines a Temperature Global (Selected) (Cleared) A mode setting of Constant would allow you to color the plane with a fixed color. select StaticMixer_001. you may load multiple results files into the same instance for comparison. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Be careful not to click Open until instructed to do so. Inc. 61 . On the right side of the dialog box. In the Load Results File dialog box. 1.Coloring the Slice Plane Coloring the Slice Plane Here. Inc. 2. Release 12.res in the <CFXROOT>\examples directory or from your working directory if it has been copied. Click Apply. you will color the plane by temperature. 1. 3. Loading Results from Tutorial 1 for Comparison In CFD-Post.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. there are three frames: • • • Case options Additional actions CFX run history and multi-configuration options. 2. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. select File > Load Results or click Load Results .

On the Color tab. 13. ensure that Load only the last results is selected. 5. This allows some planes to be shown while others are hidden. 5. ensure that Range is set to Global. 12. 6. Inc. double-click the plane named Slice 1. 5. Click OK to accept the default name Slice 1. All rights reserved.Creating a Second Slice Plane Under Case options. 4. 7. 4. Under CFX run history and multi-configuration options. Notice that one mesh is of a higher resolution than the other. Right-click in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. click Synchronize visibility in displayed views to synchronize to deselect the option. set Domains to Default Domain. Double-click Slice and make sure that Range is set to Global.© 2009 ANSYS. so that all viewports maintain the same camera position. 7. set Edge Angle to 5 [degree]. In the tree view. Under Additional actions. Creating a Second Slice Plane 1. 62 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 8. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). 10. select Keep current cases loaded and ensure that Open in new view is selected. 3. In the tree view. On the Geometry tab. then clear the visibility check box for Slice in the Outline tree view and ensure that the visibility check box for Slice 1 is selected. Click Open to load the results. 4. Double-click the Wireframe object under User Locations and Plots. 2. select the option with a single rectangle. meshes and boundary conditions with the heading StaticMixer_001. Click Apply. In the viewer toolbar. there is now a second group of domains. . However.0 . In the tree view. 6. Click Apply. Click Synchronize camera in displayed views 11. Note the difference in temperature distribution. In the Definition tab. double-click StaticMixer_001 and clear Apply Translation. 1. you can also use the Synchronize visibility in displayed views the visibility of objects that you add. Click in the viewport that is set to show View 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In the tree view. To return to a single viewport. Both meshes are now displayed in a line along the Y axis. 2. Set Edge Angle to 30 [degree]. 7. ensure that the Clear user state before loading check box is cleared. then select the visibility check box for Slice and ensure that the visibility check box for Slice 1 is cleared. 9. Inc. Comparing Slice Planes using Multiple Views The visibility status of each object is maintained separately for each viewport. right-click the plane named Slice and select Duplicate. 6. Click in the viewport that is set to show View 1. Click Apply. 3. Release 12. Click Apply.

select Insert > Location > Volume or. the details view does not display a Geometry tab as it did for the planes. Click Zoom Box . then double-click out to open it for editing.0 . you will view the mesh on the outlet. Inc. Rotate the image as required to clearly see the mesh.Viewing the Surface Mesh on the Outlet 8. 5. Viewing the Surface Mesh on the Outlet In this part of the tutorial. All rights reserved. You will see five layers of inflated elements against the wall. under Location click Volume. Apply the following settings Release 12. In the Insert Volume dialog box. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. Click Apply. 1. Looking at the Inflated Elements in Three Dimensions To show more clearly what effect inflation has on the shape of the elements. From the menu bar. Apply the following settings Tab Render Setting Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Color Mode Line Color 4. Inc. type Tet Volume and click OK. Value (Cleared) (Selected) User Specified (Select any light color) Zoom in on the geometry to view out in greater detail. 1. the second is a prismatic element from an inflation layer of the mesh. Click Rotate on the Viewing Tools toolbar. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Leave the surface mesh on the outlet visible to help see how surface and volume meshes are related. you will use volume objects to show two individual elements. ensure that the visibility check box for StaticMixerRef_001 > Default Domain > out is selected. 10. 8.© 2009 ANSYS. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). Since the boundary location geometry was defined in CFX-Pre. 9. In the tree view. Ensure that the visibility check box for Slice is cleared. 7. Right-click Slice 1 in the tree view and select Delete. 3. You will also see the triangular faces of the tetrahedral elements closer to the center of the outlet. 2. 63 . The first element that will be shown is a normal tetrahedral element. 6. 3. Right-click StaticMixer_001 in the tree view and select Unload.

Value (Selected) (Selected) 2 . Click Apply. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Point Definition > Radius Color Color Value -0.14 [m] Below Intersection (Cleared) Color Render Color Show Faces > Transparency Show Mesh Lines Show Mesh Lines > Line Width Show Mesh Lines > Color Mode Show Mesh Lines > Line Color Red 0.3 (Selected) 1 User Specified Grey a b The z slider's minimum value corresponds to the minimum z value of the entire geometry. which. Release 12. Click Apply to create the volume object. 5. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . 64 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. occurs at the outlet. 4. 2.4. Inc.Viewing the Surface Mesh on the Mixer Body Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Point a Value Sphere 0. Apply the following settings Tab Render Setting Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Line Width 3. type Prism Volume and click OK.206 [m] Orange 9. -2 Definition > Radius Definition > Mode Inclusive b 0. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS.08. 7. 8. Click Apply. Only elements that are entirely contained within the sphere volume will be included. Double-click Prism Volume. -1. Double-click the Default Domain Default object. 6. in this case. Viewing the Surface Mesh on the Mixer Body 1.22. 0. Inc. Right-click Tet Volume and choose Duplicate.85 0. 0. In the Duplicate Tet Volume dialog box.

4. 5. Click Apply. All rights reserved.def file into CFD-Post and check the mesh quality before running the . Look at the table shown in the “Mesh Report” section. Click the Report Viewer tab (located below the viewer window). Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > X Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines 4. Maximum Face Angle. Value YZ Plane 0 [m] (Cleared) (Selected) Viewing the Mesh Statistics You can use the Report Viewer to check the quality of your mesh. Inc. From the menu bar. select the visibility check box of Wireframe. In the Insert Plane dialog box. select Insert > Location > Plane or under Location. 3. 65 . 6.© 2009 ANSYS. Viewing the Mesh Elements with Largest Face Angle In this section. For example.0 . Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Variable Value Isovolume Maximum Face Angle Release 12. 3. 4. 5. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. showing the maximum face angle for all elements in the mesh. 1.Viewing the Layers of Inflated Elements on a Plane Viewing the Layers of Inflated Elements on a Plane You will see the layers of inflated elements on the wall of the main body of the mixer. 1. 2. This variable will be used in the next section. a new variable.95°. Within the body of the mixer. Note that a new table. there will be many lines that are drawn wherever the face of a mesh element intersects the slice plane. 2. select Statistics > Maximum Face Angle. Double-click Report > Mesh Report in the Outline tree view. click Plane. To see the plane clearly. A report appears. From the menu bar. select Insert > Location > Volume or under Location. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 6. has been created and stored at every node. type Max Face Angle Volume and click OK. Click Refresh Preview. Inc. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). 3. The maximum face angle is reported as 148.def file in the solver. right-click in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -X. Turn off the visibility of all objects except Slice 2. you can load a . 2. type Slice 2 and click OK. In the Mesh Report details view. you will visualize the mesh elements that have a Maximum Face Angle value greater than 140°. has been added to the “Mesh Report” section of the report. click Volume. As a result of generating this mesh statistic for the report. In the Outline tree view. In the Insert Volume dialog box. 1. Click the 3D Viewer tab (located below the viewer window).

Symbol Size Value Variable Maximum Default Domain Maximum Face Angle 2 Quitting CFD-Post 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. select Insert > Location > Point or under Location. 1. The point object will be represented by a 3D yellow crosshair symbol. From the menu bar. Click OK to use the default name.Viewing the Mesh Elements with Largest Face Angle Using a Point Tab Setting Value a Definition > Mode Definition > Value Inclusive b Above Value 140 [degree] (Selected) a Select Maximum Face Angle from the larger list of variables available by clicking to the right of the Variable box. In order to avoid obscuring the point object with the volume object. click Point. Click Apply. b This includes any elements that have at least one node with a variable value greater than or equal to the given value. . Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. 66 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. Click Apply. All rights reserved. Viewing the Mesh Elements with Largest Face Angle Using a Point Next. save the state at your discretion. you may want to turn off the visibility of the latter. 3. Inc. 7. select File > Quit to exit CFD-Post. When you are finished. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Location Definition > Variable Symbol 4. The volume object appears in the viewer. If prompted by a dialog box. Inc.0 . you will create a point object to show a node that has the maximum value of Maximum Face Angle.

Visualizing the velocity on a boundary in CFX-Pre.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. 75) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. Using the k-epsilon turbulence model. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Boundary Profile Visualization Inlet (Profile) Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic CEL (CFX Expression Language) Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Default Locators Outline Plot (Wireframe) Slice Plane Release 12. 68) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 67) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 69) Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p.© 2009 ANSYS. Using the CFX Expression Language (CEL) to describe temperature dependent fluid properties in CFX-Pre. 76) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • Applying a profile boundary using data stored in a file. Using streamlines in CFD-Post to track flow through the domain. 67 Component CFX-Pre . Flow in a Process Injection Mixing Pipe This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 68) Before You Begin (p. Inc. 69) Defining a Simulation using General Mode in CFX-Pre (p. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Chapter 5.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 K enters in the 1. The injection mixing pipe. In this tutorial. which are defining a simulation using General Mode in CFX-Pre. . 68 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and will be used to modify the water properties later on in this tutorial to increase the solution accuracy. initial values will be set and a solution will be found using CFX-Solver Manager.0 . Finally. The geometry for this example consists of a circular pipe of diameter 1.3 m which joins with the main pipe at an oblique angle.0 K enters in the 0.0 m/s while water at 285.0 m with a 90° bend. Inc. obtaining a solution using CFX-Solver Manager and viewing the results in CFD-Post. Streamlines originating from the main inlet will be generated to show the flow of the water into and out of the injection pipe. you will go through the three main steps when solving a problem.3 m diameter pipe at a rate of 5. you will establish a general workflow for analyzing the flow of the water fluid into and out of an injection pipe. First.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Streamline Other Changing the Color Range Expression Details View Legend Viewing the Mesh Overview of the Problem to Solve The goal of this tutorial is to understand the general approach taken when working with an existing mesh. The results will then be viewed in CFD-Post. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. Inc. A viscosity expression will also be created. and a smaller pipe of diameter 0. a simulation will be created and an existing mesh will be imported in CFX-Pre. Water at 315. common in the process industry.5 m/s. Injection Mixing Pipe In this tutorial. All rights reserved. is composed of two pipes: one with a larger diameter than the other.0 m diameter pipe at a rate of 0.1. CFD is useful not only in identifying problem areas (where mixing is poor). but also in testing new designs before they are implemented. Analyzing and optimizing the mixing process is often critical for many chemical processes. Figure 5. 1) Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS.

Release 12.gtm Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. Setting Initial Values (p. 6. Setting Solver Control (p. continue with the following steps. Creating the Main Outlet Boundary (p. run InjectMixer. 2. 72) Creating the Main Inlet Boundary (p. 5. Procedure in Standalone 1. In CFX-Pre. 69) Importing a Mesh (p. 69 . 3.0 .def) File (p. Click Save.© 2009 ANSYS. 4. 8. a simulation needs to be started using General Mode. All rights reserved. If you want to set up the simulation manually.pre. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. Workflow Overview This section provides a brief summary of the topics to follow as a general workflow: 1. 6. 73) 10. 71) Modify Material Properties (p. 9. 74) 13. 1) Defining a Simulation using General Mode in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • 2. 3. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. Inc. 7. For details.csv InjectMixerMesh. type InjectMixer. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Ensure General is selected and click OK. Select File > Save Case As. 4. 70). 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 72) Creating the Side Inlet Boundary (p. 70) Setting Temperature-Dependent Material Properties (p. 3). 71) Evaluating an Expression (p. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. 2. 75). Under File name. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 74) 12.pre InjectMixer_velocity_profile.Starting CFX-Pre • • • Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 75) Creating a New Case Before importing and working with a mesh. 70) Plotting an Expression (p. 74) 11. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 5. Creating a New Case (p. select File > New Case. 71) Creating the Domain (p. InjectMixer. Proceed to Importing a Mesh (p.

The details view for the Tupper equation is displayed. Under Definition.8E-03 N s m-2 at T=275. 4.0 K μ=5. denoting static temperature. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. select InjectMixerMesh. type 275 [K]. evaluate. Click Apply to create the expression. 5. Default Domain generation should be turned off because you will create a new domain manually. Inc. 5.gtm. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned off. From your working directory. . type Tlower. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Y up) from the shortcut menu. locators. Select File > Import > Mesh. From the main menu. Create expressions for Visupper. Inc. 7. functions. All rights reserved. Click OK. This expression will then be used to modify the properties of the library material: Water to increase the accuracy of the solution. Functions and Variables > Expression. 4. select Insert > Expressions. Vislower and VisT using the following values. copy.0 K The variable T (Temperature) is a CFX System Variable recognized by CFX-Pre. you will create an expression for viscosity as a function of temperature.Importing a Mesh Importing a Mesh The following steps will demonstrate how to import a mesh. expressions. Name Visupper Definition 5.© 2009 ANSYS. delete and browse through expressions used within CFX-Pre. type 325 [K].3 m diameter pipes. later in this tutorial. You should be careful if using temperature in an expression with units other than [K]. 3. All variables. 8. Viscosity will be made to vary linearly with temperature between the following conditions: • • μ=1. In the following steps.45E-04 N s m-2 at T=325.0 . 9. type Tupper. Setting Temperature-Dependent Material Properties Viscosity varies with temperature. The Expressions tab lets you define. Click Apply to create the expression. 2. plot. The expression is added to the list of existing expressions. All expressions must have consistent units. By setting temperature-dependent material properties. modify.0 m and the 0. In the New Expression dialog box.45E-04 [N s m^-2] Release 12. The expression is added to the list of existing expressions. Click Open. which implies that the water will behave differently when coming through the 1. 11. Right-click in the Expressions workspace and select Insert > Expression. Click OK. 3. 10. In the New Expression dialog box. and constants can be viewed by double-clicking the appropriate entry (such as Additional Variables or Expressions) in the tree view. Under Definition. 70 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1. 6. 1.

click in Dynamic Viscosity. The Expressions details view for VisT appears. Inc. Tip Alternatively. Click the Evaluate tab. double-clicking the expression also opens the Expressions details view. Click Plot Expression. Right-click VisT in the Expressions tree view. Under Dynamic Viscosity.0 . 2. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. the default material properties of Water will be modified using the Viscosity expression to increase the accuracy of the solution. Click the Material Properties tab. 9. 5. A plot showing the variation of the expression VisT with the variable T is displayed. and then select Edit. 1. 3. Double-click Water under Materials to display the Basic Settings tab. 7. Inc. 71 .8E-03 [N s m^-2] Vislower+(Visupper-Vislower)*(T-Tlower)/(Tupper-Tlower) Plotting an Expression 1. Click the Outline tab. Modify Material Properties As mentioned earlier in this tutorial. 8. 3.0011[kg m^-1 s^-1] for VisT at the given value of T appears in the Value field. Click the Plot tab and apply the following settings Tab Plot Setting Number of Points T Start of Range End of Range 3. All rights reserved. In T. Expand Transport Properties. Value 10 (Selected) 275 [K] 325 [K] Evaluating an Expression 1. Click Enter Expression . Click Evaluate Expression. type 300 [K]. 6. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Enter the expression VisT into the data box. Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Plotting an Expression Name Vislower VisT Definition 1. A value of around 0. 4. 2. Select Dynamic Viscosity. This is between the start and end range defined in the last module. Release 12.

which are not used in this tutorial. Inc. The Initialization tab is for setting domain-specific initial conditions. Click OK. If a default domain is present. 3. type InjectMixer. 72 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Creating the Domain Creating the Domain The domain will be set to use the thermal energy heat transfer model. global initialization is used to set the starting conditions. Creating the Side Inlet Boundary The side inlet boundary needs to be defined. Apply the following settings Setting Heat Transfer > Option Value Thermal Energy 8. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. 5. 3. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Value Inlet side inlet Normal Speed Release 12. . . Both Basic Settings and Fluid Models are changed in this module. Select Insert > Boundary from the main menu or click Boundary Set Name to side inlet. Inc. Select Insert > Domain from the main menu or click Domain In the Insert Domain dialog box. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Value . Click OK. Click Fluid Models.0 . 4. 4.P3 Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid 1 Fluid and Particle Definitions Water > Fluid 1 > Material Domain Models > Pressure > 0 [atm] Reference Pressure 6. and the k − ε (k-epsilon) turbulence model. Ensure that no default domain is present under Flow Analysis 1. Note A boundary named after a region will use that region as its location by default. 7. Click OK. Location and Type > Location B1. right-click it and select Delete. Instead. 2. 1. 1.

5. 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location . 73 . and lower velocities near the inlet walls. 2.0 . W to be applied at the nodes on the main inlet boundary. This causes the profile values of U. select InjectMixer_velocity_profile. click Browse . Select Tools > Initialize Profile Data. Click OK. 11. Click OK. Click Open. 8.csv. All rights reserved. Click Generate Values.Creating the Main Inlet Boundary Tab Setting Value Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed 5 [m s^-1] Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature 5. and U. This inlet is defined using a velocity profile found in the examples directory. V. 3. Inc. The profile data is read into memory. Select Insert > Boundary from the main menu or click Boundary Set name Name to main inlet. Under Data File. Click OK. Inc. revisit Basic Settings for this boundary and click Generate Values.© 2009 ANSYS. Value Inlet main inlet Profile Boundary Conditions > (Selected) Use Profile Data Profile Boundary Setup > Profile Name 10. Apply the following settings Tab Boundary Details Setting Flow Regime > Option Turbulence > Option Heat Transfer > Option Value Subsonic Medium (Intensity = 5%) Static Temperature main inlet Release 12. Static Temperature 315 [K] Creating the Main Inlet Boundary The main inlet boundary for the large pipe needs to be defined. To later modify the velocity values at the main inlet and reset values to those read from the BC Profile file. From your working directory. V. 6. W entries to be made in Boundary Details. 9. 4. Profile data needs to be initialized before the boundary can be created. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. You will create a plot showing the velocity profile data. marked by higher velocities near the center of the inlet. 7.

Zoom into the main inlet to view the inlet velocity contour. Click OK. 1. 4. Inc. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. An automatic guess is sufficient for this particular problem. Click OK. All other surfaces which have not been explicitly assigned a boundary will remain in the InjectMixer Default object. All rights reserved. Setting Initial Values For this tutorial. 2. the current settings. Value 285 [K] (Selected) W Creating the Main Outlet Boundary In this module you create the outlet boundary. 74 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Advection Scheme > Option Advection Scheme > Blend Factor Value Specified Blend Factor 0. and review.Creating the Main Outlet Boundary Tab Setting Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Plot Options Boundary Contour Boundary Contour > Profile Variable 12. 2. Click Solver Control . This boundary uses a No-Slip Adiabatic Wall by default. Setting Solver Control 1. 13. Click OK.75 Release 12.0 . Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Flow Regime > Option Mass and Momentum > Option Relative Pressure 5. but do not change. 2. the initial values will be set automatically. which is shown in the tree view. 3. Value Outlet outlet Subsonic Average Static Pressure 0 [Pa] . Inc. Select Insert > Boundary from the main menu or click Boundary Set Name to outlet.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Global Initialization Click Close.

E-4 b a The physical timescale that will be setup is derived from the pipe diameter (1 m) and the rate at which the water flows in the pipe (0.0 . Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) is created.def) File Once the problem has been defined you move from General Mode into CFX-Solver. 2. 50 Iterations Convergence Control > Fluid Physical Timescale Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid 2 [s] Timescale Control > Physical a Timescale Convergence Criteria > Residual Type Convergence Criteria > Residual Target RMS 1. Click Save & Quit if prompted. optionally select Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. 2. Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager At this point. 75). Inc. When the run ends. on the Define Run dialog box. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. Apply the following settings: Setting File name Value InjectMixer.def 3. 2. and the Define Run dialog box is displayed. 3. with the CFX-Solver input file set. Inc. Click Save. 1.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. CFX-Solver Manager is running. ensure that the check box next to Post-Process Results is cleared and click OK to close the dialog box. If using CFX-Solver Manager in standalone mode. 5. Select Tools > Post-Process Results or click Post-Process Results .def) File Tab Setting Value Convergence Control > Max. 6. Release 12. 1. select File > Quit in CFX-Pre. The CFX-Solver input file (InjectMixer.E-5 is usually required for adequate convergence. All rights reserved. the Solver Input File is set. but the default value is sufficient for demonstration purposes. 4. Moving from CFX-Solver Manager to CFD-Post 1. Click Define Run .5 m/s).cfx Proceed to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Click Start Run. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 75 . When you are finished. to save InjectMixer. b An RMS value of at least 1.© 2009 ANSYS.

Value 3D Streamline main inlet . the viewer and Outline workspace display by default. 77) Examining Turbulence Kinetic Energy (p. In the tree view. 6. 5. 76) Creating and Modifying Streamlines Originating from the Main Inlet (p. 2.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post 3. 4. 2.0 . 1. Above where the side pipe meets the main pipe. Workflow Overview This section provides a brief summary of the topics to follow as a general workflow: 1. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post When CFD-Post starts. 76 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 78) Modifying the Outline of the Geometry Throughout this and the following examples. 76) Coloring Streamlines with a Constant Color (p. Click OK. 3. 3. there is an area where the flow re-circulates rather than flowing roughly tangent to the direction of the pipe walls. type MainStream. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Creating and Modifying Streamlines Originating from the Main Inlet When you complete this module you will see streamlines (mainly blue and green) starting at the main inlet of the geometry and proceeding to the outlet. modify the streamline object MainStream by applying the following settings Release 12. Set the Edge Angle to 15 [degree]. 3. Inc. 76) Modifying Streamline Color Ranges (p. select Predefined Camera from the shortcut menu. 77) Creating Streamlines Originating from the Side Inlet (p. 6. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. Modifying Streamline Color Ranges You can change the appearance of the streamlines using the Range setting on the Color tab. The pipe is displayed with the main inlet in the bottom right of the viewer. then select Isometric View (Y up). 1. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Type Definition > Start From 5. All rights reserved. 1. Click Apply. . use your mouse and the Viewing Tools toolbar to manipulate the geometry as required at any time. 2. double-click Wireframe. Right-click a blank area in the viewer. Select Insert > Streamline from the main menu or click Streamline Under Name. Under User Locations and Plots. Click Apply. 4. Click OK. Modifying the Outline of the Geometry (p.

2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Creating Streamlines Originating from the Side Inlet The following steps illustrate using this feature to add a streamline object that originates at the side inlet. The streamlines therefore collectively contain every color in the color map. When using tubes or symbols (which contain faces). 5. 4. Apply the following settings Tab Color Setting Mode Color Value Constant (Green) Color can be set to green by selecting it from the color pallet. SideStream. 77 . Click Apply.Coloring Streamlines with a Constant Color Tab Color 2. In the Name window. 4. Double-click the newly created streamline. All rights reserved. more accurate colors are obtained with lighting turned off. Click Apply. or by repeatedly clicking on the color box until it cycles through to the default green color. The color map is fitted to the range of velocities found along the streamlines. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Color Setting Definition > Start From Mode Value side inlet Constant Release 12.0 .2 [m s^-1] 2. Inc. Right-click MainStream and select Duplicate from the shortcut menu. 1. 3. Click Apply. The streamlines are colored using the specified range of velocity values. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. type SideStream. Coloring Streamlines with a Constant Color 1.2 [m s^-1] Setting Range Value Local Note Portions of streamlines that have values outside the range shown in the legend are colored according to the color at the nearest end of the legend. 3. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. Apply the following settings Tab Color Setting Range Min Max Value User Specified 0.

Red streamlines appear. to show regions of high turbulence. 7. 5. 2. Click Apply. Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Value Variable Turbulence Kinetic Energy 4. All rights reserved.0 . A plane will be created to view the Turbulence Kinetic Energy variable within the domain. Inc. select File > Quit to exit CFD-Post. apply the settings below. starting from the side inlet. Temperature to show the temperature mixing of the two streams). . 1. Value (Red) Examining Turbulence Kinetic Energy Away from walls. 3. turbulence kinetic energy has an influence on the level of mixing. Inc. specific instructions follow. Click Apply. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. When you are finished. Experiment with other variables to color this plane (for example. To do so. 2. Commonly used variables are in the drop-down menu. For better view. Color the plane using the variable Turbulence Kinetic Energy. Create a plane named Plane 1 that is normal to X and passing through the X = 0 Point.© 2009 ANSYS. In the Details view set Definition > Method to YZ Plane and X to 0 [m]. 2. To do so. Note This module has multiple changes compiled into single steps in preparation for other tutorials that provide fewer specific instructions. select Isometric View (Y up). If prompted by a dialog box. 3. Click Apply. 78 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 12. From the main menu. Turn off the visibility of both the MainStream and the SideStream objects. A full list of available variables can be viewed by clicking next to the Variable data box. 1. Quitting CFD-Post 1. save the state at your discretion. select Insert > Location > Plane and click OK.Examining Turbulence Kinetic Energy Tab Setting Color 6.

Using an opening type boundary in CFX-Pre. 91) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • Setting up a transient problem in CFX-Pre. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 90) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. and generating a movie in CFD-Post. Making use of multiple configurations in CFX-Pre Modeling smoke using additional variables in CFX-Pre. Visualizing a smoke plume using an Isosurface in CFD-Post. Creating an image for printing. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Details General Mode Steady State Transient Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Boundary Conditions General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon Inlet (Subsonic) Opening Wall: No-Slip Timestep Auto Time Scale Transient Example Configuration Transient Results File CFD-Post Plots Animation Isosurface Other Auto Annotation Movie Generation Printing Release 12. 80) Defining a Multiple-Analysis Simulation in CFX-Pre (p. Flow from a Circular Vent This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 80) Before You Begin (p.0 . 81) Obtaining Solutions to the Steady-State and Transient Configurations (p.Chapter 6.© 2009 ANSYS. 80) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Inc. 79) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 79 Multiple Component CFX-Pre .

which were steady-state. The turbulence will be set to intensity and length scale with a value of 0.0 . a medium level intensity. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. which corresponds to 5% turbulence. As a postprocessing exercise.25 m. All rights reserved. you produce an animation that illustrates how the plume of smoke develops with time. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. Unlike previous tutorials. Initially. The goal of this tutorial is to model the dispersion of the smoke from the chimney stack over time. and with a eddy length scale value of 0. a chimney stack releases smoke that is dispersed into the atmosphere with an oncoming side wind of 1 m/s. this example is time-dependent. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.05. Inc. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: Release 12. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. no smoke is being released. 80 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Time Step Selection Title/Text Transient Animation Overview of the Problem to Solve In this example. Inc. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. the chimney starts to release smoke. Subsequently.© 2009 ANSYS.

Inc.pre. Select General and click OK. 81 . 6. 3. The second analysis takes the setup for the steady state and adapts it for a transient analysis. All rights reserved. Release 12.pre CircVentMesh. Creating an Additional Variable In this tutorial an Additional Variable (non-reacting scalar component) will be used to model the dispersion of smoke from the vent. Inc. CircVent.0 . see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 2.gtm. For details. Select File > Save Case As.gtm Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre. including it here prevents you from having to set up time value interpolation in the transient analysis. Default Domain generation should be turned off because you will create a new domain manually. Set File name to CircVent. Select File > Import > Mesh. select Insert > Expressions. 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up) from the shortcut menu. First is a steady-state analysis with no smoke being produced by the chimney. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. proceed to the following steps: This section describes the step-by-step definition of the flow physics in CFX-Pre for a simulation with two analyses. In CFX-Pre. run CircVent. Functions and Variables > Additional Variable. Then proceed to Obtaining Solutions to the Steady-State and Transient Configurations (p. From the menu bar. 3. 1) Defining a Multiple-Analysis Simulation in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. Set Variable Type to Volumetric.Defining a Multiple-Analysis Simulation in CFX-Pre • • 2. 5. Click OK. 4. Note While smoke is not required for the steady-state simulation. If you want to set up the simulation manually. The results from the steady-state analysis will be used as the initial guess for the transient analysis. later in this tutorial. Set Name to smoke. 3. 5. 5. Importing the Mesh 1. 3). Click Save. Click OK. 90). 2. From your working directory. For details. 1. 2. select CircVentMesh. Click Open. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS. select File > New Case. 1. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned off. Set Units to [kg m^-3]. 4.

Renaming the Analysis Renaming the Analysis To rename the existing analysis: 1. Creating the Domain You will create a fluid domain that includes support for smoke as an Additional Variable. In general. Release 12. 82 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. since fluid is flowing over an object and not through an enclosure such as a pipe network (which would be an example of internal flow). Inc. you can use a length scale based on a typical length of the object over which the fluid is flowing. All rights reserved. some inlets will be made sufficiently large that they do not affect the CFD solution. Select Insert > Domain from the menu bar. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Fluid and Particle Definitions Value B1. If you do not have a value for the length scale. you will choose a turbulence length scale which is one-tenth of the diameter of the vent. Creating the Boundaries This is an example of external flow.P3 Fluid 1 . you need to set the turbulence intensity and length scale explicitly for large inlets in external flow problems. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . To Create a New Domain 1. then set the name to CircVent and click Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 Air at 25 C > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference 0 [atm] Pressure Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option None Additional Variable Models > Additional smoke Variable Additional Variable Models > Additional (Selected) Variable > smoke Additional Variable Models > Additional (Selected) Variable > smoke > Kinematic Diffusivity Additional Variable Models > Additional 1.0E-5 [m^2 s^-1] is a representative kinematic diffusivity value for smoke in air. cylindrical pipes. However.0E-5 [m^2 s^-1]a Variable > smoke > Kinematic Diffusivity > Kinematic Diffusivity a 1. Rename the analysis to Steady State Analysis.© 2009 ANSYS. In external flow problems. the length scale values produced by the Default Intensity and AutoCompute Length Scale option for turbulence are based on inlet size. 2.0 . They are appropriate for internal flow problems and particularly. Click OK. 2. right-click Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 and click Rename. or click Domain OK. 3. From the Outline Tree. Inc. In this case.

Creating the Boundaries For parts of the boundary where the flow direction changes. . Inc. 3. Components 1 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] Intensity and Length Scale 0. c The smoke value that will be set up corresponds to no smoke at the inlet.0 .05a 0. it should have turbulence intensity and length scale. Note The boundary marker vectors used to display boundary conditions (inlets. 1. or is unknown. 2. Value Inlet Wind Cart. Var.25 [m]b Value 0 [kg m^-3]c From the problem description. 1. b 5. Click OK. 2. 83 . Value a . as well as smoke concentration. 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. openings) are normal to the boundary surface regardless of the actual direction specification. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. an opening boundary can be used.© 2009 ANSYS. To plot vectors in the direction of flow. Opening Boundary You will create an opening boundary with pressure and flow direction specified. If fluid enters the domain through the opening. outlets. Inc. and on the Labels and Markers Options tab (accessible from Case Options > Labels and Markers on the Outline tree view). Select Insert > Boundary from the menu bar or click Boundary Set Name to Wind. Select Insert > Boundary from the menu bar or click Boundary Set Name to Atmosphere. From the problem description. Vel. ensure that Settings > Show Boundary Markers is selected and Show Inlet Markers is cleared . Release 12. select Boundary Vector under the Plot Options tab for the inlet boundary. Click OK. set to the same values as for the inlet. An opening boundary allows flow to both enter and leave the fluid domain during the course of the analysis. Inlet Boundary You will create the inlet boundary with velocity components set consistently with the problem description. All rights reserved. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > U Mass and Momentum > V Mass and Momentum > W Turbulence > Option Turbulence > Fractional Intensity Turbulence > Eddy Length Scale Additional Variables > smoke > Option Additional Variables > smoke > Add.

Release 12.01 [m s^-1] Intensity and Eddy Viscosity Ratio 0.05 10 Value 0 [kg m^-3] . 1. 4. All rights reserved. 2. and Dirn 0 [Pa] Normal to Boundary Condition Intensity and Length Scale 0. The turbulence level for the inlet vent will be determined from turbulence intensity and eddy viscosity ratio. Click OK. Click OK. Var.© 2009 ANSYS. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure Flow Direction > Option Turbulence > Option Turbulence > Fractional Intensity Turbulence > Eddy Length Scale Additional Variables > smoke > Option Additional Variables > smoke > Add. Inc. Inc. Value Opening Atmosphere Opening Pres. Select Insert > Boundary from the menu bar or click Boundary Set Name to Vent. . Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Normal Speed Turbulence > Option Turbulence > Fractional Intensity Turbulence > Eddy Viscosity Ratio Additional Variables > smoke > Option Additional Variables > smoke > Add. Value 5. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.25 [m] Value 0 [kg m^-3] Inlet for the Vent You will create the vent inlet boundary with a normal velocity of 0. Click OK.0 .01 m/s as prescribed in the problem description and no smoke release. Click OK. Value Inlet Vent 0. 3.05 0. 84 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Creating the Boundaries 3. 4. Value 5. Var.

Creating a Transient Flow Analysis In this part of the tutorial. Review the settings for velocity. you will duplicate the steady-state analysis and adapt it to set up a transient flow analysis in CFX-Pre.Setting Initial Values Setting Initial Values For this tutorial. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. 85 . 2. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Analysis Type > Option Value Transient Analysis Type > Time Duration > Total 30 [s] Time Analysis Type > Time Steps > Timestepsab 4*0. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. you will set the concentration of smoke for the transient analysis to rise asymptotically to its final concentration with time. Review and apply the default settings: 1. ensure that Simulation > Transient Analysis is expanded. Inc. From the Outline tree view. Click Solver Control . Click OK. Right-click Simulation > Copy of Steady State Analysis and select Rename. From the Outline tree view. 1. 3. Click Global Initialization . turbulence and the smoke. 2. Click OK. 4.0 . All rights reserved. Setting Solver Control CFX-Solver has the ability to calculate physical time step size for steady-state problems. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Max. 2*1. Rename the analysis to Transient Analysis. 2.25. Inc. you can use the Auto Timescale option. 13*2. 2*0. the automatic initial values are suitable. Later.0.© 2009 ANSYS. 3.0 [s] Analysis Type > Initial Time > Option Value Release 12. Iterations Value 75 3. Note that Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control is set to Auto Timescale. 1. 1. so it is necessary to ensure that the interval between the time steps is smaller at the beginning of the simulation than at the end. If you do not know the time step size to set for your problem. Modifying the Analysis Type In this step you will set the new analysis to a type of transient. right-click Simulation > Transient Analysis > Analysis Type and select Edit. 3. right-click Simulation > Steady State Analysis and select Duplicate.5. pressure. In the Outline tree view.

Modifying the Boundary Conditions Tab Setting Analysis Type > Initial Time > Time Value 0 [s] a Do NOT click Enter Expression to enter lists of values. b This list specifies 4 timesteps of 0. a Note The abs function takes the modulus (or magnitude) of its argument. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. more air passes through the vent and there is a time-dependent concentration of smoke in the air.5 [s]. then set the units in the drop-down list. The exp and abs functions are under Functions > CEL.25 [s]. The smoke concentration will be specified using the CFX Expression Language. Inc. 86 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Set the name to TimeConstant. remembering to click Apply after each is defined: Name FinalConcentration ExpFunction a Definition 3 [s] Definition 1 [kg m^-3] FinalConcentration*abs(1-exp(-t/TimeConstant)) When entering this function. Enter the list without the units. Even though the expression (1.2 [m s^-1] Leave the Vent details view open for now. this boundary had a small amount of air flowing through it. you can select most of the required items by right-clicking in the Definition window in the Expression details view instead of typing them. Click Apply to create the expression. . 2. 3. All rights reserved. 5. In the Outline tree view. and so on. You are going to create an expression for smoke concentration. Inc. ensure that Simulation > Transient Analysis > CircVent is expanded. In the steady-state calculation. Functions and Variables > Expression from the menu bar. 4. 7.exp (-t/TimeConstant)) can never be less than zero.0 . the abs function is included to ensure that Release 12. but builds up to a larger value. In the transient calculation. 4. Create a new expression by selecting Insert > Expressions. The variable t is under Variables. The names of the existing expressions are under the Expressions menu. Apply the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Setting Mass And Momentum > Normal Speed Value 0. Create the following expressions with specific settings.© 2009 ANSYS. To Modify the Vent Inlet Boundary Condition 1. Modifying the Boundary Conditions The only boundary condition that needs altering for the transient analysis is the Vent boundary condition. Right-click Simulation > Transient Analysis > CircVent > Vent and select Edit. This is initially zero. Apply the following settings Name TimeConstant 6. The concentration is zero for time t=0 and builds up to a maximum of 1 kg m^-3. then 2 timesteps of 0.

Click the Boundary: Vent tab. Click Plot Expression. The button name then changes to Define Plot. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. you will visualize how the concentration of smoke issued from the vent varies with time. 5. Apply the following settings Tab Boundary Details Setting Additional Variables > smoke > Option Value Value Release 12. the smoke concentration rises to its asymptotic value reaching 90% of its final value at around 7 seconds. Inc.Modifying the Boundary Conditions the numerical error in evaluating it near to zero will never make the expression evaluate to a negative number. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings Tab Plot Setting t t > Start of Range t > End of Range 3. In the next step. 87 . 4.0 . Next. Plotting Smoke Concentration 1. Value (Selected) 0 [s] 30 [s] As can be seen. Inc. All rights reserved. as shown. Double-click ExpFunction in the Expressions tree view. you will apply the expression ExpFunction to the additional variable smoke as it applies to the Transient Analysis boundary Vent.

© 2009 ANSYS. 4. you will create minimal transient results files. 88 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Enter the list without the units. 6. 3. then set the units in the drop-down list. Use the Ctrl key to select multiple items. ensure that Simulation > Transient Analysis > Solver is expanded. 2. To Create Minimal Transient Results Files 1. . Set Convergence Control > Max. b Release 12. Inc. For the moment. Leave the other settings at their default values. Inc. it is necessary to create transient results files at specified times. you can leave all of the initialization data set for the Transient Analysis to Automatic and the initial values will be read automatically from the Steady State Analysis results. Initialization Values When the Transient Analysis is run.0 . 2. Loops to 3. Do NOT click Enter Expression to enter lists of values. In this step. the initial values to the CFX-Solver will be taken from the results of the Steady State Analysis.Initialization Values Tab Setting Additional Variables > smoke > Add. 3. Click OK. The transient results files do not have to contain all solution data. In the Outline tree view. Output Control To allow results to be viewed at different time steps. and Apply the following settings to Transient Results 1: Setting Option Output Variables List a Value Selected Variables Pressure. In the Transient Results tree view. 2. Click the Trn Results tab. . Right-click Simulation > Transient Analysis > Solver > Solver Control and select Edit. there is no need to revisit the initialization settings. The steady state and transient analyses will be sequenced by setting up the configurations of these analyses in a subsequent step. Velocity. All rights reserved. In the Outline tree view. double click Simulation > Transient Analysis > Solver > Output Control. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Therefore. Value a Value ExpFunction a Click Enter Expression to enter text. Modifying the Solver Control 1. click Add new item click OK. 5. set Name to Transient Results 1. 3 [s] a Click the ellipsis icon to select items if they do not appear in the drop-down list. Coeff. Var. smoke Output Frequency > Option Output Frequency > Time List b Time List 1. Click OK to set the solver control parameters. 4.

All rights reserved. 89 . Configuring Simulation Control With two types of analysis for this simulation. 7. configuration control is used to sequence these analyses. Inc. Set Name to Transient. Apply the following settings Release 12. Configuration Control for the Steady State Analysis To set up the Steady State Analysis so that it will start at the beginning of the simulation: 1. This reduces the size of the minimal results files. Velocity. In the Transient Results tree view. 8. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Each object can result in the production of many transient results files. Click OK. 3.Configuring Simulation Control 5. Click OK. In the Outline tree view. 2. 6. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Apply. and This creates a second transient results object. Apply the following settings Tab General Settings Setting Flow Analysis Value Steady State Analysis Activation Conditions > Activation Condition Start of Simulation 1 > Option 6. Configuration Control for the Transient Analysis To set up the Transient Analysis so that it will start upon the completion of the Steady State Analysis: 1. 3. 5.0 . and data for only the three selected variables. 2 s and 3 s. A full results file is always written at the end of the run. ensure that Simulation Control is expanded. smoke Time Interval 4 [s] a A transient results file will be produced every 4 s (including 0 s) and at 1 s. Right-click Simulation Control > Configurations and select Insert > Configuration. Click OK. Apply the following settings to Transient Results 2: Setting Option Output Variables List Output Frequency > Option Output Frequency > Time Interval a Value Selected Variables Pressure. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. Right-click Simulation Control > Configurations and select Insert > Configuration. click Add new item click OK. 4. Inc. Set Name to Steady State. 4. The files will contain no mesh. set Name to Transient Results 2.

Inc.cfg.Writing the CFX-Solver Input File Tab General Settings Setting Flow Analysis Value Transient Analysis Activation Conditions > Activation Condition End of Configuration 1 > Option Activation Conditions > Activation Condition Steady State 1 > Configuration Name Run Definition Configuration Execution Control Configuration Execution Control > Initial Values Specification Selected Selected Configuration Execution Control > Initial Configuration Results Values Specification > Initial Values > Initial Values 1 > Option Configuration Execution Control > Initial Steady State Values Specification > Initial Values > Initial Values 1 > Configuration Name 5. 4. Apply the following settings: Setting File of type File name 3. Apply the following settings Setting Solver Input File Edit Configuration Value CircVent.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. All rights reserved.mdef Obtaining Solutions to the Steady-State and Transient Configurations You can obtain a solution to the steady-state and transient configurations by using the following procedure. This will create CircVent. Start CFX-Solver Manager.mdef Global Settings Release 12.cfg and Transient. .0 . select File > Define Run. 2. Value CFX-Solver Input Files (*. 1. Writing the CFX-Solver Input File 1. 90 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. From the menu bar. Click Save. right-click Simulation Control and select Write Solver Input File. Quit CFX-Pre. 3.mdef as well as a directory named CircVent that contains SteadyState. saving the case (. Inc.cfx) file. From the Outline tree view. Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.mdef) CircVent.

P . For a smoother surface. ensure that the check box beside Post-Process Results is cleared and click OK to close the message indicating the successful completion of the simulation. Click Apply. On the Start CFD-Post dialog box. Upon the successful completion of the transient configuration. select SteadyState_001. showing the smoke emanating from the vent. you will create an isosurface to illustrate the pattern of smoke concentration. The residual for the smoke equation is also plotted but registers no values since it is not initialized. 9.Mom. This ensures that the view is set to a position that is best suited to display the results. Upon the successful completion of the combined steady-state and transient configurations. the mass conservation equation and equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence eddy dissipation). V .Mass. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. set Workspace to Run CircVent 001. Notice that the text output generated by the CFX-Solver in the Run Transient 001 Workspace will be more than you have seen for steady-state problems.0 . 6. The Momentum and Mass tab contains four of the plots and the other two are under Turbulence Quantities. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Variable Value 5. This is because each timestep consists of several inner (coefficient) iterations. The surface is rough because the mesh is coarse. or under Location on the toolbar. it could be a surface consisting of all points where the velocity is 1 [m s^-1]. and you will save the animation as an MPEG file. Inc. At the end of each timestep. Click OK to accept the default name.Mom.K (the three momentum conservation equations. Inc. 4. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post In this tutorial. In the CFX-Solver Manager. 1. select Shut down CFX-Solver Manager and click OK. Click Start Run. 7. information about various quantities is printed to the text output area. 8. In the Workspace drop-down menu. Displaying Smoke Density Using an Isosurface An isosurface is a surface of constant value of a variable. click Isosurface. For instance. In CFD-Post. Also. W . you would re-run the problem with a smaller mesh length scale. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.005 [kg m^-3] Release 12. 5. K-TurbKE. right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). the solution of the transient configuration starts automatically. select Tools > Post-Process Results. Finally. From the menu bar. The residual plots for six equations will appear: U .Viewing the Results in CFD-Post 4. All rights reserved. and E-Diss. select Insert > Location > Isosurface. ensure that the check box beside Post-Process Results is cleared and click OK to close the message indicating the successful completion of the transient solution. 91 . In this case.Mom. 10. you are going to create an isosurface of smoke concentration (smoke is the Additional Variable that you specified earlier). Upon the successful completion of the steady-state configuration. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. The residual for the smoke equation is now plotted under the Additional Variables tab. you will view results at different time steps. 11. The surface will be a constant color because the default settings on the Color tab were used. • • • A bumpy surface is displayed. Value smoke 0. you will animate the results to view the dispersion of smoke from the vent over time. 2. CFX-Solver Manager will start with the solution of the steady-state configuration. From the menu bar.

6. Zoom in and rotate the geometry. Click Apply to create the title. 1. When Color Mode is set to either Constant or Use Plot Variable for an isosurface.002 kg/m^3 after Note Further text will be added at a later stage to complete this title. note that <aa> has been added to the end. 3. the isosurface is displayed in one color. Release 12. enter the following text. When you have finished. Click the Location tab to modify the position of the title. You can see that Partial results files were saved (as requested in CFX-Pre) for all time steps in the transient configuration except for the last one.0 . After a short pause. To experiment with the position of the text. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Set Type to Time Value. 2. 3. experiment by changing the Value setting so that you can see the shape of the plume more clearly. the step of the Simulation. Right-click a blank spot in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). In Geometry. In the Text String box. you will add text to the viewer so that the printed output has a title. . The Timestep Selector shows the Configuration. 8. In the text line. Load the time value of 4 s using the Timestep Selector. Click Timestep Selector . This is where the time value will be placed. the results that are immediately available are those at the final time step. the Current Timestep (located just below the title bar of the Timestep Selector) will be updated with the new time step number. All rights reserved. 4. Isosurface showing smoke concentration of 0. Inc. in this case. 5. 7. set Value to 0. Select Insert > Text from the menu bar or click Create text Click OK to accept default name. The smoke has now spread out even more. 4.Viewing the Results at Different Time Steps • 6. . Load the results for a Time value of 2 s by double-clicking the appropriate row in the Timestep Selector. the Step (outer loop) number. 92 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select Embed Auto Annotation. 2. Double-click some more time values to see how the smoke plume grows with time. as required. Adding a Title First. 7. Generating Titled Image Files You can produce titled image output from CFD-Post. 5. Finish by loading a time value of 12 s. The default settings for text objects center text at the top of the screen.002 [kg m^-3].© 2009 ANSYS. at t = 30 s (this is nominally designated Final State). and is being carried by the wind. Viewing the Results at Different Time Steps When CFD-Post is loaded. 1. change the settings on the Location tab. the Time (simulated time in seconds) of the configuration and the Type of results file that was saved at that time step for the configuration.

next to Repeat is not selected (not depressed).mpg. set the path location to a different directory. In the Timestep Selector. This will be slow. Under the Appearance tab. Turn off the visibility of the text object to hide it. 4. or click Save Picture Set Format to JPEG. In the object tree of the Animation dialog box. click Timesteps. 1. In this section you will save an image in JPEG format. 4. To save the file. 12. 6. Ensure that the Repeat forever button Select Save Movie. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. 13. you use the Animation dialog box. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. By selecting this Release 12. Click Save to set the file name and directory. Click Save. Click Play the animation • • • . but the animation has not yet been produced. there is a check box called Save Frames As Image Files. 6. 3. Browse to the directory where you want the file saved. use an application that supports JPEG files. 5.0 . Position the geometry so that you will be able to see the plume of smoke. Inc. 8. change Color Mode to User Specified and select a new color. Inc. 10. This sets the path and name for the file. Set File name to CircVent. To view the file or make a hard copy. 93 . Note To explore additional animation options. 14. Set Format to MPEG1. since results for each timestep will be loaded and objects will be created. 7. 2. 9. The movie will be created as the animation proceeds. The movie file name (including path) has been set. JPEG output CFD-Post can save images in several different formats. Click Browse 11. Generating a Movie You can generate an MPEG file to show the transient flow of the plume of smoke. ensure that a time value of 0 s is loaded. 7. Click Browse next to the File data box. click Save on the Save Picture dialog box.Generating a Movie 8. To generate a movie file. click the Options button. Enter a name for the JPEG file. On the Advanced tab of Animation Options. 2. Select File > Save Picture. Click Animation . you need to use a viewer that supports the MPEG format. Click More Animation Options to show more animation settings. Click Apply. 1. next to Save Movie. . 8. Ensure that Quick Animation is selected. 9. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 5. To view the movie file. If required.

the JPEG or PPM files used to encode each frame of the movie will persist after movie creation.0 . All rights reserved. otherwise. they will be deleted. .© 2009 ANSYS. When you have finished. Inc. 94 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 15. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. quit CFD-Post.Generating a Movie check box. Release 12. Inc.

Creating vector plots in CFD-Post with uniform spacing between the vectors. 96) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. Inc. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details General Mode Steady State Ideal Gas Single Domain Shear Stress Transport Isothermal Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Symmetry Plane Wall: No-Slip Wall: Free-Slip Timestep CFX-Solver Manager CFD-Post Parallel processing Plots Default Locators Outline Plot (Wireframe) Sampling Plane Streamline Vector Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. 95) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. Inc. 96) Before You Begin (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Flow Around a Blunt Body This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. Using free-slip wall boundaries as a compromise between accurate flow modeling and computational grid size. 105) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • Solving and post-processing a case where the geometry has been omitted on one side of a symmetry plane. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Accurately modeling the near-wall flow using Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. 95 Physical Time Scale Component CFX-Pre . 97) Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Running the CFX-Solver in parallel (optional). All rights reserved.0 .Chapter 7. 101) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. 96) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Creating a macro using power syntax in CFD-Post.

The near-wall flow will then be modeled using Shear Stress Transport. only half of the geometry will be used to find the CFD solution. All rights reserved. 96 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The overall approach to solving this problem is to first set the free-slip wall boundaries on the sides of and above the domain. Inc. and with a Eddy Length scale value of 0. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. Since both the geometry and the flow are symmetric about a vertical plane. which corresponds to 5% turbulence. The turbulence will be set to Intensity and Length scale with a value of 0.0 . External Air Flow Over a Generic Vehicle Body Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. Inc.cse BluntBodyMesh. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • BluntBody.© 2009 ANSYS. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. Vector plots will finally be created to display the near wall flow behavior. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.pre BluntBodyDist. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. a generic vehicle body is placed into an oncoming side wind of 15 m/s.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Volume Other Changing the Color Range Instancing Transformation Lighting Adjustment Symmetry Viewing the Mesh Overview of the Problem to Solve In this tutorial.05.1.gtm Release 12. .1 m. Figure 7. a medium level intensity. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. The goal of this tutorial is to accurately model the behavior of the flow around the body. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

run BluntBody. Click Open. type BluntBody. 3. 61). 2. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 4. In order to reduce computational time. The Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model with automatic wall function treatment will be used because of its highly accurate predictions of flow separation. Select File > Save Case As. Click Save.P3 Release 12. and set the name to BluntBody. 101). The Import Mesh dialog box appears. 4. Ensure that Flow Analysis 1 > Default Domain is deleted. All rights reserved.pre. proceed to the following steps: 1. 1. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. In CFX-Pre. Click Domain . Select General and click OK. it is important to set a realistic reference pressure. When modeling a compressible flow using the ideal gas approximation to calculate density variations. 3). If you want to set up the simulation manually. see The Shear Stress Transport (SST) (p. right-click Default Domain and select Delete. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p.gtm Creating the Domain The flow of air in the domain is expected to be turbulent and approximately isothermal at 288 K. To take advantage of the SST model. 97 . This is because some fluid properties depend on the absolute fluid pressure (calculated as the static pressure plus the reference pressure which is chosen to be 1 atm). Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned off. Inc. the mesh in this tutorial is much coarser than that. If not. Value BluntBodyMesh. Tip For more details. the boundary layer should be resolved with at least 10 mesh nodes. later in this tutorial. For details. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Default Domain generation should be turned off because you will create a new domain manually. select File > New Case. Under File name.0 . Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. 1) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. 2. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 3. Apply the following settings to BluntBody: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Value B1. Importing the Mesh 1. 3. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Defining a Case in CFX-Pre 2. 5. This tutorial uses air as an ideal gas as the fluid. Inc.

Click OK. Inc. Click OK. Hold down the Ctrl key and select Free1 and Free2. select Insert > Regions > Composite Region. All rights reserved. 3. 2. Click beside the Region List dialog box. Creating the Boundaries The simulation requires inlet. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Dimension (Filter) Value 2D 4. 1.Creating Composite Regions Tab Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Value Fluid 1 Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Air Ideal Gas Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature Turbulence > Option 4. For the purpose of creating boundary conditions. 1 [atm] Isothermal 288 [K] Shear Stress Transport Creating Composite Regions An imported mesh may contain many 2D regions. In this case. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Set the name to FreeWalls and click OK. to display the Selection Dialog. Inc. Click Boundary . Under Name. From the main menu. 5. you are going to create a Union between two regions that both require a free-slip wall boundary. Inlet Boundary 1. outlet. 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Flow Regime > Option Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Value Inlet Inlet Subsonic Normal Speed 15 [m s^-1] Release 12. 98 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. it can sometimes be useful to group several 2D regions together and apply a single boundary to the composite 2D region. The regions for these boundaries were defined when the mesh was created (except for the composite region just created for the free-slip wall boundary).© 2009 ANSYS.0 . 3. type Inlet. wall (no slip and free-slip) and symmetry plane boundaries.

By using a free-slip wall boundary. Create a new boundary named Outlet. Click OK. 4.05a 0. If this case were modeling a blunt body open to the atmosphere. Click OK. Inc. This boundary is an approximation that may not accurately represent the true flow conditions. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and the far-field boundary type would be set to either a free-slip wall or a pressure-specified entrainment opening. Create a new boundary named FreeWalls. Inc. the flow modeling will be less accurate but the computational grid size can be reduced by modeling less of the surroundings. • • • On free-slip walls the shear stress is set to zero so that the fluid is not retarded. The velocity parallel to the wall is calculated during the solution. the geometry would match the size and shape of the wind tunnel and use no-slip walls. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 3. 2.Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Turbulence > Option Turbulence > Fractional Intensity Turbulence > Eddy Len. Scale a Value Intensity and Length Scale 0. a much larger domain would be used to minimize the effect of the far-field boundary.0 . 99 . 1. From the problem description. Outlet Boundary 1.1 [m]b b From the problem description. Mass and Momentum > Option Value Wall FreeWalls Free Slip Wall Release 12. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The velocity normal to the wall is also set to zero. If this case were modeling a wind tunnel experiment. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details 3. Value Outlet Outlet Static Pressure 0 [Pa] Free-Slip Wall Boundary The top and side surfaces of the rectangular region will use free-slip wall boundaries. Click OK. You will apply a single boundary to both walls by using the composite region defined earlier.

© 2009 ANSYS. Although the boundaries Body and BluntBody Default are identical (except for their locations). 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details 3.0 . Create a new boundary named Body. just the low Z face) will be assigned the default boundary which is an adiabatic. no-slip wall condition. its location can by conveniently distinguished from the other adiabatic. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 3. . 1. 2. Mass and Momentum > Option Value Wall Body No Slip Wall The remaining 2D regions (in this case. 100 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the Body boundary was created so that. during post-processing. 2. Click OK. Click OK. In this case. Create a new boundary named SymP.Setting Initial Values Symmetry Plane Boundary 1. Value Symmetry SymP Wall Boundary on the Blunt Body Surface 1. no-slip wall surfaces. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W 3. All rights reserved. the name of the default boundary is BluntBody Default. Inc. Value Automatic with Value 15 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] . Setting Initial Values The initial conditions are consistent with inlet boundaries. Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Release 12.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Value BluntBody. 2.0 . you should either ask your system administrator. 103). Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Max. 3. Click Define Run . If you do not want to solve this tutorial in parallel (on more than one processor) or you do not have a license to run the CFX-Solver in parallel.Setting Solver Control Setting Solver Control 1. Click OK. Inc. Obtaining a Solution in Serial When CFX-Solver Manager has started. If using Standalone Mode. 2.def) File 1. If you do not know if you have a license to run the CFX-Solver in parallel. on the Define Run dialog box. proceed to Obtaining a Solution with Distributed Parallel (p. whether produced by a parallel or serial run. proceed to Obtaining a Solution in Serial (p. Iterations Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale Convergence Criteria > Residual Target a Value 60 Physical Timescale 2 [s]a 1e-05 Based on the air speed and the size of the object. 101). 101). you can obtain a solution to the CFD problem by using the following procedure. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Licensing Guide (which is installed with the ANSYS License Manager) for details). CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. 101 . Note The results produced will be identical.cfx) file at your discretion. All rights reserved. the Solver Input File is set.def Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager This tutorial introduces the parallel solver capabilities of CFX. Click Solver Control . 102). proceed to Obtaining a Solution with Local Parallel (p. If you would like to solve this tutorial in parallel across different machines. saving the simulation (. Click Save. Inc. If you would like to solve this tutorial in parallel on the same machine. or query the license server (see the ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS. Release 12. quit CFX-Pre. Alternatively proceed to Obtaining a Solution in Serial (p. 4. Inc. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.

When CFX-Solver is finished. This is the recommended method for most applications. This saves time and. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. the Define Run dialog box should already be open. 105). 102 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 6. Obtaining a Solution with Local Parallel To run in local parallel mode. when multiple machines are used. Release 12. click Add Partition By default. Click Start Run. . Obtaining a Solution in Parallel Background to Parallel Running in CFX Using the parallel capability of the CFX-Solver allows you to divide a large CFD problem so that it can run on more than one processor/machine at once. After the problem has been solved. 4. A number of events occur when you set up a parallel run and then ask the CFX-Solver to calculate the solution: • • • • • • Your mesh will be divided into the number of partitions that you have chosen. Leave Type of Run set to Full. select the check box next to Post-Process Results. Inc. 1. Use the default MeTiS partitioner. If using Standalone Mode. Select Show Advanced Controls. Inc. a single results file is written. If using Standalone Mode. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 4. 10. avoids problems which arise when a CFD calculation requires more memory than a single machine has available. This variable will be used later in this tutorial during post processing. select the check box next to Post-Process Results. with each section running in its own CFX-Solver process. 7. In CFX-Solver Manager. The default is the MeTiS partitioner because it produces more efficient partitions than either Recursive Coordinate Bisection or User Specified Direction. The results that one CFX-Solver process calculates affects the other CFX-Solver processes at the interface between the different sections of the mesh. Set Run Mode to a parallel mode suitable for your configuration. It will be identical to a results file from the same problem run as a serial process. to add more partitions. Click the Partitioner tab at the top of the dialog box. Click OK. The other CFX-Solver processes are slave processes and may be run on other machines. 3. Your model will be divided into two sections. Click Start Run. with one exception: an extra variable Real partition number will be available for the parallel run. 8. for example. 2 partitions are assigned. All rights reserved. All of the CFX-Solver processes are required to communicate with each other and this is handled by the master process. your mesh would be split into a number of partitions but would not be run in the CFX-Solver afterwards. When CFX-Solver is finished. The master process always runs on the machine that you are logged into when the parallel run starts. 2.0 . If required. Click OK. HP MPI Local Parallel. 9. The partition (division) of the CFD problem is automatic. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. The CFX-Solver runs separately on each of the partitions on the selected machine(s).© 2009 ANSYS. the machine you are on must have more than one processor.Obtaining a Solution in Parallel 1. Continue this tutorial from Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. 2. If Type of Run was instead set to Partitioner Only. 3. 5.

The second column shows the number of processors on that machine. The default is the MeTiS partitioner because it produces more efficient partitions than either Recursive Coordinate Bisection or User Specified Direction. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2.Obtaining a Solution in Parallel Continue this tutorial from Text Output when Running in Parallel (p. Release 12. Obtaining a Solution with Distributed Parallel Before running in Distributed Parallel mode.0 . If Type of Run was instead set to Partitioner Only. relative speed and system information does not have to be specified to be able to run on a host. In CFX-Solver Manager. for example. Note Ensure that the machine that you are currently logged into is in the Hosts Name list in the Define Run dialog box. Click Add. the Define Run dialog box should already be open. so another machine must be added. Your model will be divided into two sections. 7. 1. Close the Select Parallel Hosts dialog box. Select the name of another machine in the Host Name list.5. Select Show Advanced Controls. Set Run Mode to a parallel mode suitable for your environment. 4. The name of the machine that you are currently logged into should be in the Host Name list. The Host Name column displays names of available hosts. 104). if any information is missing or incorrect your system administrator should correct the hosts file. The Select Parallel Hosts dialog box is displayed. You are going to run with two partitions on two different machines. The name of the machine is added to the Host Name column. with each section running in its own CFX-Solver process.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Select a machine that you can log into. Note The # processors. 103 . This is where you choose additional machines to run your processes. 8. The third shows the relative processor speed: a processor on a machine with a relative speed of 1 would typically be twice as fast as a machine with a relative speed of 0. The last column displays operating system information. 6. Click Start Run to begin the parallel run. Inc. Your system administrator should have set up a hosts file containing a list of the machines that are available to run the parallel CFX-Solver. 3. 5. 10. 9. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. HP MPI Distributed Parallel. please ensure that your system has been configured as described in the installation documentation. This information is read from the hosts file. Click the Partitioner tab at the top of the dialog box. Leave Type of Run set to Full. your mesh would be split into a number of partitions but would not be run in the CFX-Solver afterwards. Use the default MeTiS partitioner. Click Insert Host • • • • • • • to specify a new host machine.

13. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager.0 4. Click OK. If using Standalone Mode.0 | 5820 50. You will see information similar to the following: +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Job Information | +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ Run mode: Host computer: Job started: partitioning run fastmachine1 Tue Jan 20 14:13:27 2009 This tells you that the information following is concerned with the partitioning.6 4.4 | 19431 50.0 | 11525 100.000E+00 0. 12. you will find: +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Partitioning Information | +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ Partitioning information for domain: BluntBody +------------------+------------------------+-----------------+ | Elements | Vertices | Faces | +------+------------------+------------------------+-----------------+ | Part | Number % | Number % %Ovlp | Number % | +------+------------------+------------------------+-----------------+ | Full | 131878 | 37048 | 11318 | +------+------------------+------------------------+-----------------+ | 1 | 67873 50.609E-01 seconds seconds seconds seconds seconds seconds seconds +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Job Information | Release 12. Click OK on the pop-up message. 104 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.0 . .5 | | 2 | 66865 49.5 | +------+------------------+------------------------+-----------------+ | Sum | 134738 100.4 4. select the check box next to Post-Process Results.000E+00 4.689E-01 5. 14.998E-03 7. All rights reserved.999E-03 0.599E-02 9.0 | 38582 100. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. After the partitioning job has finished.© 2009 ANSYS.Obtaining a Solution in Parallel 11. Inc. Text Output when Running in Parallel The text output area shows what is being written to the output file.0 | 5705 49.0 | +------+------------------+------------------------+-----------------+ +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Partitioning CPU-Time Requirements | +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ Preparations Low-level mesh partitioning Global partitioning information Element and face partitioning information Vertex partitioning information Partitioning information compression Summed CPU-time for mesh partitioning 3.6 | 19151 49. When CFX-Solver is finished.

Process: Slave running on mesh partition: 2 Job started: Thu Nov 28 15:24:55 2005 The machine that you are logged into runs the master process. The CFD-Post features that you have used in earlier tutorials will not be described in detail. Inc. You will also create a vector plot that will let you see how the flow behaves around the body as well as a pressure plot displaying the pressure distribution on the body.0 . The master process in this example is running on the mesh partition number 1 and the slave is running on partition number 2. The CFX-Solver now begins to solve your parallel run: +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Job Information | +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ Run mode: parallel run (HP MPI Distributed Parallel) Host computer: fastmachine1 Par. Process: Master running on mesh partition: 1 Job started: Thu Nov 28 15:19:20 2005 Host computer: slowermachine Par. Inc. This is done by creating an Instance Transform object. for visualization purposes. + Using Symmetry Plane to Display the Full Geometry Earlier in this tutorial you used a symmetry plane boundary because the entire blunt body is symmetrical about a plane. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the output file displays the job information and a pop-up message to indicate completion of the run. • Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +X. you will make a surface streamline. The second machine selected will run the slave process.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ Host computer: Job finished: fastmachine1 Tue Jan 20 14:13:29 2009 Total CPU time: 9. This full geometry will then be displayed using a reflection transform. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In order to show the path of air along the surface of the blunt body.975 ) Seconds ) 0: Minutes: 2.749E-01 seconds or: ( 0: 0: ( Days: Hours: Total wall clock time: 2.000E+00 seconds or: ( 0: 0: ( Days: Hours: 0: Minutes: 0.000 ) Seconds ) This marks the end of the partitioning job. each additional process is run as a slave process. If you had more than two processes.© 2009 ANSYS. Release 12. You can find out which nodes and elements are in each partition by using CFD-Post later on in the tutorial. it was necessary to use only half of the full geometry to calculate the CFD results. When the CFX-Solver finishes. Finally. Manipulating the Geometry You need to manipulate the geometry so that you will be able to see what happens when you use the symmetry plane. you will create an instance transform object to recreate the full geometry. However. 105 . CFD-Post is able to recreate the full data set from the half that was originally calculated. the values of the dimensionless wall distance y will be examined to make sure the mesh used in the simulation was fine enough near the walls. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post In CFD-Post. Due to this symmetry. it is helpful to use the full blunt body. New features will be described in detail. and controls the overall simulation. All rights reserved.

Under the Outline tab.Creating Velocity Vectors Creating an Instance Transform Instance Transforms are used to visualize a full geometry representation in cases where the simulation took advantage of symmetry to solve for only part of the geometry. in User Locations and Plots. Then. You will see the full blunt body. Creating the Sampling Plane A sampling plane is a plane with evenly spaced sampling points on it. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Apply. which. in this case. In this tutorial. 106 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. apply the following settings to Wireframe: Tab View 2. Click Location > Plane and set the name to Reflection Plane. 1. There are three types of transforms that you can use: Rotation. you can modify the Wireframe view to use it as follows: 1. All rights reserved. Reflection/Mirroring. 2. 3. at the same location as the symmetry plane defined in CFX-Pre. 5.© 2009 ANSYS. Translation. Setting Apply Instancing Transform > Transform Value Instance Transform 1 Creating Velocity Vectors You are now going to create a vector plot to show velocity vectors behind the blunt body. select Insert > Instance Transform and accept the default name. Click Apply. . Click Apply. Now the instance transform can be created using this Plane: 4. Zoom so that the geometry fills the Viewer. For example. From the main menu. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +Y. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Render 3. This creates a plane at y=0 by default. Value (Cleared) (Cleared) (Selected) Reflection Plane Setting Definition > Method Show Faces Value ZX Plane (cleared) Using the Reflection Transform You can use the transform when creating or editing graphics objects. you will create a Reflection transform located on a plane.0 . will be a sampling plane. 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Definition Setting Instancing Info From Domain Apply Rotation Apply Reflection Apply Reflection > Plane 6. create the vector plot itself. Inc. Release 12. You need to first create an object to act as a locator. Inc.

You can zoom in on the sampling plane to see the location of the sampling points (where lines intersect).25 Release 12.001. 0 Rectangular 2. 4. Ignore the vertices on the sampling plane and increase the density of the vectors by applying the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Sampling Value Equally Spaced Symbol Size Value Sample Vertex 0. 2.Creating Velocity Vectors This ensures that the changes can be seen. You should be able to see a region of recirculation behind the blunt body.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Vector and accept the default name. 5. 107 . A vector can be created at each sampling point. Click Apply. y= 0.5 [m] 2. -0. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 5. Inc. Turn off the visibility of Sample. All rights reserved. 1 0. 1. Apply the following settings to create a sampling plane that is parallel to the XZ plane and located at x= 6 m. 2. Inc. Create a new plane named Sample. Zoom until the vector plot is roughly the same size as the viewer. 3. Click Apply.001 m and z= 1 m relative to blunt object: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Point Definition > Normal Plane Bounds > Type Plane Bounds > X Size Plane Bounds > Y Size Plane Type Plane Type > X Samples Plane Type > Y Samples Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines 4.5 [m] Sample 20 20 (Cleared) (Selected) Creating a Vector Plot Using Different Sampling Methods 1. There are a total of 400 (20 * 20) sampling points on the plane. Value Point and Normal 6. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Locations Definition > Sampling Symbol 3.© 2009 ANSYS.

7.1 [m] . Click Apply.Displaying Pressure Distribution on Body and Symmetry Plane Tab Setting Definition > # of Points 6. with the mesh length scale decreasing near the body. surface streamlines can be made as follows: 1. 2. Value YZ Plane -0. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method X 4. Value (Cleared) (Selected) Apply Instancing Transform > Transform Value Variable Pressure Instance Transform 1 Creating Surface Streamlines to Display the Path of Air along the Surface of the Body In order to show the path of air along the surface of the blunt body. SymP and Vector 1. Click Apply. Apply the following settings to the boundary named Body: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable View 2. Create a new plane named Starter. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 108 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . Setting Definition > Locations Value SymP Value 1000 Displaying Pressure Distribution on Body and Symmetry Plane 1. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. By zooming in. You will be able to see the mesh around the blunt body. Change the location of the Vector plot by applying the following setting: Tab Geometry 8. you will be able to see the layers of inflated elements near the body. Turn off the visibility of Body. Inc. Click Apply. 3. Click Apply. Apply the following settings to SymP: Tab Render Setting Show Faces Show Mesh Lines 4. Release 12. 3. but still coarse in the region of recirculation. Click Apply. Inc.

Ideally you should confirm that there are several nodes (3 or more) resolving the boundary layer profile. you can reposition some locator objects directly in the viewer by using the mouse. 1. Creating a Surface Plot of y+ The velocity next to a no-slip wall boundary changes rapidly from a value of zero at the wall to the free stream value a short distance away from the wall. The surface streamlines appear on half of the surface of the blunt body. One indicator of the closeness of the first node to the wall is the dimensionless wall distance y . If this is not observed. In the viewer. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Wall functions can be used in these cases to apply an assumed functional shape of the velocity profile. and the solution is not highly accurate. Inc. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Type Definition > Surfaces Definition > Start From Definition > Locations Definition > Max Points Definition > Direction Value Surface Streamline Body Locations Starter 100 Forward 9. This layer of high velocity gradient is known as the boundary layer.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Streamline and click OK to accept the default name. 109 . + + + Release 12. The majority of cases fall somewhere in between these two extremes. Thus.0 . 7. the grid is far too coarse to resolve any of the boundary layer profile. Notice that the streamlines are redrawn as the plane moves. then use the left mouse button to drag it along the X axis. In this tutorial. although the plane still exists. 6. This hides the plane from view. Click Apply. Select the Single Select mouse pointer from the Selection Tools toolbar. click the Starter plane to select it. Turn off the visibility of the plane. Turn on the visibility of the plane named Starter. They start near the upstream end because the starting points were formed by projecting nodes from the plane to the blunt body. and application of the latter has little effect. Other grids are fine enough that they do not require wall functions.Moving Objects 5. The plane appears just upstream of the blunt body. Values larger than this indicate that an assumed logarithmic shape of the velocity profile is being used to model the boundary layer portion between the wall and the first node. Many meshes are not fine enough near a wall to accurately resolve the velocity profile in the boundary layer. a value of y less than or equal to 11 indicates that the first node is within the laminar sublayer of the boundary flow. a coarse mesh is used to reduce the run time. 8. At the lower limit. It is good practice to examine the values of y at the end of your simulation. Inc. where the boundary layer is partially resolved by nodes near the wall and wall functions are used to supplement accuracy where the nodes are not sufficiently clustered near the wall. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. it is highly recommended that more nodes be added near the wall surfaces in order to improve simulation accuracy. All rights reserved. 3. 2. Moving Objects In CFD-Post.

Inc. A surface plot of y can be obtained as follows: 1. apply the following settings to Body: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable View a Value Variable Yplusa Instance Transform 1 Apply Instancing Transform > Transform Click the ellipsis icon to the right of the Variable dropdown menu to view a full list of variables. Demonstrating Power Syntax This section demonstrates a power syntax macro used to evaluate the variation of any variable in the direction of the x-axis. and average values for a specified variable (using conservative values). This is an example of power syntax programming in CFD-Post.0 . normal to the X axis. Click Apply. Turn off the visibility of all previous plots. 1. On each plane. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -X. . it measures and prints the minimum. Click Process. Click Apply. 2. A macro containing CCL and power syntax will be loaded by playing a session file.© 2009 ANSYS. Under the Outline tab. 5. Inc. apply the following settings to BluntBodyDefault: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable View a + + Value Variable Yplusa Instance Transform 1 Apply Instancing Transform > Transform Click the ellipsis icon to the right of the Variable dropdown menu to view a full list of variables. 5. The macro tells CFD-Post to create slice planes. including Yplus. 110 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. y . 3. The Command Editor dialog box can be used to enter any valid CCL command directly. Play the session file named BluntBodyDist. or to commands issued using the graphical user interface. at 20 evenly-spaced locations from the beginning to the end of the domain. The planes are colored using the specified variable. Select Tools > Command Editor from the menu bar. Type the following line into the Command Editor dialog box (the quotation marks and the semi-colon are required): !BluntBodyDist("Velocity u"). maximum. 3.cse. including Yplus. 4.Demonstrating Power Syntax Surface Plot of y+ A surface plot is one which colors a surface according to the values of a variable: in this case. Note The CFD-Post engine can respond to CCL commands issued directly. Under the Outline tab. 4. Release 12. 2. This macro will be executed by entering a line of power syntax in the Command Editor dialog box. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

It contains all of the CCL and power syntax commands and will provide a better understanding of how the macro works. Inc. These were contained in both partitions 1 and 2. Release 12. 111 .999. All rights reserved. The results can be viewed by opening the file in a text editor. The two Isosurfaces show the edges of the two partitions. open the session file in a text editor. Viewing the Mesh Partitions (Parallel Only) If you solved this tutorial in parallel. maximum and average values of the variable at each X location are written to the file BluntBody. To view the content of the session file (which contains explanatory comments). Create an Isosurface of Real partition number equal to 1. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.txt. quit CFD-Post. Create a second Isosurface of Real partition number equal to 1.Viewing the Mesh Partitions (Parallel Only) The minimum. When you have finished looking at the results. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. then an additional variable named Real partition number will be available in CFD-Post 1.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. Inc.0 . The gap between the two plots shows the overlap nodes. You can also run the macro with a different variable.

Inc. .© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Release 12.

All rights reserved. Setting up a time dependent (transient) simulation. Modeling buoyant flow. 113 Time Step Selection Default Locators Transient Example Details General Mode Transient General Fluid Single Domain Laminar Thermal Energy Component CFX-Pre . 120) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • Using CFX-4 Mesh Import. Buoyant Flow in a Partitioned Cavity This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 113) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 114) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Inc. 114) Before You Begin (p. 114) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p.0 . Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. 120) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Buoyant Flow Boundary Conditions Symmetry Plane Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic Wall: Fixed Temperature Output Control Timestep Transient Results File CFD-Post Plots Chart Report Other Release 12. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 115) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p.Chapter 8.

1) Changing the Display Colors (p. You will also create an animation to see changes in temperature with time. . there is no need to solve a steady-state simulation for use as the initial guess. The overall approach for solving this problem is to set up a transient simulation to see how the flow develops starting from stationary conditions. All rights reserved. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: Release 12. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1.0 . while the top is held constant at 5°C.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Transient Animation Overview of the Problem to Solve The goal of this tutorial is to model a buoyancy-driven flow which require the inclusion of gravitational effects. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Since you are starting from stationary conditions. The cavity is also tilted at an angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal. The model is a 2D partitioned cavity containing air with properties defined at 25 °C. You will then model the buoyant flow and create a report outlining the results in CFD-Post. 114 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. The provided mesh was created in CFX-4. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. The bottom of the cavity is kept at a constant temperature of 75°C. Inc. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.

select File > New Case. Apply the following settings: Setting File name Files of type Options > Mesh Units a Value Buoyancy2D. Click Save.geo Buoyancy2D.geoa CFX-4 (*geo) m This file is in your tutorial directory. run Buoyancy2D.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. 115 . 3. Inc. 1.pre Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. later in this tutorial. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned off. 3. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Analysis Type > Option Value Transient Analysis Type > Time Duration > Total 2 [s]a Time Release 12. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Analysis Type The default units and coordinate frame settings are suitable for this tutorial. These errors will be fixed later in the tutorial. 2. Buoyancy2D. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. If you want to set up the simulation manually. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Click Open. Create a new case using General Mode. All rights reserved. 4. The mesh contains labelled regions which will enable you to apply the relevant boundary conditions for this problem. 2. 1) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file.pre. Inc. You will notice physics validation messages as the case is set to Transient.Defining a Case in CFX-Pre • • 2. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. In CFX-Pre. you are going to import a hexahedral mesh originally generated in CFX-4. Default Domain generation should be turned off because you will create a new domain manually. 4. 2. Select File > Save Case As and set File name to Buoyancy2D. For details. Click Analysis Type . Importing the Mesh 1. 3). 120). but the analysis type needs to be set to transient. 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

and the length scale of the model L scale / ( g β ( Tmax − Tmin ) ) . for the simulation. as shown in the diagram above. b In this example the simulation moves forward in 0. right-click Default Domain and select Delete. For details on computing a fluid time scale estimate. 2. 116 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. which are aligned with the default coordinate axes. Creating the Domain You will model the cavity as if it were tilted at an angle of 30°. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.025 s increments until the total time is reached. the total time will be set to 2 seconds since it is the time period we are interested in. ( Tmax − Tmin ) between the top and bottom of the cavity.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. . Click Domain . All rights reserved. Apply the following settings to Buoyancy2D Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Value Primitive 3D Release 12. You can do this by specifying horizontal and vertical components of the gravity vector. see the theory guide.0 . where g is the gravity vector and β is the thermal expansivity.Creating the Domain Tab Setting Analysis Type > Time Steps > Timesteps Analysis Type > Initial Time > Time a Value 0. Ensure that Flow Analysis 1 > Default Domain is deleted.025 [s]b 0 [s] The total time is the total duration. If not. For this tutorial. according to: Δtg = 3. The step size was determined as a function of the temperature difference ( Lscale ) . in real time. To Create a New Domain 1. Click OK. 3. Inc. and set the name to Buoyancy2D.

. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Y Dirn. Ref. Temp. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Buoy.9 [m s^-2] -8. Ensure that the unit setting is correct. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fixed Temperature Value Wall WALLHOT Temperature 75 [C] 3. All rights reserved. as follows: 1. Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Turbulence > Option a Value Fluid 1 Air at 25 C 1 [atm] Buoyant -4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 117 . 5. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click OK. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fixed Temperature Value Wall WALLCOLD Temperature 5 [C] Release 12.Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Domain Models > Buoyancy > Option Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity X Dirn. Create a new boundary named cold. Create a new boundary named hot. 2.5 [m s^-2] 0. Inc.0 . Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Z Dirn. 4. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. Click OK.0 [m s^-2]a 40 [C]b Thermal Energy None (Laminar) b This produces a gravity vector that simulates the tilt of the cavity. so there is no need to visit the Initialization tab. Initialization will be set up using Global Initialization 4. Creating the Boundaries Hot and Cold Wall Boundary Create a wall boundary with a fixed temperature of 75 °C on the bottom surface of the cavity. This is just an approximate representative domain temperature.

118 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click OK. In the Transient Results tree view. Click OK. Setting Output Control 1. 1. 2. . can be used when the geometry and mesh are invariant normal to the symmetry surface. Click the Trn Results tab. All rights reserved. Setting Initial Values You should set initial settings using the Automatic with Value option when defining a transient simulation. Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components Automatic with > Option Value Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components 0 [m s^-1] >U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components 0 [m s^-1] >V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components 0 [m s^-1] >W Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Relative Pressure 0 [Pa] Initial Conditions > Temperature > Temperature 5 [C] 3. Inc. 3. 1. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings Tab Global Settings Setting Value . 2. . Click Output Control . set Name to Transient Results 1. Symmetry Plane Boundary A single symmetry plane boundary can be used for the front and back of the cavity. click Add new item click OK. The default adiabatic wall boundary will be applied automatically to the remaining boundaries. Symmetry. Using this option. 2.0 . 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and Release 12. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location a Value Symmetry SYMMET1.Setting Initial Values 6.© 2009 ANSYS. SYMMET2a Use the Ctrl key to select more than one region. Create a new boundary named SymP. Inc. the first run will use the specified initial conditions (the air is at rest with a temperature of 5 °C) while subsequent runs will use results file data for initial conditions. which can make a 3D problem into a 2D problem. Click OK.

but the default value of 1. b An RMS value of at least 1. Inc.Setting Solver Control 4. Apply the following settings to Transient Results 1: Setting Option Output Variables Lista Output Frequency > Option Output Frequency > Time Interval a Value Selected Variables Pressure. Value Buoyancy2D. 2. saving the simulation (. which ensures no net imbalance. which is 4 times the time step that was set up earlier. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3.© 2009 ANSYS. the Solver Input File is set. Temperature. Use the Ctrl key to select multiple items.1 [s]b Click the ellipsis icon to select items if they do not appear in the drop-down list. Click OK. Velocity Time Interval 0. Choosing a smaller time interval would simply result in more output files. If using Standalone Mode. on the Define Run dialog box. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Advection Scheme > Option Convergence Control > Max. The Time Interval option specifies the simulation time interval between the writing of each file. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. quit CFX-Pre. Inc. Coeff. Setting Solver Control 1. The time interval will be set to 0. 3.1 s. 119 . It is recommended to set the maximum coefficient loops to between 3 and 5. Click OK. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. There is no need to set a smaller time interval because it does not affect the solution accuracy. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.E-5 is usually required for adequate convergence.0 . CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and.E-4 is sufficient for demonstration purposes. Click Solver Control . Click Define Run . Click Save.def) File 1. it was chosen to be 5.E-4b The maximum coefficient loops option determines the maximum number of iterations per time step.cfx) file at your discretion.def Release 12. 4. For this tutorial. b 5. Loops Convergence Criteria > Residual Type Convergence Criteria > Residual Target a Value High Resolution 5a RMS 1.

Contour Plot of Temperature 1. Inc. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Accept the default name by clicking OK. 3. Click OK.0 . 4. Click the Report Viewer tab. experiment with the various settings for Mesh Report. make an animation to see changes in temperature with time. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. under Report. Physics Report and other report objects. Set Locations to SymP. Click the 3D Viewer tab and right-click a blank area of the viewer. 6. information about various quantities is printed. you will view a report that is created with little effort: 1. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. you will create a customized report in CFD-Post. optionally. You can load different timesteps using the Timestep Selector dialog box. Each timestep consists of several iterations. These settings control the report contents. . In the Outline tree view. Simple Report First. Click Start Run. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post In this section. 3. 1. 2. Note that the report loads with some automatically-generated statistical information. since CFD-Post loads values for the last timestep by default. Plots for Customized Reports Here. Click Apply. and after the timestep. you will create the following objects in preparation for generating a more customized report: • • • • • • Contour plot of temperature Point locators (for observing temperature) Comment Figure showing the contour plot and point locator Time chart showing the temperature at the point locator Table. 2. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. The contour plot shows the temperature at the end of the simulation. 4.Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager When CFX-Pre has shut down and CFX-Solver Manager has started. Set Variable to Temperature. 120 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. then select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. Release 12. You will also. If using Standalone Mode. you can click Refresh to see the changes to your report. 2. you can obtain a solution to the CFD problem by using the following procedure. Select Insert > Contour from the main menu. On the Report Viewer tab. 5. accessible by selecting Tools > Timestep Selector from the main menu. Note Recall that the output displayed on the Out File tab of the CFX-Solver Manager is more complicated for transient problems than for steady-state problems.

the information contained in the figure. A comment object appears in the tree view. Click Apply. close to where the average temperature is going to be. 0. Time Chart of Temperature Time charts use expressions or a point locator to plot the variation of a scalar value with time. The Make copies of objects check box determines whether or not the objects that are visible in the viewer are copied. turn off the visibility of the contour plot. 4.098. In this tutorial. type: This is a sample paragraph. 2.052. Set Method to XYZ. If objects are copied. Inc. 6. select Insert > Location > Point. Accept the default name by clicking OK. Release 12. From the main menu.© 2009 ANSYS. Note the location of Point 1 in the viewer. By selecting a figure. Accept the default name by clicking OK. Select Insert > Figure from the main menu. In the large text box. Since you are not using multiple views or figures. 9. Inc. the check box setting does not matter. 2. lighting and the visibility setting of each object in the tree view. such as the camera angle. 2.0 . 10. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. time later on in this tutorial. Set Point coordinates to 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. under the Report object.00125. 2. 3. The two points were chosen to be located half way in between the bottom and top cavity. Click Apply. zoom level. 7. Accept the default name by clicking OK.05. Right-click the Point 2 object in the tree view and select Edit from the shortcut menu. 121 . Figure Figures are CCL objects that can be used to store and switch between different views in a given viewport. 3. Select Insert > Chart from the main menu. then the copies are used in the figure instead of the originals. Accept the default name by clicking OK. is applied to the active viewport and is usable in reports. A figure object will appear under the Report branch in the tree view. 4. Click Create comment . 1. Set Heading to Buoyant Flow in a Partitioned Cavity. 3. 5. Set Type to XY-Transient or Sequence. 1. 0. the variation of temperature versus time will be plotted. Right-click the Point 1 object in the tree view and select Duplicate from the shortcut menu. Point Locators Two points will be created to generate a time chart of temperature vs.Plots for Customized Reports Before proceeding. 8. Click the 3D Viewer tab. Note the location of Point 2 in the viewer. Change the x-coordinate to 0. Accept the default name by clicking OK. Comment 1. 3. 1.

3. the chart will be regenerated only when you manually refresh it. . 122 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 15. Click the Data Series tab. All rights reserved. Set Data Selection > Variable to Temperature.© 2009 ANSYS. Click the Y Axis tab. It may take some time for the chart to appear because every transient results file will be loaded in order to generate the time chart. A table object will appear under the Report branch in the tree view. A second chart line will appear in the chart. Ensure that the Refresh chart on Apply check box (at the bottom of the details view) is selected. Click Apply. . 12. Set Data Selection > Expression to Time. Select Insert > Table from the main menu. Set Title to Temperature versus Time. Set the following: Cell A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 Value Location Point 1 Point 2 Temperature =probe(Temperature)@Point 1 =probe(Temperature)@Point 2 The table shows temperatures at the end of the simulation. A chart object will appear under the Report branch in the tree view. Right-click in the Data Series list box and select New. This causes the chart to be regenerated in the Chart Viewer tab each time you apply changes in the details view. Release 12.) 14. 10. since CFD-Post loads values for the last timestep by default. 7. 18. Click Apply.Plots for Customized Reports 4. You can load different timesteps using the Timestep Selector dialog box. 9. (When the Refresh chart on Apply check box is cleared. 11. Inc. Table of Temperature Values 1. 13. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. or click New Set Name to Temperature at Point 1. 8. Set Name to Temperature at Point 2. accessible by selecting Tools > Timestep Selector. Click New (on the Data Series tab). Inc. Accept the default name by clicking OK. 5. Set Location to Point 1. Click the X Axis tab. representing the temperature at Point 2. 2. 17. 6. One way to refresh the chart is to click the Refresh button at the top of the Chart Viewer tab. Set Location to Point 2.0 . 16.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Use the animation feature to see the changing temperature field.© 2009 ANSYS. Look at the report in the Report Viewer tab. 123 . in addition to the automatically-generated objects that you saw earlier when creating a simple report. quit CFD-Post.0 . All rights reserved. Animations You may want to create an animation of the buoyant flow over time. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. The animation feature was used in Flow from a Circular Vent (p. Note that. 79). time chart and table described above. this report also includes the customized figure.Customized Report Customized Report Right-click the Report object and select Refresh Preview from the shortcut menu. Completion When you have finished. Release 12.

0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc.Release 12. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc.

125) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. Free Surface Flow Over a Bump This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 126) Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre (p. 134) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p.Chapter 9. 125 . Inc. (The refined mesh aids in the development of a sharp interface between the liquid and gas. Set up appropriate boundary conditions for a free surface simulation.) Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Buoyant Flow Multiphase Boundary Conditions Homogeneous Model Inlet Opening Outlet Symmetry Plane Wall: No Slip CEL (CFX Expression Language) Mesh Adaption Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Default Locators Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon Isothermal Component CFX-Pre Release 12. 126) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.) Use mesh adaption to refine the mesh where the volume fraction gradient is greatest. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 126) Approach to the Problem (p. (Free surface simulations are more sensitive to incorrect boundary and initial guess settings than other more basic models. 140) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will set up a 2D problem in which you: • • • Import a mesh. 126) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 135) Using a Supercritical Outlet Condition (p. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . 126) Before You Begin (p.

1) Changing the Display Colors (p. 3). Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. you will use mesh adaption to improve the accuracy of the downstream simulation. 126 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 134).pre Bump2DExpressions. Later. run Bump2D. Approach to the Problem A geometry and mesh is provided.26 m/s. The downstream boundary conditions (the height of the water) were estimated for this tutorial. The geometry consists of a 2D channel in which the bottom of the channel is interrupted by a semicircular bump of radius 30 mm. The problem environment comprises air at 1 Pa and isothermal water. For details. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. All rights reserved. you can do this using an analytical 1D calculation or data tables for flow over a bump. .pre. Inc.ccl Bump2Dpatran. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Bump2D. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • 2. the incoming water has a turbulence intensity of 5%. Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. You will create a two-phase homogeneous setting and the expressions that will be used in setting initial values and boundary conditions.out Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre. The flow upstream of the bump is subcritical.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Isosurface Polyline Sampling Plane Vector Volume Other Chart Creation Title/Text Viewing the Mesh Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial demonstrates the simulation of a free surface flow. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. For details. the normal inlet speed is 0. 1) Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.

In this case.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z from the shortcut menu. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. 2.0 . 2. an analytical solution for 1D flow over a bump was used to determine the value for DownH in Creating Expressions in CEL (p. Select General and click OK. 3. Click Open. You will examine the effect of the outlet boundary condition in the postprocessing section and confirm that it does not affect the validity of the results. where the pressure above the free surface is constant and the pressure below the free surface is a hydrostatic distribution. To best orient the view. so an approximation is sufficient. Value (Selected) (Selected) (Selected) Creating Expressions for Initial and Boundary Conditions Simulation of free surface flows usually requires defining boundary and initial conditions to set up appropriate pressure and volume fraction fields. In CFX-Pre. select File > New Case. Release 12. You will need to create expressions using CEL (CFX Expression Language) to define these conditions.out PATRAN Neutral (*out *neu) m Viewing the Region Labels Enable the display of region labels so that you can see where you will define boundaries later in this tutorial: 1. 5. proceed to the following steps: 1. Apply the following settings: Setting File name Files of type Options > Mesh units 3. Click OK.Importing the Mesh If you want to set up the simulation manually. and below the free surface is 0 for air and 1 for water. The simulation is not sensitive to the exact outlet fluid height. the following conditions are set and require expressions: • • An inlet boundary where the volume fraction above the free surface is 1 for air and 0 for water. Value Bump2Dpatran. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. Apply the following settings: Tab Settings Setting Show Labels Show Labels > Show Primitive 3D Labels Show Labels > Show Primitive 2D Labels 3. Under File name. In this simulation. Select File > Save Case As. A pressure-specified outlet boundary. 4. It is necessary to specify such a boundary condition to force the flow downstream of the bump into the supercritical regime. Click Save. Inc. Inc. 4. Importing the Mesh 1. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 127 . All rights reserved. This requires you to know the approximate height of the fluid at the outlet. In the Outline tree view. edit Case Options > Labels and Markers. 128). type Bump2D.

Definition 0. 5. 4. These are expressions for the downstream free surface height. Set the name to UpH and click OK to create the upstream free surface height. the calculated density of the fluid (density . the fluid density.DenRef) step((y-UpH)/1[m]) 1-UpVFAir DenH*g*UpVFWater*(UpH-y) step((y-DownH)/1[m]) 1-DownVFAir DenH*g*DownVFWater*(DownH-y) Proceed to Creating the Domain (p. and the downstream pressure distribution. Name DownH DenWater DenRef DenH UpVFAir UpVFWater UpPres DownVFAir DownVFWater DownPres 5. Select Bump2DExpressions. Creating Expressions in CEL (p. 3. If you have not done so already. Inc. Use the same method to create the expressions listed in the table below.Creating the Domain • • • An initial pressure field for the domain with a similar pressure distribution to that of the outlet boundary. In the Import CCL dialog box. 128) Reading Expressions From a File (p. 2. the upstream volume fractions of air and water. the upstream pressure distribution. 128 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. After the file has been imported. Creating the Domain Set up a homogeneous.ccl to your working directory. 1. Inc. use the Expressions tree view to view the expressions that have been created. Set Definition to 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3. so you can choose to follow either set of instructions. ensure that the Append option is selected. the buoyancy reference density.© 2009 ANSYS. Select File > Import > CCL. two-fluid environment: Release 12.069 [m]. 4. 6. All rights reserved. Click Open. 128). Reading Expressions From a File 1.buoyancy reference density).0 . 128) Either create expressions using the Expressions workspace or read in expressions from the example file provided: Creating Expressions in CEL The expressions you create in this step are the same as the ones provided in Reading Expressions From a File (p. Functions and Variables > Expressions in the tree view and select Insert > Expression.ccl.185 [kg m^-3] (DenWater . and then click Apply. the downstream volume fractions of air and water. 2. . 128).022 [m] 997 [kg m^-3] 1. copy the file <CFXROOT>/examples/Bump2DExpressions. Right-click Expressions.

Inc. 3. Densityc Fluid Models Multiphase > Homogeneous Modeld Multiphase > Free Surface Model > Option Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature Turbulence > Option a Value Water Watera 1 [atm] Buoyant 0 [m s^-2] -g 0 [m s^-2] DenRef (Selected) Standard Isothermal 25 [C] k-Epsilon The models selected here describe how the fluids interact. Inc. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on. 2. 129 . 5. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Buoy. 4.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Add new item and create a new fluid named Water. No mass transfer between the phases occurs in this example. Create a new boundary named inflow. A domain named Default Domain should appear under the Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 branch.0 . 6. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Y Dirn. All rights reserved. Confirm that the following settings are configured: Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Air > Material Value Air Air at 25 C 2. Creating the Boundaries Inlet Boundary 1. Click OK. Apply the following settings (from the problem description): Release 12.b Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Z Dirn. Double-click Default Domain. 7.Creating the Boundaries 1. You do not need to model surface tension. d Always set Buoyancy Reference Density to the density of the least dense fluid in free surface calculations. b c You need to click Enter Expression beside the field first. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Water > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Domain Models > Buoyancy > Option Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity X Dirn. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Ref. The homogeneous model solves for a single solution field. delete Fluid 1 and create a new fluid named Air. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Under Fluid and Particle Definitions.

Scale a Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction a Air UpVFAir Water UpVFWater Click the Enter Expression icon. 2. Inc.05 UpH Basic Settings Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Turbulence > Option Turbulence > Fractional Intensity Turbulence > Eddy Len. All rights reserved. Symmetry Boundaries 1. .Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Value Inlet INFLOW Normal Speed 0. Create a new boundary named outflow. Outlet Boundary 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Setting Value Outlet OUTFLOW Subsonic Static Pressure DownPres Basic Settings Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Flow Regime > Option Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 3. Apply the following settings: Tab Setting Value Symmetrya Basic Settings Boundary Type Release 12. Create a new boundary named front.0 . Inc. 130 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. Click OK. 2.© 2009 ANSYS.26 [m s^-1] Intensity and Length Scale 0. 3.

Create a new boundary named bottom. 3. Create a new boundary named back. Click OK. 5. can be used when geometry and mesh are invariant normal to the symmetry surface. Inc. 4. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Mass And Momentum > Relative Pressure Turbulence > Option Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction 3.Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Location a Value FRONT Symmetry. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Setting Value Symmetry BACK Basic Settings Boundary Type Location 6. 131 . Inc.0 Basic Settings Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Wall Roughness > Option Release 12. which makes a 3D problem into a 2D problem. BOTTOM2. 4. 2. Opening and Wall Boundaries 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. Create a new boundary named top.0 Water 0. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. BOTTOM3 No Slip Wall Smooth Wall Value Opening TOP Entrainment 0 [Pa] Zero Gradient Air 1. All rights reserved. 5.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab Setting Value Wall BOTTOM1.

Click OK.Volume Fraction 1 The values are from the problem specification.Setting Initial Values 6. Inc.26 [m s^-1] >U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components 0 [m s^-1] >V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components 0 [m s^-1] >W Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Option Automatic with Value Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Relative Pressure UpPres Fluid Settings Fluid Specific Initialization Air Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions Automatic with Value > Volume Fraction > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions UpVFAir > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction Fluid Specific Initialization Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Volume Fraction > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction 3. Inc. All rights reserved. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. set up the mesh adaption settings: 1. Setting Initial Values Set up the initial values to be consistent with the inlet boundary conditions: 1. 132 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Water Automatic with Value UpVFWater Setting Mesh Adaption Parameters To improve the resolution of the interface between the air and the water. Release 12. Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components Automatic with Value > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components 0. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings:1 Tab Global Settings Setting Value . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Activate Adaption Save Intermediate Files Adaption Criteria > Variables List Value (Selected) (Cleared) Air. Click OK.0 . Click Mesh Adaption . 2.

The Segregated Volume Faction algorithm would have required a 0. Steps Adaption Criteria > Option Adaption Criteria > Node Factor Value 2 Multiple of Initial Mesh 4 Adaption Convergence Criteria > Max. Param.0 . The values used here were determined through experimentation.25 [s] a > Physical Timescale Advanced Options Multiphase Control Multiphase Control > Volume Fraction Coupling Multiphase Control > Volume Fraction Coupling > Option a (Selected) (Selected) Coupled This value is based on the time it takes the water to flow over the bump.Setting the Solver Controls Tab Setting Adaption Criteria > Max. 133 .25 seconds for the Coupled Volume Fraction algorithm. Setting the Solver Controls Note Setting Max.6 2 Note You can find descriptions of the mesh adaption process and of the parameters you are setting in Mesh Adaption (p. This algorithm typically converges better than the Segregated Volume Faction algorithm for buoyancy-driven problems such as this tutorial.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 100 per Step Advanced Options Node Alloc. 173) in the ANSYS CFX-Pre User's Guide. Click Solver Control . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. Iterations Value 200 Convergence Control >Fluid Timescale Control Physical Timescale > Timescale Control Convergence Control >Fluid Timescale Control 0. as compared with 0. 2. 1. Iter. 3. Note Selecting these options on the solver control activates the Coupled Volume Fraction solution algorithm. per Step of 100 timesteps each (in the previous section). results in a total maximum number of timesteps of 400 (2*100+200=400). Num. Release 12. Number of Levels 1.05 second timescale. Click OK. Iter. Inc. Iterations to 200 (below) and Number of (Adaption) Levels to 2 with a Max. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Max. Inc.

4.cfx) file at your discretion. All rights reserved. monitor the value of a global quantity (for example. Click Define Run . This is because the solution from the old mesh is interpolated onto the new mesh. there is a jump in the residual levels. the waves tend to get carried downstream and out the domain. Hexahedral mesh elements are refined orthogonally.0 .out file includes the number of elements refined and the size of the new mesh. In the supercritical regime. After mesh refinement. In both cases. Convergence to the target residual level is achieved. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. Also confirm that the value of quantities that you are interested in (for example. This is more frequently a problem in the subcritical flow regime. Value Bump2D. downstream fluid height for this case) has reached a steady-state value. When a dialog box appears at the end of the run. on the Define Run dialog box. starting from a results file that you think is converged or from backup results files you have written at different timesteps. It is common for convergence in a residual sense to be difficult to obtain in a free surface simulation. If using Standalone Mode. select Post-Process Results. 2. Information written to the . . look to see where the results are changing (this could be due to the presence of small transient waves). the Solver Input File is set. A new residual plot also appears for the W-Mom-Bulk equation. To satisfy convergence in these cases. Within 100 iterations after CFX-Solver Manager has started. If using Standalone Mode.def Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager Click Start Run. Inc. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Where there is no obvious global quantity to monitor. the first adaption step is performed. Click OK. so the mesh is no longer 2D (it is more than 1 element thick in the z-direction). You can do this by running transient (with timesteps that are small enough to capture transient effects) for a few timesteps. Inc. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. you should view the results to see where the solution is changing. select Shut down CFX-Solver Manager.© 2009 ANSYS. drag for flow around a ship's hull) to see when a steady state value is reached. Click Save. Release 12. due to the presence of small waves at the surface preventing the residuals from dropping to the target level.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 1.def) File 1.def) File 3. quit CFX-Pre. as the waves can travel upstream. 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. saving the simulation (. 134 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

2. Click Apply. 1. Inc. Zoom in so the geometry fills the viewer. Apply the following settings: Release 12.0 . edit Bump2D_001 > Default Domain > front. Clear the check box next to Plane 1. 4. Value Variable Water.3 [m] 0 [degree] Sample 160b 40 (Cleared) (Selected) b The Plane Bounds settings overlap the plane with the wireframe. The Plane Samples settings produce square elements. Select Insert > Location > Plane to create a new plane named Plane 1. All rights reserved. Create a new vector named Vector 1. 3. 3.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post 3. 135 . You can experiment with other values and click Apply to see the results. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Plane Bounds > Type Plane Bounds > X Size Plane Bounds > Y Size Plane Bounds > X Angle Plane Type X Samples Y Samples Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines a Value XY Plane Rectangular 1. Click Apply. You can experiment with other values and click Apply to see the results. 4. 6.Volume Fraction Creating Velocity Vector Plots The next step involves creating a sampling plane upon which to display velocity vectors for Water. Apply the following settings: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable 5. To best orient the view.© 2009 ANSYS.25 [m]a 0. Clear the check box next to front. 5. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. 6. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post Display the distribution of volume fraction of water in the domain: 1. Click OK. In the tree view. right-click on a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. 2.

the aspect ratio of these elements increases. 2. 4. only the velocity of the first non-vapor fluid is available. The other allowed velocities are superficial velocities. In the transition region between different levels of refinement. Inc. . Inc. Click Apply. Zoom in so the geometry fills the Viewer.0 .15 (Selected) 9. Click Apply. 1. 3. Apply the following settings: Tab Color Render Setting Mode Show Faces Show Mesh Lines 5. • • The mesh has been refined near the free surface. see Further Postprocessing (p.© 2009 ANSYS.Velocity Symbol Symbol Size 0. you will view the surface mesh on one of the symmetry boundaries. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. edit front. Avoid performing mesh refinement on high-aspect-ratio hex meshes as this will produce high aspect ratio tetrahedral-elements and result in poor mesh quality.Viewing Mesh Refinement Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Locations Definition > Variable a Value Plane 1 Water. In Outline under Default Domain. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Symbol Setting Definition > Variable Symbol Size Normalize Symbols Value Air. All rights reserved. Click Apply. For details.5 a Because fluids in a free-surface calculation share the same velocity field. 140). 7. Value Constant (Cleared) (Selected) • Release 12. and create a vector plot to visualize the added mesh nodes. 136 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Superficial Velocity 0. 8. Near the inlet. tetrahedral and pyramidal elements are used because it is not possible to recreate hexahedral elements in CFX. create volume objects to show where the mesh was modified. Clear the check box next to Vector 1. Viewing Mesh Refinement In this section.

7. Inc.Viewing Mesh Refinement Figure 9.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Create a new volume named second refinement elements. 137 . Mesh around the bump 6. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Value Isovolume Release 12. You will see a band of green. 8. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Variable Value Isovolume Refinement Level a Definition > Mode Definition > Value Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Show Mesh Lines > Line Width Show Mesh Lines > Color Mode Show Mesh Lines > Line Color a At Value 1 (Cleared) (Selected) 2 User Specified (Green) Click More variables to access the Refinement Level value. Create a new volume named first refinement elements. Inc. 10. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. which indicates the elements that include nodes added during the first mesh adaption. Click Apply. 9.1.

Create a new vector named Vector 2. 138 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 13.Creating an Isosurface to Show the Free Surface Tab Setting Definition > Variable Definition >Mode Definition > Value Color Render Color Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Show Mesh Lines > Line Width Show Mesh Lines > Color Mode Show Mesh Lines > Line Color 11. All rights reserved. Green nodes (Refinement Level 1) were added during the first adaption step. Click Apply. Creating an Isosurface to Show the Free Surface Later in this tutorial. or 2 (because you used a maximum of two adaption levels). 15. Inc. 14. Blue nodes (Refinement Level 0 according to the color legend) are part of the original mesh. this indicates the elements that include nodes added during the second mesh adaption.02 (Selected) Symbol Symbol Symbol Size Normalize Symbols a The variable's magnitude and direction do not matter because you will change the vector symbol to a cube with a normalized size. green. Note that some elements contain combinations of blue. you will create a chart to show the variation in free surface height along the channel. The Refinement Level variable holds an integer value at each node. To make the polyline.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. In Vector 2. The nodal values of refinement level will be visualized next. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . 12. Red nodes (Refinement Level 2) were added during the second adaption step. You will see a band of white (with black lines). Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Locations Definition > Variable a Value Refinement Level At Value 2 White (Selected) (Selected) 4 User Specified (Black) Value Default Domain (Any Vector Variable) Color Mode Variable Variable Refinement Level Cube 0. Click Apply. Zoom in to a region where the mesh has been refined.0 . which is either 0. 1. you will use the Release 12. The data for the chart will be sampled along a polyline that follows the free surface. and red nodes.

139 . then select Isometric View (Y up). Create a new chart named Chart 1.5 Creating a Polyline that Follows the Free Surface Create a polyline along the isosurface that you created in the previous step: 1. A green line is displayed that follows the high-Z edge of the isosurface. 5.© 2009 ANSYS. Value Boundary Intersection front Isosurface 1 Creating a Chart to Show the Height of the Surface Create a chart that plots the free surface height using the polyline that you created in the previous step: 1. Right-click any blank area in the viewer. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The Chart Viewer tab is selected. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Method Boundary List Intersect With 4. Apply the following settings: Tab General Data Series Setting Title Name Location X Axis Y Axis Line Display Variable Variable Symbols Value Free Surface Height for Flow over a Bump free surface height Polyline 1 X Y Rectangle Release 12. Create a new polyline named Polyline 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Creating isosurfaces using this method is a good way to visualize a free surface in a 3D simulation.Creating a Polyline that Follows the Free Surface intersection between one of the symmetry planes and an isosurface that follows the free surface. Start by creating an isosurface on the free surface: 1. Turn off the visibility of Isosurface 1. All rights reserved. 2. select Predefined Camera. Click Apply. 2. Value Water. Create a new isosurface named Isosurface 1. Click Apply. Inc. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Variable Definition > Value 4. Inc. 2.Volume Fraction 0.0 . Turn off the visibility for all objects except Wireframe. 3. 3.

For this tutorial. the relative gas pressure at the outlet should be set to 0 Pa. It is useful to use this variable for vector plots in separated multiphase flow. Tip You can right-click on an existing vector plot and select a new vector variable. As discussed in Creating Expressions for Initial and Boundary Conditions (p. it is often necessary to start with a static pressure outlet condition (as previously done in this tutorial) or an average static pressure condition where the pressure is set consistent with an elevation to drive the solution into the supercritical regime. To find the supercritical solution. The wiggle is due to a small inconsistency between the specified elevation and the elevation computed by the solver to obtain critical conditions at the bump. even though the flow is supercritical.© 2009 ANSYS. This is the fluid volume fraction multiplied by the fluid velocity and is sometimes called the volume flux. the supercritical outlet boundary is usually the most appropriate boundary for the outlet because it does not rely on the specification of the outlet pressure distribution (which depends on an estimate of the free surface height at the outlet). All rights reserved.Superficial Velocity variables. Inc. .Further Postprocessing 3. The outlet condition can then be changed to the supercritical option. The supercritical outlet boundary requires a relative pressure specification for the gas only. The chart shows a wiggle in the elevation of the free surface interface at the inlet. in that the water level rises just before the exit plane. only the velocity or the total energy should be specified.0 . This is related to an over-specification of conditions at the inlet because both the inlet velocity and elevation were specified. 140 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The supercritical outlet condition may admit multiple solutions. For a subcritical inlet. no pressure information is required for the liquid at the outlet. Click Apply. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. as you will only see a vector where a significant amount of that phase exists. The chart illustrates the effect of this. Further Postprocessing You may want to create some plots using the <Fluid>. an approximate outlet elevation is imposed as part of the boundary. Inc. The wiggle is analogous to one found if pressure and velocity were both specified at a subsonic inlet in a converging-diverging nozzle with choked flow at the throat. Release 12. It is evident from this plot that imposing the elevation does not affect the upstream flow. 127). Using a Supercritical Outlet Condition For supercritical free surface flows.

Defining a custom vector to display pressure distribution. 142) Before You Begin (p. Supersonic Flow Over a Wing This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 142) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 147) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • Setting up a supersonic flow simulation. Release 12. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details General Mode Steady State Air Ideal Gas Single Domain Shear Stress Transport Total Energy Inlet (Supersonic) Outlet (Supersonic) Symmetry Plane Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic Wall: Free-Slip Domain Interfaces Timestep CFD-Post Plots Other Fluid-Fluid (No Frame Change) Maximum Timescale Contour Vector Variable Details View Component CFX-Pre Overview of the Problem to Solve This example demonstrates the use of CFX in simulating supersonic flow over a symmetric NACA0012 airfoil at 0° angle of attack. 141 . 142) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. 141) Approach to the Problem (p. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 142) Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. All rights reserved. 147) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. Inc.Chapter 10. 141) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. A 2D section of the wing is modeled.0 . A 2D hexahedral mesh is provided that you will import into CFX-Pre. Using the Shear Stress Transport turbulence model to accurately resolve flow around a wing surface.

For details. All rights reserved. Approach to the Problem A geometry and mesh is provided. Release 12. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. you will start with a conservative time scale that gradually increases towards the fluid residence time as the residuals decrease.02 meters. Inc. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 147). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.01) with an eddy length scale of . 1) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. To solve the simulation.out WingSPS.© 2009 ANSYS. The turbulence intensity is low (. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. If you want to set up the simulation manually. run WingSPS. select File > New Case. In CFX-Pre. 142 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. . WingSPSMesh. 3).0 . 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. Inc. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • 2.pre.Approach to the Problem The environment is 300 K air at 1 atmosphere that passes the wing at 600 m/s. You will create a domain that contains three regions that will be connected by fluid-fluid interfaces. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. proceed to the following steps: 1.pre Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details.

Create a new boundary named Inlet. 2. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on. 2. it is important to set an appropriate reference pressure because some properties depend on the absolute pressure level. type WingSPS. Creating the Boundaries Creating an Inlet Boundary 1.© 2009 ANSYS.out Creating the Domain 1. Value PATRAN Neutral m WingSPSMesh. Select General and click OK. Click Save. 3. Double-click Default Domain and apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressurea Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Turbulence > Option a Value WING ELEMENTS Fluid 1 Air Ideal Gas 1 [atm] Total Energyb Shear Stress Transport When using an ideal gas. Importing the Mesh 1. To best orient the view. Apply the following settings Release 12. b The Total Energy model is appropriate for high-speed flows because it includes kinetic energy effects. Inc. Click Open. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. 4. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings Setting Files of type Options > Mesh Units File name 3. 143 . Click OK. A domain named Default Domain should now appear under the Simulation branch. 4. Select File > Save Case As.Importing the Mesh 2. Inc. 3. Under File name. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . 5. 2. All rights reserved. right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Y up) from the shortcut menu.

Flow Regime > Option Value Outlet OUTLET Supersonic Creating the Symmetry Plane Boundaries 1.01 0. 5. . Turbulence > Option Turbulence > Fractional Intensity Turbulence > Eddy Len.02 [m] 300 [K] Creating an Outlet Boundary 1. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details 3.0 . Apply the following settings Release 12. Inc. Click OK. 4. Create a new boundary named SymP1. Vel. Value Inlet INLET Supersonic Cart. which can make a 3D problem into a 2D problem. Click OK. Inc. Scale Heat Transfer > Static Temperature 3. Create a new boundary named SymP2. 2. 3. Static Pres. All rights reserved. 2. & Pressure 600 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [Pa] Intensity and Length Scale 0.Creating the Boundaries Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Flow Regime > Option Mass And Momentum > Option Mass And Momentum > U Mass And Momentum > V Mass And Momentum > W Mass And Momentum > Rel. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location a Value Symmetry a SIDE1 Symmetry. 144 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Create a new boundary named Outlet. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. can be used when geometry and mesh are invariant normal to the symmetry surface.

0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click OK. Create a new boundary named Top. Click OK. Creating Domain Interfaces The imported mesh contains three regions that will be connected with domain interfaces. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details 3. 2. Create a new domain interface named Domain Interface 1. 8. Inc. 2. 2. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Value Wall WING_Nodes a a If particular items do not appear in the drop-down list. All rights reserved. Create a new boundary named Bottom.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Create a new boundary named WingSurface.Creating Domain Interfaces Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 6. 1. 3. 145 . Click OK. Click OK. Mass And Momentum > Option Value Wall TOP Free Slip Wall Creating a Wall Boundary 1. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 9. Value Symmetry BOTTOM Value Symmetry SIDE2 Creating a Free Slip Boundary 1. click the ellipsis icon to see all available items. 7. Apply the following settings Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Setting the Solver Controls The residence time for the fluid is the length of the domain divided by the speed of the liquid. using values from the problem specification. click the ellipsis icon to see all available items. the result is approximately: 70 [m] / 600 [m s^-1] = 0. Inc. Inc. then the solver will start with a conservative time scale that gradually increases towards the fluid-residence time as the residuals decrease. you will set a maximum timescale. . Click Solver Control .© 2009 ANSYS. Click OK. 2.Setting Initial Values Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Region List Value Fluid Fluid Primitive 2D A a Interface Side 2 > Region List Primitive 2D. 146 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . Setting Initial Values For high-speed compressible flow. Click OK. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: 1 Tab Setting Value Automatic with Value 600 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] Automatic with Value 300 [K] . All rights reserved. 2. Global Settings Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Initial Conditions > Temperature > Option Initial Conditions > Temperature > Temperature 3. Release 12. the CFX-Solver usually requires sensible initial conditions to be set for the velocity field. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Maximum Timescale Value (Selected) 1 The values are from the problem specification. 1. Primitive 2D B a If particular items do not appear in the drop-down list.117 [s] In the next step. 3.

1. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. 4. All rights reserved.cfx) file at your discretion. the Solver Input File is set. Click Define Run . Inc. 147 . 3. Click OK. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Locations Value SymP2 Release 12. quit CFX-Pre. 4. Create a new contour named SymP2Mach. 148) Displaying Temperature Information (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Value WingSPS. Click OK. and the Define Run dialog box is displayed. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. select View Towards -Z by typing Shift +Z. on the Define Run dialog box. 2. 2. with the CFX-Solver input file set.© 2009 ANSYS. 148) Displaying Mach Information The first view configured shows that the bulk of the flow over the wing has a Mach Number of over 1. 2.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.0 . Click Start Run.def Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager At this point. saving the simulation (. If using Standalone Mode. Inc. Apply the following settings Setting File name 3.1 [s] 1. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. To best orient the view.0e-05 Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 148) Displaying Pressure With User Vectors (p. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post The following topics will be discussed: • • • • Displaying Mach Information (p. CFX-Solver Manager is running.def) File Tab Setting Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Maximum Timescale > Maximum Timescale Convergence Criteria > Residual Target 3. 4. Click Save. Value 0. 1. 147) Displaying Pressure Information (p.5. If using Standalone Mode. Zoom in so the geometry fills the Viewer.def) File 1.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Clear the check box next to SymP2Mach. The contour shows that the temperature at the wing's leading edge is approximately 180 K higher than the inlet temperature. Click Apply. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Locations Variable Range 3. Click Apply. 2. 4. Clear the check box next to SymP2Temperature. Create a new contour named SymP2Temperature. . create a contour plot that shows the pressure field: 1. Inc. Create a new variable named Variable 1. Value SymP2 Pressure Global Displaying Temperature Information You can confirm that a significant energy loss occurs around the wing's leading edge by plotting temperature on SymP2. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Locations Variable Range 3. Release 12. Click Apply. 4. Value SymP2 Temperature Global Displaying Pressure With User Vectors You can also create a user vector to show the pressure acting on the wing: 1.© 2009 ANSYS. 148 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. Inc. 1. Create a new contour named SymP2Pressure. Clear the check box next to SymP2Pressure. 6.Displaying Pressure Information Tab Setting Variable Range Min Max # of Contours 5. Value Mach Number User Specified 1 2 21 Displaying Pressure Information To display pressure information.0 .

Create a new vector named Vector 1.Displaying Pressure With User Vectors 2. All rights reserved. Zoom in on the wing in order to see the created vector plot. 4. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Locations Variable Symbol 6.04 Value (Selected) (Pressure+101325[Pa])*Normal X (Pressure+101325[Pa])*Normal Y (Pressure+101325[Pa])*Normal Z Release 12. Click Apply. Apply the following settings Name Variable 1 Setting Vector X Expression Y Expression Z Expression 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Apply. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 5. Symbol Size Value WingSurface Variable 1 0. 7.0 . 149 .© 2009 ANSYS. Inc.

. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Inc.0 . All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

153) Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 151) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p.0 . 162) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • Using a rough wall boundary in CFX-Pre to simulate the pipe wall Creating a fully developed inlet velocity profile using the CFX Expression Language Setting up a Particle Tracking simulation in CFX-Pre to trace sand particles Animating particle tracks in CFD-Post to trace sand particles through the domain Performing quantitative calculation of average static pressure in CFD-Post on the outlet boundary. All rights reserved. 153) Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre (p. Flow Through a Butterfly Valve This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p.Chapter 11. 151 Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon None Component CFX-Pre . Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 153) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Inc. 152) Before You Begin (p. 152) Approach to the Problem (p. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Particle Tracking Boundary Conditions Inlet (Profile) Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Symmetry Plane Wall: No-Slip Wall: Rough CEL (CFX Expression Language) Timestep CFD-Post Plots Auto Time Scale Animation Default Locators Particle Track Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 162) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p.

the inlet will be given a velocity profile that simulates a fully-developed boundary layer. . can lead to a better understanding of why these losses occur. The flow. You will create sand particles and a domain that contains water. 152 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. To increase the accuracy of the simulation. contains sand particles ranging in size from 50 to 500 microns. Inc. You can use the particle-tracking capability of CFX to simulate these effects. All rights reserved.2 mm. The reference temperature is 300 K. water flows at 5 m/s through a 20 mm radius pipe that has a rough internal surface.0 . and for the other part of the simulation they will be one-way coupled. To solve the simulation. Flows can contain particulates that affect the flow and cause erosion to pipe and valve components. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. and implemented to reduce pumping requirements and cost. for one part of the simulation the water and sand will be fully coupled. you will create two sets of identical particles. Reflection Plane Overview of the Problem to Solve Pumps and compressors are commonplace. The equivalent sand grain roughness is 0. Inc. An estimate of the pumping requirement can be calculated based on the height difference between source and destination and head loss estimates for the pipe and any obstructions/joints along the way. Approach to the Problem A geometry and mesh is provided. In this example. which is controlled by a butterfly valve set at an angle of 55° to the vertical axis.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Point Slice Plane Other Changing the Color Range Movie Generation Particle Track Animation Quantitative Calculation Symmetry. the reference pressure is 1 atm. Investigating the detailed flow pattern around a valve or joint however. Improvements in valve/joint design can be simulated using CFD. The first set will be fully coupled to predict the effect of the particles on the continuous phase flow field and allow the particles to influence the flow field. The velocity profile is assumed to be fully developed at the pipe inlet.

pre. All rights reserved. In CFX-Pre. Inc. type PipeValve. select File > New Case. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. If you want to set up the simulation manually. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. 2. Heat transfer and radiation modeling are not used in this simulation. For details. run PipeValve.Before You Begin second set will be one-way coupled but will contain a much higher number of particles to provide a more accurate calculation of the particle volume fraction and local forces on walls. PipeValveMesh.0 . Inc. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1.gtm PipeValve. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 3. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. so the only properties that need to be defined are the density of the sand and the diameter range.pre Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. 162). Release 12. but without affecting the flow field. Click Save.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. proceed to Creating a New Case (p. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • 2. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. 153) Creating a New Case 1. 5. Click Open. 1) Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. Under File name. Value PipeValveMesh. Select File > Save Case As. 3). Select General and click OK. Importing the Mesh 1. 153 . 4.gtm Defining the Properties of the Sand The material properties of the sand particles used in the simulation need to be defined. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > CFX Mesh.

4. and one in which the sand is one-way coupled: 1. 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. A domain named Default Domain should appear under the Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 branch. Click OK. . You will set a Finnie erosion model with a velocity power factor of 2 and a reference velocity of 1 m/s. Inc.Creating the Domain To calculate the effect of the particles on the continuous fluid. However. Rename the duplicate as Sand One Way Coupled. 154 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. particle diameters range from 50 e-6 m. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on.01 kg/s and a “Sand One Way Coupled” boundary condition that has 5000 particles moving with a mass flow rate of 0. to 500 e-6 m. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Material Group Thermodynamic State Material Properties Value Particle Solids (Selected) Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State 2300 [kg m^-3]a > Density Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity > Specific Heat Capacity (Selected) 0 [J kg^-1 K^-1] b Thermodynamic Properties > Reference State (Selected) Thermodynamic Properties > Reference State Specified Point > Option Thermodynamic Properties > Reference State 300 [K]c > Ref.01 kg/s. To optimize CPU usage. Sand One Way Coupled is created with properties identical to Sand Fully Coupled. Click Insert Material then create a new material named Sand Fully Coupled. Full coupling is needed to predict the effect of the particles on the continuous phase flow field but has a higher CPU cost than one-way coupling. between 100 and 1000 particles are usually required. you can create two sets of identical particles. with an average diameter of 250 e-6 m. This provides a more accurate calculation of the particle volume fraction and local forces on walls. All rights reserved. but without affecting the flow field. if accurate information about the particle volume fraction or local forces on wall boundaries is required. and a standard deviation of 70 e-6 m.) For this tutorial you will create a “Sand Fully Coupled” boundary condition that has 200 particles moving with a mass flow rate of 0. c From the problem description. choose either full coupling or one-way coupling between the particle and continuous phase. 1. 5. (These values are defined in the inlet boundary definition. then a much larger number of particles needs to be modeled. This value is not used because heat transfer is not modeled in this tutorial. Creating the Domain Set up an environment that has water and sand defined in two ways—one in which the sand is fully coupled. This allows the particles to influence the flow field. Inc. 2. When you create the domain. The second set uses one-way coupling but contains 5000 particles. The first set should be fully coupled and around 200 particles will be used.0 . Release 12. Under Materials. right-click Sand Fully Coupled and select Duplicate from the shortcut menu. In both cases the sand density is 2300 [kg m^-3]. one-way coupling simply predicts the particle paths during post-processing based on the flow field. Temperature a From the problem description. b 3.

Deviation Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand One Way Coupled > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand One Way Coupled > Morphology > Option Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand One Way Coupled > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand One Way Coupled > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Option Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand One Way Coupled > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Minimum Diameter Release 12.Creating the Domain 2. All rights reserved. 155 Sand One Way Coupled Sand One Way Coupled b Particle Transport Solid (Selected) Normal in Diameter by Mass 50e-6 [m] . 3. Sand Fully Coupled.0 . Under Fluid and Particle Definitions. and Sand One Way Coupled.© 2009 ANSYS. Double-click Default Domain. Inc. Inc. 4. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. which are taken from the problem description: Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Water > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions Value Water Water Sand Fully Coupled to create three new Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand Fully Coupled Sand Fully Coupled a > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand Fully Coupled Particle Transport Solid > Morphology > Option Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand Fully Coupled (Selected) > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand Fully Coupled Normal in Diameter by > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Mass Option Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand Fully Coupled 50e-6 [m] > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Minimum Diameter Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand Fully Coupled 500e-6 [m] > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Maximum Diameter Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand Fully Coupled 250e-6 [m] > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Mean Diameter Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand Fully Coupled 70e-6 [m] > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Std. Apply the following settings. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. delete Fluid 1 and click Add new item materials named Water.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Deviation Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Turbulence > Option Fluid Specific Models Fluid Fluid > Sand Fully Coupled > Erosion Model > Option Value 500e-6 [m] 250e-6 [m] 70e-6 [m] 1 [atm] None k-Epsilonc Sand Fully Coupled Finnie Fluid > Sand Fully Coupled > Erosion Model > Vel. then select Particle Solids > Sand Fully Coupled.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. 5. icon to open the Materials dialog box. Apply the following settings: Tab Setting Value Water | Sand Fully Coupled Fluid Pair Models Fluid Pair Fluid Pairs > Water | Sand Fully Coupled > Particle Fully Coupled Coupling Fluid Pairs >Water | Sand Fully Coupled > Momentum Transfer > Drag Force > Option Fluid Pair Schiller Naumanna Water | Sand One Way Coupled Release 12. Inc. 156 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 > Vel.Creating the Domain Tab Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand One Way Coupled > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Maximum Diameter Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand One Way Coupled > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Mean Diameter Fluid and Particle Definitions > Sand One Way Coupled > Morphology > Particle Diameter Distribution > Std. Power Factor Fluid > Sand One Way Coupled > Erosion Model 1 [m s^-1] > Reference Velocity a Click the Ellipsis Click the Ellipsis icon to open the Materials dialog box. then select Particle Solids > Sand One Way Coupled. All rights reserved. 2. .0 Power Factor Fluid > Sand Fully Coupled > Erosion Model > Reference Velocity Fluid > Sand One Way Coupled 1 [m s^-1] (Selected) Fluid > Sand One Way Coupled > Erosion Model Finnie > Option Fluid > Sand One Way Coupled > Erosion Model 2. Inc. b c The turbulence model applies only to the continuous phase and not the particle phases.

solid spherical particles. The User CEL Function method is more complex. 6. 157) and values from Definition 20 [mm] 5 [m s^-1] Wmax*(abs(1-r/Rmax)^0.0 .143) In the definition of Wprof.1 (p. If you look at the results from these simulations. • Note For complex profiles. but is provided here as an example of how to use this feature. so that the downstream near wall velocity is much lower than the inlet near wall velocity. Click OK. Creating a User CEL Function that uses a user subroutine (linked to the CFX-Solver during execution) to describe the inlet profile. Use a CEL expression to define the velocity profile for the inlet boundary: 1. 157 .Creating the Inlet Velocity Profile Tab Setting Fluid Pairs > Water | Sand One Way Coupled > Particle Coupling Fluid Pairs > Water | Sand One Way Coupled > Momentum Transfer > Drag Force > Option a Value One-way Coupling Schiller Naumann The Schiller Naumann drag model is appropriate for sparsely-distributed. the variable r (radius) is a CFX System Variable defined as: r = x 2+y 2 (Eq. Loading a BC profile file (a file that contains boundary condition profile data).2) Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Insert Expression the problem overview: Name Rmax Wmax Wprof and create the following expressions using Equation 11. and r is the distance from the pipe centerline. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Creating the Inlet Velocity Profile In previous tutorials you have often defined a uniform velocity profile at an inlet boundary. Using a CEL expression is the easiest way to create the profile. but are used in the tutorial Flow in a Process Injection Mixing Pipe (p. it may be necessary to use a User CEL Function or a BC profile file. you will see that downstream of the inlet a boundary layer will develop. Profiles created from data files are not used in this tutorial. so that the boundary layer is already fully developed at the inlet. R max is the pipe radius. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 67). You can create a non-uniform (profile) boundary condition by doing one of the following: • • Creating an expression using CEL that describes the inlet profile. The equation for this is: U = Wmax r ⎞7 ⎛ 1− ⎜ R max ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 (Eq. This means that the inlet velocity near to the walls is the same as that at the center of the inlet. All rights reserved. You can simulate an inlet more accurately by defining an inlet velocity profile. 11. Inc. The one seventh power law will be used in this tutorial to describe the profile at the pipe inlet. 11. Inc.1) where Wmax is the pipe centerline velocity.

x and y are defined as directions 1 and 2 (X and Y for Cartesian coordinate frames) respectively. using values from the problem description: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Mass And Momentum > U Mass And Momentum > V Mass And Momentum > W Fluid Valuesb Boundary Conditions Value Inlet inlet Cart. Inc.Creating the Boundary Conditions In this equation. Vel. Components 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] Wprofa Sand Fully Coupled Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Particle (Selected) Behavior > Define Particle Behavior Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Mass Cart. Create a new boundary named inlet. Componentse Release 12. Componentsc and Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Mass 0 [m s^-1] And Momentum > U Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Mass 0 [m s^-1] And Momentum > V Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Mass Wprofd And Momentum > W Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Particle Uniform Injection Position > Option Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Particle Direct Specification Position > Number of Positions > Option Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Particle 200 Position > Number of Positions > Number Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Particle 0. . Inc. Apply the following settings. Continue with the tutorial at Creating the Boundary Conditions (p. in the selected reference coordinate frame.01 [kg s^-1] Mass Flow > Mass Flow Rate Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Particle Behavior > Define Particle Behavior Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Mass and Momentum > Option Sand One Way Coupled (Selected) Cart. Vel. Vel. 2.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. Creating the Boundary Conditions Inlet Boundary 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 158 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. 2. 158).

The diameter distribution was defined when creating the domain. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. f As you did on the Boundary Details tab. 3. Outlet Boundary 1. 2. Apply the following settings: Release 12. you can also select the Zero Slip Velocity option.01 [kg s^-1] flow of two-way coupled particles. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. Click OK. Value Outlet outlet Subsonic Average Static Pressure 0 [Pa] Symmetry Plane Boundary 1. but not by the 0. Create a new boundary named symP. Inc.Creating the Boundary Conditions Tab Setting Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Mass And Momentum > U Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Mass And Momentum > V Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Mass And Momentum > W Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Particle Position > Option Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Particle Position > Number of Positions > Option Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Particle Position > Number of Positions > Number Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way Coupled > Particle Position > Particle Mass Flow Rate > Mass Flow Rate a Value 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] Wproff Uniform Injection Direct Specification 5000 0. The fluid flow will therefore be influenced by the 0. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. e Instead of manually specifying the same velocity profile as the fluid. 159 . Create a new boundary named outlet. this option would override those settings for this boundary only. you can also select the Zero Slip Velocity option. d As you did on the Boundary Details tab.0 . b Do not select Particle Diameter Distribution. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Flow Regime > Option Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 3. The latter is not influenced by the one-way coupled particles. One-way coupled particles are tracked as a function of the fluid flow field.01 [kg s^-1] Use the Expressions details view to enter Wprof. 2. c Instead of manually specifying the same velocity profile as the fluid.01 [kg s^-1] flow of one-way coupled particles.

4. Apply the following settings: Tab Fluid Values Setting Boundary Conditions Value Sand Fully Coupled Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled 0.2 [mm]a Sand Fully Coupled Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Velocity > Restitution Coefficient Option Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Velocity > 0. For this tutorial. Apply the same setting values for Sand One Way Coupled as for Sand Fully Coupled.Creating the Boundary Conditions Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location a Value Symmetrya symP Symmetry can be used when geometry and mesh are invariant normal to the symmetry surface. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Boundary Details Setting Boundary Type Location Wall Roughness > Option Wall Roughness > Sand Grain Roughness Value Wall pipe wall Rough Wall 0. a From the problem description.9 Coupled > Velocity > Perpendicular Coeff. Editing the Default Boundary 1.0 . 3.8b Perpendicular Coeff. 2. b This value would typically come from experimental or reference data. . Pipe Wall Boundary 1. Create a new boundary named pipe wall. 2. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. edit the boundary named Default Domain Default. a This value would typically come from experimental or reference data. Click OK. Release 12. Inc. 160 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. In the Outline tree view.9a > Velocity > Perpendicular Coeff. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. so their perpendicular coefficients are different. Boundary Conditions > Sand Fully Coupled > Velocity > 1 Parallel Coeff. Click OK. All rights reserved. Boundary Conditions Sand One Way Coupled Boundary Conditions > Sand One Way 0. the pipe wall and butterfly valve are considered to be made of different materials. Make sure that you change the units to millimeters. The thickness of the first element should be of the same order as the roughness height.

Num. Integration Steps (Selected) Release 12. 161 . Particle Intg. Click OK. Time Step (Selected) Particle Integration > Max.Setting Initial Values 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. 2. Click Solver Control . Click OK. Inc. 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Particle Control Setting Advection Scheme > Option Value High Resolution Particle Integration > Max.© 2009 ANSYS. Setting the Solver Controls 1. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option > W 3. All rights reserved. Time Step 1e+10 [s] > Value Particle Termination Control (Selected) Particle Termination Control > Maximum Tracking (Selected) Time Particle Termination Control > Maximum Tracking 10 [s] Time > Value Particle Termination Control > Maximum Tracking (Selected) Distance Particle Termination Control > Maximum Tracking 10 [m] Distance > Value Particle Termination Control > Max. Particle Intg.0 . Value Automatic with Value 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] Wprof . Setting Initial Values Set up the initial values to be consistent with the inlet boundary conditions: 1. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

You will then create an animation of particle tracks through the domain. 2.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. you will first plot erosion on the valve surface and side walls due to the sand particles. Num. Edit the object named Default Domain Default. which corresponds to pressure and shear stress due to the flow. Value PipeValve.def) File 1. 162 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. For example. All rights reserved. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. on the Define Run dialog box. 1. the Solver Input File is set. Click Define Run . 4. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. . 1.0 . Click Save. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. the tracking time of 10 seconds would allow a particle to get caught in an eddy for a reasonable amount of time.© 2009 ANSYS. Integration Steps > Value a Value 10000a This value controls the number of mesh elements a particle is allowed to cross and therefore must take into account the size and density of the mesh. quit CFX-Pre.cfx) file at your discretion. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post In this section. saving the simulation (.def Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager When CFX-Pre has shut down and CFX-Solver Manager has started. 4. 3. Ensure the Define Run dialog box is displayed and click Start Run. Erosion Due to Sand Particles An important consideration in this simulation is erosion to the pipe wall and valve due to the sand particles. Click OK. Apply the following settings using the Ellipsis as required for variable selection Release 12. you can obtain a solution to the CFD problem by using the procedure that follows.def) File Tab Setting Particle Termination Control > Max. Click OK. If using Standalone Mode. 3. 2. Inc. A good indication of erosion is given by the Erosion Rate Density parameter. 2. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Note The numeric values in the preceding table are all designed to put a high upper limit on the amount of processing that will be done. If using Standalone Mode.

Displaying Erosion on the Pipe Wall Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Range Min Max a Value Variable Sand One Way Coupled. The default object draws 25 tracks as lines from the inlet to outlet.© 2009 ANSYS. the index range. 6. Displaying Erosion on the Pipe Wall Set the user specified range for coloring to resolve areas of stress on the pipe wall near of the valve: 1. Ensure that the check box next to Res PT for Sand Fully Coupled is cleared. You are going to make use of the default object for Sand Fully Coupled. b This range is used to gain a better resolution of the wall shear stress values around the edge of the valve surfaces.Erosion Rate Density User Specified 0 [kg m^-2 s^-1] 25 [kg m^-2 s^-1] Setting the Particle Tracks Default particle track objects are created at the start of the session. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Erosion Rate Density because many more particles were calculated for Sand One Way Coupled. 2. Inc.Erosion Rate Densitya User Specified 0 [kg m^-2 s^-1] 25 [kg m^-2 s^-1]b This is statistically better than Sand Fully Coupled. Click Apply. The Info tab shows information about the total number of tracks. 3. As can be seen. Apply the following settings: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Range Min Max 5. and the track numbers that are drawn. Click Apply. Edit the object named Res PT for Sand Fully Coupled. 4. Ensure that the check box next to Default Domain Default is cleared. Erosion of the low Z side of the valve would occur more quickly than for the high Z side. Apply the following settings: Release 12. Inc. fill the check box next to Default Domain Default to see how sand particles have deflected off the butterfly valve then to the pipe wall. All rights reserved. Edit the object named pipe wall. 163 . Optionally. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. 1. Value Variable Sand One Way Coupled. 3.0 . One particle track is created for each set of particles in the simulation. the highest values occur on the edges of the valve where most particles strike.

Click X Axis to choose it as the normal direction. 2. Click Apply. 5.0 . 3. Apply the following settings: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Symbol Show Symbols Show Symbols > Max Time Show Symbols > Min Time Show Symbols > Interval Show Symbols > Symbol Show Symbols > Scale 4. by double-clicking Default Domain to open up the Details panel. Edit the object named Res PT for Sand Fully Coupled. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1. Note Alternatively. . Right-click on a blank area anywhere in the viewer. Click Apply. . 3. Clear Show Tracks. Click Apply. Inc. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Y up) from the shortcut menu. you can apply Reflect/Mirror. Right-click an edge of the flat side on the half cylinder and select Reflect/Mirror from the shortcut menu. 4. Value Variable Sand Fully Coupled. Similar effects can be achieved in more detail using the Keyframe Animation option. Creating the Particle Track Symbols 1.07 [s] Ball 1. 3. 4. Symbols are placed at the start of each track. Select Res PT for Sand Fully Coupled: Release 12. 2.Creating the Particle Track Symbols Tab Geometry a Setting Max Tracks Value 20a This value improves the resolution of the tracks generated. All rights reserved. Turn off the visibility for all objects except Wireframe.© 2009 ANSYS. In the Instancing tab enable Apply Reflection and select Method to YZ Plane. 164 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Velocity w (Selected) 0 [s] 0 [s] 0. which allows full control over all aspects on an animation. select Predefined Camera from the shortcut menu and select View Towards +X to view the particle track. 5. Select Tools > Animation or click Animation Select Quick Animation.2 Creating a Particle Track Animation The following steps describe how to create a particle tracking animation using Quick Animation.

Determining Minimum, Maximum, and Average Pressure Values 6. Click Options to display the Animation Options dialog box, then clear Override Symbol Settings to ensure the symbol type and size are kept at their specified settings for the animation playback. Click OK.

Note
The arrow pointing downward in the bottom right corner of the Animation Window will reveal the Options button if it is not immediately visible. 7. 8. 9. Select Loop. Clear Repeat forever Select Save Movie. and ensure Repeat is set to 1.

10. Set Format to MPEG1. 11. Click Browse and enter tracks.mpg as the file name. .

12. Click Play the animation

13. If prompted to overwrite an existing movie, click Overwrite. The animation plays and builds an .mpg file. 14. Close the Animation dialog box.

Determining Minimum, Maximum, and Average Pressure Values
On the outlet boundary you created in CFX-Pre, you set the Average Static Pressure to 0.0 [Pa]. To see the effect of this: 1. From the main menu select Tools > Function Calculator. The Function Calculator is displayed. It allows you to perform a wide range of quantitative calculations on your results.

Note
You should use Conservative variable values when performing calculations and Hybrid values for visualization purposes. Conservative values are set by default in CFD-Post but you can manually change the setting for each variable in the Variables Workspace, or the settings for all variables by using the Function Calculator. For details, see Hybrid and Conservative Variable Values (p. 161) in the ANSYS CFX Reference Guide. 2. 3. 4. 5. Set Function to maxVal. Set Location to outlet. Set Variable to Pressure. Click Calculate. The result is the maximum value of pressure at the outlet. 6. 7. Perform the calculation again using minVal to obtain the minimum pressure at the outlet. Select areaAve, and then click Calculate. • • This calculates the area weighted average of pressure. The average pressure is approximately zero, as specified by the boundary.

Other Features
The geometry was created using a symmetry plane. In addition to the Reflect/Mirror option from the shortcut menu, you also can display the other half of the geometry by creating a YZ Plane at X = 0 and then editing the Default Transform object to use this plane as a reflection plane. When you have finished viewing the results, quit CFD-Post. Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 165

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 12. Flow in a Catalytic Converter
This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 167) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 168) Approach to the Problem (p. 168) Before You Begin (p. 169) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 169) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. 169) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 176) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. 176)

Tutorial Features
In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • Using multiple meshes in CFX-Pre. Joining meshes together using static fluid-fluid domain interfaces between the inlet/outlet flanges and the central catalyst body. Applying a source of resistance using a directional loss model. Creating a chart to show pressure drop versus Z coordinate in CFD-Post. Exporting data from a line locator to a file. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Domain Type Fluid Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details General Mode Steady State Multiple Domain (Fluid, Porous) Ideal Gas k-Epsilon Isothermal Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Domain Interfaces Fluid-Fluid (No Frame Change) Fluid-Porous Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Contour Default Locators Outline Plot (Wireframe) Polyline Slice Plane Vector Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 167

Component CFX-Pre

Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Other Details Chart Creation Data Export Title/Text Viewing the Mesh

Overview of the Problem to Solve
Catalytic converters are used on most vehicles on the road today. They reduce harmful emissions from internal combustion engines (such as oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide) that are the result of incomplete combustion. Most new catalytic converters are the honeycomb ceramic type and are usually coated with platinum, rhodium, or palladium.

In this tutorial, you will model a catalytic converter in order to determine the pressure drop through it when air enters the inlet at 25 m/s, and exits the outlet at a static pressure of 1 atm. For simplicity, you will not model chemical reactions. Assume that the catalytic converter contains isothermal air at a temperature of 600 K. You are provided with a mesh for the passageways inside a pipe-and-flange structure. You will use this mesh, and a copy of it, to model the pipe and flange portions of the flow field, at both ends of the catalytic converter. For the housing, you are provided with a hexahedral mesh that was created in ICEM-Hexa. This mesh fills the entire 3D volume of the housing. To model the presence of the honeycomb structure that exists in the housing, you will model porosity and apply resistance to the flow. The honeycomb structure has a porosity of 70%, which means that 70% of the total volume is available for fluid flow, and the other 30% is occupied by the solid material that comprises the honeycomb structure. The honeycomb structure is lined up with the flow, so that the flow cannot travel in the transverse direction. To model resistance to the flow, you will apply a streamwise quadratic resistance coefficient of 650 kg m^-4. To prevent any significant transverse flow, apply a quadratic resistance coefficient of 6500 kg m^-4 in the transverse direction. These given resistance coefficients are based on the superficial flow velocity, rather than the true flow velocity.

Approach to the Problem
You will first import the mesh for the housing. You will then import a mesh for one of the two flanges. You will then produce another flange mesh by transforming the first. Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 168 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Before You Begin You will create one porous domain for the housing, and one fluid domain for both flanges. You will model a honeycomb structure inside the housing by specifying a porosity and applying a directional momentum loss model.

Before You Begin
If this is the first tutorial you are working with, it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 3)

Starting CFX-Pre
1. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • 2. CatConvHousing.hex CatConvMesh.gtm CatConv.pre

Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details, see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 1)

Defining a Case in CFX-Pre
If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file, run CatConv.pre. For details, see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 3). Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 176). If you want to set up the simulation manually, proceed to the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In CFX-Pre, select File > New Case. Select General and click OK. Select File > Save Case As. Under File name, type CatConv. Click Save.

Importing the Meshes
The mesh for this catalytic converter comprises three distinct parts: • • The outlet section (pipe and flange). The inlet section (pipe and flange). You will copy and rotate the outlet section through 180 degrees to create this section. • The catalyst (or monolith).

Next you will import the catalyst housing and a generic inlet/outlet section from provided files.

Importing the Housing Mesh
The first mesh that you will import, CatConvHousing.hex, is a hexahedral mesh for the catalyst housing. The mesh was originally created in ICEM-Hexa using mesh units of centimeters. Because this type of mesh file does not specify the mesh units, you must specify them manually. The imported mesh has a width in the x-direction of 21 cm and a length in the z-direction of 20 cm. 1. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned off.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 169

Importing the Meshes Default Domain generation should be turned off because you will create a new domain manually, later in this tutorial. 2. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. 3. Apply the following settings: Setting Files of type Mesh Format Options > Mesh Units File name 4. Click Open. Value All Types(*) ICEM CFD cm CatConvHousing.hex

Later in this tutorial, you will create a porous domain for the housing in order to simulate flow through a honeycomb structure.

Importing the Pipe and Flange Mesh
The second mesh that you will import, CatConvMesh.gtm, is a mesh for a pipe and flange. The mesh has units of centimeters. Because this type of mesh file does specify the mesh units, there is no need to specify them manually. 1. 2. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > CFX Mesh. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Click Open. Value CatConvMesh.gtm

You now have a pipe and flange on the outlet end of the housing. In the next step, you will create a transformed copy of the pipe and flange for the inlet end.

Creating a Second Pipe and Flange Mesh
Create a transformed copy of the pipe and flange mesh: 1. Right-click CatConvMesh.gtm and select Transform Mesh. The Mesh Transformation Editor dialog box appears. 2. Apply the following settings: Setting Transformation Rotation Option From To Rotation Angle Option Rotation Angle Value Rotation Rotation Axis 0, 0, 0.16 0, 1, 0.16a Specified 180 [degree] Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 170 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Creating the Fluid Domain Setting Multiple Copies Multiple Copies > # of Copies
a

Value (Selected) 1

This specifies an axis located at the center of the housing parallel to the y-axis.

3.

Click OK.

Later in this tutorial, you will create a fluid domain for both pipe and flange sections.

Creating a Single Region for Both Pipe and Flange Meshes
The outlet pipe and flange region is B1.P3. The inlet pipe and flange region is B1.P3 2. There are three basic options for creating fluid domains on these regions: • • • Create two similar domains: one that applies to B1.P3, and one that applies to B1.P3 2. Create one domain that applies to both B1.P3 and B1.P3 2. Create one domain that applies to one composite region, the latter referring to B1.P3 and B1.P3 2.

For demonstration purposes, you will create a composite region and use it as the location for a single fluid domain. Create a single region that includes both pipe-flange regions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Create a new composite region by selecting Insert > Regions > Composite Region. In the Insert Region dialog box, set the name to CatConverter. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Dimension (Filter) Region List 5. Click OK. Value 3D B1.P3, B1.P3 2

Creating the Fluid Domain
For this simulation you will use an isothermal heat transfer model and assume turbulent flow. Create the fluid domain using the composite region that you created earlier: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ensure that no default domain is present under Flow Analysis 1. If a default domain is present, right-click it and select Delete. Create a new domain by selecting Insert > Domain, or click Domain In the Insert Domain dialog box, set the name to Pipes. Click OK. Apply the following settings (the values are taken from the problem description): Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Location and Type > Domain Type Fluid and Particle Definitions Value CatConverter Fluid Domain Fluid 1 .

Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Air Ideal Gas

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 171

Creating the Porous Domain Tab Setting Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature 6. Click OK. Value 1 [atm] Isothermal 600 [K]

Creating the Porous Domain
The catalyst-coated honeycomb structure will be modeled using a porous domain with a directional source of quadratic resistance, as described in the problem description. The streamwise directional resistance is aligned with the Z axis. For quadratic resistances, the pressure drop is modeled using:
∂p ∂ xi

= − KQ U U i

(Eq. 12.1)
∂p is the pressure ∂ xi

where KQ is the quadratic resistance coefficient, U i is the local velocity in the i direction, and drop gradient in the i direction. 1. 2. 3. 4. Create a new domain by selecting Insert > Domain, or click Domain In the Insert Domain dialog box, set the name to Housing. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Location and Type > Domain Type Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Porosity Settings Volume Porosity > Option Volume Porosity > Volume Porosity Loss Model > Option Loss Model > Loss Velocity Type Value LIVEa .

Porous Domain Fluid 1 Air Ideal Gas 1 [atm] Value 0.7 Directional Loss Superficialb

Loss Model > Directional Loss > Streamwise Direction > Cartesian Components Option Loss Model > Directional Loss > Streamwise Direction > 0 X Component Loss Model > Directional Loss > Streamwise Direction > 0 Y Component Loss Model > Directional Loss > Streamwise Direction > -1 Z Component

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 172 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Loss Model > Directional Loss > Streamwise Loss > Option Loss Model > Directional Loss > Streamwise Loss > Quadratic Resistance Coefficient Value Linear and Quadratic Resistance Coefficients (Selected)

Loss Model > Directional Loss > Streamwise Loss > 650 [kg m^-4]c Quadratic Resistance Coefficient > Quadratic Coefficient Loss Model > Directional Loss > Transverse Loss > Option Streamwise Coefficient Multiplier Loss Model > Directional Loss > Transverse Loss > Multiplier Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature
a

10c Isothermal 600 [K]

This is the entire housing section as predefined in the mesh. Superficial velocity is the velocity at which the flow would travel if the porosity of the domain were 100%. It is less than the true velocity. c From the problem description.
b

5.

Click OK.

Creating the Boundaries
Create the inlet and outlet boundaries using the values given in the problem description.

Creating the Inlet Boundary
1. 2. Create a new boundary in domain Pipes named Inlet. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Detailsa Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed
a

Value Inlet PipeEnd 2 25 [m s^-1]b

b

The default level of turbulence is suitable for this application. From the problem description.

3.

Click OK.

Creating the Outlet Boundary
Set up the outlet with a static pressure boundary: 1. 2. Create a new boundary in domain Pipes named Outlet. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Value Outlet PipeEnd Static Pressure

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 173

Creating the Domain Interfaces Tab Setting Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 3. Click OK. The remaining outer surfaces are automatically assigned to the default (no slip wall) boundaries: Housing Default and Pipes Default. Value 0 [Pa]

Creating the Domain Interfaces
You will next create a pair of domain interfaces to model the connection between the fluid and porous domains. The meshes on the interfaces are dissimilar, so a General Grid Interface (GGI) connection method is required. Domain interfaces are capable of modeling changes in reference frame as well as other changes that are not applicable to this simulation. Two interfaces are required, one to connect the inlet flange to the catalyst housing and one to connect the outlet flange to the catalyst housing. 1. 2. 3. 4. Create a new domain interface by selecting Insert > Domain Interface, or click Domain Interface In the Insert Domain Interface dialog box, set the name to InletSide. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Mesh Connection Method > Mesh Connection > Option 5. 6. Click OK. Create a similar domain interface named OutletSide that connects FlangeEnd (in domain Pipes) to OUTLET (in domain Housing). Value Fluid Porous Pipes FlangeEnd 2 Housing INLET GGI .

Setting Initial Values
A sensible guess for the initial velocity is the expected velocity through the catalyst housing. You can assume incompressible flow and apply conservation of mass to obtain an approximate velocity of 2.8 [m s^-1] through the housing based on the following known information: • • • 1. 2. The inlet velocity: 25 [m s^-1] The cross sectional area of the inlet and housing, which can be determined using the function calculator in CFD-Post: 0.001913 m^2 and 0.024039 m^2 respectively The porosity of the honeycomb structure: 70% Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: .

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 174 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Setting Solver Control Tab Setting Value

Global Settings Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Automatic with Value Components > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity 0 [m s^-1] Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity 0 [m s^-1] Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity -2.8 [m s^-1] Components > W 3. Click OK.

Setting Solver Control
Assuming velocities of 25 m/s in the inlet and outlet pipes, and 2.8 m/s in the catalyst housing, an approximate fluid residence time of 0.1 s can be calculated. A sensible time step is 1/4 to 1/2 of the fluid residence time. In this case, use a time step of 0.04 s. For the convergence criteria, an RMS value of at least 1e-05 is usually required for adequate convergence, but the default value of 1e-04 is sufficient for demonstration purposes. 1. 2. Click Solver Control .

Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Value Physical Timescale

Convergence Control >Fluid Timescale Control 0.04 [s] > Physical Timescale 3. Click OK.

Setting a Discretization Option
The porous cs discretisation option expert parameter specifies how the pressure is treated at interfaces to a porous domain: 1=constant static pressure; 2=constant total pressure. Constant total pressure is the preferred and more physical setting. However, when using this setting, in cases where there are sections of the porous interface where there is little or no flow normal to the interface, the CFX-Solver may fail to converge. These convergence difficulties may be overcome by using the less physical constant static pressure setting. This simulation involves flow that moves from a fluid domain into a porous domain, approaching the interface at various angles. In this case, better convergence can be achieved by changing the porous cs discretisation option expert parameter from the default value of 2 to 1. 1. 2. Click Insert > Solver > Expert Parameter. Apply the following settings in the Expert Parameters details view: Tab Discretization Setting Value

Miscellaneous > porous cs discretization (Selected) option Miscellaneous > porous cs discretization 1 option > Value

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 175

Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File 3. Click OK.

Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File
1. 2. Click Define Run . Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Click Save. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and, on the Define Run dialog box, the Solver Input File is set. 4. If using Standalone Mode, quit CFX-Pre, saving the simulation (.cfx) file at your discretion. Value CatConv.def

Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager
At this point, CFX-Solver Manager is running. 1. 2. Ensure that the Define Run dialog box is displayed. Click Start Run. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. This may take a long time, depending on your system. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. 3. 4. 5. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. If using Standalone Mode, select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Click OK.

Viewing the Results in CFD-Post
In this section, you will inspect the GGI interface to see the lack of node alignment that characterizes this type of interface. You will also create plots showing the distribution of temperature and pressure on a flat plane that intersects the catalytic converter. You will then make a chart showing pressure versus Z coordinate using data from a polyline that runs around the perimeter of the catalytic converter. Finally, you will export data from the polyline to a file. Such a file could be used in other programs, or could be loaded into CFD-Post (for example, to use as data for a chart line). The topics in this section include: • • • • Viewing the Mesh on a GGI Interface (p. 176) Creating User Locations (p. 177) Creating Plots (p. 178) Exporting Polyline Data (p. 180)

Viewing the Mesh on a GGI Interface
In this section, you will examine a GGI interface. As a preliminary step, do the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. When CFD-Post opens, if you see the Domain Selector dialog box, ensure that both domains are selected, then click OK. Edit User Locations and Plots > Wireframe. Set Edge Angle to 10 [degree] and click Apply to see more of the mesh surface. Turn off the visibility of User Locations and Plots > Wireframe. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 176 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Creating User Locations In the Outline tree view, four interface sides are listed. There are two sides to the interface between the housing and the inlet. Similarly, there are two sides to the corresponding interface on the outlet side. Examine the interface on the inlet side to see the nature of the GGI connection: 1. 2. In the Outline tree view, edit InletSide Side 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Render Setting Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Show Mesh Lines > Color Mode Show Mesh Lines > Line Color 3. 4. 5. Click Apply. In the Outline tree view, edit InletSide Side 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Render Setting Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Show Mesh Lines > Color Mode Show Mesh Lines > Line Color 6. 7. Click Apply. Click Fit View to re-center and re-scale the geometry. Value (Cleared) (Selected) User Specified (Green) Value (Cleared) (Selected) User Specified (Red)

You can now see the tetrahedral/prism and hexahedral mesh on each side of the GGI interface. This interface was used to produce a connection between dissimilar meshes before the solution was calculated. Notice that there are more tetrahedral/prism elements than hexahedral elements and that the extent of the two meshes is not quite the same (this is most noticeable on the curved edges).

Creating User Locations
In this section, you will create locators that you will use to make plots. To make it easier to see the locators, adjust the view as follows: 1. 2. Turn on the visibility of User Locations and Plots > Wireframe. Turn off the visibility of Pipes > InletSide Side 1 and Housing > InletSide Side 2.

Creating a Slice Plane
Later in this tutorial, you will produce a contour plot and a vector plot. Both of these plots require a slice plane locator. Create a slice plane through the geometry as follows: 1. 2. 3. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +Y. Create a new plane named Plane 1. Apply the following settings:

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 177

Creating Plots Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Y Color Mode Variable 4. Click Apply. Value ZX Plane 0.0 [m] Variable Pressure

Creating a Polyline
Later in this tutorial, you will make a chart that plots data from a polyline. The Method used to create the polyline can be From File, Boundary Intersection, or From Contour. If you select From File, you must specify a file containing point definitions in the required format. In this tutorial, you will use the Boundary Intersection method. This creates a polyline from the intersecting line between a boundary object and a location (for example, between a wall and a plane). The points on the polyline are where the intersecting line cuts through a surface mesh edge. You will be able to see the polyline following the intersecting line between the wall, inlet and outlet boundaries and the slice plane. 1. 2. Create a new polyline named Polyline 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Method Boundary List Intersect With Color Mode Color Render
a

Value Boundary Intersection Housing Default, Pipes Defaulta Plane 1 Constant (Yellow) 3

Line Width

Click the ellipsis icon to select multiple items using the Ctrl key.

3.

Click Apply.

Creating Plots
In this section, you will make plots on the slice plane and polyline locators.

Creating a Contour Plot of Pressure
You will now create a contour plot to observe the pressure change throughout the main body of the catalytic converter: 1. 2. 3. Clear Plane 1 in the Outline tab. Create a new contour plot named Contour 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Locations Variable Value Plane 1 Pressure Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 178 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Creating Plots Tab Setting Range # of Contours Render
a

Value Global 30a (Cleared)

Show Contour Bands

Determined by experiment.

4.

Click Apply. From the contour plot, you can see that the pressure falls steadily through the main body of the catalytic converter.

Creating a Vector Plot on the Slice Plane
Create a vector plot to display the recirculation zone: 1. 2. Create a new vector plot named Vector 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Symbol Setting Locations Symbol Size Normalize Symbols 3. Click Apply. Value Plane 1 0.1 (Selected)

Notice that the flow separates from the walls, where the inlet pipe expands into the flange, setting up a recirculation zone. The flow is uniform through the catalyst housing.

Creating a Chart of Pressure versus the Z Coordinate
In this section, you will make a chart to see if the pressure drop is, as expected, linear by plotting a line graph of pressure against the z-coordinate. In this case you will use CFD-Post to produce the graph, but you could also export the data, then read it into any standard plotting package. 1. 2. Create a new chart named Chart 1. Apply the following settings: Tab General Data Series Setting Title Name Data Source > Location X Axis Y Axis Line Display Data Selection > Variable Data Selection > Variable Line Display > Line Style Line Display > Symbols Chart Display Sizes > Symbol Value Pressure Drop through a Catalytic Converter Pressure Drop Polyline 1 Z Pressure None Rectangle 3

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 179

Exporting Polyline Data 3. Click Apply. Through the main body of the catalytic converter you can see that the pressure drop is linear. This is in the region from approximately Z=0.06 to Z=0.26. The two lines show the pressure on each side of the wall. You can see a noticeable difference in pressure between the two walls on the inlet side of the housing (at around Z=0.26). 4. 5. If required, in the Outline tree view, select Contour 1, Polyline 1, and Vector 1. Click the 3D Viewer tab, then right-click a blank area and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +Y. You should now see that the flow enters the housing from the inlet pipe at a slight angle, producing a higher pressure on the high X wall of the housing.

Exporting Polyline Data
You can export data from a polyline for use in other software. Export data as follows: 1. 2. From the main menu, select File > Export. Apply the following settings: Tab Options Setting Locations Export Geometry Information Select Variables Formatting
a

Value Polyline 1 (Selected)a Pressure 3

Precision

This ensures X, Y, and Z to be sent to the output file.

3.

Click Save. The file export.csv will be written to the current working directory in a comma-separated variable format. This file can be opened in any text editor. You can use the exported data file to plot charts in other software such as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.

4.

When finished, quit CFD-Post.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 180 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Chapter 13. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in an Annulus
This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 181) Background Theory (p. 181) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 182) Before You Begin (p. 183) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 183) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. 184) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 188) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. 188)

Tutorial Features
In this tutorial you will learn about: • • Using CFX Expression Language (CEL) to define the properties of a shear-thickening fluid. Using the Moving Wall feature to apply a rotation to the fluid at a wall boundary. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Single Domain Laminar None Symmetry Plane Wall: No-Slip Wall: Moving CEL (CFX Expression Language) Timestep CFD-Post Plots Auto Time Scale Sampling Plane Vector

Component CFX-Pre

Background Theory
A Newtonian fluid is a fluid for which shear stress is linearly proportional to shear-strain rate, with temperature held constant. For such a fluid, the dynamic viscosity is constant and equal to the shear stress divided by the shear-strain rate. A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid for which the shear stress in not linearly proportional to the shear-strain rate. For such fluids, the apparent viscosity is the ratio of shear stress to shear-strain rate for a given shear-strain rate.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 181

Overview of the Problem to Solve A shear-thickening fluid is a type of non-Newtonian fluid for which the apparent viscosity increases with increasing shear-strain rate.

Figure 13.1. Shear Stress of a Shear-thickening Fluid

Figure 13.2. Apparent Viscosity of a Shear-thickening Fluid

This tutorial involves a shear thickening fluid that obeys the Ostwald de Waele model between apparent viscosity and shear-strain rate:

μ = K ( λ γ ) n− 1 ˙

(Eq. 13.1)

where μ is the apparent viscosity, K is the viscosity consistency, γ is the shear-strain rate, λ is a normalizing time ˙ constant, and n is the Power Law index. Note that the units for K are not tied to the value of n because the quantity in parentheses is dimensionless.

Overview of the Problem to Solve
In this tutorial, a shear-thickening liquid rotates in a 2D eccentric annular pipe gap. The outer pipe remains stationary while the inner pipe rotates at a constant rate about its own axis, which is the Z-axis. Both pipes have nonslip surfaces. This simulation will assume a fixed temperature of 25 °C and an ambient pressure of 1 atm.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 182 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

The fluid has a density of 1.0 . 182).0E-3 s-1 to 100 s-1. This model is assumed to be valid for shear-strain rates ranging from 1. “Apparent Viscosity of a Shear-thickening Fluid” (p.gtm Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre.Before You Begin The shear-thickening liquid that is used in this tutorial obeys the Ostwald de Waele model with a viscosity consistency of 10. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and a time constant of 1 s. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p.0 kg m-1 s-1. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • 2. The viscosity is plotted over this range in Figure 13. a Power Law index of 1. NonNewton. For details.2. 1) Release 12.pre NonNewtonMesh. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. All rights reserved. Inc. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p.0E4 kg m-3.© 2009 ANSYS. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. 183 .5.

pre.0E+4 [kg m^-3] Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity (Selected) Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity Value > Option Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity 0 [J kg^-1 K^-1]b > Specific Heat Capacity Release 12.Defining a Case in CFX-Pre Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file.5. Under File name. This model is assumed to be valid for shear-strain rates ranging from 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Thermodynamic State Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic State Material Properties Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > Molar Mass Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > Density Value (Selected) Liquid 1 [kg kmol^-1]a 1. 2. Click Open. 2. a Power Law index (n) of 1. For details. 2. 1. 4. Inc. All rights reserved. the shear-thickening liquid that is used in this tutorial obeys the Ostwald de Waele model with a viscosity consistency (K ) of 10. 188). see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. If you want to set up the simulation manually. Select File > Save Case As.0 kg m-1 s-1. 184 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0E4 kg m-3. . Apply the following settings: Setting File name 4. The fluid has a density of 1. run NonNewton.0E-3 s-1 to 100 s-1. and a time constant of 1 s. 3. Click Save. Value NonNewtonMesh. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned off.0 . Select General and click OK. later in this tutorial. 3. select File > New Case. In CFX-Pre. 5.gtm Creating the Fluid As stated in the problem description. 3). proceed to the following steps: 1. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > CFX Mesh. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. type NonNewton.© 2009 ANSYS. Default Domain generation should be turned off because you will create a new domain manually. Create a new material named myfluid. Importing the Mesh 1.

the fluid is isothermal at 25 °C and the ambient pressure is atmospheric. based on the rotational speed. assuming a linear velocity profile).001 [s^-1] 100 [s^-1] 1 [s] 1. If not. In other cases it might be used. This is not the correct value for specific heat. 3.0 . Click Domain and set the name to NonNewton. 3. All rights reserved. but this property is not used by CFX-Solver in this case.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. From the problem description. 185 . Creating the Domain The flow is expected to be laminar because the Reynolds number. Inc. but this property is not used by CFX-Solver in this case because heat transfer is not modeled.5 4. and specify laminar. isothermal flow with a reference pressure of 1 atmosphere: 1.Creating the Domain Tab Setting Thermodynamic Properties > Reference State Thermodynamic Properties > Reference State > Option Value (Selected) Specified Point Thermodynamic Properties > Reference State > Ref. Click OK. Apply the following settings to NonNewton: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location Fluid and Particle Definitions Value B8 Fluid 1 Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material myfluid Release 12.0 [kg m^-1 s^–1] 0. the maximum width of the pipe gap. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. is approximately 30. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Create a fluid domain that uses the non-Newtonian fluid you created in the previous section. 25 [C] Temperature Thermodynamic Properties > Reference State > Reference Pressure Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity 1 [atm] (Selected) Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Option Non Newtonian Model a b This is not the correct value for molar mass. and a representative viscosity (calculated using the shear-strain rate in the widest part of the gap. which is well within the laminar-flow range. Apply the following settings under Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Non Newtonian Viscosity Model: Setting Option Viscosity Consistency Min Shear Strain Rate Max Shear Strain Rate Time Constant Power Law Index Value Ostwald de Waele 10. right-click Default Domain and select Delete. Ensure that Flow Analysis 1 > Default Domain is deleted.

This tutorial models 2D flow in a pipe gap. Wall Boundary for the Inner Pipe From the problem description. By not explicitly creating a boundary for the outer pipe. just one layer of mesh elements) that has two surfaces of constant-Z coordinate that each require a boundary. Click OK.33 rpm about the Z-axis. Create a new boundary named SymP1. 186 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS. 2.33 [rev min^-1] Coordinate Axis Global Z Symmetry Plane Boundary In order to simulate the presence of an infinite number of identical 2D slices while ensuring that the flow remains 2D. All rights reserved. Create a wall boundary for the inner pipe that indicates this rotation: 1. since there is no pressure gradient or velocity gradient in the Z-direction. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity > Option Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity > Angular Velocity Mass And Momentum > Axis Definition > Option Mass And Momentum > Axis Definition > Rotation Axis 3. 2. Inc. the default boundary is suitable. Apply the following settings: Release 12. A rotating-wall boundary is required for the inner pipe. which is stationary. Click OK. the latter receives the default wall boundary. apply a symmetry boundary on the high-Z and low-Z sides of the domain: 1. Value Wall rotwall No Slip Wall (Selected) Rotating Wall 31. Symmetry boundary conditions are suitable in this case. Inc. For the outer pipe. the inner pipe rotates at 31. The flow domain models a thin 3D slice (in fact.0 . Create a new boundary named rotwall. .Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature Turbulence > Option 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. where the latter is infinite in the Z-direction. Value 1 [atm] Isothermal 25 C None (Laminar) Creating the Boundaries The inner and outer pipes both have nonslip surfaces.

Value Automatic with Value 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Advection Scheme > Option Advection Scheme > Blend Factor Value Specified Blend Factor 1a Release 12. Click Solver Control . and because of the nature of the geometry. In this case. create and use CEL expressions to specify a better approximation of the steady-state flow field based on the information given in the problem description. Click OK. All rights reserved. Click OK. the solution converges very well. set the solver control settings for a high degree of accuracy and a high degree of convergence. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. For this reason. in principle. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 5. 2. 2. you could. the problem converges adequately and quickly with such an initial guess. Create a new boundary named SymP2. Set a static initial velocity field: 1. 4.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W 3. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 6. Setting Solver Control Because this flow is low-speed. The outer annulus surfaces will default to the no-slip stationary wall boundary. 1. Inc. 187 .0 . laminar. If this were not the case. Inc.Setting Initial Values Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 3. Click OK. Value Symmetry SymP2 Value Symmetry SymP1 Setting Initial Values A reasonable guess for the initial velocity field is a value of zero throughout the domain.

and specify a reasonable number of sample points in the radial and theta directions. 337). Iterations Convergence Criteria > Residual Type Convergence Criteria > Residual Target Value 50 RMS 1e-05 b a b This is the most accurate but least robust advection scheme.cfx) file at your discretion. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. 1. create a circular sample plane.© 2009 ANSYS. This target demands a solution with a very high degree of convergence. depending on your system. If using Standalone Mode. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. 2. 4. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Value NonNewton. For more information about recommended convergence targets. the Solver Input File is set. Click OK. centered on the inner pipe.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. All rights reserved. 4. Click Start Run. with a radius sufficient to cover the entire domain. Ensure that the Define Run dialog box is displayed. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Inc. on the Define Run dialog box. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z from the shortcut menu. If using Standalone Mode. 5. quit CFX-Pre. 188 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and only those that are in the domain are usable in a vector plot. Click OK.0 .def Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager When CFX-Pre has shut down and CFX-Solver Manager has started.def) File 1. This may take a long time. To produce regularly-spaced sample points. . see Judging Convergence (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Click Save. Create a new plane named Plane 1. 3. Note that the sample points are generated over the entire plane. saving the simulation (. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post The following steps instruct you on how to create a vector plot showing the velocity values in the domain. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. Apply the following settings: Release 12. 2. Click Define Run . This plane will be used as a locator for a vector plot. 3.def) File Tab Setting Convergence Control > Max. you can obtain a solution to the CFD problem by following the instructions below: 1. 2. 3.

0 . 4. in the middle of the domain in the Z-direction.© 2009 ANSYS. 5. Note that many of the sample points are outside the domain.0 b Definition > Variable Definition > Hybrid Velocity (Selected) c Symbol Symbol Size 3 Release 12. The sample points are located at the line intersections.3 [m] Sample 32 24 (Cleared) (Selected) User Specified (Choose green. 1 Circular 0. 0. Click Apply. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 8. All rights reserved. 0. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Locations Definition > Sampling Value Plane 1 Vertex a 6. 189 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Turn off the visibility of Plane 1. or some other color. Create a new vector plot named Vector 1 on Plane 1.015 a Definition > Normal Plane Bounds > Type Plane Bounds > Radius Plane Type Plane Type > R Samples Plane Type > Theta Samples Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Show Mesh Lines > Color Mode Line Color 0.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Point Value Point and Normal 0. Inc. Examine the sample plane.) a This is the point on the axis of the inner pipe. to distinguish the sample plane from the Wireframe object. 0. Definition > Reduction Definition > Factor Reduction Factor 1. Inc. 7. Only those points that are in the domain are usable for positioning vectors in a vector plot.

Inc. and because of the large variation of velocity in this case. The values of dynamic viscosity. were calculated as part of the solution. 161). Click Apply. For example. For details. Click Apply Show Faces Value Variable Dynamic Viscosity (Selected) Try plotting Shear Strain Rate on the same plane.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post Tab Setting Value d a This causes the vectors to be located at the nodes of the sample plane you created previously. Note that the vectors can alternatively be spaced using other options that do not require a sample plane. You can post-process the solution using these values. b A reduction factor of 1. see Hybrid and Conservative Variable Values (p. which are a function of the shear-strain rate. Turn on the visibility of Plane 1. as a consequence of the non-linear relationship (see Figure 13.© 2009 ANSYS. 3. Edit Plane 1. “Apparent Viscosity of a Shear-thickening Fluid” (p. d Because CFD-Post normalizes the size of the vectors based on the largest vector. . 92).2.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. see Sampling (p. Inc. For details. you can use this variable to color graphics objects. 190 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 9. When you have finished.0 causes no reduction in the number of vectors so that there will be one vector per sample point. Color Plane 1 using the Dynamic Viscosity variable: 1. quit CFD-Post. c The hybrid values are modified at the boundaries for post-processing purposes. the smallest velocity vectors would normally be too small to see clearly. Note that the distribution is somewhat different than that of Dynamic Viscosity. Apply the following settings: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Render 4.0E-3 s-1 to 100 s-1. 182)). you created a shear-thickening liquid that obeys the Ostwald de Waele model for shear-strain rates ranging from 1. 2. In CFX-Pre. All rights reserved. which are stored in the Dynamic Viscosity variable. Release 12.

191) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. Using a Frozen Rotor interface between the rotor and stator domains. 197) Viewing the Frozen Rotor Results in CFD-Post (p. Setting up a transient calculation.0 . Modifying an existing simulation. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 202) Viewing the Transient Rotor-Stator Results in CFD-Post (p. Inc. Multiple Frames of Reference and Generalized Grid Interface.© 2009 ANSYS. 198) Setting up a Transient Rotor-Stator Calculation (p. 194) Starting CFX-Pre (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Using a Transient Rotor-Stator interface condition to replace a Frozen Rotor interface. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Details Turbo Wizard Steady State Transient Fluid Type Domain Type Ideal Gas Multiple Domain Rotating Frame of Reference Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions k-Epsilon Total Energy Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic Domain Interfaces Frozen Rotor Periodic Component CFX-Pre Release 12. Creating a transient animation showing domain movement in CFD-Post. All rights reserved. 200) Obtaining a Solution to the Transient Rotor-Stator Model (p. 203) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • • Using the Turbo Wizard in CFX-Pre to quickly specify a turbomachinery application. 195) Obtaining a Solution to the Frozen Rotor Model (p. 192) Before You Begin (p.Chapter 14. 191 . Flow in an Axial Rotor/Stator This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 194) Defining a Frozen Rotor Case in CFX-Pre (p. Inc.

1. The full geometry of the axial rotor/stator contains 60 stator blades and 113 rotor blades.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Transient Rotor Stator Timestep Physical Time Scale Transient Example Transient Results File CFX-Solver Manager Restart Parallel Processing CFD-Post Plots Animation Isosurface Surface Group Turbo Post Other Changing the Color Range Chart Creation Instancing Transformation Movie Generation Quantitative Calculation Time Step Selection Transient Animation Overview of the Problem to Solve The goal of this tutorial is to set up a transient calculation of the Rotor-Stator to then create an animation showing its domain movement. . Release 12. All rights reserved. 192 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. “Geometry subsection” (p. Inc. The following figure shows approximately half of the full geometry. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The Inflow and Outflow labels show the location of the modeled section in Figure 14.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. 194). Inc.

This produces a pitch ratio at the interface between the stator and rotor of 0. 193 . As the flow crosses the interface. Inc. it is scaled to allow this type of geometry to be modeled. the rotor rotates about the Z-axis at 523. In this example. This is an approximation to the full geometry since the ratio of rotor blades to stator blades is close to.6 rad/s while the stator is stationary. A full machine analysis can be performed (modeling all rotor and stator blades) which will always eliminate any pitch change. the flow across the interface will not appear continuous due to the scaling applied. For this rotor/stator geometry. while in the rotor blade passage. but this must be weighed against computational resources. You should always try to obtain a pitch ratio as close to 1 as possible in your model to minimize approximations. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.009. Inc. a 1/4 machine section (28 rotor blades.Overview of the Problem to Solve The geometry to be modeled consists of a single stator blade passage and two rotor blade passages. This results in an approximation of the inflow to the rotor passage. but this would require a model about 15 times larger than in this tutorial example. All rights reserved. The important parameters of this problem are: • • • Total pressure = 0.0662 bar Total temperature = 328. In the stator blade passage a 6° section is being modeled (360°/60 blades).265 bar Static Pressure = 0. 2:1. a 6. but will require significant computational time. Furthermore.372° section is being modeled (2*360°/113 blades). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 .942. Periodic boundaries are used to allow only a small section of the full geometry to be modeled.5 K Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. but not exactly. 15 stator blades) would produce a pitch change of 1.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • • • Axial. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. Inc. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. The transient Rotor-Stator simulation will be performed using the steady-state Frozen Rotor as an initial guess. . 194 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.pre AxialIni_001.pre AxialIni. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. which was created using CFX-Mesh.1. Finally.res rotor. The mesh for the rotor created in CFX-TASCflow will then be imported and combined with a second mesh (the stator).Before You Begin Figure 14. All rights reserved.0 . 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. Inc.gtm Release 12. The results will be viewed using the Turbo-Post feature. a transient animation showing domain movement will be created in CFD-Post. Geometry subsection The overall approach to solving this problem is to first define the Frozen Rotor simulation using the Turbomachinery wizard.© 2009 ANSYS. The existing Frozen Rotor simulation will then be modified to define the transient Rotor-Stator simulation. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1.grd stator.

meshes are imported. Create a new component of type Rotating. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings Setting Component Type > Value Mesh > File Options > Mesh Units a Value 523.© 2009 ANSYS.gtma You may have to select the CFX Mesh (*gtm *cfx) option under Files of type. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2.pre. Otherwise. Create a new component of type Stationary. 1. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. Set Machine Type to Axial Turbine. named S1. 3. Inc. 3). Right-click in the blank area and select Add Component from the shortcut menu. In CFX-Pre. 5.0 .6 [radian s^-1] rotor. 4. named R1. 1. All rights reserved. 5. 195 . 2. this simulation will be set up manually using the Turbomachinery wizard in CFX-Pre. As they are created. Inc. The upper case turbo Release 12. Component Definition Two new components are required. Select Turbomachinery and click OK. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution to the Frozen Rotor Model (p. 1) Defining a Frozen Rotor Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. Turbo Mode will automatically select a list of regions that correspond to certain boundary types. For details. type AxialIni. Select File > Save Case As. The order of the two components can be changed by right-clicking on S1 and selecting Move Component Up. 197). Note The components must be ordered as above (stator then rotor) in order for the interface to be created correctly. Click Save. Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. Click Next. Basic Settings 1. select File > New Case. 2. This information will be used to help set up boundary conditions and interfaces. This pre-processing mode is designed to simplify the setup of turbomachinery simulations.Defining a Frozen Rotor Case in CFX-Pre 2.grda m You may have to select the CFX-TASCflow (*grd) option under Files of Type. 3. Under File name. This information should be reviewed in the Region Information section to ensure that all is correct. Apply the following setting Setting Mesh > File a Value stator. 4. run AxialIni. When a component is defined.

. 2. Release 12. you should see a list of boundary conditions that have been generated. Review the various boundary definitions but do not change them. Boundary Definition CFX-Pre will try to create appropriate boundary conditions using the region names presented previously in the Region Information section. These are required when modeling a small section of the true geometry. . Interface Definition CFX-Pre will try to create appropriate interfaces using the region names presented previously in the Region Information section. 1. They can be edited or deleted in the same way as the interface connections that were set up earlier. you will set properties of the fluid domain and some solver parameters.06 [kg s^-1] Normal to Boundary Frozen Rotor High Resolution Physical Timescale 0. 6. An interface is also required to connect the two components together across the frame change. you should see that a periodic interface has been generated for both the rotor and the stator. 2. Click Next. CFX-TASCflow turbomachinery meshes use these names consistently. which is often appropriate for rotating machinery applications. 196 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Physics Definition regions that are selected (e. Inc. Review the various interfaces but do not change them. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.25 [atm] Total Energy k-Epsilon Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > P-Total Inlet Mass (Selected) Flow Outlet Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > P-Total Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > T-Total Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > Mass Flow Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > Mass Flow Rate Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > Flow Direction Interface > Default Type Solver Parameters > Advection Scheme Solver Parameters > Convergence Control Solver Parameters > Physical Timescale a 0 [atm] 340 [K] Per Component 0. Physics Definition In this section. In this case. All rights reserved. Apply the following settings Tab Physics Definition Setting Fluid Analysis Type > Type Model Data > Reference Pressure Model Data > Heat Transfer Model Data > Turbulence Value Air Ideal Gas Steady State 0.0 . Click Next. Click Next.g.© 2009 ANSYS. In this case. HUB) correspond to the region names in the CFX-TASCflow grd file. 1. Inc.002 [s]a This time scale is approximately equal to 1 / ω. 1.

This results in a corresponding increase in solution time for the problem. 1. 2. proceed to Viewing the Frozen Rotor Results in CFD-Post (p.cfx) file at your discretion. 2. Solution time in serial is approximately 45 minutes on a 1GHz processor.0 . Inc. 198) Obtaining a Solution in Serial If you do not have a license to run CFX in parallel you can run in serial by clicking the Start Run button when CFX-Solver Manager has opened up.def Obtaining a Solution to the Frozen Rotor Model Compared to previous tutorials. Click Next. More detailed information about setting up CFX to run in parallel is available. the Solver Input File is set. Click Define Run . if possible. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. Final Operations 1. saving the simulation (. If using Standalone Mode. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. see Flow Around a Blunt Body (p. This may take a long time. Click Yes to continue. If using Standalone Mode. 197 . on the Define Run dialog box. Click Finish. Click Save. Your machine should have a minimum of 256MB of memory to run this tutorial. depending on your system. Inc.Final Operations 2. Set Operation to Enter General Mode. 198) Obtaining a Solution with Distributed Parallel (p. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. 4. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3.def) File 1. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. Local Parallel or Distributed Parallel. quit CFX-Pre. 198). 2. Release 12. Value AxialIni. 197) Obtaining a Solution With Local Parallel (p. All rights reserved. After you click Finish. the mesh for this tutorial contains many more nodes (although it is still too coarse to perform a high quality CFD simulation). Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. • • • Obtaining a Solution in Serial (p. When you are finished. 3. Click Start Run on the Define Run dialog box. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. For details. a dialog box appears stating that the Turbo report will not be included in the solver file because you are entering General Mode.© 2009 ANSYS. 4. You can solve this example using Serial. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. Solving this problem in parallel is recommended. 95).

for example. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. Click the Turbo tab. Specification of the number of instances of each turbo component (e. .) needed to represent the full geometry around the rotation axis is also required. and then Close. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. proceed to Viewing the Frozen Rotor Results in CFD-Post (p. stator. after entering the Turbo workspace and initializing the turbo components. Click OK. you will be ready to start using the turbo-specific features offered in the Turbo workspace immediately. Click Start Run.0 .. 4. 2. 198). 1. 3. The Turbo Initialization dialog box is displayed. When you are finished. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Insert Host to specify a new parallel host. Therefore. the machine you are on must have more than one processor. Turbo Surface.Turbo Workspace (p. 7. Click OK. rotor. 198 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In Select Parallel Hosts. 6. If using Standalone Mode. 2. Click Start Run. Set Run Mode to a parallel mode suitable for your environment.g. 2 partitions are assigned. 1. 8.Obtaining a Solution With Local Parallel Obtaining a Solution With Local Parallel To run in local parallel. hub. outlet. click Add Partition By default. Set Run Mode to a parallel mode suitable for your environment. All rights reserved. 5. 6. a (axial) and r (radial) and Theta coordinates are generated for each component. These features include Turbo Tree View. HP MPI Distributed Parallel. shroud. select another host name (this should be a machine that you can log into using the same user name). blade and periodic regions. Inc. span. 185) Initializing Turbo-Post When initializing turbo components. The names of the two selected machines should be listed in the Host Name column of the Define Run dialog box. If required. 3. Obtaining a Solution with Distributed Parallel 1. Inc. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. etc. This feature is designed to greatly reduce the effort taken to post-process turbomachinery simulations. HP MPI Local Parallel. For details see Turbo Workspace (p. Viewing the Frozen Rotor Results in CFD-Post The Turbo-Post feature will be demonstrated in the following sections. 185) To initialize Turbo-Post. One partition should already be assigned to the host that you are logged into.© 2009 ANSYS. Turbo Line and Turbo Plots. to add more partitions. Release 12. 4. If using Standalone Mode. the properties of each component must be entered. for example. 5. and asks you whether you want to auto-initialize all components. This includes entering information about the inlet. Click Add. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager.

Click Apply.0 . Click Yes. you can initialize all components by clicking the Initialize All Components button which is visible initially by default. 199 . 1. The default name is accepted. In this case. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Color Setting Locations Mode Variable 4.Viewing Three Domain Passages Note If you do not see the Turbo Initialization dialog box. 6. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. you will create an instancing transformation to plot three domain passages. S1 Hub Variable Pressure Release 12. Click the Turbo tab. Apply the following settings Tab 3D View Setting Instancing > Domain Instancing > # of Copies 10. 2. From the main menu. select Insert > Location > Surface Group. the initialization works without problems. 2. Viewing Three Domain Passages Next. or after double-clicking the Initialization object in the Turbo tree view. you will create a surface group plot to color the blade and hub surfaces with the same variable. Inc. It was chosen to create three times the geometry that was used in the simulation to help visualize the variation of pressure. If there was a problem initializing a component. Click Apply. or as an alternative to using that dialog box. In the next steps. Click OK. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Value S1 3 Value R1 3 Value R1 Blade. R1 Hub. Open Plots > 3D View for editing. The Turbo tree view shows the two components in domains R1 and S1. Apply the following settings Tab 3D View Setting Instancing > Domain Instancing > # of Copies 8. 3. 5. The instancing properties of each domain have already been entered during Initialization. 7. three blade passages for the stator and six blade passages for the rotor. S1 Blade. Seeing neighboring passages will give a better understanding of the pressure variation through the axial rotor/stator. 9. this would be indicated in the tree view. Click Apply. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS.

6 rad/s ) ≈ 2. 202). quit CFD-Post. 200 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Basic Settings is displayed. If CFX-Pre is not already running. . The time step size is calculated as follows: Note Rotational Speed = 523. Opening the Existing Case This step involves opening the original simulation and saving it to a different location.1112 rad) / ( 523.cfx in your working directory. 2. All rights reserved. start it.124 e − 4 s Since 10 time steps are used over this interval each time step should be 2.124e-5 s.372°) using 10 time steps. This profile of the pressure curve is typical for turbomachinery applications. Inc. run Axial. Setting up a Transient Rotor-Stator Calculation This section describes the step-by-step definition of the flow physics in CFX-Pre. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Save the case as Axial. double-click Blade Loading. If you have not already completed the frozen-rotor simulation. Component Definition is displayed.Blade Loading Turbo Chart Blade Loading Turbo Chart In this section. It also copies the required initial values file from the examples directory to the current working directory. Note The session file creates a new simulation named Axial. Apply the following settings Release 12. You are going to run for a time interval such that the rotor blades pass through 1 pitch (6. 2. 3. Click Next.0 . please refer to Defining a Frozen Rotor Case in CFX-Pre (p. you will create a plot of pressure around the stator blade at a given spanwise location. This is generally too few time steps to obtain high quality results. Open the results file named AxialIni_001.6 rad/s Rotor Pitch Modeled = 2 ⋅ ( 2π rad/ 113) ≈ 0.cfx and will not modify the existing database.res. Click Next. but is sufficient for tutorial purposes. 3. 1. Modifying the Physics Definition You need to modify the domain to define a transient simulation. 195) before proceeding with the transient rotor-stator simulation. Select Tools > Turbo Mode. Physics Definition is displayed. 4.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc.pre. • In the Turbo tree view. The existing steady-state frozen-rotor simulation is modified to define the transient rotor-stator simulation.1112 rad Time to pass through 1 pitch ≈ ( 0. 1. Playing a Session File If you want to set up the simulation automatically and continue to Obtaining a Solution to the Transient Rotor-Stator Model (p. When you are finished viewing the chart.

8. Inc. 2. Click Next.124e-5 s This timestep will be used until the total time is reached Note A transient rotor-stator calculation often runs through more than one pitch. 5. 201 . Click the Trn Results tab. Initial values are required.Setting Output Control Tab Physics Definition Setting Fluid Analysis Type > Type Analysis Type > Total Time Analysis Type > Time Steps Interface > Default Type a Value Air Ideal Gas Transient 2. Interface Definition is displayed. 4. Click Finish. Final Operations is displayed. Click Next. In the Transient Results tree view. but will be supplied later using a results file. All rights reserved. A message box notifies you that a turbo report will not be included in the solver file.124e-5 [s]b Transient Rotor Stator b This gives 10 timesteps of 2. Ensure that Operation is set to Enter General Mode. it may be useful to look at variable data averaged over the time interval required to complete 1 pitch. Click Yes to continue. Velocity in Stn Frame Time Interval . Boundary Definition is displayed.124e-4 [s]a 2. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings Option Output Variables Lista Output Frequency > Option Selected Variables Pressure. Velocity. A warning message is displayed. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 9. Setting Output Control 1. In these cases. and Release 12. 10. or if the flow is still developing. 7. 6. Inc.0 . You can then compare data for each pitch rotation to see if a “steady state” has been achieved. Click Yes. 11. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Next. Click Output Control . set Name to Transient Results 1. click Add new item click OK.

Inc. 7.Modifying Execution Control Output Frequency > Time Interval a 2. Click Open.124e-5 [s] Use the Ctrl key to select more than one variable. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. 4.defa You do not need to set the path unless you are planning on saving the solver file somewhere other than the working directory. 3. Initial values are required. 3. Select AxialIni_001. select Solver Input File. Serial Solution If you do not have a license. Release 12. or do not want to run CFX in parallel. 8. Click Yes.cfx) file at your discretion. but will be supplied later using a results file.res from your working directory. A warning will appear. 2. Under Initial Values Specification > Use Mesh From. 5. . select Initial Values 1. click Browse . Obtaining a Solution to the Transient Rotor-Stator Model When the CFX-Solver Manager has started you will need to specify an initial values file before starting the CFX-Solver. Click Execution Control Apply the following settings Tab Run Definition a . Solution time in serial is similar to the first part of this tutorial. 6. quit CFX-Pre. 5. 2. Click Define Run . CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. Confirm that the rest of the execution control settings are set appropriately. Under Initial Values Specification > Initial Values. saving the simulation (. Inc. 1.0 . 202 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select Run Definition > Initial Values Specification. due to a lack of initial values.def) File 1. 4. This can take a long time depending on your system. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. Modifying Execution Control 1. When CFX-Solver is finished. you can run it in serial. Under Initial Values Specification > Initial Values > Initial Values 1 Settings > File Name. Click OK. If using Standalone Mode. All rights reserved. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. 3. Click Start Run. select the check box next to Post-Process Results. Setting Solver Input File Value Axial.

double-click Initialization. you can initialize all components by clicking the Initialize All Components button which is visible initially by default. Release 12. This object can be edited and then redisplayed using the details view. Click Single View. you are going to create a blade-to-blade animation of pressure. double-click Blade-to-Blade. If using Standalone Mode. 2. the viewer displays a green background mesh for each initialized component. Only a few steps will therefore be required to display a surface of constant span and to create a turbo surface later on in this tutorial. A surface of constant span appears. look for the additional information that is provided for transient rotor-stator runs. Each time the rotor is rotated to its next position. Both components (domains) are now being initialized based on the automatically selected turbo regions. 197). see Obtaining a Solution to the Frozen Rotor Model (p. For details. 203). Using Multiple Turbo Viewports 1. Inc. You should see that after 10 timesteps the rotor has been moved through 1 pitch. Left view is 3D View. 3. top right is Blade-to-Blade and bottom right is Meridional view. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click the Turbo tab. Monitoring the Run During the solution.0 . Click Yes. Continue this tutorial from Monitoring the Run (p. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. 1. or as an alternative to using that dialog box. colored by pressure. the number of degrees of rotation and the fraction of a pitch moved is given. All rights reserved. Displaying a Surface of Constant Span • In the Turbo tree view. The Turbo Initialization dialog box is displayed and asks you whether you want to auto-initialize all components. Initializing Turbo-Post All the pre-processing will be done during the initialization of the turbo components. Note If you do not see the Turbo Initialization dialog box. Parallel Solution You can solve this example using either local parallel or distributed parallel. In the Turbo tree view. in the same way as in the first part of this tutorial. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. a green turbine icon appears next to each component entry in the list. 2. 10. Click OK. Click Three Views. 203 . Inc. When the process is complete. Also.Parallel Solution 9. or after double-clicking the Initialization object in the Turbo tree view. A turbo surface will be used as the basis for this plot. Double-click Component 1 (S1) and review the automatically-selected turbo regions.© 2009 ANSYS. Viewing the Transient Rotor-Stator Results in CFD-Post To examine the transient interaction between the rotor and stator. 3.

set # of Copies to 6 for R1. 3. 6.© 2009 ANSYS. Position the geometry as shown below. Animating the movement of the Rotor relative to the Stator Start by loading the first timestep: 1. Under the Color tab select Variable and set it to Pressure with a user specified range of -10000 [Pa] to -7000 [Pa]. 4. Inc. you will use instancing transformations to view a larger section of the model. Click Apply. 7. Click Apply to load the timestep. Return to the Outline tab and ensure that the turbo surface is visible again. In the Instancing section of the form. . 4. select the Keyframe Animation option. 5. Turn off the visibility of Wireframe. . Release 12. 204 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In the Animation dialog box. 2. In the toolbar at the top of the window click Animation . In the Turbo tree view. ready for the animation. double-click the 3D View object. 5. 6. All rights reserved. In the Instancing section of the form. This is exactly 1 pitch from the previous position so the blades will not appear to move. set # of Copies to 6 for S1. 2. Make sure you have at least two rotor blades out of view to the left side of the viewer. They will come into view during the animation. 1. Create a Turbo Surface by selecting Insert > Location > Turbo Surface from the drop down menu with a Constant Span and value of 0. 2.0 . Setting up Instancing Transformations Next. Click Timestep Selector Select time value 0.Creating a Turbo Surface at Mid-Span Creating a Turbo Surface at Mid-Span 1. Click Apply. The rotor blades move to their starting position. 3.5. Inc. During the animation the rotor blades will move to the right. so only the number of instances needs to be set. The properties for each domain have already been entered during the initialization phase.

to expand the Animation dialog box. All rights reserved. It takes a while for the animation to complete. Click Play the animation • • . 13. Edit the Gas Turbine Performance macro in the Turbo tree view. 2.0 . Set Format to MPEG1. next to the Save Movie box and then set the file name to an appropriate file name. 18. 3. Click Calculate. Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Browse . The movie was created with a narrow pressure range compared to the global range which exaggerates the differences across the interface. Wait for CFD-Post to finish loading the objects for this frame before proceeding. 10. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1. then set # of Frames to 9. click To Beginning to load it. 17. In the expanded Animation dialog box. click New 12. The animation now contains a total of 11 frames (9 intermediate frames plus the two Keyframes).Further Postprocessing 8. In the Animation dialog box. one for each of the available time values. Click View Report. 11. If frame 1 is not loaded (shown in the F: text box at the bottom of the Animation dialog box). 15. Click Options and set Transient Case to TimeValue Interpolation. 4. Further Postprocessing You can use the Turbo Calculator to produce a report on the performance of the turbine.4575 and leave other settings at their default values. and from the plots created previously. The relatively coarse mesh and the small number of timesteps used in the transient simulation also contribute to this. Select KeyframeNo1. To view the movie file. you will need to use a media player that supports the MPEG format. 205 . Click OK. 9. that the flow is not continuous across the interface. then press Enter while in the # of Frames box. Tip Be sure to press Enter and confirm that the new number appears in the list before continuing. This is because a pitch change occurs. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 14. Inc. 16. Use the Timestep Selector to load the final timestep. select Save Movie. Click New to create KeyFrameNo1. You will be able to see from the animation. Inc. Set Ref Radius to 0. Click More Animation Options to create KeyframeNo2.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . Inc. All rights reserved. . Inc.© 2009 ANSYS.

210) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Particle Tracking Boundary Conditions Details General Mode Steady State Variable Composition Mixture Single Domain k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Component Source Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Symmetry Plane Wall: Adiabatic Additional Variables CEL (CFX Expression Language) Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Isosurface Slice Plane Component CFX-Pre Release 12. 208) Modeling Approach (p. Reacting Flow in a Mixing Tube This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 209) Before You Begin (p.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 225) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Using a subdomain as the basis for component sources. Inc. Inc.Chapter 15. 226) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • Creating and using a multicomponent fluid in CFX-Pre. All rights reserved. 210) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 207) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. Using CEL to model a reaction in CFX-Pre. 210) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. 207 . Using an algebraic Additional Variable to model a scalar distribution.© 2009 ANSYS.

a solution of dilute sulfuric acid enters at 2 m/s with a temperature of 300 K. Through each of the two other rings of holes. as a result. . Release 12. The properties of the solution of sulfuric acid are shown in Table 15.2.Overview of the Problem to Solve Overview of the Problem to Solve Reaction engineering is one of the core components in the chemical industry.0 . Through the ring of holes nearest the inlet. Optimizing reactor design leads to higher yields.© 2009 ANSYS. “Properties of the Dilute Sodium Hydroxide Solution” (p. 208):.923 m/s with a temperature of 300 K. 208 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.001 kg m^-1 s^-1 0. The main inlet has water entering at 2 m/s with a temperature of 300 K. higher profit. This example demonstrates the capability of ANSYS CFX to model basic reacting flows using a multicomponent fluid and CEL expressions. Inc.1. The pressure at the outlet is 1 atm. lower costs and. 209). a solution of dilute sodium hydroxide (an alkali) enters with a temperature of 300K. Table 15.6 W m^-1 K^-1 Through the remaining two rings of holes. a solution of dilute sodium hydroxide enters at 2. Inc. The properties of the solution of sodium hydroxide are shown in Table 15. The geometry consists of a mixing tube with three rings with twelve holes in each ring. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Properties of the Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution Property Molar mass Density Specific heat capacity Dynamic Viscosity Thermal Conductivity Value 19.1.517 kg kmol^-1 1078 kg m^-3 4190 J kg^-1 K^-1 0. “Properties of the Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution” (p.

C.6 W m^-1 K^-1 The acid and alkali undergo an exothermic reaction to form a solution of sodium sulfate (a type of salt) and water according to the reaction: H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na 2SO4 + 2H2O Mixing the acid and alkali solutions in a stoichiometric ratio (and allowing them to react completely) would result in a salt water solution that would include water from each of the original solutions plus water produced during the reaction.6 W m^-1 K^-1 The heat of reaction is 460 kJ per kg of dilute acid solution.Modeling Approach Table 15. “Properties of the Salt Water Product” (p. and determine the extent to which the pH is neutralized at the outlet.3. The properties of this salt water product are shown in Table 15. The product.2.001 kg m^-1 s^-1 0. only a 30° slice of the geometry will be modeled.© 2009 ANSYS. Modeling Approach In order to reduce memory requirements and solution time. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 209 . The flow is assumed to be fully turbulent and turbulence is assumed to have a significant effect on the reaction rate.3. Inc. you will plot the distribution of pH in the tube. remains in solution.600 kg kmol^-1 1031 kg m^-3 4190 J kg^-1 K^-1 0. Release 12. Properties of the Dilute Sodium Hydroxide Solution Property Molar mass Density Specific heat capacity Dynamic Viscosity Thermal Conductivity Value 18.292 kg kmol^-1 1029 kg m^-3 4190 J kg^-1 K^-1 0. Properties of the Salt Water Product Setting Molar mass Density Specific heat capacity Dynamic Viscosity Thermal Conductivity Value 18.001 kg m^-1 s^-1 0. Table 15. alkali and product. Inc. You will also plot mass fraction distributions of acid.0 . As it flows along the tube it reacts with Reagent B (dilute sodium hydroxide) which is injected through a further two rings of holes downstream. 209). The reaction between acid and alkali is represented as a single-step irreversible liquid-phase reaction: A+B→C Reagent A (dilute sulfuric acid) is injected through a ring of holes near the start of the tube. and symmetry boundary conditions will be applied to represent the remaining geometry. All rights reserved. After running the simulation.

the reactants. For details. If you want to set up the simulation manually. Under File name.gtm Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details.© 2009 ANSYS. select File > New Case. The Additional Variable will be available in the solution results for analysis during post-processing.pre ReactorExpressions. alkali and product components. Because the reaction may occur anywhere in the domain. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • 2. 2. To model the reaction. Importing the Mesh 1. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. Select File > Save Case As. 3).gtm 1 You can also model this type of reaction using a reacting mixture as your fluid.0 . In CFX-Pre. Inc. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > CFX Mesh. you will use CEL expressions to govern the mass sources for the acid.pre. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 1) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 5. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. 2. Release 12. To model the pH. You will also use CEL expressions to govern the thermal energy source. run Reactor. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. Select General and click OK. . 4. 291). you will create a subdomain that occupies the entire flow domain. type Reactor.Before You Begin You will create a variable-composition mixture1 that contains water. Providing mass and energy sources over a volume requires a subdomain.ccl ReactorMesh. There is a tutorial that uses a reacting mixture: Combustion and Radiation in a Can Combustor (p. Apply the following settings: Setting File name Value ReactorMesh. Click Save. Reactor. 3. proceed to the following steps: 1. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. 210 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 225). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Inc. and the product. you will create an algebraic Additional Variable that is governed by a CEL expression for pH.

Creating a Multicomponent Fluid In addition to providing template fluids. This tool allows you to define your own fluids as pure substances. This is the fluid that you will use in your simulation.0 .Creating a Multicomponent Fluid 3. 2. In order to define custom fluids. alkali and product) as pure substances. The neutral carrier liquid is water. Acid Properties The properties of the dilute sulfuric acid solution were stated in the problem description. CFX allows you to create custom fluids for use in all your CFX models.© 2009 ANSYS. This type of fluid model is useful for applications involving mixtures. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Option Thermodynamic State Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic State Material Properties Option Value Pure Substance (Selected) Liquid General Material Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > Value Option Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > 19. A variable composition mixture (as opposed to a fixed composition mixture) is required because the proportion of each component will change throughout the simulation due to the reaction.517 [kg kmol^-1]a Molar Mass Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > 1078 [kg m^-3] Density Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity > Option Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity > Specific Heat Capacity Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity (Selected) Value 4190 [J kg^-1 K^-1] (Selected) Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Option Value Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Dynamic Viscosity Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity Release 12. but may also be defined as a mixture. you will create a variable composition mixture consisting of these four materials. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. consisting of a number of transported fluid components. The mixing tube application requires a fluid made up from four separate materials (or components). You are first going to define the materials that take part in the reaction (acid. 1. Click Open. CFX-Pre provides the Material details view. All rights reserved. Inc. and combustion. reactions. The components are the reactants and products of a simple chemical reaction together with a neutral carrier liquid. and is already defined. 211 0. A custom fluid may be defined as a pure substance. Inc. Finally. fixed composition mixtures or variable composition mixtures using a range of template property sets defined for common materials.001 [kg m^-1 s^-1] (Selected) . Create a new material named acid.

Inc. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. 3.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Option Thermodynamic State Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic State Material Properties Option Value Pure Substance (Selected) Liquid General Material Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > Value Option Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > 18.Creating a Multicomponent Fluid Tab Setting Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity > Option Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity > Thermal Conductivity a Value Value 0.6 [W m^-1 K^-1] The Molar Masses for the three materials do not affect the solution except through the post-processed variables Molar Concentration and Molar Fraction. Alkali Properties The properties of the dilute sodium hydroxide solution were stated in the problem description. 1. Click OK.001 [kg m^-1 s^-1] (Selected) Value 0. Click OK. 0. Create a new material named alkali. Release 12.292 [kg kmol^-1] Molar Mass Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > 1029 [kg m^-3] Density Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity > Option Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity > Specific Heat Capacity Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity (Selected) Value 4190 [J kg^-1 K^-1] (Selected) Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Option Value Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Dynamic Viscosity Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity > Option Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity > Thermal Conductivity 3. 212 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. All rights reserved.6 [W m^-1 K^-1] .

2.600 [kg kmol^-1] Molar Mass Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > 1031 [kg m^-3] Density Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity > Option Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity > Specific Heat Capacity Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity (Selected) Value 4190 [J kg^-1 K^-1] (Selected) Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Option Value Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Dynamic Viscosity Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity > Option Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity > Thermal Conductivity 3.001 [kg m^-1 s^-1] (Selected) Value 0. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Option Thermodynamic State Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic State Material Properties Option Value Pure Substance (Selected) Liquid General Material Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > Value Option Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State > 18.6 [W m^-1 K^-1] Fluid Properties Define a variable composition mixture by combining water with the three materials you have defined: acid. 1.© 2009 ANSYS. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Option Value Variable Composition Mixture Release 12.Creating a Multicomponent Fluid Reaction Product Properties The properties of the salt water product were stated in the problem description. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. alkali. product.0 . Create a new material named mixture. Create a new material named product. 213 . Click OK. 2. Inc. 1. All rights reserved. 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

The alkali solution contains water and sodium hydroxide. 217) Loading the Expressions to Model the Reaction and pH (p. In the fourth subsection (Loading the Expressions to Model the Reaction and pH (p. Click OK. The second subsection (Reaction Source Terms (p. 217)).0 . 218)) you will use a provided file to load CEL expressions for the reaction source terms and the pH. Inc. 216) Calculating pH (p. product (Selected) Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic Liquid State 3. alkali. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Variable Type Units Tensor Type 3. it is assumed that the sodium hydroxide molecules completely dissociate into ions according to the following reaction: Release 12. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. This section of the tutorial shows you how to calculate the stoichiometric ratio. Click OK. including how it is calculated. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. You can create Additional Variables and use them in selected fluids in your domain. 1. Create a new Additional Variable named MixturePH. . Value Specific [kg kg^-1] Scalar This Additional Variable is now available for use when you create or modify a domain. 214 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. acid. 218) The first section shows a derivation for the mass-based stoichiometric ratio of alkali solution to acid solution. You will set other properties of the Additional Variable. when you apply it to the domain later in this tutorial. Creating an Additional Variable to Model pH You are going to use an Additional Variable to model the distribution of pH in the mixing tube. and introduces other quantities that are used in this tutorial. 214) Reaction Source Terms (p.Creating an Additional Variable to Model pH Tab Setting Material Group Materials List Thermodynamic State Value User. This ratio is used for calculating various quantities throughout this tutorial. neutral pH). Formulating the Reaction and pH as Expressions This section includes: • • • • Stoichiometric Ratio (p. All rights reserved. Water Data Water. shows you how pH is calculated. In the alkali solution. It represents the mass ratio of alkali solution to acid solution which leads to complete reaction with no excess alkali or acid (that is. Stoichiometric Ratio The mass-based stoichiometric ratio of alkali solution to acid solution is a quantity that is used in several calculations in this tutorial. 216)) shows you how reactions and reaction kinetics can be formulated using the Eddy Break Up (EBU) model. The third subsection (Calculating pH (p.

9971 kg/kmol).012601 kmol NaOH/kmol solution β can then be calculated as follows: β= 0. this tutorial models solutions that contain these molecules (in dissociated form) plus water. with the weighting in proportion to the number of each type of molecule in the solution.015 kg/kmol 39.015 kg/kmol = 0. it is assumed that the sulfuric acid molecules completely dissociate into ions according to the following reaction: H2SO4 ⇒ 2H + + SO4 2 − The Na + ions and SO4 2− ions react to form sodium sulfate (a type of salt) and water according to the reaction: 2Na + + 2OH − + 2H + + SO4 2 − ⇒ Na 2SO4 + 2H2O Note that this reaction requires the ions from two molecules of sodium hydroxide and the ions from one molecule of sulfuric acid.Formulating the Reaction and pH as Expressions NaOH ⇒ Na + + OH − The acid solution contains water and sulfuric acid.1) where: • β is the concentration of NaOH in kmol/kg solution (equal to the concentration of Y + in kmol/kg solution). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.9971 kg/kmol − 18. The stoichiometric ratio for the dry alkali and acid molecules is 2-to-1. the ratio i can be computed as the ratio of the following two + 2− A formula for calculating i is: i= = 2α β (Eq.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . require a mass-based stoichiometric ratio. 15. 215 . i. Instead of modeling dry molecules of alkali and acid. that expresses the mass ratio between the alkali solution and the acid solution required for complete reaction of all of the (dissociated) alkali and acid molecules within them. The calculations used to model the alkali-acid reactions.292 kg/kmol solution) is a weighted average of the molar masses of water (18. and to measure the pH. • The molar mass of the alkali solution (given as 18.689E-3 kmol NaOH/kg solution Release 12. α is the concentration of H2SO4 in kmol/kg solution (equal to the concentration of X 2 − in kmol/kg solution).015 kg/kmol) and dry sodium hydroxide (39. Using X masses: • • The mass of alkali solution required to contain 2 kmol of Y The mass of acid solution required to contain 1 kmol of X ⎛ 2 kmol Y + ⎞ ⎜ β kmol Y + / kg ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 1 kmol X 2 − ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ α kmol X 2 − / kg ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ + 2− to denote SO4 2− and Y + to denote Na .012601 kmol NaOH/kmol solution 18.292 kg solution/kmol solution = 0. Inc. In the acid solution. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. You can compute the fraction of the molecules in the solution that are sodium hydroxide as: NaOH fraction = = molar mass alkali solution − molar mass H 2O molar mass NaOH − molar mass H 2O 18.292 kg/kmol − 18.

The left-hand side consists of the transient. All rights reserved. You can compute the fraction of the molecules in the solution that are sulfuric acid as: H2SO4 fraction = = molar mass acid solution − molar mass H 2O molar mass H 2SO 4 − molar mass H 2O 19. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.2) where t is time. For details.517 kg solution/kmol solution α= = 0.01876 kmol H 2SO 4/kmol solution 19. the heat of reaction is 460 kJ per kg of acid solution.2 (p. In addition to specifying the sources for the acid solution and alkali solution. Inc.01876 kmol H2SO4/kmol solution α can then be calculated as follows: 0.07848 kg/kmol). 216). Release 12.517 kg/kmol solution) is a weighted average of the molar masses of water (18. and ε is the turbulence eddy dissipation. 15. advection and diffusion terms.79.015 kg/kmol 98. The reaction rate is also used to govern the rate of thermal energy production according to the relation: Heat Source = Heat of Reaction × 4 ρ ε k mf ⎛ ⎞ min ⎜ m f acid. alkali ⎟ i ⎝ ⎠ From the problem description. Reaction Source Terms The reaction and reaction rate are modeled using a basic Eddy Break Up formulation for the component and energy sources. Inc. the transport equation for the mass fraction of acid solution is: d ∂ ∂t ( ρ m f acid ) + ∇ · ( ρ U m f acid ) − ∇ · ( ρ DA ∇ m f acid ) = −4 ρ ε k mf ⎛ ⎞ min ⎜ m f acid.517 kg/kmol − 18. 216 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS. . source coefficients will also be used in order to enhance solution convergence.Formulating the Reaction and pH as Expressions The molar mass of the acid solution (given as 19. U is velocity. The right-hand side represents the mass source term that is applied to the transport equation for the acid solution. alkali ⎟ i ⎝ ⎠ (Eq.0 . DA is the kinematic diffusivity of the acid solution through the mixture. with the weighting in proportion to the number of each type of molecule in the solution.015 kg/kmol = 0. Note This is a technical note. 215) yields the mass-based stoichiometric ratio of alkali solution to acid solution: i = 2. For example. for reference only. see the technical note at the end of this section. and i is the stoichiometric ratio of alkali solution to acid solution based on mass fraction. m f acid is the mass fraction of the acid solution in the mixture.07848 kg/kmol − 18. ρ is the local density of the variable composition mixture. Note that the reaction rate appears on the right-hand side of Equation 15.1 (p.961E-3 kmol H2SO4/kg solution Substituting the values for β and α into Equation 15. The reaction rate is computed as: Reaction Rate = 4ρε k where k is the turbulence kinetic energy.015 kg/kmol) and dry sulfuric acid (98.

A source coefficient C is optional. If no suitable value is available for C .Formulating the Reaction and pH as Expressions A source is fully specified by an expression for its value S . this may be a useful approach for controlling sources with positive feedback ( ∂ S ⁄ ∂ φ > 0) or sources that do not depend directly on the solved variable φ . Calculating pH The pH (or acidity) of the mixture is a function of the volume-based concentration of H ions. C= S φ may be sufficient to ensure convergence.© 2009 ANSYS. An optimal value for C when solving an individual equation for a positive variable φ with a source S whose strength decreases with increasing φ is C= ∂S ∂φ Where this derivative cannot be computed easily.0 . Inc.0E-14 kmol2 m-6)). Provided that the source time scale is not excessively short compared to flow or mixing time scales.) Another useful formula for C is C=− ρ τ where τ is a local estimate for the source time scale. 217 . All rights reserved. respectively: + ⎡ H + ⎤ + ⎡ Y + ⎤ = 2 ⎡ X 2− ⎤ + ⎡ OH − ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ H + ⎤ ⎡ OH − ⎤ = KW ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (where KW is the constant for the self-ionization of water (1. which are based on charge conservation and equilibrium conditions. the solution time scale or time step can still be reduced to help improve convergence of difficult source terms. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. (This is the form used for the acid solution and alkali solution mass source coefficients in this tutorial. The value of C may affect the rate of convergence but should not affect the converged results. The latter can be computed using the following two equations. You can substitute one equation into the other to obtain the following quadratic equation: ⎡ +⎤ ⎛ ⎡ +⎤ ⎡ +⎤ ⎡ 2− ⎤ ⎞ ⎢ H ⎥ ⎜ ⎣ H ⎦ + ⎣ Y ⎦ − 2 ⎣ X ⎦ ⎟ = KW ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎝ which can be rearranged into standard quadratic form as: 2 ⎛ ⎤ ⎞ ⎡ [ H + ] + ⎜ ⎡ Y + ⎤ − 2 ⎡ X 2− ⎤ ⎟ ⎢ H + ⎥ − KW = 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝⎣ ⎦ Release 12. but can be specified to provide convergence enhancement or stability for strongly-varying sources. Important C must never be positive.

2a The quadratic equation can be solved for [ H ] using the equation [ H ]= b = ⎡ Y + ⎤ − 2 ⎡ X 2− ⎤ and c = − KW. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The volume-based concentrations of X 2− and Y + are required to calculate b. Observe the expressions listed in the tree view of CFX-Pre. and can be calculated from the mass fractions of the components using the following expressions: mf ⎡ X 2 − ⎤ = α ρ ⎛ m f + prod ⎞ ⎜ acid 1 + i ⎟ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝ i m f prod ⎞ ⎛ [ Y + ] = β ρ ⎜ m f alkali + 1+ i ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where: • • • • • • [ X 2 − ] is the concentration of X 2 − in kmol/m^3. Ensure that Import Method is set to Append.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Some expressions are used to support other expressions.Formulating the Reaction and pH as Expressions + + − b + max[ ( b 2 − 4ac ). [ Y + ] is the concentration of Y + in kmol/m^3. 215). which should be in your working directory. 218 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Note that the second expression above can be re-written by substituting for β using Equation 15. .0 . The result is: ⎛ mf [ Y + ] = 2α ρ ⎜ alkali + ⎝ i m f prod 1+ i ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ + After solving for the concentration of H ions. ρ is the local density of the variable composition mixture. Select File > Import > CCL. i is the mass-based stoichiometric ratio of alkali solution to acid solution. 0] where a = 1. The main expressions are: Release 12. Inc.1 (p. β is the concentration of NaOH in kmol/kg solution (equal to the concentration of Y + in kmol/kg solution). 4. 3. Select ReactorExpressions.ccl. Click Open. the following relation will be used in this tutorial: pH = − log10 max ⎡ ⎡ H + ⎤ . All rights reserved. α is the concentration of H2SO4 in kmol/kg solution (equal to the concentration of X 2 − in kmol/kg solution). 2. the pH can be computed as: pH = − log10 [ H + ] In order to set a limit on pH for calculation purposes. 10 − 15 ⎤ ⎣⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ( ) Loading the Expressions to Model the Reaction and pH Load the expressions required to model the reaction sources and pH: 1.

The rate of production of alkali due to the Rate reaction (always negative or zero).P3 Fluid Domain Mixture mixture 1 [atm] Thermal Energy acid Transport Equation Component Models > Component > acid > Kinematic (Selected) Diffusivity Release 12. Under the Fluid and Particle Definitions setting. alpha. Inc. b. 1. In a multiphase simulation you must prefix variables with a fluid name. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on.acid. Inc.0 . Creating the Domain In this section.mf instead of acid. i HeatReaction. Double-click Default Domain. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Creating the Domain Expression Name pH HeatSource AcidSource AcidSourceCoeff AlkaliSource AlkaliSourceCoeff ProductSource Description The pH of the mixture. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Location and Type > Domain Type Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Mixture > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Component Models > Component Component Models > Component > acid > Option Value B1.mf. Note that the expressions do not refer to a particular fluid since there is only a single fluid (which happens to be a multicomponent fluid). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. for example Mixture. All rights reserved. A domain named Default Domain should now appear under the Simulation branch. a. The Additional Variable will be set up as an algebraic equation with values calculated from the CEL expression for pH. 219 . Xions. you will create a fluid domain that contains the variable composition mixture and the Additional Variable that you created earlier. AlkaliSource The rate of production of salt water product Rate (always positive or zero).© 2009 ANSYS. Yions. c. 2. delete Fluid 1 and create a new fluid definition called Mixture. The thermal energy released from the reaction. The source coefficient for AlkaliSource (to enhance convergence). The source coefficient for AcidSource (to AcidSource enhance convergence). Rate The rate of production of acid due to the Rate reaction (always negative or zero). Supporting Expressions Hions.

Creating a Subdomain to Model the Chemical Reactions Tab Setting Value Component Models > Component > acid > Kinematic 0. 6. 4. or a Vector Algebraic Equation. Creating a Subdomain to Model the Chemical Reactions To provide the correct modeling for the chemical reaction you need to define mass fraction sources for the fluid components acid. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location Value B1. Click OK.0 . 5. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. Create a new subdomain named sources. Inc.mf Release 12. Use the same Option and Kinematic Diffusivity settings for alkali and product as you have just set for acid. set Option to Constraint as follows: Tab Fluid Models Setting Component Models > Component Component Models > Component > Water > Option Value Water Constraint One component must always use Constraint. 220 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. alkali. which is for vector quantities. In this case.P3 a Sources Sources Sources > Equation Sources (Selected) acid. sources need to be provided within the entire domain of the mixing tube since the reaction occurs throughout the domain. Var. All rights reserved.001 [m^2 s^-1] Diffusivity > Kinematic Diffusivity 3. 1. . This is the component used to balance the mass fraction equation. Apply the following settings to apply the Additional Variable that you created earlier: Tab Fluid Models Setting Value Additional Variable Models > Additional (Selected) Variable > MixturePH Additional Variable Models > Additional Algebraic Equation Variable > MixturePH > Option a Additional Variable Models > Additional pH Variable > MixturePH > Add. The expressions should be listed in the tree view.© 2009 ANSYS. the sum of the mass fractions of all components of a fluid must equal unity. To do this. Value a The other possible options either involve a transport equation to transport the Additional Variable in the flow field. For Water. you need to create a subdomain where the relevant sources can be specified. The Algebraic Equation is suitable because it allows the calculation of pH as a function of existing variables and expressions. and product. 3. Inc. Ensure that you have loaded the CEL expressions from the provided file.

Inc.mf Sources > Equation Sources > acid.mf > Option Sources > Equation Sources > alkali.mf Sources > Equation Sources > alkali. Note that water is the constraint material. 4. Water Inlet Boundary Create a boundary for the water inlet using the given information: 1.© 2009 ANSYS.mf > Source Coefficient (Selected) Sources > Equation Sources > acid. its mass fraction is computed as unity minus the sum of the mass fractions of the other components.mf (Selected) Source AlkaliSource (Selected) AlkaliSourceCoeff Energy (Selected) Source HeatSource product.mf (Selected) Source ProductSource (Selected) 0 [kg m^-3 s^-1] This is the 3D region that fills the domain.mf Sources > Equation Sources > product. Since the fluid in the domain is a multicomponent fluid.Creating the Boundary Conditions Tab Setting Sources > Equation Sources > acid.mf > Source Value (Selected) Source AcidSource Sources > Equation Sources > acid.mf > Source Sources > Equation Sources > product.mf > Source Sources > Equation Sources > alkali. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Many of the required settings were given in the problem description. Creating the Boundary Conditions Add boundary conditions for all boundaries except the mixing tube wall. Create a new boundary named InWater.mf > Option Sources > Equation Sources > product. 221 . the latter will receive the default wall condition. All rights reserved.mf > Source Coefficient Sources > Equation Sources > alkali.mf > Source Coefficient > Source Coefficient a alkali.mf > Option Sources > Equation Sources > acid. Release 12.mf > Source Coefficient > Source Coefficient Sources > Equation Sources Sources > Equation Sources > Energy Sources > Equation Sources > Energy > Option Sources > Equation Sources > Energy > Source Sources > Equation Sources Sources > Equation Sources > product.mf > Source Coefficient AcidSourceCoeff > Source Coefficient Sources > Equation Sources Sources > Equation Sources > alkali. Click OK. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. you can control which component enters at each inlet by setting mass fractions appropriately. Inc.mf > Source Coefficient Sources > Equation Sources > product.0 .

All rights reserved. 2. Create a new boundary named InAlkali. Apply the following settings: Release 12.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. 2.0 alkali 0 product 0 Alkali Inlet Boundary Create a boundary for the alkali solution inlet holes using the given information: 1. Inc.Creating the Boundary Conditions 2. Since Water is the constraint fluid. Value Inlet InWater Normal Speed 2 [m s^-1] Static Temperature 300 [K] Leave mass fractions for all components set to zero. it will be automatically given a mass fraction of 1 on this inlet. Create a new boundary named InAcid. Click OK. 222 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 4. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature 3. Acid Inlet Boundary Create a boundary for the acid solution inlet hole using the given information: 1. Value Inlet InAcid Normal Speed 2 [m s^-1] Static Temperature 300 [K] acid 1. Inc. Click OK. . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Component Details Component Details > acid > Mass Fraction Component Details Component Details > alkali > Mass Fraction Component Details Component Details > product > Mass Fraction 3.

All rights reserved. Click OK. 2. Inc. Value Outlet out Static Pressure 0 [Pa] Symmetry Boundary The geometry models a 30° slice of the full geometry. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 3. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 3. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS.923 [m s^-1] Static Temperature 300 [K] (Selected) 0 (Selected) 1 (Selected) 0 Outlet Boundary Create a subsonic outlet at 1 atm (which is the reference pressure that was set in the domain definition): 1. Create a new boundary named sym1. one for each side of the geometry. Click OK.0 . Create a new boundary named out. 223 . 1. Inc. so that the simulation models the entire geometry. 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Value Symmetry sym1 Release 12. Value Inlet InAlkali Normal Speed 2. Create two symmetry boundaries.Creating the Boundary Conditions Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Component Details > acid Component Details > acid > Mass Fraction Component Details > alkali Component Details > alkali > Mass Fraction Component Details > product Component Details > product > Mass Fraction 3.

224 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. which is the mixer wall. Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Automatic with Value Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Initial Conditions > Component Details Initial Conditions > Component Details > acid > Option Initial Conditions > Component Details > acid > Mass Fraction Initial Conditions > Component Details Initial Conditions > Component Details > alkali > Option Initial Conditions > Component Details > alkali > Mass Fraction Initial Conditions > Component Details 2 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] acid Automatic with Value 0 alkali Automatic with Value 0 product Initial Conditions > Component Details > product > Option Automatic with Value Initial Conditions > Component Details > product > Mass Fraction 3.© 2009 ANSYS. alkali. adiabatic wall. a periodic interface can be used as an alternative to the symmetry boundary conditions. All rights reserved. 5. The default boundary is a smooth. Default Wall Boundary The default adiabatic wall boundary applies automatically to the remaining unspecified boundary.0 . Since the inlet velocity is 2 m/s. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 6. a reasonable guess for the initial velocity is 2 m/s. Setting Initial Values The values for acid. Create a new boundary named sym2. 0 Release 12. and product will be initialized to 0. is 1.Setting Initial Values 4. Inc. . in this case. Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1. 2. in this case. Click OK. no-slip. Inc. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: Tab Global Settings Setting Value . Since Water is the constrained component. Value Symmetry sym2 Note that. it will make up the remaining mass fraction which.

5.06 m and inlet velocity is 2 m/s. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. All rights reserved. 6. select Executable Settings > Double Precision Override > Double Precision. the Solver Input File is set. Ensure Define Run is displayed.cfx) file at your discretion. 2. An estimate of the dynamic time scale is 0. This may take a long time. Click OK. 225 . Click OK. 3. If using Standalone Mode. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. obtain a solution to the CFD problem as follows: 1. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Click Define Run . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Advection Scheme > Option Convergence Control > Max. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. 4. This provides the precision required to evaluate the expression for pH. Select Show Advanced Controls. Value Reactor. 2. Click Save. depending on your system.03 s. Click Start Run. An appropriate time step would be 1/4 to 1/2 of this value. If using Standalone Mode.© 2009 ANSYS. 4. 2. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. 3. Inc.def) File 1.0 . CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. on the Define Run dialog box.01 [s]a a The length of mixing tube is 0. quit CFX-Pre. Click Solver Control . Release 12. Iterations Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale Value High Resolution 50 Physical Timescale 0.Setting Solver Control Setting Solver Control 1. saving the simulation (.def Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager When CFX-Solver Manager has started. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. On the Solver tab. Inc. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Create an XY slice plane through Z = 0. 2. MixturePH acid. and turbulence quantities on a plane as follows: 1.© 2009 ANSYS. the mass fractions. This quantity is an indicator of the reaction rate — it represents 1 / mixing timescale.Mass Fraction Turbulence Kinetic Energy Turbulence Eddy Dissipation Create an expression for Turbulence Eddy Dissipation/Turbulence Kinetic Energy and create a contour plot using that expression. All rights reserved.Mass Fraction alkali. 226 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Turn off the visibility of the plane you just created. Create contour plots of the following variables on that plane: • • • • • • 4.0 . . 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Mass Fraction product. Release 12. Inc.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post Viewing the Results in CFD-Post To see the nature and extent of the reaction process. examine the pH.

0 . 227) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 234) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p.Chapter 16. Modeling conjugate heat transfer in CFX-Pre. Inc. Plotting temperature on a cylindrical locator in CFD-Post. Component CFX-Pre Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Conjugate Heat Transfer Electrical Resistance Heating Boundary Conditions Electrical Heating Coil Inlet (Subsonic) Opening Wall: No-Slip Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Multiple Domain k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Release 12. Using electricity to power a heat source. 228) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 229) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. Exporting thermal and mechanical data to be used with ANSYS Multi-field solver. Conjugate Heat Transfer in a Heating Coil This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 237) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • • Creating and using a solid domain as a heating coil in CFX-Pre. 229) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Important Note that this tutorial uses the electromagnetic model which is a BETA feature in the current release. Lighting in CFD-Post. Inc. 228) Before You Begin (p. 234) Exporting the Results to ANSYS (p. 227 .© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Creating a domain interface.

Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Wall: Adiabatic CEL (CFX Expression Language) Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Cylinder Default Locators Contour Isosurface Other Changing the Color Range Expression Details View Lighting Adjustment Variable Details View

Overview of the Problem to Solve
This example demonstrates the capability of ANSYS CFX in modeling conjugate heat transfer. In this example, a simple heat exchanger is used to model the transfer of thermal energy from an electrically-heated solid copper coil to the water flowing around it. The model contains a fluid domain for the water and a solid domain for the coil. The fluid domain is an annular region that envelops the coil, and has water flowing through it at a constant rate. The copper coil has a 4.4 V difference in electric potential from one end to the other end. Assume that the copper has a uniform electrical conductivity of 59.6E+06 S/m and that there is a 1 mm thick calcium carbonate deposit (calcite) on the heating coil.

This tutorial also includes an optional step that demonstrates the use of the CFX to ANSYS Data Transfer tool to export thermal and mechanical stress data for use with ANSYS Multi-field solver. A results file is provided in case you want to skip the model creation and solution steps within ANSYS CFX.

Before You Begin
If this is the first tutorial you are working with, it is important to review the following topics before beginning: Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 228 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Starting CFX-Pre • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 3)

Starting CFX-Pre
1. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • 2. HeatingCoil.pre HeatingCoil_001.res HeatingCoilMesh.gtm

Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details, see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 1)

Defining a Case in CFX-Pre
If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file, run HeatingCoil.pre. For details, see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 3). Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 234). If you want to set up the simulation manually, proceed to the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In CFX-Pre, select File > New Case. Select General and click OK. Select File > Save Case As. Under File name, type HeatingCoil. Click Save.

Importing the Mesh
1. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain and Automatic Default Interfaces are turned off. Default Domain generation should be turned off because you will create the fluid and solid domains and interfaces manually later in this tutorial. 2. 3. 4. Click OK. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > CFX Mesh. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 5. 6. Click Open. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up) from the shortcut menu. Value HeatingCoilMesh.gtm

Editing the Material Properties
1. 2. Expand Materials from the tree view and double-click Copper. Apply the following settings to Copper:

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 229

Defining the Calcium Carbonate Deposit Material Tab Material Properties Setting Electromagnetic Properties > Electrical Conductivity Electromagnetic Properties > Electrical Conductivity > Electrical Conductivity Value (Selected) 59.6E+06 [S m^-1]

3.

Click OK.

Defining the Calcium Carbonate Deposit Material
Create a new material definition that will be used to model the calcium carbonate deposit on the heating coil: 1. 2. Click Insert Material then create a new material named Calcium Carbonate.

Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Material Group Thermodynamic State Value User (Selected)

Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic State Solid Material Properties Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State 100.087 [kg kmol^-1] > Molar Mass Thermodynamic Properties > Equation of State 2.71 [g cm^-3] > Density Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity Thermodynamic Properties > Specific Heat Capacity > Specific Heat Capacity (Selected) 0.9 [J g^-1 K^-1]

Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity (Selected) Transport Properties > Thermal Conductivity 3.85 [W m^-1 K^-1] > Thermal Conductivity 3. Click OK.

Creating the Domains
This simulation requires both a fluid domain and a solid domain. First, you will create a fluid domain for the annular region of the heat exchanger.

Creating a Fluid Domain
The fluid domain will include the region of fluid flow but exclude the solid copper heater coil. 1. 2. 3. Ensure that Flow Analysis 1 > Default Domain is deleted. If not, right-click Default Domain and select Delete. Click Domain and set the name to FluidZone.

Apply the following settings to FluidZone

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 230 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Creating the Domains Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Value B1.P3a Fluid 1 Water

Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure 1 [atm] Fluid Models Initialization
a

Heat Transfer > Option Domain Initialization

Thermal Energy (Selected)

This region name may be different depending on how the mesh was created. You should pick the region that forms the exterior surface of the volume surrounding the coil.

4.

Click OK.

Creating a Solid Domain
Since you know that the copper heating element will be much hotter than the fluid, you can initialize the temperature to a reasonable value. The initialization option that is set when creating a domain applies only to that domain. Note that the electromagnetic model is a BETA feature in the current release. Since it is required by this tutorial, you need to activate BETA features as follows: 1. 2. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and select Enable Beta Features. Click OK.

Create the solid domain as follows: 1. 2. Create a new domain named SolidZone. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Location and Type > Domain Type Solid Definitions Solid Definitions> Solid 1 > Solid 1 > Material Solid Models Heat Transfer > Option Electromagnetic Model Value B2.P3 Solid Domain Solid 1 Copper Thermal Energy (Selected)

Electromagnetic Model > Electric Field Model > Option Electric Potential Initialization Domain Initialization (Selected)

Domain Initialization > Initial Conditions > Temperature Automatic with Value > Option Domain Initialization > Initial Conditions > Temperature 550 [K] > Temperature 3. Click OK.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 231

Creating the Boundaries

Creating the Boundaries
Heating Coil Boundaries
In order to pass electricity through the heating coil, specify 0 V at one end and 4.4 V at the other end: 1. 2. Create a new boundary named Ground in the domain SolidZone. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Electric Field > Option Electric Field > Voltage
a

Value Wall F11.B2.P3a Voltage 0 [V]

This region name may be different depending on how the mesh was created. You should pick one end of the heating coil.

3. 4.

Click OK. Create a similar boundary named Hot at the other end of the coil, region F12.B2.P3, and apply 4.4 V.

Inlet Boundary
You will now create an inlet boundary for the cooling fluid (Water). 1. 2. Create a new boundary named inflow in the domain FluidZone. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature 3. Click OK. Value Inlet inflow Normal Speed 0.4 [m s^-1] Static Temperature 300 [K]

Opening Boundary
An opening boundary is appropriate for the exit in this case because, at some stage during the solution, the coiled heating element will cause some recirculation at the exit. At an opening boundary you need to set the temperature of fluid that enters through the boundary. In this case it is useful to base this temperature on the fluid temperature at the outlet, since you expect the fluid to be flowing mostly out through this opening. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Create a new expression named OutletTemperature. Set Definition to areaAve(T)@outflow Click Apply. Create a new boundary named outflow in the domain FluidZone. Apply the following settings:

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 232 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Creating the Domain Interface Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature 6. Click OK. Value Opening outflow Opening Pres. and Dirn 0 [Pa] Static Temperature OutletTemperature

The default adiabatic wall boundary will be applied automatically to the remaining unspecified external boundaries of the fluid domain. Two more boundary conditions are generated automatically when a domain interface is created to connect the fluid and solid domains. The domain interface is discussed in the next section.

Creating the Domain Interface
If you have Automatic Default Interfaces turned on, then an interface called Default Fluid Solid Interface is created automatically and listed in the tree view. In this case, delete the default interface and proceed to creating a new one. 1. Create a new domain interface named Fluid Solid Interface and apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Interface Models > Option Interface Models > Frame Change/Mixing Model > Option Interface Models > Pitch Change > Option Value Fluid Solid FluidZone F10.B1.P3, F5.B1.P3, F6.B1.P3, F7.B1.P3, F8.B1.P3, F9.B1.P3 SolidZone F10.B2.P3, F5.B2.P3, F6.B2.P3, F7.B2.P3, F8.B2.P3, F9.B2.P3 General Connection None None

Mesh Connection Method > Mesh Connection Automatic > Option Additional Interface Heat Transfer Models Heat Transfer > Interface Model > Option Heat Transfer > Interface Model > Material (Selected) Thin Material Calcium Carbonate

Heat Transfer > Interface Model > Thickness 1 [mm] 2. Click OK.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 233

Setting Solver Control

Setting Solver Control
1. 2. Click Solver Control . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Value Physical Timescale

Convergence Control >Fluid Timescale Control 2 [s] > Physical Timescale For the Convergence Criteria, an RMS value of at least 1e-05 is usually required for adequate convergence, but the default value is sufficient for demonstration purposes. 3. Click OK.

Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File
1. 2. Click Define Run . Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Click Save. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and, on the Define Run dialog box, the Solver Input File is set. 4. If using Standalone Mode, quit CFX-Pre, saving the simulation (.cfx) file at your discretion. Value HeatingCoil.def

Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager
1. 2. Ensure that the Define Run dialog box is displayed. Click Start Run. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. This can take a long time depending on your system. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. While the calculations proceed, you can see residual output for various equations in both the text area and the plot area. Use the tabs to switch between different plots (e.g., Heat Transfer, Turbulence (KE), etc.) in the plot area. You can view residual plots for the fluid and solid domains separately by editing the workspace properties (under Workspace > Workspace Properties). 3. 4. 5. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. If using Standalone Mode, select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Click OK.

Viewing the Results in CFD-Post
The following topics will be discussed: • • • Heating Coil Temperature Range (p. 235) Creating a Cylindrical Locator (p. 235) Specular Lighting (p. 237) Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 234 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Heating Coil Temperature Range • Moving the Light Source (p. 237)

Heating Coil Temperature Range
To grasp the effect of the calcium carbonate deposit, it is beneficial to compare the temperature range on either side of the deposit. 1. 2. 3. When CFD-Post opens, if you see the Domain Selector dialog box, ensure that both domains are selected, then click OK. Create a new contour named Contour 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Location Variable Range Boundary Data > Hybrid
a

Value Fluid Solid Interface Side 1a Temperature Local (Selected)

This is the deposit side that is in contact with the water.

4. 5.

Click Apply. Take note of the temperature range displayed below the Range drop-down box. The temperature on the outer surface of the deposit should range from around 400 K to 740 K. Change the contour location to Fluid Solid Interface Side 2 (The deposit side that is in contact with the coil) and click Apply. Notice how the temperature ranges from around 440 K to 810 K on the inner surface of the deposit.

Creating a Cylindrical Locator
Next, you will create a cylindrical locator close to the outside wall of the annular domain. This can be done by using an expression to specify radius and locating a particular radius with an isosurface.

Expression
1. 2. Create a new expression named expradius. Apply the following settings: Setting Definition 3. Click Apply. Value (x^2 + y^2)^0.5

Variable
1. 2. Create a new variable named radius. Apply the following settings: Setting Expression 3. Click Apply. Value expradius

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 235

Creating a Cylindrical Locator

Isosurface of the variable
1. 2. Create a new isosurface named Isosurface 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Variable Definition > Value Color Mode Variable Range Min Max Render
a

Value radius 0.8 [m]a Variable Temperature User Specifiedb 299 [K] 309 [K] (Selected)

Show Faces

The maximum radius is 1 m, so a cylinder locator at a radius of 0.8 m is suitable. Over most of the isosurface, the temperature is between 299 K and 309 K. The full temperature range is much larger due to temperature extremes on a very small fraction of the isosurface. By neglecting those extreme temperatures, more colors are used over the range of interest.
b

3.

Click Apply.

Note
The default range legend now displayed is that of the isosurface and not the contour. The default legend is set according to what is being edited in the details view.

Creating a Temperature Profile Chart
For a quantitative analysis of the temperature variation through the water and heating coil, it is beneficial to create a temperature profile chart. First, you will create a line that passes through two turns of the heating coil. You can then graphically analyze the temperature variance along that line by creating a temperature chart. 1. 2. Create a new line named Line 1. Apply the following settings to Line 1 Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Point 1 Definition > Point 2 Line Type > Sample Line Type > Samples 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Apply. Create a new chart named Temperature Profile. Click the Data Series tab. Right-click in the Data Series list box and select New, or click New . Value -0.75, 0, 0 -0.75, 0, 2.25 (Selected) 200

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 236 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Specular Lighting 7. 8. 9. Set Location to Line 1. Click the Y Axis tab. Set Data Selection > Variable to Temperature.

10. Apply the following settings to Temperature Profile 11. Click Apply. You can see from the chart that the temperature spikes upward when entering the deposit region and is at its maximum at the center of the coil turns.

Specular Lighting
Specular lighting is on by default. Specular lighting allows glaring bright spots on the surface of an object, depending on the orientation of the surface and the position of the light. You can disable specular lighting as follows: 1. Apply the following settings to Isosurface 1 Tab Render 2. Click Apply. Setting Show Faces > Specular Value (Cleared)

Moving the Light Source
To move the light source, click within the 3-D Viewer, then press and hold Shift while pressing the arrow keys left, right, up or down.

Tip
If using the Standalone version, you can move the light source by positioning the mouse pointer in the viewer, holding down the Ctrl key, and dragging using the right mouse button.

Exporting the Results to ANSYS
This optional step involves generating an ANSYS .cdb data file from the results generated in CFX-Solver. The .cdb file could then be used with the ANSYS Multi-field solver to measure the combined effects of thermal and mechanical stresses on the solid heating coil. There are two possible ways to export data to ANSYS: • • Use CFX-Solver Manager to export data. For details, see Exporting Data from CFX-Solver Manager (p. 237). Use CFD-Post to export data. This involves: 1. 2. 3. Importing a surface mesh from ANSYS into CFD-Post, and associating the surface with the corresponding 2D region in the CFX-Solver results file. Exporting the data to a file containing SFE commands that represent surface element thermal or mechanical stress values. Loading the commands created in the previous step into ANSYS and visualizing the loads.

Exporting Data from CFX-Solver Manager
Since the heat transfer in the solid domain was calculated in ANSYS CFX, the 3D thermal data will be exported using element type 3D Thermal (70). The mechanical stresses are calculated on the liquid side of the liquid-solid interface. These values will be exported using element type 2D Stress (154).

Thermal Data
1. Start CFX-Solver Manager. Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 237

Exporting Data from CFX-Solver Manager 2. Select Tools > Export to ANSYS MultiField. The Export to ANSYS MultiField Solver dialog box appears. 3. Apply the following settings: Setting Results File Export File Domain Name > Domain Domain Name > Boundary
a

Value HeatingCoil_001.res HeatingCoil_001_ansysfsi_70.cdb SolidZone

Export Options > ANSYS Element Type
a

3D Thermal (70)

Leave Boundary empty since the entire volume is exported for 3D data.

4.

Click Export. When the export is complete, click OK to acknowledge the message and continue with the next steps to export data for Mechanical Stresses (p. 238).

Mechanical Stresses
1. Apply the following settings in the Export to ANSYS MultiField Solver dialog box (see Step 2 (p. 238) above): Setting Results File Export File Domain Name > Domain Domain Name > Boundary Export Options > ANSYS Element Type 2. Click Export. Value HeatingCoil_001.res HeatingCoil_001_ansysfsi_154.cdb FluidZone FluidZone Default 2D Stress (154)

You now have two exported files that can be used with ANSYS Multi-field solver. When you are finished, close CFX-Solver Manager and CFD-Post.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 238 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Specifying a degassing outlet boundary to allow air. Inc. Using thin surfaces for blade and baffle surfaces. 255) Examining the Results in CFD-Post (p. 242) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 255) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • • • • • Setting up a multiphase flow simulation involving air and water. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Multiple Domain Rotating Frame of Reference Turbulence Model Dispersed Phase Zero Equation Fluid-Dependent k-Epsilon Heat Transfer Buoyant Flow Multiphase Boundary Conditions Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Degassing) Release 12. Using a fluid dependent turbulence model to set different turbulence options for each fluid. Using periodic GGI interfaces where the mesh does not match exactly. Inc. Specifying buoyant flow. Modeling rotational periodicity using periodic boundary conditions.0 . 241) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. Importing meshes that have CFX-4 and CFX Mesh file formats. 241) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Multiphase Flow in a Mixing Vessel This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p.Chapter 17. 239) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. to escape from the boundary. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. but not water. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 240) Before You Begin (p. All rights reserved. Connecting two domains (one for a tank and one for an impeller inside the tank) via Frozen Rotor interfaces. Setting up a simulation using multiple frames of reference. 239 None Component CFX-Pre .

four baffles. Also calculate the torque and power required to turn the impeller at 84 rpm. Inc. . Assume that both the water and air remain at a constant temperature of 25°C and that the air is incompressible. Also assume that the air bubbles are 3 mm in diameter. 240 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and a shaft that runs vertically through the vessel. an air injection pipe. when viewed from above). a rotating impeller. Inc. The impeller rotates at 84 rpm about the X-axis (in the counterclockwise direction. The geometry consists of a mixing tank vessel. Examine the steady-state distribution of air in the tank. The inlet pipe diameter is 2. with a density equal to that at 25°C and 1 atmosphere.48 cm. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Wall: Thin Surface Wall: (Slip Depends on Volume Fraction) Domain Interfaces Frozen Rotor Periodic Thin Surface Partners Output Control Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Default Locators Slice Plane Other Quantitative Calculation Overview of the Problem to Solve This example simulates the mixing of water and air in a mixing vessel. Air is injected into the vessel through an inlet pipe located below the impeller at a speed of 5 m/s.0 . Release 12.

1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p.gtm MixerTank. Inc. 241 . 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. MultiphaseMixer. Inc. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.geo Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details.Before You Begin Figure 17. All rights reserved. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.pre MixerImpellerMesh.1. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1) Release 12. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. The symmetry of the vessel allows a 1/4 section of the full geometry to be modeled. Cut-away Diagram of the Mixer The figure above shows the full geometry with part of the tank walls and one baffle cut away.© 2009 ANSYS. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p.0 .

Under File name. 2. It is not necessary to use separate meshes in this type of simulation. . Importing the Meshes In this tutorial.© 2009 ANSYS. 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . If you want to set up the simulation manually. 3).Defining a Case in CFX-Pre Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. Release 12. and one for the impeller. you will move it to the correct position. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain and Automatic Default Interfaces are turned off. Import it as follows: 1. “Impeller Mesh Region” (p. All rights reserved. is not located in the correct spatial position relative to the tank mesh. The region occupied by the impeller mesh is indicated in Figure 17. Note This simulation involves the use of two domains: a stationary fluid domain on the main 3D region of the tank mesh and a rotating fluid domain on the main 3D region of the impeller mesh. select File > New Case. two mesh files are provided: one for the mixer tank excluding the impeller.geo). Select General and click OK. Inc. The impeller mesh. 242 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 5. Figure 17.2. For details. After importing the impeller mesh. Importing the Mixer Tank Mesh The mixer tank mesh is provided as a CFX-4 mesh file (*.2. Impeller Mesh Region Next.pre. Click Save. Inc. proceed to the following steps: 1. Select File > Save Case As. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 242). type MultiphaseMixer. as long as there are 3D regions available for locating these two domains. 255). as provided. followed by the mesh for the impeller. In CFX-Pre. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. These meshes fit together to occupy the entire tank. 3. Default Domain and Interface generation should be turned off because you will be manually creating domains and interfaces for the impeller and main tank later in this tutorial. you will import the mesh for the mixer tank. run MultiphaseMixer.

Click Open. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. In the Outline workspace. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings: Setting Transformation Method Dx. Dy. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other to import the second mesh. 0. Value Translation Deltas 0. 4.gtm). Apply the following settings: Setting Files of type File name Options > Mesh Units Advanced Options > CFX-4 Options > Create 3D Regions on > Fluid Regions (USER3D.geo m (Cleared)a In this case. Importing the Impeller Mesh The impeller mesh is provided as a CFX Mesh file (*. 1. Click Open. Inc. Inc. the mesh file contains USER3D regions that you do not need. 0 Viewing the Mesh at the Tank Periodic Boundary 1.© 2009 ANSYS.275. 4. 3.geo > Principal 3D Regions > Primitive 3D > Principal 2D Regions. 2. Release 12.Importing the Meshes 2.0 . Click Apply then Close. expand the tree to show MixerTank. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings: Setting Files of type File name 3. Value CFX Mesh (*gtm *cfx) MixerImpellerMesh. 243 . Import it as follows: 1.gtm Relocating the Impeller Mesh In the next step you will move the impeller mesh to its correct position. Right-click MixerImpellerMesh. All rights reserved. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (X up) to view the mesh assemblies.gtm and select Transform Mesh. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. POROUS) a Value CFX-4(*geo) MixerTank. The Mesh Transformation Editor dialog box appears. 2. Dz 3.

Both domains contain water as a continuous phase and air as a dispersed phase. 244 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If a default domain is present. 3. All rights reserved. Note If you do not see the surface mesh. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Z Dirn. Ref. Ensure that no default domain is present under Flow Analysis 1. 2. Inc. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Y Dirn. Densitya Value Main Air Air at 25 C Dispersed Fluid 3 [mm] Water Water 1 [atm] Buoyant -9. the impeller rotates at 84 rpm. Click Add new item and name it Water Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Air > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions > Air > Morphology > Option Fluid and Particle Definitions > Air > Morphology > Mean Diameter Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Water > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Domain Models > Buoyancy > Option Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity X Dirn. If highlighting is disabled. 1.0 . toggle Highlighting . .Creating the Domains 2. right-click it and select Delete. Click the primitive region BLKBDY_TANK_PER2. The domains will model turbulence. Rotating Domain for the Impeller As stated in the problem description.© 2009 ANSYS. highlighting may be turned off. 4. 5. You can now see the mesh on one of the periodic regions of the tank. the mesh used is very coarse. If you see a different highlighting type. The default highlight type will show the surface mesh for any selected regions. and forces between the fluids. buoyancy. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Buoy. delete Fluid 1 and create a new fluid definition called Air. This is not a suitable mesh to obtain accurate results. but it is sufficient for demonstration purposes. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. To reduce the solution time for this tutorial. Click Domain and set the name to impeller. Creating the Domains The mixer requires two domains: a rotating impeller domain and a stationary tank domain. Inc.81 [m s^-2] 0 [m s^-2] 0 [m s^-2] 997 [kg m^-3] Release 12. Under the Fluid and Particle Definitions setting. you can alter it by selecting Edit > Options and browsing to CFX-Pre > Graphics Style.

b 6. 1. see Turbulence Enhancement (p. Click OK. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. (Cleared)c None (Cleared) Isothermal 25 [C] (Cleared) Fluid Dependent Air | Water (Selected) 0. Inc.1 Sato Enhanced Eddy Viscosityf a For dilute dispersed multiphase flow. Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Turbulence Transfer > Option Lopez de Bertodano 0. Inc. For details. 158). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. see Densely Distributed Fluid Particles: Grace Drag Model (p. 150). Apply the following settings: Release 12.073 [N m^-1]d Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Drag Force > Grace Option Fluid Pair > Air |Water > Momentum Transfer > Drag Force > (Selected) Volume Fraction Correction Exponent Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Drag Force > 4e Volume Fraction Correction Exponent > Value Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Non-drag forces > Turbulent Dispersion Force > Option Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Non-drag forces > Turbulent Dispersion Force > Dispersion Coeff.Creating the Domains Tab Setting Domain Models > Domain Motion > Option Domain Models > Domain Motion > Angular Velocity Value Rotating 84 [rev min ^-1]b Domain Models > Domain Motion > Axis Definition > Rotation Global X Axis Fluid Models Multiphase > Homogeneous Model Multiphase > Free Surface Model > Option Heat Transfer > Homogeneous Model Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature Turbulence > Homogeneous Model Turbulence > Option Fluid Pair Fluid Pair Models Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Surface Tension Coefficient Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Surface Tension Coefficient > Surf. Right-click impeller and select Duplicate from the shortcut menu. All rights reserved. Stationary Domain for the Main Tank Next. f This models particle-induced turbulence. Tension Coeff. c Turn off the homogeneous model to allow each fluid to have its own velocity field.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. you will create a stationary domain for the main tank by copying the properties of the existing impeller domain. d This must be set to allow the Grace drag model to be used. always set the buoyancy reference density to that for continuous fluid. Note the unit. e A positive value is appropriate for large bubbles. Rename the duplicated domain to tank and then open it for editing.0 . 245 . For details. 3.

Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Fluid Values Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Value Inlet INLET_DIPTUBE Fluid Dependent Air Boundary Conditions > Air > Velocity > Option Normal Speed Boundary Conditions > Air > Velocity > Normal Speed 5 [m s^-1] Boundary Conditions > Air > Volume Fraction Value > Option Boundary Conditions > Air > Volume Fraction 1 > Volume Fraction Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Velocity > Option Boundary Conditions > Water > Velocity > Normal Speed Water Normal Speed 5 [m s^-1] Release 12. while the regions that form domain boundaries are included. This wall will be rotating relative to the stationary domain. Value Primitive 3D Stationary Creating the Boundaries The following boundary conditions will be set: • • • • • An inlet through which air enters the mixer. 2. so that only the gas phase can leave the domain. Thin surfaces for the baffle. Create a new boundary in the domain tank named Airin. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. This wall will be rotating.0 . A wall for the portion of the shaft in the stationary domain. When the default wall boundary is generated. A degassing outlet. All rights reserved. .Creating the Boundaries Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Domain Models > Domain Motion > Option 4.© 2009 ANSYS. Click OK. Air Inlet Boundary 1. and therefore stationary relative to the rotating domain. Inc. the internal 2D regions of an imported mesh are ignored. 246 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Note The blade surfaces of the impeller will be modeled using domain interfaces later in the tutorial. A wall for the hub and the portion of the shaft that is in the rotating domain. Inc.

1. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details 3.Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Boundary Conditions > Water > Volume Fraction > Option Boundary Conditions > Water > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction 3. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Wall Contact Model > Option Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air> Mass and Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Mass and Momentum > Option a Value Wall WALL_BAFFLESa Fluid Dependent Use Volume Fraction Air Free Slip Wallb Water No Slip Wall The WALL_BAFFLES region includes the surfaces on both sides of the baffle (you can confirm this by examining WALL_BAFFLES in the region selector). Value Value 0 Degassing Outlet Boundary Create a degassing outlet to represent the free surface where air bubbles escape. 247 . Both sides of the baffle regions will be specified as walls in this case. thin surfaces can be created by specifying wall boundary conditions on both sides of internal 2D regions. Create a new boundary in the domain tank named Baffle. Inc. Create a new boundary in the domain tank named LiquidSurface.0 . The dispersed phase (air) sees this boundary as an outlet. 2. Inc. Mass And Momentum > Option Value Outlet WALL_LIQUID_SURFACE Degassing Condition Note that no pressure is specified for this boundary. All rights reserved. Thin Surface for the Baffle In CFX-Pre.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. Release 12. 2. Click OK. 1. The solver will compute a pressure distribution on this fixed-position boundary to represent the surface height variations that would occur in the real flow. The continuous phase (water) sees this boundary as a free-slip wall and does not leave the domain. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

248 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select Water and set the same values as for Air. . The expression should result in an area fraction of zero for dispersed phase volume fractions from 0 to 0. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Wall Contact Model > Option Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity > Option Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity > Angular Velocity Value Wall WALL_SHAFT. 2. a no slip boundary is more appropriate than a free slip condition for the air phase. 4. In this case. In cases where it is important to correctly model the dispersed phase slip properties at walls for all volume fractions. 3. Part of the shaft is located directly above the air inlet. Click OK. a free slip condition is more appropriate for the air phase. you can declare both fluids as no slip. Inc. but set up an expression for the dispersed phase wall area fraction. WALL_SHAFT_CENTER Fluid Dependent Use Volume Fraction Air No Slip Wall (Selected) Rotating Wall 84 [rev min ^-1]a Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Coordinate Axis Momentum > Wall Velocity > Axis Definition > Option Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Global X Momentum > Wall Velocity > Axis Definition > Rotation Axis a Note the unit. so the volume fraction of air in this location will be high and the assumption of zero contact area for the gas phase is not physically correct. and then linearly increase to an area fraction of 1 as the volume fraction increases to 1. Since the tank domain is not rotating. When the volume fraction of air in contact with a wall is low. 1.Creating the Boundaries b The Free Slip Wall condition can be used for the gas phase since the contact area with the walls is near zero for low gas phase volume fractions. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3. Release 12. Wall Boundary for the Shaft You will now set up a boundary for the portions of the shaft that are in the tank domain. for example. Inc.3. Create a new boundary in the domain tank named TankShaft. Click OK. you need to specify a moving wall on the shaft to account for the shaft's rotation.

In the tree view. It is not necessary to set the default boundary in the impeller domain since the remaining surfaces will be assigned interface conditions in the next section. Inc. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Wall Contact Model > Option Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Mass and Momentum > Option 3. Value Wall Hub. a free slip condition is more appropriate for the air phase. 249 . Shaft Fluid Dependent Use Volume Fraction Air Free Slip Wall Water No Slip Wall Modifying the Default Wall Boundary As mentioned previously.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Setting Mass and Momentum > Option Wall Contact Model > Option Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Mass And Momentum > Option 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Release 12. 1. Click OK. open tank Default for editing. Create a new boundary in the domain impeller named HubShaft. Click OK. Inc. when the volume fraction of air in contact with a wall is low. 2. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Value Fluid Dependent Use Volume Fraction Air Free Slip Wall Water No Slip Wall Creating the Domain Interfaces The following interfaces will be set: • • Blade thin surface interface.Creating the Domain Interfaces Required Boundary in the Impeller Domain 1. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. Rotational periodic domain interfaces for the periodic faces of the tank and impeller.

for example. Create a new domain interface named Blade Thin Surface. 4. In the tree view. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. In the tree view. 7. open Blade Thin Surface Side 1 for editing. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Additional Interface Models a Value Fluid Fluid impeller Blade impeller Solid 3.0 . the thin surface representation of the tank baffle was modeled using boundary conditions.3 2.6 2 Side Dependenta Mass And Momentum > Option This is done so that we can set a fluid dependent treatment on each side of the interface. Apply the same settings as for Blade Thin Surface Side 1. . 1. CFX-Pre automatically detects the matching domain boundary regions when setting up a domain interface. 5. Inc. For demonstrational purposes.Creating the Domain Interfaces • Frozen Rotor interfaces between the impeller and tank domains. you will use a domain interface to model the thin surface representation of the impeller blade (even though using wall boundary conditions would also work). Modeling the Blade Using a Domain Interface You can model thin surfaces using either wall boundaries or domain interfaces. Previously. Click OK. Two boundaries named Blade Thin Surface Side 1 and Blade Thin Surface Side 2 are created automatically. Solid 3. 250 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. Click OK. Inc. Apply the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Setting Mass and Momentum > Option Wall Contact Model > Option Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Mass And Momentum > Option Value Fluid Dependent Use Volume Fraction Air Free Slip Wall Water No Slip Wall 6. 3. 8. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Release 12. There are some differences between domain interfaces and ordinary wall boundaries. open Blade Thin Surface Side 2 for editing.

© 2009 ANSYS.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Interface Models > Option Interface Models > Axis Definition > Option Value Fluid Fluid tank BLKBDY_TANK_PER1 tank BLKBDY_TANK_PER2 Rotational Periodicity Coordinate Axis Interface Models > Axis Definition > Rotation Global X Axis Mesh Connection Method > Mesh Connection Automatic > Option 3. Here. 2. Create a new domain interface named TankPeriodic. to let ANSYS CFX choose between one-to-one and GGI. 1. you will choose the Automatic mesh connection method. Create a new domain interface named ImpellerPeriodic. 251 . 132). see Mesh Connection Options (p. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Interface Models > Option Interface Models > Axis Definition > Option Value Fluid Fluid impeller Periodic1 impeller Periodic2 Rotational Periodicity Coordinate Axis Interface Models > Axis Definition > Rotation Global X Axis Mesh Connection Method > Mesh Connection Automatic > Option 3. One-to-one periodic interfaces are more accurate and reduce CPU and memory requirements. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Click OK. One-to-one transformations occur for topologically similar meshes whose nodes match within a given tolerance. Click OK. 2. 1. Release 12. For details.Creating the Domain Interfaces Rotational Periodic Interfaces Periodic domain interfaces can either be one-to-one or GGI interfaces. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. All rights reserved.

. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Interface Models > Option Interface Models > Frame Change/Mixing Model > Option 3. Create a new domain interface named Top.© 2009 ANSYS. 7. 252 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1.Creating the Domain Interfaces Frozen Rotor Interfaces You will now create three Frozen Rotor interfaces for the regions connecting the two domains. 4.0 . 8. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (Filter) Value Fluid Fluid impeller Outer tank Value Fluid Fluid impeller Bottom tank BLKBDY_TANK_BOT General Connection Frozen Rotor Value Fluid Fluid impeller Top tank BLKBDY_TANK_TOP General Connection Frozen Rotor Release 12. In this case three separate interfaces are created. Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Interface Models > Option Interface Models > Frame Change/Mixing Model > Option 6. Inc. Create a new domain interface named Outer. 5. 2. All rights reserved. Inc. You should not try to create a single domain interface for multiple surfaces that lie in different planes. Create a new domain interface named Bottom.

the only boundary that has a set velocity value is the inlet. which specifies a velocity of 5 [m s^-1] for both phases. see Frozen Rotor (p. It is important to understand how the velocity is initialized in this tutorial. resulting in an initial velocity of 5 [m s^-1] in the X-direction for the air. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. (Selected) 0 [m s^-1] Release 12. Here. All rights reserved. 1. The velocity scale is not set for air. the initial volume fraction of water will be 1. Without setting the Velocity Scale parameter. This is clearly not suitable since the water phase is enclosed by the tank. the resulting initial guess would be a uniform velocity of 5 [m s^-1] in the X-direction throughout the domains for both phases. Click OK. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: Tab Fluid Settings Setting Fluid Specific Initialization Value Air . Since the volume fractions must sum to unity. This should not be a problem since the initial volume fraction of the air is zero everywhere. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the initial velocity field will be based on the velocity values set at inlets. Inc. Inc. When the Automatic option is used. and outlets.Setting Initial Values Tab Setting Interface Side 2 > Region List Interface Models > Option Interface Models > Frame Change/Mixing Model > Option 9. 126). Value BLKBDY_TANK_OUTER General Connection Frozen Rotor For more details about the Frozen Rotor interface. 253 . causing the initial velocity for the water to be zero. Setting Initial Values You will set the initial volume fraction of air to 0.0 . Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions Automatic with Value > Volume Fraction > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions 0 > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction Fluid Specific Initialization Water Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Automatic Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Velocity Scale Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Velocity Scale > Value 3. In this tutorial.© 2009 ANSYS. When the boundary velocity conditions are not representative of the expected domain velocities. In this case the velocity scale for water is set to zero. and allow the initial volume fraction of water to be computed automatically. both fluids use Automatic for the Cartesian Velocity Components option. the Velocity Scale parameter should be used to set a representative domain velocity. 2. openings. Click OK.

This is an aggressive time step for this case. Create the following expressions: TankAirHoldUp = volumeAve(Air. 1. Click OK. 173). Using a larger time step reduces the number of iterations required for the mixer flow field to develop. The first is a small time scale based on the rotational speed of the impeller. 2. You will need to experiment to find an optimum time step. two different time scales exist for multiphase mixers. If you are using a maximum edge length of 0. c The default is an RMS value of 1.Setting Solver Control Setting Solver Control Generally. Adding Monitor Points You can monitor the value of an expression during the solver run so that you can view the volume fraction of air in the tank (the gas hold up).0E-04.vf)@tank ImpellerAirHoldUp = volumeAve(Air.vf)@impeller TotalAirHoldUp = (volume()@tank * TankAirHoldUp + volume()@impeller * ImpellerAirHoldUp) / (volume()@tank + volume()@impeller) 2. .005 m or less to produce a finer mesh. but convergence will be slow since it takes time for the flow field in the mixer to develop. Inc. 3. Iterations Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale Convergence Criteria a Value High Resolution 100a Physical Timescale 2 [s]b (Default)c For advice on setting time steps in multiphase simulations. The second time scale is usually larger and based on the recirculation time of the continuous phase in the mixer. but reduces robustness. 5.0 . Click Output Control . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The gas hold up is often used to judge convergence in these types of simulations by converging until a steady-state value is achieved. resulting in a time scale of 0. Using a time step based on the rotational speed of the impeller will be more robust. Inc. 254 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1. use a target residual of 1. b 3. typically taken as 1 / ω.0E-05 to obtain a more accurate solution. Click Solver Control . All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. Create a new Monitor Points and Expressions item named Total Air Holdup.11 s for this case. see Timestepping (p. Apply the following settings to Total Air Holdup: Release 12. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Advection Scheme > Option Convergence Control > Max. Apply the following settings: Tab Monitor Setting Monitor Options Value (Selected) 4.

examine some of the information printed at the end of the OUT file. You will also calculate the torque and power required to turn the impeller at 84 rpm. Value Expression TotalAirHoldUp Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 4.0 . the mixer geometry appears in the viewer. A common quantity of interest is the mass balance. quit CFX-Pre. 5. this compares the amount of fluid leaving the domain to the amount entering. If using Standalone Mode. After a run has finished.1% in a converged solution. This can take a long time depending on your system. Release 12.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Click Save. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. Inc. In most cases. Value MultiphaseMixer. Orient the view so that the X-axis points up as follows: • Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (X up). 4. Click OK.cfx) file at your discretion. 2. This is not the volumetric flow balance information. 2. Click OK. but is the summation of the phasic continuity mass balance information. saving the simulation (. If using Standalone Mode. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. • • • • 3. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. Click Define Run . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. For a single-phase simulation. 5.def) File Setting Option Expression Value 6.def) File 1. Click Start Run.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the mass balance information is given for the P-Vol equation. You will create some plots showing the distributions of velocity and other variables. Examining the Results in CFD-Post After CFD-Post has started and the tank and mixer domains have been loaded. Ensure Define Run is displayed.def Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager Start the simulation from CFX-Solver Manager: 1. the mass balance information is given for the P-Mass equation. the global imbalance should be less than 0. For a multiphase simulation. 255 . If you are notified the file already exists. click Overwrite. Click OK. Inc.

Create a new plane named Plane 1. 0 0. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Locations Variable Symbol Symbol Size Normalize Symbols Value Plane 1 Water. the air and water velocity fields may differ from each other. 4. -0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 0.© 2009 ANSYS. Change the variable to Air. Click Apply.9 0. such as velocity vector plots and plots showing the distribution of air. Apply the following settings to Plane 1: Release 12. 0 Plotting Velocity Recall that the homogeneous multiphase option was not used when specifying the domain settings (see the setting for Fluid Models > Multiphase Options > Homogeneous Model in Rotating Domain for the Impeller (p. Click Apply. Plotting Pressure Distribution Color Plane 1 to see the pressure distribution: 1. Velocity variables that do not include a frame specification always use the local reference frame. Value Three Points 1. 7.0 .2 (Selected) a Using this variable. As a consequence. 244)). 2.Velocity in Stn Frame and click Apply. 1. 6. Observe this vector plot. Inc.Creating a Plane Locator Creating a Plane Locator Create a vertical plane that extends from the shaft to the tank wall at a location far from the baffle. 3. Note that the water is not flowing out of the domain. Observe the vector plot (in particular. Turn off the visibility of Plane 1 to better see the vector plot. then air on Plane 1: 1. Create a new vector plot named Vector 1. Turn off the visibility of Vector 1 in preparation for the next plots. 2. Turn on the visibility of Plane 1.Velocity in Stn Framea 0. 1. Inc. 0. . All rights reserved. This plane will be used as a locator for various plots. instead of Water. near the top of the tank). 5. noting how the air moves upward all the way to the water surface. Plot the velocity of water. results in the velocity vectors appearing to be continuous at the interface between the rotating and stationary domains. where it escapes.Velocity. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Point 1 Definition > Point 2 Definition > Point 3 3. 2. 256 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Volume Fraction User Specified 0 0.Plotting Volume Fractions Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Range 3. 3. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Modify the coloring of the MultiphaseMixer_001 > tank > tank Default object by applying the following settings: Value Air. Click Apply.Shear Strain Rate User Specified 0 [s^-1] 15 [s^-1] Release 12. The user-specified range was made much narrower than the Global and Local ranges in order to better show the variation. Apply the following settings to Plane 1: Tab Color Setting Variable Range Min Max 2. Value Variable Air. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. color Plane 1 by the volume fraction of air: 1. color Plane 1 by shear strain rate. 257 . To see where the most of the mixing occurs.0 . Note that the pressure field computed by the solver excludes the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the specified buoyancy reference density. The pressure field including this hydrostatic component (as well as the reference pressure) can by visualized by plotting Absolute Pressure. Click Apply. All rights reserved. Apply the following settings to Plane 1: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Range Min Max 2. Plotting Shear Strain Rate and Shear Stress Areas of high shear strain rate or shear stress are typically also areas where the highest mixing occurs. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Apply. Value Variable Pressure Local Plotting Volume Fractions To see the distribution of air. Inc. 1.04 The user-specified range was made much narrower than the Global and Local ranges in order to better show the variation.

Release 12. Remember that this value is the power requirement for the work done on the fluids. Click Calculate to find the torque about the X-axis imparted by both fluids on location Blade Thin Surface Side 1. it does not account for any mechanical losses. Inc. Inc.Calculating Torque and Power Requirements Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Range 4.8 rad/s = 2376 W. . Click Apply. Also note that the accuracy of these results is significantly affected by the coarseness of the mesh. Select Tools > Function Calculator from the main menu or click Show Function Calculator Apply the following settings: Tab Setting Value torque Blade Thin Surface Side 1 Global X All Fluids . Although these values are very high.Wall Shear Local The legend for this plot shows the range of wall shear values. motor efficiencies etc. The global maximum values occur on the TankShaft boundary directly above the inlet. Function Calculator Function Location Axis Fluid 3. however in this case their contributions are negligible. 2. You could also include the contributions from the locations HubShaft and TankShaft. 258 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.8 rad/s): Power = 270 N m * 8. Repeat the calculation. setting Location to Blade Thin Surface Side 2. The power requirement is simply the required torque multiplied by the rotational speed (84 rpm = 8.4 [N m] about the X-axis. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The sum of these two torques is approximately -67. The global maximum wall shear stress is much higher than the maximum value on the default walls. 4. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. the shear force exerted on this boundary is small since the contact area fraction of water is very small there. Calculating Torque and Power Requirements Calculate the torque and power required to spin the impeller at 84 rpm: 1. Value Variable Water.0 . Multiplying by -4 to find the torque required by all of the impeller blades gives a required torque of approximately 270 [N m] about the X-axis. You should not use a mesh of this length scale to obtain accurate quantitative results.

All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. Specifying buoyant flow. 261) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 261) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Using face culling in CFD-Post to turn off the visibility of one side of a surface. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Specifying a degassing outlet boundary to allow air. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Details General Steady State General Fluid Single Domain Dispersed Phase Zero Equation Fluid-Dependent Turbulence Model k-Epsilon Heat Transfer Buoyant Flow Multiphase Boundary Conditions Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Degassing) Symmetry Plane Wall: (Slip Depends on Volume Fraction) Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Default Locators None Component CFX-Pre Release 12. 267) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. Inc. Inc. 259) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 268) Additional Fine Mesh Simulation Results (p. 270) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • Setting up a multiphase flow simulation involving air and water. to escape from the boundary. 259 .0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Chapter 18. but not water. 260) Before You Begin (p. 261) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. Gas-Liquid Flow in an Airlift Reactor This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. Using a fluid dependent turbulence model to set different turbulence options for each fluid.

. Other applications include baffles and guide vanes. Airlift reactors are tall gas-liquid contacting vessels and are often used in processes where gas absorption is important (e. Simple airlift reactors that are without a draft tube tend to develop irregular flow patterns and poor overall mixing.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Vector Other Changing the Color Range Symmetry Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial demonstrates the Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model in CFX by simulating an airlift reactor. “Cut-away Diagram of the Airlift Reactor” (p. In the postprocessing section of this tutorial. 260 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. bioreactors to dissolve oxygen in broths) and to limit the exposure of micro-organisms to excessive shear imparted by mechanically driven mixers.. but sometimes at the expense of decreased mass transfer from gas to liquid. All rights reserved. For details. The airlift reactor that is modeled here is very similar to the laboratory bench scale prototype used by García-Calvo and Letón. see Additional Fine Mesh Simulation Results (p. Inc. Release 12. Cut-away Diagram of the Airlift Reactor This tutorial models the dispersion of air bubbles in water. a pair of wall boundaries is used to model the draft tube.1.g. A formal analysis of this simulation involving a finer mesh is available at the end of this tutorial. In this case. concentration. The airlift reactor is shown in a cut-away diagram in Figure 18. but with opposite orientation). Air is supplied through a sparger at the bottom of the vessel and the rising action of the bubbles provides gentle agitation of the water. and pH in the liquid phase. An internal tube (draft tube) directs recirculation of the flow. 270). The draft tube in the airlift reactor helps to establish a regular flow pattern in the column and to achieve better uniformity in temperature.0 . you will learn how to use face culling to hide one side of a boundary.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 260). This technique enables you to independently color each boundary of a pair of back-to-back boundaries (located at the same position in 3D space. Figure 18.1. Inc. This tutorial also demonstrates the use of pairs of internal wall boundaries to model thin 3D features.

gtm Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. 267). Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Under File name. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.gtm Creating the Domain 1. Inc. 261 . 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. A domain named Default Domain should now appear under the Simulation branch. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. select File > New Case. In the Basic Settings tab. 3.Before You Begin Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. type BubbleColumn. 2. BubbleColumn. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • 2. 2. 5. 4. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p.0 . Apply the following settings: Release 12. under Fluid and Particle Definitions. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. Select General and click OK. 1) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically and continue to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 2. Click Open. Use the button to create a new fluid named Water. Importing the Mesh 1. Click Save. Inc. Value BubbleColumnMesh. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. 4.pre.© 2009 ANSYS. run BubbleColumn. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. delete Fluid 1 and create a new fluid definition called Air. 5. 3. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p.pre BubbleColumnMesh. Select File > Save Case As. In CFX-Pre. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 1. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. Double-click Default Domain. All rights reserved. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on.

Creating the Domain Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Air > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions > Air > Morphology > Option Fluid and Particle Definitions > Air > Morphology > Mean Diameter Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Water > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Domain Models > Buoyancy > Option Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity X Dirn.P3 Air Air at 25 C Dispersed Fluid 6 [mm] Water Water 1 [atm] Buoyant 0 [m s^-2] -9.P3. Ref. Inc. Lopez de Bertodano 0. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Z Dirn. None (Cleared) Isothermal 25 [C] (Cleared) Fluid Dependent Air | Water (Selected) 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 262 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Tension Coeff. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Buoy. All rights reserved. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . .3 Release 12. B2. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Y Dirn. Densitya Fluid Models Multiphase > Homogeneous Model Value B1.81 [m s^-2] 0 [m s^-2] 997 [kg m^-3] (Cleared) b Multiphase > Free Surface Model > Option Heat Transfer > Homogeneous Model Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature Turbulence > Homogeneous Model Turbulence > Option Fluid Pair Fluid Pair Models Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Surface Tension Coefficient Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Surface Tension Coefficient > Surf.072 [N m^-1] c Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Drag Force > Grace Option Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Drag Force > (Selected) Volume Fraction Correction Exponent Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Drag Force > 2 Volume Fraction Correction Exponent > Value d Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Non-drag forces > Turbulent Dispersion Force > Option Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Momentum Transfer > Non-drag forces > Turbulent Dispersion Force > Dispersion Coeff.

A degassing outlet for air at the liquid surface. A pair of wall boundaries for the draft tube. create an inlet boundary that injects air at 0.3 [m s^-1] Boundary Conditions > Air > Volume Fraction Value > Option Boundary Conditions > Air > Volume Fraction 0. 158).Creating the Boundary Conditions Tab Setting Fluid Pair > Air | Water > Turbulence Transfer > Option Value Sato Enhanced Eddy Viscosity e a For dilute dispersed multiphase flow.25: 1.25 > Volume Fraction Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Velocity > Option Boundary Conditions > Water > Velocity > Normal Speed Boundary Conditions > Water > Volume Fraction > Option Release 12. d A positive value is appropriate for large bubbles. Inc. Symmetry planes. Create a new boundary named Sparger.3 m/s with a volume fraction of 0. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Fluid Values Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Value Inlet Sparger Fluid Dependent Air Boundary Conditions > Air > Velocity > Option Normal Speed Boundary Conditions > Air > Velocity > Normal Speed 0. For details. For details. 2. see Turbulence Enhancement (p. Creating the Boundary Conditions For this simulation of the airlift reactor. Click OK. the required boundary conditions are: • • • • • An inlet for air on the sparger. Inc. base and sparger tube. Turn off the homogeneous model to allow each fluid to have its own velocity field.0 . e This models particle-induced turbulence. An exterior wall for the outer wall. 263 Water Normal Speed 0 [m s^-1] Value . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. c This must be set to allow the Grace drag model to be used. b 6. 150). see Densely Distributed Fluid Particles: Grace Drag Model (p. always set the buoyancy reference density to that for continuous fluid. Inlet Boundary At the sparger.© 2009 ANSYS.

Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. The required boundary settings are the same for both sides of the draft tube. Create a new boundary named DraftTube Downcomer Side. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details 3. . if only one side has a boundary then CFX-Solver will fail. Create a new boundary named Top. Mass And Momentum > Option Value Outlet Top Degassing Condition Draft Tube Boundaries The draft tube is an infinitely thin surface that requires a wall boundary on both sides. so you will create two wall boundaries instead.75 Outlet Boundary Create a degassing outlet boundary at the top of the reactor: 1. you could therefore define a single boundary and choose both sides of the tube as the location. The Free Slip condition can be used for the gas phase since the contact area with the walls is near zero for low gas phase volume fractions. 2. 264 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Wall Roughness > Option Wall Contact Model > Option Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Mass And Momentum > Option Value Wall DraftTube Fluid Dependent Smooth Wall Use Volume Fraction Air Free Slip Wall Water No Slip Wall Release 12. All rights reserved. 2. Start by creating a wall boundary for the outer side of the draft tube: 1. Value 0. However. Inc.Creating the Boundary Conditions Tab Setting Boundary Conditions > Water > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction 3. From the point of view of solving the simulation. the postprocessing section of this tutorial requires the use of separate boundaries in order to illustrate the use of face culling (a visualization technique). Click OK.

All rights reserved. Value Symmetry Symmetry2 Value Symmetry Symmetry1 Modifying the Default Boundary The remaining external regions are assigned to the default wall boundary. Inc. 265 . Create a new boundary named SymP1. create symmetry plane boundary conditions on the Symmetry1 and Symmetry2 locators: 1. 5. 4. Inc. Click OK. but located on F10.B1. Create a new boundary named SymP2. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 6. Symmetry Plane Boundary To simulate the full geometry. 2. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 3. set the air phase to use the free slip wall condition: 1. Click OK. Release 12.0 . Click OK. Value Fluid Dependent Air Free Slip Wall Water No Slip Wall The boundary specifications are now complete.Creating the Boundary Conditions 3. Now create a boundary named DraftTube Riser Side using the same settings. 2. Edit Default Domain Default. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.P3 (the riser side of the draft tube). Apply the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Fluid Values Setting Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Air > Mass And Momentum > Option Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water > Mass And Momentum > Option 3.© 2009 ANSYS. As for the draft tube boundary. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

2. if the flow could go up the downcomer and down the riser). The volume fractions must sum to unity over all fluids. Apply the following settings: Tab Fluid Settings Setting Fluid Specific Initialization Value Air Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions Automatic with Value > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions 0 [m s^-1] > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions 0. Since a single pressure field exists for a multiphase calculation. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. improved convergence can be obtained by using CEL (CFX Expression Language) to specify a non-zero volume fraction for air in the riser portion and a value of zero in the downcomer portion.3 [m s^-1] > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions 0 [m s^-1] > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Fluid Specific Initialization > Air > Initial Conditions Automatic > Volume Fraction > Option Fluid Specific Initialization Watera Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Automatic with Value Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Volume Fraction > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Water > Initial Conditions > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction a 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] Automatic with Value 1b Since there is no water entering or leaving the domain. This results in a non-zero drag between the phases which can help stability at the start of a simulation. Click Global Initialization .0 . For some airlift reactor problems. Click OK. All rights reserved.Setting Initial Values Setting Initial Values It often helps to set an initial velocity for a dispersed phase that is different to that of the continuous phase. . Release 12. This should be done if two solutions are possible (for example. b 3. the volume fraction of air will be calculated as the remaining difference. 0. do not set pressure values on a per-fluid basis. a stationary initial guess is recommended. in this case. Set the initial values: 1. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. 266 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Since a value has been set for water.

102). Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Inc. see Obtaining a Solution in Parallel (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Define Run .01 Value a For advice on setting time steps in multiphase simulations. Click OK. Click Start Run. Click Solver Control . 2. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 173).def) File 1. see Timestepping (p. All rights reserved. 2. If using Standalone Mode. saving the simulation (. quit CFX-Pre. Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. You can run the simulation in parallel to reduce the solution time.005 m or less to produce a finer mesh. Value BubbleColumn. 1. If you are using a maximum edge length of 0. Click Save. Iterations Value High Resolution 100 a Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale Convergence Criteria > Residual Target Physical Timescale 1 [s] 1. Inc.0E-05 to obtain a more accurate solution. For details. the Solver Input File is set. b 3. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. the solution time will be significantly longer than for the coarse mesh. 267 .0E-04 b Convergence Criteria > Conservation Target (Selected) Convergence Criteria > Conservation Target > 0. on the Define Run dialog box.cfx) file at your discretion. 2.Setting Solver Control Setting Solver Control 1. use a target residual of 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Advection Scheme > Option Convergence Control > Max.0 .def Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager Start the simulation from CFX-Solver Manager: Note If you are using a fine mesh for a formal quantitative analysis of the flow in the reactor. 4. Ensure Define Run is displayed.

2. Note that the air rises faster than the water in the riser and descends slower than the water in the downcomer. set Definition > Variable to Air. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. Vector 2. 8. You will then display the entire geometry. Compare Vector 1 and Vector 2 by toggling the visibility of each one. In the tree view. 268) Creating Volume Fraction Plots (p. 5.3 Creating Volume Fraction Plots Plot the volume fraction of air on the symmetry plane SymP1: 1.Velocity User Specified 0 [m s^-1] 1 [m s^-1] 0. Inc.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. Click Apply. leaving the tank. 7. All rights reserved. Turn on the visibility of SymP1. Create a new vector plot named Vector 1. 3. select Duplicate. the results are only suitable for a qualitative demonstration of the multiphase capability of ANSYS CFX. . 4. If using Standalone Mode. 270) Creating Water Velocity Vector Plots 1. 268) Displaying the Entire Airlift Reactor Geometry (p. Zoom in as required.Velocity and click Apply. 5. Click OK. Symbol Size Value SymP1 Water. The following topics will be discussed: • • • Creating Water Velocity Vector Plots (p. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3.0 . select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Locations Definition > Variable Color Range Min Max Symbol 4. Edit SymP1. right-click Vector 1. 2. On the Geometry tab. Observe that the air flows upward. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post You will first create plots of velocity and volume fraction. Because the simulation in this tutorial is conducted on a coarse grid. Edit Vector 2. 3. and click OK to accept the default name. 6.© 2009 ANSYS. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. 268 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This can take a long time depending on your system. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. at the degassing outlet. Release 12.

Apply the following settings to SymP1: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Range Min Max 5. 5. All rights reserved. The front faces are. Turn off the visibility of SymP1. In this case.025 Next. Click Apply. 6.Creating Volume Fraction Plots 4. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Y up). 3. on the same side of the plot as the normal vectors. 6. plot the volume fraction of air on each side of the draft tube: 1. 269 .025 Release 12. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . Inc. When viewing plots on internal surfaces. 2. Observe the volume fraction values throughout the domain. Turn on the visibility of DraftTube Downcomer Side. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. You will make use of the face culling rendering feature to turn off the visibility of the plot on the side of the boundary for which the plot does not apply.Volume Fraction User Specified 0 0. the fluid is on the side opposite the normal vectors. To confirm this. Inc. Click Apply.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Apply. Notice that the plot appears on both sides of the DraftTube Downcomer Side boundary. Modify DraftTube Downcomer Side by applying the following settings: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable Range Min Max 4. Setting Show Faces > Face Culling Value Front Faces Value Variable Air. you must ensure that you are viewing the correct side. you could make a vector plot of the variable Normal (representing the face normal vectors) on the locator DraftTube Downcomer Side. by definition. Modify DraftTube Downcomer Side by applying the following settings: Tab Render 7. Value Variable Air. you need to turn off the “front” faces of the plot.Volume Fraction User Specified 0 0. Rotate the plot in the viewer to see both sides of DraftTube Downcomer Side. The DraftTube Downcomer Side boundary represents the side of the internal surface in the downcomer (in this case. outer) region of the reactor.

A similar plot of Water. 270 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. This was confirmed by zooming in on a vector plot of Air.005 m)..Velocity on SymP1 near the top of the downcomer. The values of gas hold-up (the average volume fraction of air in the riser). These correlations predict a terminal slip velocity of about 0. so the faces on DraftTube Riser Side are plotted only on the riser (in this case. the superficial gas velocity (the rising velocity. the terminal velocity relative to water).25 m s-1 for air bubbles of the diameter specified. obtained using the Grace drag model.23 m s-1 to 0. Click Apply. Displaying the Entire Airlift Reactor Geometry Display the entire airlift reactor geometry by expanding User Locations and Plots and double-clicking the Default Transform object: 1. Results may vary. Face culling was needed to prevent interference between the plots on each side of the draft tube.Velocity revealed no recirculation of the water. You might notice that the plot from the downcomer side interferes with. multiplied by the gas hold-up). of gas bubbles in the riser.Displaying the Entire Airlift Reactor Geometry 8. which is why face culling should always be used to prevent possible interference. relative to the reactor vessel. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.006 m diameter. inner) side of the airlift reactor. 9. for gas hold-up values of 0. Rotate the image in the viewer to see the effect of face culling on DraftTube Downcomer Side. You should see that the color appears on the downcomer side only. Apply the following settings to Default Transform: Tab Definition Setting Instancing Info From Domain # of Copies Apply Rotation Apply Rotation > Method Apply Rotation > Axis Apply Rotation > # of Passages 2. is consistent with the prediction by Maneri and Mendelson and the prediction by Baker and Chao.03 or less. the air bubbles quickly attained a significant terminal slip velocity (i. The normal vectors for DraftTube Riser Side point opposite to those of DraftTube Downcomer Side. Color the DraftTube Riser Side object using the same color and rendering settings as for DraftTube Downcomer Side. and the liquid velocity in the downcomer agree with the results reported by García-Calvo and Letón.e. or even completely overrides.0 . The resulting terminal slip velocity. try turning off face culling for DraftTube Downcomer Side and watch the effect on the riser side. Inc. The simulation therefore tends • Release 12. Rotating the geometry will now correctly show the air volume fraction on each side of the draft tube. 10. Other results of the simulation: • Due to their large 0. To demonstrate this. the riser-side plot. Turn on the visibility of DraftTube Riser Side. The analysis showed a region of air bubble recirculation at the top of the reactor on the downcomer side.© 2009 ANSYS. At higher values of gas hold-up. Value (Cleared) 12 (Selected) Principal Axis Y 12 Additional Fine Mesh Simulation Results A formal analysis of this airlift reactor was carried out on a finer grid (having 21000+ nodes and a maximum edge length of 0. All rights reserved. . the multifluid model does not account for pressure-volume work transferred from gas to liquid due to isothermal expansion of the bubbles.

Superficial Velocity X). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Superficial Velocity defined as Fluid.© 2009 ANSYS. This is sometimes also referred to as the fluid volume flux. However. and the Hughmark correlation is therefore not applicable. The components of this vector variable are available as scalar variables (for example.0 . and the liquid velocity in the downcomer for gas hold-up values greater than 0. Fluid. All rights reserved. Inc. In the airlift reactor described in this tutorial. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Velocity.2 m/s. Release 12.Additional Fine Mesh Simulation Results to under-predict both the superficial gas velocity in the riser.Volume Fraction multiplied by Fluid. the liquid velocity in the riser clearly exceeds 0. the Hughmark correlation should not be used when liquid flow is concurrent with gas at velocities exceeding 0. Inc. Many reference texts on airlift reactors cite the Hughmark correlation as a standard for gas hold-up and superficial gas velocity in airlift reactors. 271 .1 m/s.03. Note Multiphase results files contain the vector variable Fluid.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Release 12. Inc.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .

0 . 275) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. For details on which Fortran compiler is required for your platform. try running the cfx5mkext command (found in <CFXROOT>/bin) from the command line and read the output messages. Inc. see the applicable ANSYS. 290) Important You must have the required Fortran compiler installed and set in your system path in order to run this tutorial. 287) Further Steps (p. 273) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. @REGION CEL syntax. 276) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Air Conditioning Simulation This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 273 . 274) Before You Begin (p. Post-processing a transient simulation. If you are not sure which Fortran compiler is installed on your system. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Radiation Buoyant Flow Boundary Conditions Boundary Profile Visualization Inlet (Profile) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Details General Mode Transient General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Monte Carlo Component CFX-Pre Release 12. 275) Starting CFX-Pre (p. All rights reserved. Setting up a user CEL function. 286) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • Importing CEL expressions. Setting up a monitor point to observe the temperature at a prescribed location. Using the Monte Carlo radiation model with a directional source of radiation. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Chapter 19. installation guide.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc.

0 .Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Wall: Adiabatic Wall: Fixed Temperature Output Control Transient Results Files Monitor Points CEL (CFX Expression Language) User CEL Function CFD-Post Plots Animation Isosurface Point Slice Plane Other Text Label with Auto Annotation Changing the Color Range Legend Time Step Selection Transient Animation with Movie Generation Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial simulates a room with a thermostat-controlled air conditioner. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. Release 12. . 274 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

275 . Two windows allow sunlight to enter and heat the room. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. the incoming air temperature is reduced compared to the outgoing air temperature. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. Inc. Inc.0 . and continues long enough to allow the air conditioner to cycle on and off. When the air conditioner is turned off.© 2009 ANSYS. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • HVAC. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. and flows out through a return-air vent near the floor. The walls (including a closed door) and windows are assumed to be at a constant 26°C. All rights reserved.Before You Begin The thermostat switches the air conditioner on and off based on the following data: • • • A set point of 22°C (the temperature at or above which the air conditioner turns on) A temperature tolerance of 2°C (the amount by which cooling continues below the set point before the air conditioner turns off) The temperature at a wall-mounted thermometer Air flows in steadily from an inlet vent on the ceiling. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. When the air conditioner is turned on.pre HVAC_expressions. The simulation is transient. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. the incoming air temperature is set equal to the outgoing air temperature.ccl Release 12.

run HVAC.gtm TStat_Control. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 286). Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. Importing the Mesh 1. The table below lists the expressions. type HVAC. For details. 5. 3). along with the definition and information for each expression: Expression Name ACOn Expression Definition Thermostat Function(TSensor. 276 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In CFX-Pre. Under File name. proceed to the following steps: 1. 1) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. Click Open. Select General and click OK. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. All rights reserved. 4. Click Open.Defining a Case in CFX-Pre • • HVACMesh.0 . Select File > Save Case As.pre. The Import Mesh dialog box appears.gtm Importing CEL Expressions This tutorial uses several CEL expressions to store parameters and to evaluate other quantities that are required by the simulation. 2. Click Save. Inc. If you want to set up the simulation manually.aitern) Information On/off status of the air conditioner (determined by calling a user CEL function with the thermometer Release 12. Value HVACMesh. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > CFX Mesh. Import all of the expressions from the provided file: 1.TTol. . 3. 4. Select File > Import > CCL. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. Inc. which should be in your working directory.F Note You must have a Fortran compiler installed on your system to perform this tutorial. 2. 2. Ensure that Import Method is set to Append.ccl. select File > New Case. 2. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up) from the shortcut menu. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3.© 2009 ANSYS. 3. Select HVAC_expressions.TSet. 4.

Temperature of outlet vent air.004 [kJ kg^-1 K^-1 ])) 0. and temperature tolerance). Inc. The CEL expression for the air conditioner on/off status requires a compiled Fortran subroutine and a user CEL function that uses the subroutine. Rate of thermal energy removal when the air conditioner is on. Time step size.0 . rather than a boundary named VentOut.Importing CEL Expressions Expression Name Expression Definition Information temperature. starting with the compiled subroutine. return-air vent temperature. Flowrate HeatRemoved MassFlow TIn ACOn*CoolTempCalc+(1-ACOn)*TVentOut Temperature of inlet vent air (a function of the air conditioner on/off status.06 [m^3 s^-1] 1000 [J s^-1] 1. TSensor TSet TTol TVentOut XCompInlet ZCompInlet 22 [C] 2 [K] areaAve(T)@REGION:VentOut 5*(x-0. For details about @REGION CEL syntax. thermostat set point.© 2009 ANSYS. 130) in ANSYS CFX Reference Guide. These are created next. thermal energy removal rate. Temperature tolerance. see Using Locators in Expressions (p. Cool TempCalc TVentOut . Total time. Mass flow rate of air entering the room. which indicates the mesh region named VentOut. TVentOut.05 [m]) / 1 [m] -1+XCompInlet tStep tTotal 3 [s] 225 [s] The CEL function that evaluates the thermometer temperature relies on a monitor point that you will create later in this tutorial. Direction vector components for guiding the inlet vent air in a diverging manner as it enters the room. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.185 [kg m^-3] * Flowrate Temperature of air at the return-air vent (determined by a CEL function).(HeatRemoved / (MassFlow * 1. Inc. Thermometer set point. makes use of @REGION CEL syntax. Volumetric flow rate of air entering the room. 277 . probe(T)@Thermometer Thermometer temperature (determined by a CEL function that gets temperature data from a monitor point). and mass flow rate). All rights reserved. Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Note The expression for the return-air vent temperature.

e. on Linux it is named linux). 3. Before the subroutine can be used. • • • • You can view more details about the cfx5mkext command by running cfx5mkext -help. it must be compiled for your platform.F") == 0 or die "cfx5mkext failed". You can compile the subroutine at any time before running CFX-Solver.F • • • 5. The “== 0 or die” will cause an error message to be returned if. so that it is associated with the user routine. 278 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This expression consists of a call to a user CEL function. Thermostat Function. Creating a User CEL Function for the Thermostat The expression for the air conditioner on/off status is named ACOn. Select Tools > Command Editor. cfx5mkext -double TStat_Control. Thermostat Function. A subdirectory will have been created in your working directory whose name is system dependent (e.g. Type the following command in the Command Editor dialog box (make sure you do not miss the semicolon at the end of the line): ! system ("cfx5mkext TStat_Control.F to your working directory (if you have not already done so). which is available in the <CFXROOT>/examples/ directory. The cfx5mkext command is used to compile the subroutine as described below. Note If you are running problems in parallel over multiple platforms then you will need to create these subdirectories using the cfx5mkext command for each different platform.0 . This sub directory contains the shared object library. system is a Perl function to execute a system command. 4. Click Process to compile the subroutine.F file. • This is equivalent to executing the following at an OS command prompt: cfx5mkext TStat_Control. for some reason. which needs to be created. All rights reserved.. .Compiling the Fortran Subroutine for the Thermostat Compiling the Fortran Subroutine for the Thermostat A Fortran subroutine that simulates the thermostat is provided in the installation directory for your software (<CFXROOT>/examples/). This file was created by modifying the ucf_template. Close the Command Editor dialog box. Note You can use the -double option (i. Everything after the ! symbol is processed as Perl commands. 2. you will first create a user routine that holds basic information about the compiled Fortran subroutine. Before you create the user CEL function. Examine the contents of this file in any text editor to gain a better understanding of this subroutine. The operation is performed at this point in the tutorial so that you have a better understanding of the values you need to specify in CFX-Pre when creating a User CEL Function. Copy the subroutine TStat_Control. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS.. You will then create a user function. The ! indicates that the following line is to be interpreted as power syntax and not CCL. there is an error in processing the command. the default Library Name is that of your Fortran file and the default Library Path is your current working directory. If these are not specified. Inc. Release 12. Inc. You can set a Library Name and Library Path using the -name and -dest options respectively.F) to compile the subroutine for use with double precision CFX-Solver executables. 1.

a default is used. b This is the name passed to the cfx5mkext command by the -name option. Use these expressions to set up the Analysis Type information: 1. Inc. Functions and Variables > User Function or click User Function . 2. 279 . From the main menu. Always use lower case letters for the calling name. The result will be a dimensionless flag with a value of 0 or 1. 3. and aitern. select Insert > Expressions. Setting the Analysis Type This is a transient simulation. 3. [K]. select Insert > Expressions. Click Analysis Type . Set the name to Thermostat Routine. 4.0 . The default is the Fortran file name without the . even if the subroutine name in the Fortran file is in upper case. If the -name option is not specified. [K]. From the main menu. Functions and Variables > User Routine or click User Routine 2. Click OK. Create the user CEL function: 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Analysis Type > Option Value Transient Analysis Type > Time Duration > Option Total Time Release 12. Set the name to Thermostat Function. . 4. []a []b b These are the units for the four input arguments: TSensor.© 2009 ANSYS. c Set this to your working directory. The total time and time step are specified by expressions that you imported earlier.F extension. Inc. All rights reserved. TTol. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Setting the Analysis Type Create the user routine: 1. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Option User Routine Name Argument Units Result Units a Value User Function Thermostat Routine [K]. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Option Calling Name Library Name Library Path a Value User CEL Function ac_ona TStat_Controlb (Working Directory)c This is the name of the subroutine within the Fortran file. TSet. 1. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Click OK. All rights reserved. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Buoy. and the size and geometry of the room. 2. since directional radiation (representing sunlight) will be emitted from the windows. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Create the domain: 1. given the expected temperature differences. 1. Edit Default Domain and apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Fluid and Particle Definitions Value B1. Inc. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Z -g Dirn.2 [kg m^-3] Density Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Thermal Radiation > Option 3. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on. A domain named Default Domain should appear under the Simulation branch.P3 Fluid 1 Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Air Ideal Gas Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Domain Models > Buoyancy > Option 1 [atm] Buoyant Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity X 0 [m s^-2] Dirn. Automatic with Value 0 [s] Creating the Domain The domain that models the room air should model buoyancy. The domain must model radiation. Click OK. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity Y 0 [m s^-2] Dirn.© 2009 ANSYS. Thermal Energy Monte Carlo Release 12. Inc. .Creating the Domain Tab Setting Analysis Type > Time Duration > Total Time Analysis Type > Time Steps > Option Value tTotal Timesteps Analysis Type > Time Steps > Timesteps tStep Analysis Type > Initial Time > Option Analysis Type > Initial Time > Time 3. 280 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Ref.0 . air speeds.

Inc. 2. Fixed-temperature walls. A monitor point named Thermometer will be created later as part of the output control settings. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. A return-air vent that lets air leave the room. flow direction. They will be fixed by setting up the rest of the simulation. Cartesian Components XCompInlet 0 ZCompInlet Static Temperature TIn (Selected) Cartesian Components Note Ignore the physics errors that appear. specifying a relative pressure of 0 Pa: 1. 3. Outlet Boundary Create a boundary for the return-air vent. 281 . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Value Inlet Inlet Mass Flow Rate Mass and Momentum > Mass Flow Rate MassFlow Flow Direction > Option Flow Direction > X Component Flow Direction > Y Component Flow Direction > Z Component Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Plot Options Boundary Vector Boundary Vector > Profile Vec. and temperature: 1. Comps.© 2009 ANSYS. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Create a boundary named Inlet. Inc. The viewer shows the inlet velocity profile applied at the inlet. which uses the expressions XCompInlet and ZCompInlet to specify a diverging flow pattern. Fixed-temperature windows that emit directed radiation. 2. All rights reserved. The error concerning the expression TIn is due to a reference to Thermometer which does not yet exist. Create a boundary named VentOut.Creating the Boundaries Creating the Boundaries In this section you will define several boundaries: • • • • An inlet vent that injects air into the room. Click OK.0 . Inlet Boundary Create a boundary for the inlet vent. using the previously-loaded expressions for mass flow rate. Apply the following settings: Release 12.

Creating the Boundaries Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Value Outlet VentOut Average Static Pressure Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 0 [Pa] 3. the windows are required to emit directional radiation. assume that the windows have a fixed temperature of 26°C. 2. 282 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings: Tab Plot Options Setting Boundary Vector Value (Selected) Release 12. Create a boundary for the windows using a fixed temperature of 26°C and apply a radiation source of 600 W m^-2 in the (1. 4. . Click OK. All rights reserved. To approximate the effect of the outdoor air temperature. -1) direction: 1.Window2 Temperature 26 [C] (Selected) (Selected) 3. Directional Radiation Flux 600 [W m^-2] Cartesian Components 1 1 -1 5. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. Create a boundary named Windows. Window Boundary To model sunlight entering the room.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fixed Temperature Sources Boundary Source Boundary Source > Sources Value Wall Window1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. 1. Create a new radiation source item by clicking Add new item Apply the following settings to Radiation Source 1: Setting Option Radiation Flux Direction > Option Direction > X Component Direction > Y Component Direction > Z Component Value and accepting the default name.

2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the Diffuse Fraction setting has no effect. The direction of the radiation is shown in the viewer. adiabatic wall. Set up the default wall boundary: 1. Comps. Click OK. smooth. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. with the remainder being specular (directional). it will not appear in the Wireframe object that appears in the viewer when the results file of the simulation is opened in CFD-Post. Since the Door region is part of the entire default boundary. Edit the boundary named Default Domain Default. but it can still be viewed as a mesh region. and the Diffuse Fraction setting controls the fraction of the reflected radiation that is diffuse. Value Cartesian Components in Radiation Source 1 6.Setting Initial Values Tab Setting Boundary Vector > Profile Vec. With no reflected radiation. Inc. 2. All rights reserved. Default Wall Boundary The default boundary for any undefined surface in CFX-Pre is a no-slip. all of the radiation is absorbed and none of the radiation is reflected. Apply the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Setting Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fixed Temperature Thermal Radiation > Option Thermal Radiation > Emissivity 3. assume that the default wall is a perfectly absorbing and emitting surface (emissivity = 1). For this simulation. Inc. some radiation is reflected. 283 . Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Velocity Type Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Value Cartesian Automatic with Value 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] . assume that the walls have a fixed temperature of 26°C. Release 12. For lower values of emissivity. which is modeled as a wall (closed door) for simplicity. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A more detailed simulation would model heat transfer through the walls. The default wall boundary includes the Door region. Value Temperature 26 [C] Opaque 1 Because this boundary is opaque with an emissivity of 1.0 . For radiation purposes. Setting Initial Values 1.

Inc. 2. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. 284 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Setting Solver Control In a typical transient simulation. there should be sufficient coefficient loops per time step to achieve convergence. . a The initial blackbody temperature of the air should be set to the initial temperature of the air. Coeff.25 [m] Initial Conditions > Radiation Intensity > Automatic with Value Option Initial Conditions > Radiation Intensity > (Selected) Blackbody Temperature Initial Conditions > Radiation Intensity > 22 [C] Blackbody Temperature > Blackbody a Temp. Loops 3 3. reduce the maximum number of coefficient loops per time step to 3: 1.05 Automatic with Value 0. Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . Click Solver Control . Inc. Apply the following setting: Tab Basic Settings Setting Value Convergence Control > Max.Setting Solver Control Tab Setting Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Option Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Relative Pressure Value 0 [m s^-1] Automatic with Value 0 [Pa] Initial Conditions > Temperature > Option Automatic with Value Initial Conditions > Temperature > Temperature 22 [C] Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Option Intensity and Length Scale Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Fractional Intensity > Option Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Fractional Intensity > Value Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Eddy Length Scale > Option Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Eddy Length Scale > Value Automatic with Value 0. In order to reduce the time required to run this particular simulation. 3. All rights reserved. Release 12.

1. Inc. and Apply the following settings to Transient Results 1: Setting Option Output Variables Lista Output Variable Operators Output Variable Operators > Output Var. the temperature at the outlet. radiation intensity. click Add new item click OK. 2. Apply the following settings to Thermometer: Setting Output Variables List Cartesian Coordinates Value Temperature 2. Radiation Intensity. and velocity.Setting Output Control Setting Output Control Set up the solver to output transient results files that record pressure. 1.5. In the Transient Results list box.95. Setting Monitor Options Value (Selected) Create a new Monitor Points and Expressions item named Thermometer. To create the thermostat thermometer. 3. Temperature. 4.0 . Velocity (Selected) Allb Every Timestep b Use the Ctrl key to select more than one variable. This causes the gradients of the selected variables to be written to the transient results files. temperature. and the on/off status of the air conditioner. Click Output Control . 3. set Name to Transient Results 1. on every time step: 1. All rights reserved. Also set up monitors to track the expressions for the temperature at the inlet. 1. Create a new Monitor Points and Expressions item named Temp at Inlet. 5. Release 12. Inc. . along with other information. Apply the following settings: Tab Monitor 2. set up a monitor point at the thermometer location.© 2009 ANSYS. Apply the following settings to Temp at Inlet: Setting Option Expression Value Value Expression TIn 6.25 4. Click the Trn Results tab. Operators Output Frequency > Option a Value Selected Variables Pressure. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Create a new Monitor Points and Expressions item named Temp at VentOut. 285 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

0 . In the Monitor Properties dialog box. All rights reserved. 9. Release 12. expand the USER POINT branch in the tree. on the Plot Lines tab. Click Define Run . Right-click in the plot area and select Monitor Properties from the shortcut menu. If using Standalone Mode.def) File 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 286 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. It is difficult to see the plot values because all of the monitor points are plotted on the same scale. on the Define Run dialog box. 2.cfx) file at your discretion. Click Save. start the solver and view the monitor points as the solution progresses: 1. 4. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.© 2009 ANSYS. plots will appear showing the values of the monitor points: • • • • 2. Value HVAC. Inc. On that tab. quit CFX-Pre. the Solver Input File is set. . 3. Value Expression TVentOut Create a new Monitor Points and Expressions item named ACOnStatus. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. Apply the following settings to ACOnStatus: Setting Option Expression Value Value Expression ACOn 10. try displaying subsets of them as follows: 1. Click OK. Apply the following settings to Temp at VentOut: Setting Option Expression Value 8.def) File 7. saving the simulation (. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Click Start Run. After a few minutes. Clear the check boxes beside all of the monitor points except ACOnStatus. ACOnStatus Temp at Inlet Temp at VentOut Thermometer (Temperature) Click one of the plot lines to see the value of the plot variable at that point. To see the plots in more detail.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager When CFX-Pre has shut down and CFX-Solver Manager has started. a User Points tab will appear. Inc. 3. 2. then click Apply.

4. Color the isosurface by Temperature (select Use Plot Variable) and use the same color range as for the planes. it will be consistent with the coloration of the planes. Click Timestep Selector . Click Ok. create two planes colored by temperature as follows: 1. Create an XY plane named Plane 2 with Z=0. set Transparency to 0. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. Load the res file (HVAC_001. 2. The Timestep Selector dialog box appears. 4. 3. then click Apply. 4. 5. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Observe the plots for Temp at Inlet. On the Render tab for the isosurface. 2. 5.Viewing the Results in CFD-Post 4. Create an isosurface named Cold Plume as a surface of Temperature = 19 °C. Creating an Isosurface In order to show the plumes of cool air from the inlet vent. You will also create a color legend and a text label that reports the thermometer temperature. Inc. 287 . 6. all colored by temperature. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post You will first create some graphic objects to visualize the temperature distribution and the thermometer location. 6. Release 12. Although the color of the isosurface will not show variation (by definition). and Thermometer (Temperature). You will then create an animation to show how the temperature distribution changes. Turn off lighting (on the Render tab) so that the colors are accurate and can be interpreted properly using the legend.© 2009 ANSYS. If using Standalone Mode. but you will be able to see it when playing the animation (a step carried out later). All rights reserved. Create a ZX-Plane named Plane 1 with Y=1. 5. Color it by Temperature using a user specified range from 19 [C] to 23 [C]. create a surface of constant temperature as follows: 1. Color it using the same settings as for the first plane. Click OK to close the Monitor Properties dialog box. Right-click a blank area in the viewer. The time step is set to 12 s so that the cold air plume is visible. Click Apply. In the Monitor Properties dialog box. Observe the plot for ACOnStatus. select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.5. Creating Graphics Objects In this section. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Double-click the value: 12 s. toggle each of the check boxes beside the monitor points.5 [m]. Note The isosurface will not be visible in some time steps. 6. You might have to move the dialog box out of the way to see the plot. Inc. so that all of the monitor points are selected except for ACOnStatus. 7.0 .res) if you did not elect to load the results directly from CFX-Solver Manager. Leave lighting turned on to help show the 3D shape of the isosurface. Creating Planes In order to show the key features of the temperature distribution. you will create two planes and an isosurface of constant temperature.35 [m]. and turn off lighting. Temp at VentOut. 3.

3. Although this monitor point data is stored in the results file. Edit Default Legend View 1.25). Creating a Point for the Thermometer In the next section. 4. Click Text . 3. Remove the locator name from the title and. Click Apply. 5. Inc. Creating a Text Label Create a text label that shows the currently-selected time step and thermometer temperature. change Title Mode to Variable.0 . Fixed. select Insert > Location > Point. this expression was evaluated using a monitor point named Thermometer. 4. A marker appears at the thermometer location in the viewer.95. All rights reserved. 1. Change Precision to 2.5. Set Name to Thermometer. in preparation for making an MPEG video later in this tutorial.03. From the main menu. 3. 2. which represents the thermometer temperature.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. The <aa> string represents the location where text is to be substituted. 2. Click Apply. Change Text Height to 0. .Creating Graphics Objects Adjusting the Legend The legend title should not name the locator of any particular object since all objects are colored by the same variable and use the same range. 2. This will remove the locator name from the legend. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. On the Definition tab. create a point called Thermometer at the same location: 1. increase the text size: 1. Click the Appearance tab. then: 1. you will create a text label that displays the value of the expression TSensor. Accept the default name and click OK. Inc.1. Value Sensor Temperature: 288 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In order to support the expression for TSensor. Click More to add a second line of text to the text object. Apply the following settings: Tab Definition Setting Text String Embed Auto Annotation Type a Value Time Elapsed: (Selected)a Time Value The full text string should now be Time Elapsed: <aa>. During the solver run.1. 4. Set Point to (2. Apply the following settings: Tab Definition Setting Text String (the second one) Embed Auto Annotation Type (Selected) Expression Release 12. it cannot be accessed.

Click New to create KeyframeNo1. Click Apply. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 19. In the Animation dialog box. Since there are 76 unique frames. 289 .Creating an Animation Tab Setting Expression Appearance 6. Tip Be sure to press Enter and confirm that the new number appears in the list before continuing.cst extension). Click More Animation Options 11. 9. Select Save Movie. This will produce an animation lasting about 8. 15. Change Image Size to 720 x 480 (or a similar resolution). 6.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Timestep Selector . 18. Animations are not restored by loading ordinary state files (those with the . near the top. for a total of 202 frames. to expand the Animation dialog box. click Overwrite. Click To Beginning to rewind the active key frame to KeyframeNo1. Click the Advanced tab. 7. Click Play the animation .03 The text label appears in the viewer. click New to create KeyframeNo2. 7. 8. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. so leave it at the default value. and note the Quality setting. 16. Creating an Animation 1. In the toolbar at the top of the window click Animation . you can try using the Low or Custom quality settings. then press Enter while in the # of Frames box. If prompted to overwrite an existing movie. 20. Height Value TSensor 0. Ensure that the view is set to Isometric View (Z up). Ensure that the visibility for Text 1 is turned on. each frame will be shown at least once. 14. 2. Click the Options button. Release 12. If your movie player cannot play the resulting MPEG. In the Animation dialog box. The # of Frames parameter has no effect for the last keyframe. 13. Inc. then set # of Frames to 200. All rights reserved. select the Keyframe Animation option. Double-click the first time value (0 s). 3. Specify a file name for the movie file. Use the Timestep Selector to load the last time value (225 s). 5. Click Save animation state and save the animation to a file. This will enable you to quickly restore the animation in case you want to make changes. Set Format to MPEG1. 4. Select KeyframeNo1. 10. 21.0 . 17. This will place 200 intermediate frames between the first and (yet to be created) second key frames. Click OK.4 s since the frame rate will be 24 frames per second. 12. Inc.

. a finer mesh. Inc. and a low cap on the maximum number of coefficient loops per time step. Running this simulation for a longer total time will allow you to see more on/off cycles of the air conditioner. smaller time steps. a coarse mesh. large time steps.0 . Further Steps • This tutorial uses an aggressive flow rate of air. quit CFD-Post. will produce more accurate results.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Further Steps The animation plays and builds an mpg file. 22. Inc. • Release 12. and a larger cap on the maximum number of coefficient loops. 290 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.03 m3 s-1). All rights reserved. Running this tutorial with a flow rate of air that is closer to 5 changes of air per hour (0. When you have finished.

Changing object color maps in CFD-Post to prepare a grayscale image. Using the P1 radiation model in CFX-Pre.© 2009 ANSYS. 303) Obtaining a Solution Using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager (p. Using the Discrete Transfer radiation model in CFX-Pre. 309) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • • • • Creating thin surfaces for the inlet vanes.0 . 294) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 292) Using Eddy Dissipation and P1 Models (p. Combustion and Radiation in a Can Combustor This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 300) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Combustion Radiation Boundary Conditions Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Release 12. 294) Before You Begin (p. 301) Defining a Simulation Using Laminar Flamelet and Discrete Transfer Models in ANSYS CFX-Pre (p. 307) Viewing the Results in ANSYS CFD-Post (p. 294) Defining a Case Using Eddy Dissipation and P1 Models in CFX-Pre (p. 295) Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 291 Details General Mode Steady State Reacting Mixture Single Domain k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Component CFX-Pre . Using the NOx model in CFX-Pre. 307) Further Postprocessing (p. 291) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. Changing the combustion model in a simulation. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Chapter 20. Inc. All rights reserved. Using the Flamelet Model. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Using the Eddy Dissipation combustion model. Inc. Using a Reacting Mixture.

0 . can combustors are designed to minimize emissions. Release 12. Inc. burn very efficiently and keep wall temperatures as low as possible.© 2009 ANSYS. Arranged around a central annulus. This tutorial is designed to give a qualitative impression of the flow and temperature distributions inside a can combustor that burns methane in air. 292 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic Wall: Thin Surface Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Outline Plot (Wireframe) Sampling Plane Slice Plane Vector Other Changing the Color Range Color map Legend Quantitative Calculation Overview of the Problem to Solve The can combustor is a feature of the gas turbine engine. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. The basic geometry is shown below with a section of the outer wall cut away. .

The Combined EDM/FRC model capability is a superset of the Eddy Dissipation model capability. 228) in ANSYS CFX-Solver Modeling Guide for a comparison of the available combustion models: • • • • • Eddy Dissipation Finite Rate Chemistry Combined EDM/FRC Laminar Flamelet Burning Velocity Due to the fact that the fuel (methane) and oxidizer (air) undergo “fast” combustion (whereby the combustion rate is dominated by the rate of mixing of the materials). and the Burning Velocity model are suitable for modeling “fast” combustion. Because the combustor in this tutorial does not use Release 12. the radiation models are independent of the combustion models. 293 . the convergence behavior of the Combined EDM/FRC model may be worse than that of the Eddy Dissipation model. with the extra capability of being able to handle premixed fuel/oxidizer.Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial demonstrates two combustion and radiation model combinations. the Finite Rate Chemistry model is not a suitable combustion model for the combustor in this tutorial. The simulation in the second part of this tutorial uses the Laminar Flamelet combustion model and the Discrete Transfer radiation model. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and has no benefit over the Eddy Dissipation model in this case. The Burning Velocity model capability is a superset of the Flamelet model capability. the Laminar Flamelet model.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . The simulation in the first part of this tutorial uses the Eddy Dissipation combustion model and the P1 radiation model. All rights reserved. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Different radiation models are used in this tutorial for demonstration purposes. The NOx model is also included. See Which Model is the Most Appropriate? (p. The Eddy Dissipation model. In fact.

One drawback of the Flamelet model is that it requires the availability of a flamelet library suited for the required fuel/oxidizer combination over the pressure and temperature ranges of interest. 218) in ANSYS CFX-Solver Theory Guide. . Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • • 2. All rights reserved.Using Eddy Dissipation and P1 Models premixed fuel/oxidizer. For details on the Thermal NO mechanism. Using Eddy Dissipation and P1 Models In this first part of the tutorial. CombustorMesh.cfx Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details.© 2009 ANSYS. instead. see Thermal NO (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. where its concentration information is directly available. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. The NO models used in the two parts of this tutorial are very similar. in particular in fuel-rich regions. The only difference is in how the O-radical concentration is obtained for the 'Thermal NO' formation step: • • Eddy Dissipation model: The O-radical is not a component of the mixture. This may lead to over-prediction of flame temperature. Inc.0 . 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. A limitation of this model is that radical or intermediate species. 303). such as additional fuels. it generally provides a more accurate solution than the Eddy Dissipation model. 1) Release 12. The Eddy Dissipation model tracks each individual chemical species (except for the constraint material) with its own transport equation. such as CO. the extra capability of the Burning Velocity model is not required and therefore it is sufficient to use the Flamelet model. see Defining a Simulation Using Laminar Flamelet and Discrete Transfer Models in ANSYS CFX-Pre (p. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. you will create a simulation that uses the Eddy Dissipation combustion model and the P1 radiation model. 294 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. otherwise continue from this point. The Laminar Flamelet model can simulate the products of incomplete combustion. for this reason. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. This model is flexible in that you can readily add new materials. its concentration is estimated using the O2 concentration and temperature. to the simulation without complications.pre CombustorEDM.gtm CombustorEDM. If you want to use the Flamelet combustion model and Discrete Transfer radiation model instead. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. Flamelet model: The O-radical concentration is calculated from the Flamelet library. Inc. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. cannot be calculated with adequate accuracy.pre CombustorFlamelet.

In CFX-Pre. Select File > Save Case As. 295 . 2. proceed to the following steps: You will first define a domain that includes a variable composition mixture. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. you must create a variable composition mixture.pre. For details. Click Save. 3. These mixtures are used to model combusting and reacting flows in CFX. 6. All rights reserved. Click Open. type CombustorEDM. Apply the following setting Setting File name 3. Under File name. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. run CombustorEDM.Defining a Case Using Eddy Dissipation and P1 Models in CFX-Pre Defining a Case Using Eddy Dissipation and P1 Models in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. 300). 1. Value CombustorMesh.© 2009 ANSYS. Select General and click OK. 3). Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 5. To create the variable composition mixture 1. This file is provided in the tutorial directory and may exist in your working directory if you have copied it there. Create a new material named Methane Air Mixture. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . If prompted. 4.gtm Creating a Reacting Mixture To allow combustion modeling. If you want to set up the simulation manually. 2. Importing the Mesh 1. Inc. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. select File > New Case. Inc. 2. click Overwrite. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Option Material Group Reactions List Mixture Properties Mixture Properties Mixture Properties > Radiation Properties > Refractive Index Mixture Properties > Radiation Properties > Absorption Coefficient Value Reacting Mixture Gas Phase Combustion Methane Air WD1 NO PDFa (Selected) (Selected)b (Selected) Release 12.

Apply the following settings Release 12. This includes a simple model for partial premixing effects by turning on the Product Limiter. 296 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. and so is set for this single step reaction only. . When it is selected. Setting the radiation properties explicitly will significantly shorten the solution time since the CFX-Solver will not have to calculate radiation mixture properties. 2. Creating the Boundaries Fuel Inlet Boundary 1. Click click Import Library Data b and select the appropriate reaction to import. non-zero initial values are required for the products. Double-click Default Domain and apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Combustion > Option Combustion > Eddy Dissipation Model Coefficient B Combustion > Eddy Dissipation Model Coefficient B > EDM Coeff. A domain named Default Domain should now appear under the Simulation branch.0 .5b P1 (Selected) Constraint b It is important to set a realistic reference pressure in this tutorial because the components of Methane Air Mixture are ideal gases. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on. The products limiter is not recommended for multi-step eddy dissipation reactions. 2. The to display the Reactions List dialog box. Click OK. 3.Creating the Domain Tab Setting Mixture Properties > Radiation Properties > Scattering Coefficient a Value (Selected) The Methane Air WD1 NO PDF reaction specifies complete combustion of the fuel into its products in a single-step reaction. B155.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. B Thermal Radiation > Option Component Models > Component > N2 Component Models > N2 > Option a Value B152. Create a new boundary named fuelin. B153. B156 Fluid 1 Methane Air Mixture 1 [atm]a Thermal Energy Eddy Dissipation (Selected) 0. 3. Inc. then formation of NO is also modeled and occurs in an additional reaction step. Click OK. Creating the Domain 1. All rights reserved. B154.

The can combustor employs vanes downstream of the fuel inlet to give the incoming air a swirling velocity.Creating the Boundaries Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Component Details Component Details > CH4 > Mass Fraction 3. 2. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Component Details Release 12. Side Air Inlet Boundary The secondary air inlets are located on the side of the vessel and introduce extra air to aid combustion. Click OK. Click OK. All rights reserved. N2. 2. Create a new boundary named airin.232a The remaining mass fraction at the inlet will be made up from the constraint component. Value Inlet fuelin 40 [m s^-1] 300 [K] CH4 1 Bottom Air Inlet Boundary Two separate boundary conditions will be applied for the incoming air.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 3. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Component Details Component Details > O2 > Mass Fraction a Value Inlet airin 10 [m s^-1] 300 [K] O2 0. 1. 297 Value Inlet secairin Normal Speed 6 [m s^-1] Static Temperature 300 [K] O2 . The first is at the base of the can combustor. Create a new boundary named secairin. 1.

152. F150. Click OK. To create a vane as a thin surface in CFX-Pre. Create a new boundary named vanes.0 . F138. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Dimension (Filter) Region List Value 2Da F129.155. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 3. Inc. F136. F150. F136. 1.© 2009 ANSYS. Outlet Boundary 1. F147.152. F138.152. 5. Click OK. F145.152. Create a new composite region named Vane Surfaces.156.153.232a The remaining mass fraction at the inlet will be made up from the constraint component. Inc.155. you must specify a wall boundary on each side of the vanes. . Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Dimension (Filter) Region List Value 2D F129. leaving only 2D regions 3. N2. F132. 2. 4. Click OK. 7.154. F145. 3. F147.Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Component Details > O2 > Mass Fraction a Value 0. 298 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Value Outlet out Average Static Pressure 0 [Pa] Vanes Boundary The vanes above the main air inlet are to be modeled as thin surfaces.152 a This will filter out the 3D regions. 2. Release 12. Create a new boundary named out. F141. Click OK.153.152. F132.152. Create another composite region named Vane Surfaces Other Side. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. You will first create a new region which contains one side of each of the eight vanes.156 6.154. All rights reserved.152. F141.

Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Automatic with Value Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Initial Conditions > Component Details Initial Conditions > Component Details > O2> Option 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 5 [m s^-1] O2 Automatic with Value Initial Conditions > Component Details > O2 > Mass Fraction 0. 299 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.01 H2O Automatic with Value 0. it does not take part in the reaction.© 2009 ANSYS. Click OK. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings Tab Global Settings Setting Value . Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3. smooth. Click OK. • • For radiation purposes.01 The initial conditions assume the domain consists mainly of air and the fraction of oxygen in air is 0. Release 12.Setting Initial Values 8.232. Inc. Setting Initial Values 1. As a result. Default Wall Boundary The default boundary for any undefined surface in CFX-Pre is a no-slip.e. heat transfer through the wall is neglected. The wall is non-catalytic. Since this tutorial serves as a basic model. A small mass fraction of reaction products (CO2 and H2O) is needed for the EDM model to initiate combustion. 2. i. no further boundary conditions need to be defined.. Vane Surfaces Other Side 9. the wall is assumed to be a perfectly absorbing and emitting surface (emissivity = 1). adiabatic wall.232a Initial Conditions > Component Details Initial Conditions > Component Details > CO2 > Option Initial Conditions > Component Details > CO2 > Mass Fraction Initial Conditions > Component Details Initial Conditions > Component Details> H2O > Option Initial Conditions > Component Details > H2O > Mass Fraction a CO2 Automatic with Value 0.0 . All rights reserved. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Value Wall Vane Surfaces.

Inc. CFX-Solver Input File should be set to CombustorEDM. Ensure Define Run is displayed. Note If a fine mesh is used for a formal quantitative analysis of the flow in the combustor. 1.def) File 1. You will be able to obtain a solution to the CFD problem by following the instructions below.025 [s] Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 300 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Value CombustorEDM. on the Define Run dialog box. 2.cfx) file. Click Define Run . Click Solver Control . saving the simulation (. 4. quit CFX-Pre. the solution time will be significantly longer than for the coarse mesh. 102).0 . For details. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. Iterations Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Save. the Solver Input File is set. 3. see Obtaining a Solution in Parallel (p. Inc. Click OK. Value 100 Physical Timescale 0. If using Standalone Mode. 4. Release 12.Setting Solver Control Setting Solver Control 1. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. 5. All rights reserved. If using Standalone Mode. Click OK. .def.def Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager The CFX-Solver Manager will be launched after CFX-Pre saves the CFX-Solver input file. You can run the simulation in parallel to reduce the solution time. Eventually a dialog box is displayed stating that the run has finished.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Start Run. 2. This can take a long time depending on your system. 2. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Max.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.. any image that contains a color map. resulting in an even higher concentration of high temperatures throughout the combustor.e. All rights reserved. Inc. 1.25 should result in a detailed enough geometry for this exercise. or letting the printer do the conversion) will generally cause color legends to change to a non-linear distribution of levels of grey. Click Apply. A setting of about 8. Apply the following settings Tab Color 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. Modify the plane named Plane 1. the Laminar Flamelet combustion model will be used to simulate the combustion again. Click Apply. This technique is especially useful for printing.Mass Fraction Printing a Greyscale Graphic Here you will change the color map (for Plane 1) to a greyscale map. Value ZX Plane Variable Temperature The large area of high temperature through most of the vessel is due to forced convection. Create a new plane named Plane 1. 303)). Note Later in this tutorial (see Defining a Simulation Using Laminar Flamelet and Discrete Transfer Models in ANSYS CFX-Pre (p. Inc. The NO concentration is highest in the high temperature region close to the outlet of the domain. Modify the plane named Plane 1.0 .Viewing the Results in CFD-Post Viewing the Results in CFD-Post When CFD-Post opens. 2. Apply the following settings Tab Color Setting Color Map Value Inverse Greyscale Release 12. using graphics software. to a black and white printer. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Color Setting Definition > Method Mode Mode > Variable 3. experiment with the Edge Angle setting for the Wireframe object and the various rotation and zoom features in order to place the geometry in a sensible position. Setting Mode > Variable Value NO. The result will be a plot with different levels of grey representing different mass fractions of NO. The NO Concentration in the Combustor In the next step you will color Plane 1 by the mass fraction of NO to view the distribution of NO within the domain. 2. 301 . Temperature Within the Domain 1. Conversion to greyscale by conventional means (i. 1.

302 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Mass Fraction Function Calculator Function Location Variable 3.5 [m] (Selected) Release 12. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Z Plane Bounds > Type Plane Bounds > X Size Plane Bounds > Y Size Plane Type > Sample Value XY Plane 0.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Select Tools > Function Calculator or click the Calculators tab and select Function Calculator.0 . Running the problem with a finer mesh would show this region to be a larger recirculation zone. 4. A small amount of NO is released from the outlet of the combustor. 7.Calculating NO Mass Fraction at the Outlet 3. Plane 1 is no longer visible. Click Apply. You may notice a small recirculation in the center of the combustor. Select the Outline tab. 1. Create a new plane named Plane 2. Create a new vector named Vector 1. and is mainly due to the coarse mesh and the short residence times in the combustor. This amount is lower than can normally be expected. Setting Definition > Locations Symbol Size Value Plane 1 2 . Inc. you will next look at the velocity vectors to show the flow field. 2. 6. Click Apply. 3. In the next step. clear Plane 1. Apply the following settings Tab Setting Value massFlowAve out NO. you will calculate the mass fraction of NO in the outlet stream. Viewing Flow Field To investigate the reasons behind the efficiency of the combustion process.03 Rectangular 0. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Symbol 5. 2. Click Calculate. The coarseness of the mesh in this tutorial means that this region of flow is not accurately resolved. Calculating NO Mass Fraction at the Outlet The emission of pollutants into the atmosphere is always a design consideration for combustion applications. Inc.5 [m] 0. Under User Locations and Plots. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1.

more fuel is burned. 303 . Apply the following setting Tab Geometry 11. including the variance in carbon dioxide distribution. In the region near the fuel and air inlets. Click Apply.© 2009 ANSYS. Running the simulation a second time will demonstrate the differences in the combustion models. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Apply. You may also want to turn off the wireframe visibility. you will start with the simulation from the first part of the tutorial and modify it to use the Laminar Flamelet combustion model and the Discrete Transfer radiation model. which is shown below. When you are finished.0 . Show Faces Value 30 30 (Cleared) 10. Release 12. right-click in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. All rights reserved. Defining a Simulation Using Laminar Flamelet and Discrete Transfer Models in ANSYS CFX-Pre In this second part of the tutorial. Modify Vector 1. 9. To view the swirling velocity field. Setting Definition > Locations Value Plane 2 Viewing Radiation Try examining the distribution of Incident Radiation and Radiation Intensity throughout the domain.Viewing Radiation Tab Setting Plane Type > X Samples Plane Type > Y Samples Render 8. the swirl component of momentum (theta direction) results in increased mixing with the surrounding fluid and a higher residence time in this region. quit CFD-Post. Inc. Inc. As a result. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

or otherwise do not have the simulation file from the first part.cfx will be created. Inc. Inc.cfx. .pre. Creating a New Case 1. This creates a separate simulation file which will be modified to use the Laminar Flamelet and Discrete Transfer models. 1. 307).Playing a Session File Playing a Session File If you want to set up the simulation automatically and continue to Obtaining a Solution Using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager (p. All rights reserved. start it and load the simulation called CombustorEDM. Release 12. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Reactions List Value Methane Air FLL STP and NO PDFa a Click to display the Reactions List dialog box. Modifying the Reacting Mixture A flamelet library will be used to create the variable composition mixture. 3. 304 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select File > Save Case As. If you have not completed the first part of this tutorial. Be sure to close the case once the session has been played. Click OK.pre. The simulation file CombustorEDM. Save the simulation as CombustorFlamelet.cfx. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. If CFX-Pre is not already running. Expand Materials and open Methane Air Mixture for editing. 4. 2.0 . The simulation from the first part of this tutorial is loaded.© 2009 ANSYS. run CombustorFlamelet. 3. start CFX-Pre and then play the session file CombustorEDM. then click Import Library Data and select the appropriate reaction to import.

Apply the following settings Release 12. All rights reserved. the messages can be safely ignored as the physics will be corrected once the domains and boundary conditions are modified. Double-click the Default Domain. Value Fuel NO Mass Fraction 0 Bottom Air Inlet Boundary 1. In this situation. Modify the boundary named airin. 2. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings Tab Boundary Details Setting Mixture > Option Component Details Component Details > NO > Option Component Details > NO > Mass Fraction 3. Click OK. Modify the boundary named fuelin.0 . Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. Modifying the Domain 1. 2. 3. 2. Inc. Apply the following settings Tab Fluid Models Setting Combustion > Option Thermal Radiation > Option Component Models > Component Value PDF Flamelet Discrete Transfer N2 Component Models > Component > N2 > Option Constraint Component Models > Component NO Component Models > Component > NO > Option Transport Equation Component Models > Component Component Models > Component > (All other components) > Option a (All other components)a Automatic Select these one at a time and check each of them. Modifying the Boundaries Fuel Inlet Boundary 1.Modifying the Domain Note Some physics validation messages appear after this reaction is selected. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 305 .

Click Solver Control . . 2. Value Oxidiser NO Mass Fraction 0 Setting Initial Values 1. Value NO Automatic with Value 0 . you can select to solve them only every 10 iterations. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Apply the following settings Tab Advanced Options Setting Dynamic Model Control > Global Dynamic Model Control Thermal Radiation Control Value (Selected) (Selected) Release 12. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Component Details Initial Conditions > Component Details > NO > Option Initial Conditions > Component Details > NO > Mass Fraction 3.Setting Initial Values Tab Boundary Details Setting Mixture > Option Component Details Component Details > NO > Option Component Details > NO > Mass Fraction 3. 2. Modify the boundary named secairin. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. 306 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Value Oxidiser NO Mass Fraction 0 Side Air Inlet Boundary 1. Setting Solver Control To reduce the amount of CPU time required for solving the radiation equations. Inc. Click OK. Apply the following settings Tab Boundary Details Setting Mixture > Option Component Details Component Details > NO > Option Component Details > NO > Mass Fraction 3. Click OK. 2.0 . 1.

Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Y Release 12. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. All rights reserved. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. you can obtain a solution to the CFD problem by using the following procedure: 1.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Save. on the Define Run dialog box. select the check box next to Post-Process Results.def) File Tab Setting Thermal Radiation Control > Iteration Interval Value (Selected) Thermal Radiation Control > Iteration Interval > Iteration Interval 10 3. the NO Concentration in the Combustor.cfx) file at your discretion. CFX-Solver Input File should be set to CombustorFlamelet. Click Start Run. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and the CO Mass Fraction at the Outlet. 4. Click OK. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Value CombustorFlamelet. Click OK. 2.def. and the CO Concentration. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 5.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Viewing Temperature within the Domain 1. You will also use the Function Calculator to calculate the NO Concentration. saving the simulation (. Ensure Define Run is displayed. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. the Solver Input File is set. 4. 2. quit CFX-Pre.0 . 307 Value ZX Plane 0 . If using Standalone Mode. This can take a long time depending on your system.def) File 1. Viewing the Results in ANSYS CFD-Post In this section. Create a new plane named Plane 1. 3. When CFX-Solver is finished. 2.def Obtaining a Solution Using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager When CFX-Solver Manager has started. Click Define Run . If using Standalone Mode. Inc. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. you will plot the Temperature in the Domain.

Viewing CO Concentration The next plot will show the concentration of CO (carbon monoxide).Viewing the NO Concentration in the Combustor Tab Color Setting Mode Mode > Variable 3. As you will see. Modify the plane named Plane 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Value Variable Temperature Viewing the NO Concentration in the Combustor 1. 1. 1. Release 12.0 . Inc. 2. Inc. Apply the following settings Tab Setting Value massFlowAve out NO. Select Tools > Function Calculator or click the Calculators tab and select Function Calculator. which is a by-product of incomplete combustion and is poisonous in significant concentrations. Apply the following settings Tab Color Setting Mode > Variable Range 3. 2. 308 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click Calculate. Select Tools > Function Calculator or click the Calculators tab and select Function Calculator.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Value CO. Click Apply. Apply the following settings Tab Color 3. the highest values are very close to the fuel inlet and in the regions of highest temperature.Mass Fraction Calculating NO Concentration The next calculation shows the amount of NO at the outlet.Mass Fraction Local Calculating CO Mass Fraction at the Outlet In the next step.Mass Fraction Function Calculator Function Location Variable 3. Modify the plane named Plane 1. you will calculate the mass fraction of CO in the outlet stream. 2. Click Apply. Setting Mode > Variable Value NO. Click Apply. 1. .

Load one combustion model. Release 12. You can compare both models in the viewer at once. All rights reserved.4% CO by mass in the outlet stream. Try putting some plots of your choice into the Viewer. in terms of mass fractions of various materials. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. 309 . You can plot the concentration of other species and compare values to those found for the Eddy Dissipation model. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3. as well as total temperature and other relevant measurements. Further Postprocessing 1. Inc. Examine the distribution of Incident Radiation and Radiation Intensity throughout the domain.0 . Apply the following settings Tab Setting Value massFlowAve out CO. There is approximately 0. then load the other using the Keep current cases loaded option in the Load Results File dialog box. Click Calculate.© 2009 ANSYS.Further Postprocessing 2.Mass Fraction Function Calculator Function Location Variable 3.

© 2009 ANSYS. .Release 12.0 . Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

312) Creating an Initial Simulation (p. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Multiphase Boundary Conditions Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Symmetry Plane Wall: No-Slip Wall: Free-Slip Timestep CFX-Solver Manager CFD-Post Restart Plots Contour Line Locator Polyline Release 12.0 . Cavitation Around a Hydrofoil This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. Inc. 321) Viewing the Results of the Cavitation Simulation (p. 317) Viewing the Results of the Initial Simulation (p. All rights reserved.Chapter 21. Inc. Using vector reduction in CFD-Post to clarify a vector plot with many arrows. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 313) Obtaining an Initial Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 317) Preparing a Simulation with Cavitation (p. 322) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • Modeling flow with cavitation. 311) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 311 Physical Time Scale Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon Isothermal Component CFX-Pre . Plotting computed and experimental results. 320) Obtaining a Cavitation Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Importing and exporting data along a polyline. 312) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 312) Before You Begin (p.

Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p.© 2009 ANSYS.res Release 12. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • • • HydrofoilExperimentalCp.pre HydrofoilIni_001. A two-dimensional solution is obtained by modeling a thin slice of the hydrofoil and using two symmetry boundary conditions.pre Hydrofoil. which is generated afterwards. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. 312 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.csv HydrofoilGrid.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Slice Plane Streamline Vector Other Chart Creation Data Export Printing Title/Text Variable Details View Overview of the Problem to Solve This example demonstrates cavitation in the flow of water around a hydrofoil.def HydrofoilIni. In this tutorial. an initial solution with no cavitation is generated to provide an accurate initial guess for a full cavitation solution. Inc. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p.

0 . *. The Select Library Data to Import dialog box is displayed.bak) HydrofoilGrid. Click Save. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. Value CFX-Solver Input (*. 2. A domain named Default Domain should now appear under the Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 branch. Select both Water Vapour at 25 C and Water at 25 C by holding Crtl when selecting.Creating an Initial Simulation 2. Inc. Click Open. Creating the Domain The fluid domain used for this simulation contains liquid water and water vapor. For details. Importing the Mesh 1. 5. 1. 3. All rights reserved. 1) Creating an Initial Simulation This section describes the step-by-step definition of the flow physics in CFX-Pre. 2. *. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 4. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. 317). 2. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. proceed to the following steps: 1. Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. 3. Select General and click OK. Select File > Save Case As. 4. 2. 3). *. select File > New Case. 4. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on. The volume fractions are initially set so that the domain is filled entirely with liquid. 313 . run HydrofoilIni.trn. Then proceed to Obtaining an Initial Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Click OK. you need to load these materials.def Loading Materials Since this tutorial uses Water Vapour at 25 C and Water at 25 C. type HydrofoilIni. Release 12. In the Outline tree view. Expand Water Data. Inc. right-click Materials and select Import Library Data. Apply the following settings Setting Files of type File name 3. 1. Under File name. If you want to set up the simulation manually.© 2009 ANSYS. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In CFX-Pre.res. Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file.def.pre. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. Double-click Default Domain.

0076 [m] Liquid Water Boundary Conditions > Liquid Water > Volume 1 Fraction > Volume Fraction Boundary Conditions Water Vapor Release 12. Inc.0 . outlet. delete Fluid 1 and create a new fluid definition called Liquid Water. All rights reserved. wall and symmetry plane boundaries. Create a new boundary named Inlet.03 0. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Value Liquid Water Fluid and Particle Definitions > Liquid Water > Material Water at 25 C Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Water Vapor > Material a Water Vapor Water Vapour at 25 C Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Fluid Models Multiphase > Homogeneous Model Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature Turbulence > Option a 0 [atm] (Selected) Isothermal 300 [K] k-Epsilon These two fluids have consistent reference enthalpies.© 2009 ANSYS. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Normal Speed Turbulence > Option Turbulence > Fractional Intensity Turbulence > Eddy Len. Inlet Boundary 1.Creating the Boundaries 3. Inc. The regions for these boundaries were imported with the grid file. Use the button to create another fluid named Water Vapor. 314 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.91 [m s^-1] Intensity and Length Scale 0. Click OK. 4. Under Fluid and Particle Definitions. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. Scale Fluid Values Boundary Conditions Value Inlet IN 16. Creating the Boundaries The simulation requires inlet. .

Click OK. Click OK. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 3. 1. Create a new boundary named SlipWalls. All rights reserved. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Mass And Momentum > Relative Pressure 3. Create a new boundary named Sym2. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Value Symmetry Value Symmetry SYM1 Release 12. Inc.Creating the Boundaries Tab Setting Boundary Conditions > Water Vapor > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction 3. Click OK. Click OK. 2. Create a new boundary named Sym1. Create a new boundary named Outlet. Value 0 Outlet Boundary 1. Mass And Momentum > Option Value Wall BOT. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details 3. 2. 315 . Value Outlet OUT Static Pressure 51957 [Pa] Free Slip Wall Boundary 1.0 . TOP Free Slip Wall Symmetry Plane Boundaries 1. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2.

01 [s] Note For the Convergence Criteria. Inc. Click OK. Inc. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. an RMS value of at least 1e-05 is usually required for adequate convergence. Setting Solver Control 1. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings Tab Global Settings Setting Value . .© 2009 ANSYS. 2. Value SYM2 Setting Initial Values 1. 316 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click OK. 2. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Max. Iterations Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale Value 100 Physical Timescale 0. Release 12. Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Automatic with Value Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W 16. Click Solver Control .Setting Initial Values Tab Setting Location 3.0 . but the default value is sufficient for demonstration purposes.91 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] Liquid Water Automatic with Value 1 Water Vapor Automatic with Value 0 Fluid Settings Fluid Specific Initialization Fluid Specific Initialization > Liquid Water > Initial Conditions > Volume Fraction > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Liquid Water > Initial Conditions > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction Fluid Specific Initialization Fluid Specific Initialization > Water Vapor > Initial Conditions > Volume Fraction > Option Fluid Specific Initialization > Water Vapor > Initial Conditions > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction 3.

on the Define Run dialog box.) in the plot area. Turbulence Quantities. 2. 317 . Click Save. Momentum and Mass. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. 2. Use the tabs to switch between different plots (e. the Solver Input File is set. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. 4. 4. Insert a new plane named Slice. Ensure that the Define Run dialog box is displayed. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. etc. If using Standalone Mode.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This can take a long time depending on your system. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Value XY Plane Release 12. which will be run later in this tutorial.. All rights reserved. 1.cfx) file at your discretion. you will create a plot of the pressure coefficient distribution around the hydrofoil. Click Start Run. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Viewing the Results of the Initial Simulation The following topics will be discussed: • • • Plotting Pressure Distribution Data (p. Click Ok. 1. 320) Plotting Pressure Distribution Data In this section. Inc. 3. Value HydrofoilIni. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. You can view residual plots for the fluid and solid domains separately by editing the workspace properties. Apply the following settings Setting File name 3. 317) Exporting Pressure Distribution Data (p. you can see residual output for various equations in both the text area and the plot area.def) File 1. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. 2. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Quit CFX-Pre. saving the simulation (. The data will then be exported to a file for later comparison with data from the cavitating flow case.def) File 3.def Obtaining an Initial Solution using CFX-Solver Manager While the calculations proceed. 3. Click Define Run .0 . select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager.g. 5. 319) Saving the Post-Processing State (p.

10. Apply the following settings Setting Method Scalar Expression 11. 12. 9. 5. Click Apply. measured in the X direction. 318 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.5*996. Click Apply. remembering to click Apply after entering each definition: Name PCoef FoilChord a Value 5e-5 [m] (Cleared) Show Faces Value Boundary Intersection Default Domain Default Slice Definition (Pressure-51957[Pa])/(0. 13. Zoom in on the center of the hydrofoil (near the cavity) to confirm the polyline wraps around the hydrofoil. Create a new variable named Pressure Coefficient. . 6. Value Expression (Selected) FoilChord Value Expression (Selected) PCoef Release 12.2[kg m^-3]*16. Click Apply. Inc. ranging from 0 at the leading edge to 1 at the trailing edge of the hydrofoil.91[m s^-1]^2) (X-minVal(X)@Foil)/(maxVal(X)@Foil-minVal(X)@Foil)a This creates a normalized chord. Inc. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Method Boundary List Intersect With 7.© 2009 ANSYS.0 .Plotting Pressure Distribution Data Tab Setting Definition > Z Render 4. Create a new variable named Chord. Define the following expressions. Apply the following settings Setting Method Scalar Expression 14. Create a new polyline named Foil by selecting Insert > Location > Polyline from the main menu. All rights reserved. Click Apply. 8.

0 . This chart line will be added to the chart object. Click Apply. 1. Now that the variables Chord and Pressure Coefficient exist. Inc.4 (Selected) (Cleared) Pressure Coefficient Exporting Pressure Distribution Data You will now export the chord and pressure coefficient data along the polyline. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. This data will be imported and used in a chart later in this tutorial for comparison with the results for when cavitation is present. 5. which is created next. Inc.Exporting Pressure Distribution Data Note Although the variables that were just created are only needed at points along the polyline.5 0. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select Insert > Chart from the main menu. -0.© 2009 ANSYS. The chart appears on the Chart Viewer tab. 2. they exist throughout the domain. Apply the following settings Tab General Data Series Setting Title Name Location X Axis Data Selection > Variable Value Pressure Coefficient Distribution Solver Cp Foil Chord Axis Range > Determine ranges automatically (Cleared) Axis Range > Min Axis Range > Max Axis Labels > Use data for axis labels Axis Labels > Custom Label Y Axis Data Selection > Variable 0 1 (Cleared) Normalized Chord Position Pressure Coefficient Axis Range > Determine Ranges Automatically (Cleared) Axis Range > Min Axis Range > Max Axis Range > Invert Axis Axis Labels > Use data for axis labels Axis Labels > Custom Label 4. Set the name to Pressure Coefficient Distribution. they can be associated with the previously defined polyline (the locator) to form a chart line. 2.csv Foil . Select File > Export. 1. 319 Value NoCavCpData. 3. All rights reserved. The Export dialog box appears Apply the following settings Tab Options Setting File Locations Release 12.

321). Y. it must be set for this example. 3. Click Save. 3. Inc. Inc.pre. but one has not been used in this tutorial.res and click Open. .0 . 320 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Similar post-processing follows. 2. Modifying the Initial Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically and continue to Obtaining a Cavitation Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. The file NoCavCpData. Select File > Open Case. the solver will be run with cavitation turned on. 1. Pressure Coefficient This causes X. Select File > Save State As.Saving the Post-Processing State Tab Setting Export Geometry Information Select Variables a Value (Selected)a Chord. Save the case as Hydrofoil.© 2009 ANSYS. then click Save. Preparing a Simulation with Cavitation Earlier in this tutorial.csv will be written in the working directory. and the effect of cavitation on the pressure distribution around the hydrofoil will be illustrated in a chart. Select HydrofoilIni_001. It is optional because saturation pressure can also be set by setting a homogeneous binary mixture. start it. In the next part of this tutorial. Release 12. 2. which involves cavitation. The solution from that simulation will serve as the starting point for the next simulation. Under File name type Cp_plot. 3. Click OK. All rights reserved. Apply the following settings Tab Fluid Pair Models Setting Fluid Pairs > Liquid Water | Water Vapor > Mass Transfer > Option Fluid Pairs > Liquid Water | Water Vapor > Mass Transfer > Cavitation > Saturation Pressure Fluid Pairs > Liquid Water | Water Vapor > Mass Transfer > Cavitation > Saturation Pressure > Saturation Pressure a Value Cavitation (Selected) 3574 [Pa]a Although saturation pressure is optional. If CFX-Pre is not already running. you will need to save the post-processing state for use later in this tutorial. Double-click Default Domain in the Outline tree view. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Adding Cavitation 1. run Hydrofoil. 4. you ran a simulation without cavitation. Saving the Post-Processing State If you are running CFD-Post in Standalone Mode. Z data to be included in the export file. as follows: 1. 2.cfx.

the Solver Input File and execution control settings are set. Inc. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. If using Standalone Mode. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. quit CFX-Pre. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 2. 3.res > Initial Values 1 Settings > File Namea a Click Browse and select the file from the working directory. 321 . This is the solution from the starting-point run. on the Define Run dialog box.def) File 1. Click OK. Modifying Execution Control 1. Tab Run Definition Setting Initial Values Specification Value Selected Initial Values Specification > Initial Values Initial Values 1 Initial Values Specification > Initial Values HydrofoilIni_001.def. Iterations Value 150a This allows up to 150 further iterations. Apply the following settings to set the Initial Values File. Confirm that the rest of the execution control settings are set appropriately. Release 12. 3. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings a Setting Convergence Control > Max. Click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Define Run . 2. Setting Solver Input File Value Hydrofoil. All rights reserved. when run as a restart. 4. Obtaining a Cavitation Solution using CFX-Solver Manager 1. CFX-Solver Input File should be set to Hydrofoil.© 2009 ANSYS.cfx) file at your discretion.defa You do not need to set the path unless you are planning on saving the solver file somewhere other than the working directory. 2.0 . Inc. saving the simulation (.Modifying Solver Control Modifying Solver Control 1. Click Solver Control . 2. Click Execution Control Apply the following settings Tab Run Definition a . Ensure the Define Run dialog box is displayed.

cst. 10. Release 12.with cavitation This reflects the fact that the user-defined variable Pressure Coefficient is now based on the current results.Viewing the Results of the Cavitation Simulation 3. Apply the following setting: Tab Data Series Setting Name Value Solver Cp . In this case. Click Yes to post-process the results. Note The experimental data is provided in <CFXROOT>/examples/HydrofoilExperimentalCp. Click the Chart Viewer tab. quit CFX-Solver Manager. The resulting chart will show all three sets of data (solver data with cavitation. You will now add the chart line from the first simulation. Data from the first solution will be added to the chart object by importing NoCavCpData. Click the Data Series tab. Select File > Load State. Apply the following setting: Tab Geometry 12. All rights reserved. Click Apply. 8. Inc. proceed to step 5 below. CFD-Post will already be in the state in which you left it in the first part of this tutorial. and experimental data). Setting File Value NoCavCpData. Click Open. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. A file containing experimental data will also be imported and added to the plot. 11.0 . 6. Clear Load results. 2. Note If using ANSYS Workbench. Viewing the Results of the Cavitation Simulation You will restore the state file saved earlier in this tutorial while preventing the first solution (which has no cavitation) from loading. 1. 3. Create a new polyline named NoCavCpPolyline. The data in the file is used to create a polyline with values of Pressure Coefficient and Chord stored at each point on it. 7. solver data without cavitation. If using Standalone Mode. 5.csv . 9. Edit Report > Pressure Coefficient Distribution. Click Apply. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution.csv which must be copied to your working directory before proceeding with this part of the tutorial. 4.csv (the file that was exported earlier). This will cause the plot of pressure distribution to use data from the currently loaded solution (which has cavitation). This can take a long time depending on your system. Click Start Run. 4. Inc. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. 322 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select Cp_plot. 5.

19. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 16. Click Apply. When you are finished. Edit Report > Pressure Coefficient Distribution. added to the chart object.Viewing the Results of the Cavitation Simulation 13. Inc. Value Experimental Cp . 23. Value Solver Cp . Inc.no cavitation NoCavCpPolyline (Selected) Chord on NoCavCpPolyline Pressure Coefficient on NoCavCpPolyline 20. Click New . and displayed on the Chart Viewer tab. 323 .csv Automatic Rectangle Release 12. All rights reserved.with cavitation (Selected) HydrofoilExperimentalCp. Select Series 2 from the list box. 17. Apply the following settings Tab Data Series Setting Name Data Source > File Data Source > File Line Display Line Display > Line Style Line Display > Symbols 21. If you want to save an image of the chart.0 . 14. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. added to the chart object. You will now add a chart line to show experimental results. The chart line (containing experimental data) is created. Click Apply.© 2009 ANSYS. Click the Data Series tab. select File > Save Picture from the main menu while the Chart Viewer tab is selected. The chart line (containing data from the first solution) is created. Apply the following settings: Tab Data Series Setting Name Location Custom Data Selection X Axis > Variable Y Axis > Variable 18. 15. This will allow you to save the chart to an image file. close CFD-Post. Click New . 22. and displayed on the Chart Viewer tab.

0 . . Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© 2009 ANSYS.Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.

325) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 325 Opening Transient Details General Mode Transient General Fluid Single Domain k-Epsilon None Component CFX-Pre . 335) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Output Control CEL (CFX Expression Language) Boundary Conditions Opening Symmetry Wall Timestep Transient Results File CFD-Post Plots Animation Point Slice Plane Vector Other Release 12. 335) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • Moving mesh Fluid-solid interaction (without modeling solid deformation) Movie creation Monitoring points. 326) Before You Begin (p.Chapter 22. 328) Obtaining a Solution using the CFX-Solver Manager (p. All rights reserved. Fluid Structure Interaction and Mesh Deformation This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 327) Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre (p.0 . Inc. 327) Starting CFX-Pre (p.

1 mm thick).0 . thus allowing the fluid to leave. the ball stops moving when forces on it are in equilibrium. The ball is made of steel with density of 7800 kg/m3 and 4 mm diameter. The forces on the ball are the force due to the spring (not shown in the figure) and the force due to fluid flow. Gravity is neglected here for simplicity. with a stiffness constant of 300 N/m. The check valve for this tutorial comprises of a ball connected to a spring. Inc. A sketch of geometry. High pressure from the liquid (6 atm relative pressure at the tank opening) causes the ball to move up.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Symmetry Plane Wall: No Slip Wall: Moving Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial uses an example of ball check-valve to demonstrate two-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between a ball and a fluid. modeled as a 2-D slice (0. The spring pushes the ball downward when the ball is raised above its initial position. The ball is represented as a cavity region in the mesh. All rights reserved. and mesh deformation capabilities using ANSYS CFX.© 2009 ANSYS. The pressure variation causes the ball to oscillate along y-axis as a result of an imbalance in the spring forces. Inc. is shown below. which is located below the valve housing region. Check valves are commonly used to allow unidirectional flow of liquids and act as pressure-relieving devices. 326 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . The liquid medium for this tutorial comprises of a tank region filled with Methanol (CH4O) at 25 C and 1 atm. Release 12.

2) where velBallNew is further discretized as: velBallNew = dBallNew − dBallOld tStep (Eq. FFlow is the flow (viscous and drag) force acting on the ball. the deformation of ball itself is not modeled. and will be calculated using the forces that act on the ball. 22. Inc. this section outlines the basis of dynamics equation that describes the motion of the ball.4) The discrete form of the equation of motion for the ball is re-assembled. the time rate of change in the ball's linear momentum is proportional to the net force acting on the ball. Modeling the Ball Dynamics When defining your own simulations. In this tutorial.3) The new displacement of the ball also appears in the expression for spring force: FSpring = kSpring × dBallNew ⎛ ⎛ mBall × velBallOld mBall × dBallOld ⎞ ⎞ + ⎜ FFlow + ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ tStep tStep 2 ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛ mBall ⎞ ⎜ kSpring+ ⎟ tStep 2 ⎠ ⎝ (Eq.© 2009 ANSYS. Before setting up the simulation for this tutorial. 22. The left hand side of the equation is discretized to include an expression for the new displacement of the ball (relative to the spring's neutral position). In differential form. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the mesh motion is not known a priori. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. The time derivative of the ball velocity is discretized as: d dt ( velBall) = velBallNew − velBallOld tStep (Eq. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. 22. 327 . the equation to be solved for the motion of the ball is: mBall∗ d dt ( velBall) = FFlow − FSpring (Eq.pre ValveFSI_expressions. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.5) No further substitutions are required because all of these quantities are available through the CFX Expression Language as presented later in this tutorial. Inc. and FSpring is the spring force acting on the ball. 22. All rights reserved. In such cases. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 22.0 . velBall is the velocity of the ball in the y coordinate direction.ccl ValveFSI.out Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre Release 12.Modeling the Ball Dynamics This tutorial explores the fluid mesh deformation resulting due to the fluid-solid interaction between the ball and the surrounding fluid.1) where mBall is the mass of the ball (which is constant). determined by solving a solid dynamics equation that depends upon the forces acting on the ball. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • 2. the mesh motion may already be known. ValveFSI. CEL expressions are used to account for the motion of the ball. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. According to Newton's Second Law. it can be specified explicitly using the CEL. and the ball displacement is isolated as: dBallNew = (Eq.

If you want to set up the simulation manually. All rights reserved.0 .out mm a a This mesh was created using units of millimeters. Click Open.Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre For details. 334) Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Importing the Mesh 1. In CFX-Pre. Inc.pre. 328 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 333) Setting Solver Control (p. 328) Setting the Analysis Type (p. 334) Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. 3. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. Click Save. run ValveFSI. type ValveFSI. Importing the Required Expressions The expressions created in this step will determine the motion of the ball. 5. 2. 3). however. Select File > Save Case As.© 2009 ANSYS. Select General and click OK. Apply the following settings: Setting Files of type File name Options > Mesh Units Value PATRAN Neutral ValveFSI. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using the CFX-Solver Manager (p. Release 12. 4. For details. 328) Importing the Mesh (p. 2. 329) Creating the Domain (p. . These expressions are provided in a CCL file. 1) Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre This section describes the step-by-step definition of the flow physics in CFX-Pre as outlined below: • • • • • • • • • • • Defining a Simulation in CFX-Pre (p. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. Under File name. select File > New Case. 333) Setting Output Control (p. proceed to the following steps: 1. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. Set Mesh Units to mm when importing the mesh into CFX-Pre so that the mesh remains the intended size. By importing the expression. 330) Creating the Subdomain (p. 335).def) File (p. 3. Inc. the units are not stored with this type of mesh. you avoid the need to type each of the expressions by hand. 331) Setting Initial Values (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 328) Importing the Required Expressions (p. 330) Creating the Boundaries (p.

These are intermediate expressions used for the calculation of dBallNew. tStep 0 [s] Release 12. 3. You can review the imported expressions in the tree view. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Analysis Type > Option Value Transient Analysis Type > Time Duration > Total Time tTotal Analysis Type > Time Steps > Timesteps Analysis Type > Initial Time > Time 3. Ensure that Import Method is set to Append.0 .5e-3 [s] Definition Purpose These expressions define the values for duration and timesteps that were chosen to study the transient response of ball under the effect of spring forces and the forces due to fluid flow. Inc. dBallOld and velBallOld represent the required ‘old’ values. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Click Open. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Click OK.ccl This file contains following expressions that are used later in the tutorial: Expression Name tStep tTotal 5. Thus. Select File > Import > CCL. This file is located in the working directory. For details. 2. Click Analysis Type .© 2009 ANSYS. 2.0 [mm])^2 * 1e-4 [m] denBall * volBall force_y()@Ball areaAve(Mesh Velocity v)@Ball areaAve(Total Mesh Displacement Y)@Ball FFlow + mBall*velBallOld/tStep + mBall*dBallOld/tStep^2 kSpring+mBall/tStep^2 a These expressions use areaAve function calls that are evaluated using solution data from the end of the previous time step. These calls are not updated during the solution of the mesh displacement equations. This expression defines the ball motion required for the specification of mesh motion for the ball boundary. 4.0e-5 [s] 7. dBallNew dBallNumer/dBallDenom kSpring denBall volBall mBall FFlow velBallOld dBallOld a dBallNumer dBallDenom a 300 [N m^-1] 7800 [kg m^-3] pi * (2. see Modeling the Ball Dynamics.Setting the Analysis Type 1. Setting the Analysis Type 1. 329 . Select ValveFSI_expressions.

expand Constant Property Liquids in the tree. Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. 330 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A domain named Default Domain should appear under the Simulation branch. and makes mesh motion settings available. then select Methanol CH4O and click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. select Methanol CH4O in the Material dialog box and click OK. Create a new subdomain named Tank. Creating the Domain 1. Inc. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on. 2.Creating the Domain Note You may ignore the physics validation message regarding the lack of transient results files. b The Regions of Motion Specified option permits wall boundaries and subdomains to move. Inc. You will set up transient results files later. Double-click Default Domain and apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Location and Type > Domain Type Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Domain Models > Mesh Deformation > Option Value CV3D REGION.0 . All rights reserved. Click OK. then click Import Library Data to open the Select Library Data to Import dialog box. CV3D SUB Fluid Domain Fluid 1 Methanol CH4O a 1 [atm] Regions of Motion Specified b Domain Models > Mesh Deformation > Mesh (Expand) Motion Model Domain Models > Mesh Deformation > Mesh Increase Near Small Volumes Motion Model > Mesh Stiffness > Option Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Fluid Temperature Isothermal 25 [C] a Click the Ellipsis icon to open the Material dialog box. . 3. 2. Creating the Subdomain 1. In that dialog box. Next. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Mesh Motion Setting Location Option Value CV3D SUB Stationary a a The stationary option for the tank volume (subdomain) ensures that the mesh does not fold at the sharp corner that exists where the valve joins the tank.

Symmetry Boundary Since a 2D representation of the flow field is being modeled (using a 3D mesh with one element thickness in the Z direction) symmetry boundaries will be created on the low and high Z 2D regions of the mesh. respectively). which is given by the expression dBallNew.© 2009 ANSYS. The regions for these boundary conditions were imported with the mesh file. However. as set for the Tank subdomain. 332) Tank Opening Boundary (p. and the TankOpen boundary (see below). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 332) Valve Opening Boundary (p. • • • • • Ball Boundary (p. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Value Wall BALL Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity Relative (Selected) To Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity Relative Mesh Motion To > Wall Vel. Inc. Click OK. Create a new boundary named Ball. Click OK. For example. earlier in the tutorial. Creating the Boundaries This section outlines the steps for creating the following boundary conditions and applying the mesh deformation specifications. Rel. Create a new boundary named Sym. All rights reserved.e. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. To Mesh Motion > Option Mesh Motion > X Component Mesh Motion > Y Component Mesh Motion > Z Component Specified Displacement 0 [m] dBallNew 0 [m] 3. 1. 332) Mesh deformation specifications are applied to two and three dimensional regions of the domain (i.0 . mesh deformation specifications are also used in this tutorial to help ensure that the mesh does not fold.Creating the Boundaries 3. 331) Vertical-Valve Wall Boundary (p. Inc. 2. 331 Value Symmetry SYMP1. 331) Symmetry Boundary (p. the Ball boundary uses mesh motion specification in the form of ball displacement. Ball Boundary To move the ball. 1. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Release 12. SYMP2 . create a wall boundary with a displacement in the Y direction given by the expression dBallNew. boundaries and subdomains.

Inc. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Value Wall VPIPE HIGHX. Tank Opening Boundary 1. Click OK. 2. To Mesh Motion > Option Unspecified a The Unspecified setting allows the mesh nodes to move freely. a 3. Click OK. 332 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. the mesh nodes on this boundary would move vertically and separate from the non-vertical parts of the boundary.© 2009 ANSYS. The stationary option for the tank opening prevents the mesh nodes from moving (If the tank opening had unspecified mesh motion.0 .). Remember to use the [atm] units for this setting. . VPIPE LOWX Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity Relative (Selected) To Mass And Momentum > Wall Velocity Relative Boundary Frame To > Wall Vel. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The motion of the mesh points on this boundary will be strongly influenced by the motion of the ball. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Mass And Momentum > Relative Pressure Turbulence > Option Mesh Motion > Option a Value Opening BOTTOM Entrainment 6 [atm] a Zero Gradient Stationary b This value is based on the problem statement. Valve Opening Boundary 1. Since the ball moves vertically. Rel. the surrounding mesh nodes will also move vertically and will therefore remain on the valve housing. 2. 2. Create a new boundary named TankOpen. All rights reserved. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Value Opening TOP Release 12.Creating the Boundaries 3. b 3. Click OK. Create a new boundary named ValveVertWalls. Create a new boundary named ValveOpen. This mesh motion specification helps to preserve the quality of the mesh on the upper surface of the ball. Vertical-Valve Wall Boundary 1.

The Global Initialization form will appear with the Option for each variable set to Automatic with Value. Setting Solver Control 1. Note Opening boundary types are used to allow the flow to leave and re-enter the domain across the inflow and outflow boundaries. This behavior is expected due to the oscillatory motion of the ball and due to the potentially large region of flow re-circulation that will occur on the downstream side of the ball. Release 12. initial values are required for all variables. Loops 5 3. Click Solver Control . Apply the following settings Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Relative Pressure a Value 0 [m s^-1] a 0. 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. This is an initial velocity to maintain unidirectional fluid flow in the positive y-direction and to prevent initial backflow in the check-valve. 333 . Click OK. 2. The stationary option for the valve opening prevents the mesh nodes from moving. 3. Inc.0 .Setting Initial Values Tab Boundary Details Setting Mass And Momentum > Option Mass And Momentum > Relative Pressure Turbulence > Option Mesh Motion > Option a b Value Entrainment 0 [atm] a Zero Gradient Stationary b This pressure value is relative to the fluid domain's reference pressure of 1 [atm]. Click OK. The actual values could be derived from the steady state analysis (not considered for this tutorial). 3. Coeff. 2. Click Global Initialization .1 [m s^-1] b 0 [m s^-1] a 0 [Pa] b This setting implies that the fluid flow is initially in the y direction only. All rights reserved. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Transient Scheme > Option Value Second Order Backward Euler Convergence Control > Max. Setting Initial Values Since a transient simulation is being modeled.

4. Velocity (Selected) Allb Time Interval tStep b Use the Ctrl key to select more than one variable. and Apply the following settings to Transient Results 1: Setting Option Output Variables Lista Output Variable Operators Output Variable Operators > Output Var. 7. 334 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1.Setting Output Control Setting Output Control This step sets up transient results files to be written at set intervals. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Under Monitor Points and Expressions: 1. the Solver Input File is set. Set Expression Value to dBallOld. Click OK. click Overwrite. along with other information. click Add new item click OK. Click Add new item . Set Option to Expression. on the Define Run dialog box. Click Save. Select Monitor Options. set Name to Transient Results 1.def) File 1. If you are notified the file already exists. Click the Trn Results tab. 5. Click Define Run .0 . All rights reserved. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. Release 12. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. 4. Operators Output Frequency > Option Output Frequency > Time Interval a Value Selected Variables Pressure. Value ValveFSI. 2. Inc. Click Output Control . This causes the gradients of the selected variables to be written to the transient results files. 2. This file is provided in the tutorial directory and may exist in your working directory if you have copied it there. 3. Set Name to Ball Displacement.def . Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Inc. . In the Transient Results tree view. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. 4. 6. Click the Monitor tab. 8. 3.

6. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the information required to perform a solver run is entered automatically in the Define Run dialog box.0 . 336) Creating a Slice Plane 1. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards -Z. This is a reference point for the low Y point of the ball at timestep 0. and animation in CFD-Post. Creating a Point 1. 0. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post This section outlines the following steps for creating the user locations. All rights reserved. 4.cfx) file at your discretion.0001) using the XYZ method. The largest value of ball displacement occurs at around 20th timestep and the oscillations begin to settle down after around 100 timesteps. 335 . 5. 3.Obtaining a Solution using the CFX-Solver Manager 5. saving the simulation (. Obtaining a Solution using the CFX-Solver Manager The steps to begin the solver run are outlined below: 1.© 2009 ANSYS. plots. The plane will be used to show mesh movement.0003. select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. 4. 3. Click Ok. Click the User Points tab and monitor the value of Ball Displacement as the solution proceeds. If using Standalone Mode. 2. 335) Creating an Animation with Velocity Vectors (p. Create a point at (0. Click Apply. 0. The solver run begins and the progress is displayed in a split screen. Apply the following settings Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Method Definition > Z Render Show Faces Show Mesh Lines a Value XY Plane 5e-05 [m] a (Cleared) (Selected) This setting creates an XY plane that lies midway between the two symmetry planes. • • • Creating a Slice Plane (p. ensure that Define Run dialog box is displayed. 2. Create a new plane and accept the default name. 335) Creating a Point (p. You will create an XY plane that lies midway between the two symmetry planes. Click Apply to create the plane. Inc. If CFX-Solver Manager is launched from CFX-Pre. Click Start Run. it will also serve as a locator for a vector plot that will be used in an animation. quit CFX-Pre. Inc. Release 12. In CFX-Solver Manager. If using Standalone Mode. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Select Keyframe Animation. apply the following settings: 1. click To Beginning to load it. 20. 336 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. then change # of Frames to 148. apply the following settings: 1. Click Open. Clear Variable Bit Rate and set Bit Rate to 3000000. 3. and 90 to see the ball in different positions. change Image Size to 720 X 480 (NTSC). so leave it at the default value. set Locations to Plane 1 and leave Variable set to Velocity. In the Animation dialog box. Wait for CFD-Post to finish loading the objects for this frame before proceeding. next to Save Movie and set a file name for the movie file. then set Quality to Custom. Inc. the file will be saved in the working directory.© 2009 ANSYS. Creating an Animation with Velocity Vectors You will create a vector plot and create an animation showing the velocity in the domain as the ball is displaced. double-click rows with the step values of 0. This will produce an animation keyframe at each time step. For example. load time value 0. 2.0 . 5. Click New to create KeyframeNo2. All rights reserved. Click the Advanced tab. Click Animation found in the toolbar. 5. Inc. 6. . Select Save Movie. Set Format to MPEG1. Click Timestep Selector and load the results for a few different timesteps. 2. The # of Frames parameter has no effect for the last keyframe. Release 12. 9. Click the Options button to open the Animation Options dialog box. selecting one entry at a time. Click New to create KeyframeNo1. 13. Click Browse If the file path is not given. 3. 50. You can lower this value if your player cannot handle this bit rate. Create a vector plot. Click More Animation Options to expand the Animation dialog box. If frame 1 is not loaded (shown in the F: text box at the bottom of the Animation dialog box). Load the last timestep (150) using the timestep selector. occurs at around 20 timesteps before the ball reaches equilibrium. 1. Turn off the visibility of Plane 1. 4. 7. 12. Highlight KeyframeNo1. The Animation dialog box appears. 6. which was also monitored earlier in the CFX-Solver. 4. 3. This limits the bit rate so that the movie will play in most players. The maximum displacement. Using the timestep selector. 8. 11. 7. but does not create the movie. The mesh deformation will also be visible. On the Options tab. 10. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 10. 2. Click OK. This sets the movie file name and path. Click Apply. In the Animation dialog box.Creating an Animation with Velocity Vectors 2. resulting in a movie that plays for just over six seconds. Click Play the animation .

0 . 337 . since a timestep must be loaded and objects must be created for each frame. you need to use a viewer that supports the MPEG format. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. This will be slow. Release 12. 8. exit from CFD-Post. When you have finished.© 2009 ANSYS. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.Creating an Animation with Velocity Vectors The movie is created as the animation proceeds. To view the movie file. Inc.

Release 12. Inc.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Oscillating Plate with Two-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 341) Adding a New Material for the Project (p. 340) Before You Begin (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 342) Adding Geometry to the Project (p. All rights reserved. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Details General Mode Transient ANSYS Multi-field Fluid Type Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Output Control General Fluid Single Domain Laminar None Monitor Points Transient Results File Boundary Details Wall: Mesh Motion = ANSYS MultiField Wall: No Slip Wall: Adiabatic Release 12. 347) Creating Named Selections for the Project (p. 347) Generating the Mesh for the Fluid System (p. 341) Adding Analyses Systems to the Project (p.Chapter 23. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Inc. 339) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 339 Component CFX-Pre .0 . 355) Viewing Results in ANSYS CFD-Post (p. 350) Obtaining a Solution using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager (p. 340) Creating the Project (p. 349) Defining the Physics and ANSYS Multi-field Settings in ANSYS CFX-Pre (p. 356) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • Moving mesh Fluid-structure interaction (including modeling structural deformation using ANSYS) Running an ANSYS Multi-field (MFX) simulation Post-processing two results files simultaneously. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 344) Completing the Setup for the Structural System (p. 343) Defining the Physics in the Mechanical Application (p.

Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Timestep CFD-Post Plots Details Transient Animation Contour Vector Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial uses an example of an oscillating plate to demonstrate how to set up and run a simulation involving two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) in ANSYS Workbench. The framework for the coupling is provided by the ANSYS Multi-field solver using the MFX setup. Coupling between two analyses systems is required throughout the solution to model the interaction between structural and fluid systems as time progresses. Copy the supplied geometry file.agdb. This directory will be referred to as the working directory in this tutorial. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Once this pressure is released. you prevent accidental changes to the file that came with your installation.0 . The surrounding fluid damps the plate oscillations. • Changing the Appearance of ANSYS CFX Applications If this is the first tutorial you are working with.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. thereby decreasing the amplitude of oscillations with time. 340 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The CFX solver calculates how the fluid responds to the motion of the plate. By working with copy of the geometry file in a new directory. Coupling between the two solvers is required since the structural deformation affects the fluid solution. This file is located in <CFXROOT>/examples.agdb. 4) for information on how to change the appearance of ANSYS CFX applications. see Changing the Display Colors (p. but both structural and fluid physics are solved together under the Solution cell of the Fluid system. 1 m high. Release 12. In this tutorial. for setting up the project. the plate oscillates backwards and forwards as it attempts to regain its equilibrium (vertical) position. and the ANSYS solver calculates how the plate deforms as a result of both the initial applied pressure and the pressure resulting from the presence of the fluid. OscillatingPlate. The geometry consists of a 2D closed cavity and a thin plate. the structural physics is set up in the Transient Structural (ANSYS) analysis system and the fluid physics is set up in Fluid Flow (CFX) analysis system. and the fluid solution affects the structural deformation. Before You Begin • Preparing a Working Directory This tutorial uses the geometry file. where <CFXROOT> is the installation directory for ANSYS CFX. that is anchored to the bottom of the cavity as shown below: An initial pressure of 100 Pa is applied to one side of the thin plate for 0. . OscillatingPlate. to a directory of your choice. Inc.5 seconds in order to distort it.

For details. this name will be used while referring to the Transient Structural (ANSYS) system in this tutorial. 341 . 4. Adding Analyses Systems to the Project In ANSYS Workbench. Inc. or drag it onto the Project Schematic to create a standalone system. located on the left side of the ANSYS Workbench window. 1. On a Windows platform: Use the Windows Start menu and select ANSYS 12. comprising of a Transient Structural (ANSYS) system and a Fluid Flow (CFX) system as outlined in this section. 3. with its name highlighted. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. is added to the Project Schematic. A Save As dialog box appears.0 . A Transient Structural (ANSYS) system is added to the Project Schematic. A Fluid Flow system. coupled to the ANSYS system. see Preparing a Working Directory. Release 12. To turn on or off this dialog box. right-click on the first cell in the system and select Rename as shown in the following figure. Select File > Save or click Save . Open ANSYS Workbench. Under File name. Double-click the template.© 2009 ANSYS. select View > Files from the main menu of ANSYS Workbench. By default. now you can change the highlighted text by typing in the new name. select Tools > Options from the main menu and set Project Management > Startup > Show Getting Started Dialog as desired. All rights reserved. Expand the Analysis Systems option in the toolbox. Inc. To make the Files View visible. 3. Click the [X] icon to close this dialog box.Creating the Project Creating the Project 1. If you missed to see the highlighted text. Now right-click the Setup cell in the Structural system and select Transfer Data to New > Fluid Flow (CFX). and select the Transient Structural (ANSYS) template. ANSYS Workbench is configured to show the Getting Started dialog box that describes basic operations in ANSYS Workbench. the two-way FSI analysis can be performed by setting up coupled analyses systems. type OscillatingPlate and click Save. Type in the new name Structural to replace the highlighted text.0 > ANSYS Workbench from the list of installed programs. The Project Schematic appears with an Unsaved Project. The name will be highlighted. this name will be used while referring to the Fluid Flow (CFX) system in this tutorial. Select the path to your working directory to store files created during this tutorial. 2. The project files and their associated folder locations appear under the Files View. Change the name of this system to Fluid. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

define its properties suitable for oscillation. “Project setup for two-way FSI analysis” (p. The new material can be created using the Engineering Data application in ANSYS Workbench. See Understanding States in ANSYS Workbench help for a description of various cell states. Adding a New Material for the Project This section describes how to create a new material named Plate. because a default material definition is already available for the project. In the Outline of Schematic A2: Engineering Data window. Now the project is ready for further processing. select File > Save to save the project setup. the Solution and Results cells of the Structural system will be removed because they are not used for two-way FSI analysis. .1. as outlined in Overview of the Problem to Solve (p.1. most cells appear with a blue question mark (?). the analysis will be performed in the Fluid system for solving and viewing results. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Project setup for two-way FSI analysis 3. In the Structural system. 342). 342). Plate is created and appears with a blue question mark (?). In Figure 23. Now from the main menu. and setting up the physics in the Fluid system. indicating that cells need to be set up before continuing the analysis. “Project setup for two-way FSI analysis” (p. 2.1. The updated project is shown in Figure 23. and set it as the default material for the analysis. click the empty row at the bottom of the table to add a new material for the project. which you have already connected to the Structural system. the next step in the analysis is to add a new material with properties desired for exhibiting an oscillation under the influence of external pressure. Later. This tutorial relies on the solution and result generated in the Fluid system. In the Outline Filter window. The Solution and Results cells disappear from the Structural system. The Structural and Fluid systems contain various cells and ANSYS Workbench provides visual indications of a cell's state at any given time via icons on the right side of each cell. right-click the Solution cell and select Delete. Inc. Release 12. setting up the physics in the Structural system. sharing the geometry. The Outline and Properties windows appear below the Project Schematic. A project with inter-connected systems enables you to perform the analysis by adding a new material. 2.Adding a New Material for the Project For this tutorial. indicating that plate properties need to be defined. as described in the next section. “Project setup for two-way FSI analysis” (p.1. 342 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The following steps outline the removal of these cells from the Structural system: 1. Figure 23. 1. However. double-click the Engineering Data cell in the Structural system. the default material is not used in this tutorial. the Engineering Data cell appears in an up-to-date state. Click OK on the pop-up message box to confirm the deletion of the cell with the solution data from the Structural system. As these cells are set up. On the Project Schematic. Inc. Type in the name Plate. 342).0 . Thus.© 2009 ANSYS. 340). In Figure 23. All rights reserved. ensure that Engineering Data is selected. 3. the data transfer occurs from top to bottom.

5. Isotropic Elasticity is added as the plate property in the Properties of Outline Row 4: Plate window. as shown in the following figure. Inc. 2. Now from the main menu. expand Isotropic Elasticity by clicking on the plus sign. Inc. In the Outline of Schematic A2: Engineering Data window. Now set Young's Modulus to 2. All rights reserved.0 . expand the Physical Properties toolbox. right-click Plate to open the shortcut menu. Now from the ANSYS Workbench toolbar. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. from the Linear Elastic toolbox. In the shortcut menu.35.5e06 [Pa] and Poisson's Ratio to 0. drag Isotropic Elasticity onto Plate in the Outline of Schematic A2: Engineering Data window. under Material. In the Properties of Outline Row 4: Plate window. Now from toolboxes located on the left side of the ANSYS Workbench window. In the Properties of Outline Row 4: Plate window. Similarly. 6. 3. The next step is to set Plate as the default material for the analysis as outlined below: 1. select Default Solid Material For Model. set Density to 2550 [kg m^-3]. Adding Geometry to the Project This section describes how to add geometry by importing an existing DesignModeler file and unsuppress geometry parts in order to make them available for subsequent cells in the Structural and Fluid systems. Select Density and drag it onto the cell containing Plate in the Outline of Schematic A2: Engineering Data window. click Return to Project to close the Engineering Data workspace and return to the Project Schematic. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 7. Density is added as the plate property in the Properties of Outline Row 4: Plate window.© 2009 ANSYS. Now the desired plate data is created and will be available to remaining cells in the Structural system.Adding Geometry to the Project 4. select File > Save to save material settings to the project. 343 . The Outline and Properties windows disappear. Release 12.

2 Bodies. select OscillatingPlate. Inc. Click Zoom to Fit to view the entire model in the Graphics window. Now the updated geometry is available for both the Structural and Fluid systems.© 2009 ANSYS. right-click the Fluid and select Unsuppress Body. under the branch named 2 Parts. The geometry is included in the project and Geometry cells appear in an up-to-date state in both the Structural and Fluid systems. 345) Inserting Loads (p. On Project Schematic.agdb from your working directory. In the Open dialog box. Save these changes by selecting File > Save Project from the main menu. 2. right-click the Geometry cell in the Structural system and select Import Geometry > Browse. Defining the Physics in the Mechanical Application This section describes the step-by-step definition of the structural physics in the following sections: • • • • Generating the Mesh for the Structural System (p. Fluid body and Solid body.0 . 2 Bodies. In the Tree Outline. In the Structural system. 2. as shown in the following figure. This finishes the geometry setup for the project.Defining the Physics in the Mechanical Application 1. implying that the body is not visible. In the Tree Outline. All rights reserved. shown with an x mark. 1. Inc. Later in the tutorial. The status of the Fluid body changes to a green check mark. 345) Basic Analysis Settings (p. . see Preparing a Working Directory. all bodies will be unsuppressed in DesignModeler so that all geometry data is transferred to the subsequent cells in the Structural and Fluid systems. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The Fluid body appears in a suppressed state. respectively. before generating an appropriate structural or fluid mesh. 344 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. When a body is suppressed in DesignModeler. In DesignModeler. the Tree Outline contains two bodies. Note The Geometry cell in the Fluid system cannot be edited because it is being shared with the Geometry cell in the Structural system. 345) Assigning the Material to Geometry (p. both the Fluid and Solid bodies should be visible in the Graphics window. select the branch named 2 Parts. and select File > Close DesignModeler to return to the Project Schematic. the Solid and Fluid body will be selectively suppressed in the Structural and Fluid systems. For this tutorial. its model data is not exported to subsequent cells in the analysis systems. 345) Release 12. For details. double-click the Geometry cell to edit the geometry using DesignModeler.

As a result. appear in the tree view. 1. the time duration is chosen to allow the plate to oscillate just a few times. For the given material properties of the plate. to view the entire model in For the Structural system. The Mechanical application appears. In the Details view. Inc. 4. Solid and Fluid. 345 . with a timestep of 0. In the Details view. the default of an unconstrained condition will be applied on these surfaces. Otherwise. specify the following settings under Step Controls: Note Do not type in units while entering data for the time settings. click on the material name and use the arrow that appears next to the material name to make appropriate changes. Click Zoom to Fit the Graphics window. 2. Inserting Loads The loads applied for the finite element analysis are equivalent to the boundary conditions in fluid analysis. you will set a fixed support. 1. this is a reasonable approximation of the frictionless support that would otherwise be applied. ensure Material > Assignment is set to Plate. In the Mechanical application. In this section. Click Zoom to Fit model suitable for viewing in the Graphics window. The hex mesh is generated. expand Project > Model > Geometry in the tree view. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The Fluid body becomes suppressed and its status changes to an x mark. 2. and a pressure load. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. For this particular application.Generating the Mesh for the Structural System Generating the Mesh for the Structural System This section describes how to generate mesh for the Structural system. In the tree view. Right-click the Fluid geometry and select Suppress Body from the shortcut menu. • • • Set Auto Time Stepping to Off Set Time Step to 0. Two geometries. to re-size the Assigning the Material to Geometry 1. On the Project Schematic.1 s and a time duration of 5 s. On the surfaces of the plate that lie coincident with the symmetry planes. the Fluid body will be suppressed before the mesh generation operation. All rights reserved. mesh needs to generated from the Solid body. 3. no loads are set. expand Project > Model > Geometry in the tree view and select Solid. In the Mechanical application. The details of Solid appear in the Details view below the Outline tree view. right-click Mesh and select Generate Mesh from the shortcut menu. Time Step and Step End Time. In the Mechanical application.0 . Release 12. expand Project > Model > Transient in the tree view and select Analysis Settings. double-click the Model cell in the Structural system. As such. 2.1 Set Step End Time to 5.© 2009 ANSYS. a fluid-solid interface. The details of Analysis Settings appear in the Details view below the Outline tree view. Basic Analysis Settings This section outlines the steps to set up an ANSYS Multi-field run using the transient mechanical analysis. and the timestep is chosen to resolve those oscillations to a reasonable degree.

Note that this load (fluid-solid interface) is automatically given an interface number of 1. If the Apply button is not visible. This can be done by typing the new time and pressure data into the empty row at the bottom of the table. Release 12.0 . respectively. click on the text next to the Geometry setting to make the Apply button re-appear. set a pressure of 100 in the table row corresponding to a time of 0. Fluid-Solid Interface The fluid-solid interface defines the interface between the fluid in the Fluid system and the solid in the Structural system. high-y and high-x faces) by holding down Ctrl to select multiple faces. select Fixed Support in the tree view and. 5. 1.© 2009 ANSYS. select Tabular data. Inc. 346). 1. in the Details view. .5. and rows will be automatically re-ordered based on the time value. It is defined using a step function. select Magnitude. The units for time and pressure in this table are the global units of [s] and [Pa]. Under Tabular Data at the bottom right of the Mechanical application window. In the Mechanical application. Inc. The text next to the Geometry setting changes to 1 Face.Inserting Loads Fixed Support The fixed support is required to hold the bottom of the thin plate in place. 1. expand Project > Model and right-click Transient in the tree view and select Insert > Pressure from the shortcut menu.499. Pressure Load The pressure load provides the initial additional pressure of 100 [Pa] for the first 0. Note Do not type in units while entering the tabular data. select the three faces of the geometry that form the interface between the structural model and the fluid model (low-x. and using the arrow that appears. In the Details view. then That face should be highlighted to indicate the selection. button so that the bottom (low-y) face of the solid is visible. 4. You now need to add two new rows to the table. expand Project > Model and right-click Transient in the tree view and select Insert > Fluid Solid Interface from the shortcut menu. 2. Rotate the geometry using the Rotate select Face and click the low-y face. In the Details view. In the Mechanical application. 2. 3. 3. This interface is defined on regions in the structural model.5 seconds of the simulation. Select the low-x face for Geometry and click Apply. expand Project > Model and right-click Transient in the tree view and select Insert > Fixed Support from the shortcut menu. 2. In the Mechanical application. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 346 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. and a pressure of 0 for a time value of 0. Using the same face-selection procedure described earlier in Fixed Support (p. Enter a pressure of 100 for a time value of 0. Data is exchanged across this interface during the execution of the simulation. click Apply to set the fixed support.

Also. 2. CFX-Mesh Method. This section describes how to update the Setup cell in the Structural system. the Setup cell in the Structural system appears in an update-required state. All rights reserved. In the Meshing application. As the Geometry cell is already up to date for both the Solid and Fluid systems. Inc. Now all cells in the Structural system should appear in an up-to-date state. The settings for structural physics are now complete. 349).© 2009 ANSYS. Before generating mesh for the Fluid system. 1. Ensure that the Meshing application is open. geometry faces will be grouped by creating Named Selections in the Meshing application as discussed in the next section. Project appears as the top-level item in the tree view. then a default mesh method. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Completing the Setup for the Structural System This gives a step function for pressure that can be seen in the chart to the left of the table. then close it and return to the Meshing application by selecting File > Close CFX-Mesh from the CFX-Mesh's main menu. is added to the model in the Meshing application. However. 1. and select File > Close Mechanical to close the Mechanical applicationand return to the Project Schematic. the next section begins with the setup of Mesh cell. Completing the Setup for the Structural System On the Project Schematic. Creating Named Selections for the Project This section describes how to group geometry faces using Named Selections in the Meshing application. 347 . the instructions to do this will be revisited later in Generating the Mesh for the Fluid System (p. the grouped geometry faces are retained in the mesh and are accessible from within ANSYS CFX in the form of Regions. 2. Now from the main menu. then upon editing the Mesh cell for the first time. the Meshing application and CFX-Mesh can be identified from their tree views. the Meshing application will load initially and will be replaced by CFX-Mesh automatically. if you are editing the Mesh cell in a subsequent attempt. Release 12. For this tutorial.0 . then only the Meshing application opens. Outline versus Tree View. In the next section. right-click the Setup cell and select Update from the shortcut menu. If CFX-Mesh opens initially. In the Structural system. the Fluid system will be set up. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. On the Project Schematic. Inc. right-click the Mesh cell in the Fluid system and select Edit to open the model in the Meshing application. as shown in the following figure. Note If you have configured the Meshing application to use CFX-Mesh as the default mesh method. select File > Save to save the project. If you find that CFX-Mesh is open. when a mesh is generated from the model containing Named Selections. The status of the Setup cell changes to up-to-date. This completes the setup for the Structural system. whereas Model is the top-level item in the tree view of CFX-Mesh. notice differences in names of the tree view windows. Later. it is required that you remove any existing mesh methods from the model. Save these settings by selecting File > Save Project from the main menu. Typically.

0 . right-click the Fluid body and select Create Selection Group from the shortcut menu. Right-click the Solid body and select Suppress Body from the shortcut menu. Notice Scope > Geometry is set to 1 Body. In the Details view. rotate the geometry using the Rotate is visible. . Expand the Named Selections branch and select Sym1. appear under the Geometry tree object. Two items. Release 12. In the Meshing application. In the tree view. 6. 7. by selecting the high-z face of the Fluid body. The procedure to create the Named Selections is outlined below: 1. then select Face and click the high-z face. The Solid body becomes suppressed and its status changes to an x mark. 8. Inc.Creating Named Selections for the Project Now create a Named Selection. In the Selection Name dialog box. Notice Scope > Geometry is set to 1 Body. In the tree view. 2. Inc. expand Project > Model > Geometry in the tree view. create another Named Selection. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. as outlined below. Sym2 is added to the Named Selection branch in the tree view. type in Sym2 for the name of the selection group. In the graphics window. Fluid body and Solid body. The Geometry setting changes to 1 Face. Sym2 by selecting the low-z face of the Fluid body. click 1 Body to make the Apply button appear. In the Details view. 5. button so that the high-z face of the geometry That face should be highlighted to indicate the selection. All rights reserved. In the Selection Name dialog box. Sym1. The details of Sym2 appear in the Details view below the tree view. 348 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click Apply to set the selected face. The details of Sym1 appear in the Details view below the tree view. A Named Selections branch is added to the tree view. type in Sym1 for the name of the selection group. Similarly. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The Selection Name dialog box appears. 4. as outlined below: 1. 2. 3. The Selection Name dialog box appears. Select Sym2 in the tree view. right-click the Fluid body and select Create Selection Group from the shortcut menu.

• Right-click the Mesh cell and select Update from the shortcut menu. In the Details view. This finishes the creation of Named Selections on the Fluid body. The mesh is generated. click 1 Body to make the Apply button appear.© 2009 ANSYS. Method is added to Mesh branch in the tree view. 5. On the Project Schematic. expand Project > Model > Geometry in the tree view.0 . In the Details view. This finishes the mesh generation for the Fluid system. 8. rotate the geometry using the Rotate is visible. From the main menu. In the details view. Click anywhere on the geometry in the viewer to select the Fluid body. In the tree view. Now in the tree view. Set Free Face Mesh Type to All Tri. button so that the low-z face of the geometry That face should be highlighted to indicate the selection. appear under Geometry. Ensure Mesh is selected in the tree view. 7. Otherwise. 2. select File > Save Project to save these changes to the project. Typically. This controls the grid resolution of the mesh. and select File > Close Meshing to return to the Project Schematic. right-click such objects and select Delete from the shortcut menu. Notice Scope > Geometry is now set to 1 Body. 5. mesh needs to generated from the Fluid body. the Mesh cell in the Fluid system appears in an update-required state.Generating the Mesh for the Fluid System 4. 6. All rights reserved. Updating of the Meshing cell is required as opening ANSYS CFX-Pre. right-click CFX-Mesh Method and select Delete to remove it from the Mesh branch. 10. 6. In the details view. with an out-of-date Meshing cell can potentially corrupt the project. right-click Mesh and select Generate Mesh from the shortcut menu. Generating the Mesh for the Fluid System 1. In the graphics window. The Geometry setting changes to 1 Face. Release 12. Inc. For the Fluid system. set Sizing > Relevance Center to Medium. 3. In the Details view. click on the Apply button next to the Geometry setting. The details of Mesh appear in the Details view below the Outline tree view. if you have configured the Meshing application to use CFX-Mesh for meshing. right-click Mesh and select Insert > Method from the shortcut menu. Click Apply to set the selected face. expand Project > Model > Mesh and ensure that the Mesh branch does not contain any other objects. 349 . In the details view. then select Face and click the low-z face. Inc. Set Definition > Method to Sweep. the tutorial continues to set up mesh settings and generate mesh for the Fluid system in the next section. Set Sweep Num Divs = 1. Do not close the Meshing application yet. In the Meshing application. from the Setup cell. set the following mesh settings in the following order: 1. 4. Two geometries. The mesh for the Solid body has already been generated earlier in this tutorial. Now in the tree view. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Solid and Fluid. 9. In such a case. 2. Apply and Cancel buttons appear next to the Geometry Setting. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3. thus the Solid body will be suppressed. then CFX-Mesh Method is added as a default mesh method under the Mesh branch.

3. CFX automatically picks up these settings and it is not possible to set the timestep and time duration independently. the Analysis Type tab is used to enable both an ANSYS Multi-field run and to specify time-related settings for the coupled solver run.© 2009 ANSYS.1 [s] Transient Coupling Time Duration a Coupling Timesteps a Coupling Initial Time a Analysis Type > Time Steps > Option Analysis Type > Initial Time > Option a Once the timesteps and time duration are specified for the ANSYS Multi-field run (coupling run). On the Project Schematic. 353) Setting Solver Control (p. In ANSYS CFX-Pre. Inc. in order to determine fluid-solid interfaces created in the Mechanical application. 1. Hence the only option available for Time Duration is Coupling Time Duration. and similarly for the related settings Time Step and Initial Time. 350) Creating the Fluid (p. 353) Setting Output Control (p. 2. ANSYS CFX-Pre reads the ANSYS input file. 352) Setting Initial Values (p. In ANSYS CFX-Pre. 351) Creating the Boundaries (p. All rights reserved. which is automatically passed by ANSYS Workbench. double-click the Setup cell in the Fluid system to launch the ANSYS CFX-Pre application. click Analysis Type Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting External Solver Coupling > Option Coupling Time Control > Coupling Time Duration > Option Value ANSYS MultiField Total Time . 354) Setting the Analysis Type A transient ANSYS Multi-field run executes as a series of timesteps. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Coupling Time Control > Coupling Time Duration > Total 5 [s] Time Coupling Time Control > Coupling Time Steps > Option Timesteps Coupling Time Control > Coupling Time Steps > Timesteps Analysis Type > Option Analysis Type > Time Duration > Option 0. 4. Click OK.Defining the Physics and ANSYS Multi-field Settings in ANSYS CFX-Pre Defining the Physics and ANSYS Multi-field Settings in ANSYS CFX-Pre This section describes the step-by-step definition of the flow physics and ANSYS Multi-field settings in the following sections: • • • • • • • Setting the Analysis Type (p. Inc. 351) Creating the Domain (p. 350 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .0 . Release 12.

mesh motion must be activated in CFX. b 3. Click Material and set the name of the material to Fluid.0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The fluid properties are chosen to ensure that the plate generates a reasonable amplitude of vibration that doesn't decay too fast under the influence of fluid. 2. A domain named Default Domain should now appear under the Simulation branch.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. 1. Click OK. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Option Thermodynamic State Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic State Material Properties Equation of State > Molar Mass Equation of State > Density Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity Transport Properties > Dynamic Viscosity > Dynamic Viscosity a Value Pure Substance (Selected) Liquid 1 [kg kmol^-1] a 1 [kg m^-3] b (Selected) 0. 1. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. Inc.Creating the Fluid Creating the Fluid A custom fluid is created with user-specified properties. 351 . Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on. Release 12. Creating the Domain In order to allow ANSYS Solver to communicate mesh displacements to CFX-Solver. 3. 2.2 [Pa s] b The molar mass is not used for this tutorial setup and has been set only for the completeness of the fluid property. Double-click Default Domain and apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Domain Models > Mesh Deformation > Option Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Turbulence > Option a Value Fluid 1 Fluid 1 [atm] a Regions of Motion Specified None None (Laminar) The reference pressure has no effect on this simulation so leave it as the default.

then the name would have been FSIN_2. F35. This specification sets up CFX-Solver to pass forces to ANSYS solver on this boundary. This section outlines the steps to create a Boundary Type for CFX and specify a matching ANSYS interface. (If the interface number had been 2. and to receive the mesh displacement calculations from the ANSYS solver under the effect of forces from CFX or other defined loads. Create a new boundary named Sym2.Creating the Boundaries Creating the Boundaries In addition to the symmetry conditions.30a ANSYS MultiField Total Mesh Displacement FSIN_1 Total Force Alternatively. Click OK. When an ANSYS Multi-field specification is being made in CFX-Pre.© 2009 ANSYS. 1. in the form of FSIN_#. this tutorial requires boundary conditions for an external boundary resulting from the fluid-solid interface as outlined below: • • Fluid Solid External Boundary (p. Click OK. CFX will send ANSYS the forces on the interface. Symmetry Boundaries Since a 2D representation of the flow field is being modeled (using a 3D mesh with one element thickness in the Z direction) symmetry boundaries will be created on the low and high Z 2D regions of the mesh. Create a new boundary named Interface. 2. 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Release 12. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 3. the geometry faces could be grouped together and named using Named Selections in the Meshing application.0 . 3.30. Inc. 352) Fluid Solid External Boundary The interface between ANSYS and CFX is considered as an external boundary in CFX-Solver with its mesh displacement being defined by the ANSYS Multi-field coupling process. 4. 352) Symmetry Boundaries (p. the name in question is FSIN_1. 352 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Since the interface number in the Mechanical application was 1.) On this boundary. 2. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mesh Motion > Option Mesh Motion > Receive From ANSYS Mesh Motion > ANSYS Interface Mesh Motion > Send to ANSYS a Value Wall F33. Inc. Create a new boundary named Sym1. and so on. and ANSYS will send back the total mesh displacement it calculates given the forces passed from CFX and the other defined loads. All rights reserved. F34.30. where # is the interface number that was created in the Mechanical application. it is necessary to provide the name and number of the matching Fluid Solid Interface that was created in the Mechanical application. Value Symmetry Sym1 .

it is slightly more efficient to choose the solver that drives the simulation to run first. but which one runs first is a user-specifiable setting. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. Apply the following settings Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location 6.0 . Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Value 0 [m s^-1] a 0 [m s^-1] a 0 [m s^-1] a . the Mechanical application and the data exchanged between the two solvers are all consistent. Click Solver Control . 2. 353 .© 2009 ANSYS. a series of coupling or stagger iterations are performed to ensure that CFX-Solver. initial values are required for all variables. Setting Solver Control Various ANSYS Multi-field settings are contained under Solver Control under the External Coupling tab. Click OK. Within each timestep. 1.Setting Initial Values 5. and the flow is generated by the initial motion of the plate. 1. the Mechanical application and CFX-Solver both run once each. In this case. All rights reserved. so the Mechanical application is set to solve before CFX-Solver within each stagger iteration. In general. Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Relative 0 [Pa] a Pressure a These settings ensure that the fluid is at rest initially. Inc. Coeff. 3. 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Transient Scheme > Option Value Second Order Backward Euler Convergence Control > Max. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Value Symmetry Sym2 Setting Initial Values Since a transient simulation is being modeled. Within each stagger iteration. Most of these settings do not need to be changed for this simulation. Loops 3 External Coupling Coupling Step Control > Solution Sequence Before CFX Fields Control > Solve ANSYS Fields Release 12. the simulation is being driven by the initial pressure applied in the Mechanical application.

Velocity Every Coupling Stepa This setting writes a transient results file every multi-field timestep. 2. All rights reserved. Click Add new item and accept the default name. 4. 5. Value Selected Variables Pressure. 6. Release 12. Click Output Control .© 2009 ANSYS.0 . Click the Monitor tab. 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 7. 3. In the Transient Results tree view. Select Monitor Options.Setting Output Control Tab Setting Coupling Data Transfer Control > Ansys Variable Coupling Data Transfer Control > Ansys Variable > FZ Coupling Data Transfer Control > Ansys Variable > FZ > Convergence Target Coupling Data Transfer Control > Ansys Variable > FZ > Convergence Target > Convergence Target Coupling Data Transfer Control > Ansys Variable Coupling Data Transfer Control > Ansys Variable > UZ Coupling Data Transfer Control > Ansys Variable > UZ > Convergence Target Coupling Data Transfer Control > Ansys Variable > UZ > Convergence Target > Convergence Target Value FZ (Selected) (Selected) 1a UZ (Selected) (Selected) 1a a Since the Z component of both the force (FZ) and resultant displacement (UZ) are negligible for this 2–D case. Total Mesh Displacement. accept the default name and click OK. Inc. Inc. Click OK. . Click the Trn Results tab. click Add new item Apply the following settings: Setting Option Output Variable List Output Frequency > Option a . Setting Output Control This step sets up transient results files to be written at set intervals. 2. Set Option to Cartesian Coordinates. Under Monitor Points and Expressions: 1. their convergence targets are set to large values in order to negate their influence when determining load convergence. 354 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3.

and then the ANSYS Solver is started. Obtaining a Solution using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager The execution of an ANSYS Multi-field simulation requires both the CFX and ANSYS solvers to be running and communicating with each other. which typically need to start from the initial conditions specified in the Setup cell. It shows convergence of the ANSYS Solver. the Initialization Option field is set to Current Solution Data (if possible). 8. See Properties View (p. 1. Set Output Variables List to Total Mesh Displacement X. as each quantity will be unconverged at the start of each timestep. This section outlines the steps to launch both solvers and monitor the output using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager. the CRIT quantities are the convergence criteria for each relevant variable. The CFX-Solver input file contains settings for an ANSYS Multi-field simulation. 4. From the main menu. you must provide the path to the v120/ansys directory. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager. The settings for fluid physics are now complete. and select File > Quit to close ANSYS CFX-Pre and return to the Project Schematic. the L2 Norm should be below the criteria. FY. Set Cartesian Coordinates to [0. On the Project Schematic. Full details of the quantities are described in the ANSYS user documentation. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Note On the Run Definition tab. On UNIX systems. its default setting. Each quantity is converged when the plot shows a negative value. double-click the Solution cell in the Fluid system to launch the ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager application. 1.© 2009 ANSYS. 46) in ANSYS CFX Introduction for more details. and then convergence will improve. Click Start Run. This may not be desirable when restarting transient runs. depending on how quickly ANSYS converges. ANSYS Workbench generates the CFX-Solver input file and passes it to ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager. Six lines appear. Click OK. In general. Several ANSYS iterations will be performed for each timestep. which does not correspond to either timesteps or stagger iterations. On the Define Run dialog box. ensure that Define Run dialog box is displayed. 355 .0 . Inc. thus MultiField tab appears on the Define Run dialog box. Inc. This monitor point measures the x-component of the total mesh displacement at the top of the plate. For convergence. select File > Save Project to save these changes to the project. you may need to manually specify where the ANSYS installation is if it is not in the default location. In this case. The run begins by some initial processing of the ANSYS Multi-field input which results in the creation of a file containing the necessary multi-field commands for ANSYS. two new plots appear in ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager: • ANSYS Field Solver (Structural) This plot is produced only when the solid physics is set to use large displacements or when other non-linear analyses are performed. and the L2 quantities represent the L2 Norm of the relevant variable. corresponding to three force components (FX. These runs use the results from any previous solution run as initial values for a subsequent update. UY. 4. The CFX Solver is then started in such a way that it knows how to communicate with the ANSYS Solver. and FZ) and three displacement components (UX. and UZ). ANSYS Input File is set automatically by ANSYS Workbench. 0]. ANSYS Interface Loads (Structural) This plot shows the convergence for each quantity that is part of the data exchanged between the CFX and ANSYS Solvers. All rights reserved. 3. You will usually see a somewhat spiky plot. 2. Solver Input File is set automatically by ANSYS Workbench. The x-axis of the plot corresponds to the cumulative number of stagger iterations • Release 12. 5. On the MultiField tab. The x-axis of the plot is the cumulative iteration number for ANSYS. After the run is under way.Obtaining a Solution using ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager 3.

When the solver run has finished. Viewing Results in ANSYS CFD-Post On the Project Schematic. Click the User Points tab and watch how the top of the plate displaces as the solution develops. Inc. 3. In this case.© 2009 ANSYS. Select Tools > Timestep Selector from the task bar to open the Timestep Selector dialog box. Similar to the CFX out file. . both the CFX and ANSYS results files will be opened up in CFD-Post. Release 12. Zoom into the plate to see it clearly. 7. any Fluid-Solid Interface will have a corresponding mesh region with a name such as FSIN 1. Being an ANSYS Multi-field run. although for this case the lists are the same. Click Apply. select File > Quit to close ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager and return to the Project Schematic. all the ANSYS variables are available to plot on the solid. plus certain named regions which are automatically created when particular types of load are added in Simulation. Value Variable Von Mises Stress 6. Note that the named selection must have a name which contains only English letters.Viewing Results in ANSYS CFD-Post (coupling iterations) and there are several of these for every timestep. From the main menu. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +Z. For example. 5.see the Simulation product documentation for more details. Notice that a separate list of timesteps is available for each results file loaded. All rights reserved. 1. You can add extra mesh regions for plotting by creating named selections in Simulation . a spiky plot is expected as the quantities will not be converged at the start of a timestep. a completion message appears in a dialog box. Click OK. 2. Inc. including stresses and strains. the true global range for each variable is not automatically calculated. double-click the Results cell in the Fluid system to launch the ANSYS CFD-Post application. 1. but in general pressure loads do not result in a named region. The corresponding transient results are loaded and you can see the mesh move in both the CFX and ANSYS regions. The mesh regions available for plots by default are limited to the full boundary of the solid. As subsequent timesteps are loaded into CFD-Post. 2. By default. Plotting Results on the Solid When ANSYS CFD-Post reads an ANSYS results file. When the global range is first used for plotting a variable. 356 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the Global Range is extended each time variable values are found outside the previous Global Range. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings to Default Boundary: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable 4. Change to a time value of 1 [s] and click Apply.0 . numbers and underscores for the named mesh region to be successfully created. as this would add a substantial amount of time depending on how long it takes to load such a file (you can turn on this calculation using Edit > Options and using the Pre-calculate variable global ranges setting under CFD-Post > Files). this is a text file recording output from ANSYS as the solution progresses. Again. there is also a named region corresponding to the location of the fixed support. Set Match to Nearest Available. Sync Cases is set to By Time Value which means that each time you change the timestep for one results file. CFD-Post will automatically load the results corresponding to the same time value for all other results files. it is calculated as the range within the current timestep. Turn on the visibility of Default Boundary (under ANSYS at 5s > Default Domain). The ANSYS out file is displayed in ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager as an extra tab. Note that when ANSYS CFD-Post loads an ANSYS results file.

Select Save Movie. and set Variable to Total Mesh Displacement. ANSYS CFD-Post allows you to visually magnify the mesh deformation for ease of viewing such displacements. so leave it at the default value. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Apply. load time value 0. Click Apply. 4.© 2009 ANSYS. 357 . Apply the following settings to Sym2. Click New to create KeyframeNo1. this is illustrated by the next few instructions. 5. To return the deformations to their true scale. 2. Click New to create KeyframeNo2. 9. 3. 10. Inc. which can make visualization of the mesh displacement difficult. This verifies that the contours of Total Mesh Displacement are continuous through both the ANSYS and CFX regions. and set Color to a constant blue. Right-click and select Deformation > Auto. ensure the time value of 0. Highlight KeyframeNo1. Set Color to be Constant and choose black. 2.1s > Default Domain). Notice that the mesh displacements are now exaggerated. 8. 2. The # of Frames parameter has no effect for the last keyframe. 3. 2. 6. load time value 0. Set Format to MPEG1. 6. set Locations to ANSYS > Default Boundary and Fluid > Sym2. Creating an Animation 1.Creating an Animation 1. 3. set Locations to Sym1 and leave Variable set to Velocity. 4. The Auto setting is calculated to make the largest mesh displacement a fixed percentage of the domain size. then change # of Frames to 48. 7. Load the last timestep (50) using the timestep selector. Create a vector plot. Release 12. Inc. 1.1 [s] (which has a much smaller mesh displacement than the currently loaded timestep). Place the mouse over somewhere in the viewer where the background color is showing. Tab Color Setting Mode Variable 5. Click Animation . All rights reserved. Turn off the visibility of Contour 1. Create a contour plot. Value Variable Pressure The Animation dialog box appears.8 [s] (which is where the maximum total mesh displacement occurs). Turn on the visibility of Default Boundary (under ANSYS at 0. Although it is not strictly necessary for this case. Many FSI cases will have only relatively small mesh displacements. Turn on the visibility of Sym2.1 [s] is loaded. which has mesh displacements which are easily visible unmagnified. Turn off the visibility of Default Boundary (under ANSYS at 1s > Default Domain). Select Keyframe Animation. Using the Timestep Selector dialog box. 3. right-click and select Deformation > True Scale. Using the timestep selector. Click Apply. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In the Animation dialog box: 1. Using the timestep selector.0 .

. 10. This will be slow.Creating an Animation 7. the file will be saved in the directory from which CFD-Post was launched. The movie file name (including path) will be set. Click Save. return to the Project Schematic and select File > Exit to exit from ANSYS Workbench. The movie will be created as the animation proceeds. If the file path is not given. 11. since a timestep must be loaded and objects must be created for each frame. but the movie will not be created yet. Save the results by selecting File > Save Project from the main menu.0 . Wait for CFD-Post to finish loading the objects for this frame before proceeding. 9. To view the movie file. Inc. Click Play the animation . Inc. When you are finished viewing results in ANSYS CFD-Post. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. If frame 1 is not loaded (shown in the F: text box in the middle of the Animation dialog box). 8. 358 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. you need to use a viewer that supports the MPEG format. click To Beginning to load it. Click Browse next to Save Movie to set a path and file name for the movie file. Release 12. All rights reserved.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 24. 359 . Using design points to manually vary characteristics of the problem to see how you can improve the mixing. In this example. Inc. Feature Details Geometry Creation Named Selections CFX-Mesh CFX-Pre User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Mesh Creation General Mode Steady State General Fluid Single Domain Component DesignModeler Release 12. This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. The measure of the mixing effectiveness will be the output temperature range. Optimizing Flow in a Static Mixer Design Exploration is a Workbench component that you can use to examine the effect of changing parameters in a system.© 2009 ANSYS. 374) Viewing the Response Surface (p. All rights reserved. In this case. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 368) Setting up the Case with CFX-Pre (p.0 . 361) Creating the Project (p. 368) Setting the Output Parameter in CFD-Post (p. 375) Note Some of the instructions in this tutorial assume that you have sufficient licensing to have multiple applications open. 359) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 361) Creating the Mesh with CFX-Mesh (p. 360) Setting Up ANSYS Workbench (p. Using Design Exploration to vary characteristics of the problem programmatically to find an optimal design. you may not be able to keep as many of the applications open as this tutorial suggests. Inc. 372) Using Design of Experiments (p. 371) Investigating the Impact of Changing Design Parameters Manually (p. you will see how changing the geometry and physics of a static mixer changes the effectiveness of the mixing of water at two different temperatures. 361) Creating the Geometry in DesignModeler (p. Using General mode in CFX-Pre to set up a problem. 374) Viewing the Optimization (p. Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • Creating a geometry in DesignModeler and creating a mesh in CFX-Mesh. simply close the applications as you finish with them. If you do not have sufficient licensing.

The second inlet also has a mass flow rate that has an initial value of 1500 kg/s. Release 12.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Details k-Epsilon Thermal Energy Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall: No-Slip Wall: Adiabatic Timescale Expressions CFD-Post Parameters Design Exploration Expressions Design Points Goal Driven Optimization Physical Timescale Workbench input parameter Workbench output parameter Manual changes Design of Experiments Response Surface Optimization Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial simulates a static mixer consisting of two inlet pipes delivering water into a mixing vessel. water enters through both pipes at the same rate but at different temperatures. Your goal in this tutorial is to understand how to use Design Points and Design Exploration to optimize the amount of mixing of the water when it exits the static mixer. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. as measured by the distribution of the water's temperature at the outlet. the water exits through an outlet pipe. Initially.© 2009 ANSYS. 360 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. The first inlet has a mass flow rate that has an initial value of 1500 kg/s and a temperature of 315 K. A general workflow is established for analyzing the flow of fluid into and out of a mixer.0 . but at a temperature of 285 K. Inc. The radius of the mixer is 2 m.

you save an empty project: 1. 2.Setting Up ANSYS Workbench Figure 24.© 2009 ANSYS. From the ANSYS Workbench menu bar. In the Fluid Flow (CFX) system.0 . 2. Creating the Geometry in DesignModeler Now you can create a geometry by using DesignModeler: 1. 2. DesignModeler starts. Creating the Project To create the project.wbpj in the directory of your choice. Enable Named Selections and remove the name "NS" from Filtering Prefixes. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. select Meter as the desired length unit and click OK. Inc. b. you have to configure the Geometry Import option settings for use with this tutorial: 1. From the ANSYS Workbench menu bar. The Options configuration dialog appears. select File > Save As and save the project as StaticMixerDX. c. All rights reserved.) Release 12. Ensure Parameters is enabled and remove the "DS" from Filtering Prefixes and Suffixes. (Note that this window will not appear if you have previously set a default unit of measurement. select Geometry Import a. right-click Geometry and select New Geometry. drag the Fluid Flow (CFX) system onto the Project Schematic. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3. In the Options configuration dialog. Static Mixer with 2 Inlet Pipes and 1 Outlet Pipe Setting Up ANSYS Workbench Before you begin using ANSYS Workbench. Inc. From Toolbox > Analysis Systems. 361 .1. If DesignModeler displays a window for selecting the desired length unit. Click OK. select Tools > Options. Launch ANSYS Workbench.

Click Polyline and then create the shape shown below as follows: Release 12. To create the main body of the Static Mixer.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. click. you ensure that the sketch you are about to create is based on the ZX plane. the right-mouse button to the top left of the plane center in the Graphics window and drag a box over the origin to zoom into the middle of the grid. Because Snap is enabled.Creating the Solid Creating the Solid You create geometry in DesignModeler by creating two-dimensional sketches and extruding. The grid facilitates the precise positioning of points (when Snap is enabled). 1. sweeping. you can select only points that are on this grid to build your geometry. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. From the Sketching tab. click ZXPlane. click Sketch1. 4. you will draw a sketch of a cross-section and revolve it. select the Draw toolbox. green for Y. 2. 4. Click Grid and select Show in 2D and Snap. Click New Sketch on the Active Plane/Sketch Toolbar. By selecting ZXPlane before creating a sketch. In the Tree Outline. 3. and blue for Z. Inc. which is located above the Graphics window. 2. 3.0 . To see the effect of changing Minor-Steps per Major. When you release the mouse button. Click Settings (in the Sketching tab) to open the Settings Toolbox. Click Minor-Steps per Major and set it to 2. 1. this can often help you to position objects correctly. 5. the model is magnified to show the selected area. . Creating the Basic Geometry Start by creating the main body of the mixer: 1. Setting Up the Grid Before starting your sketch. You now have a grid of squares with the smallest squares being 50 cm across. Select the Sketching tab (below the Tree Outline) to view the available sketching tool boxes. In the Tree Outline. The triad at the center of the grid indicates the local coordinate frame. 2. The color of the arrow indicates the local axis: red for X. Click Major Grid Spacing and set it to 1. or lofting these to add or remove material. Each sketch is created in a plane. set up a grid on the plane in which you will draw the sketch. All rights reserved. revolving. 362 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

363 . The text next to Axis now changes to Selected. Inc. The numbers and letters in the image below are added here for your convenience but do not appear in the software. 4. 3. If at any point you click on the wrong place. but a suggested order is given in the graphic below). click Generate . Click on the grid in the position where one of the points from the shape needs to be placed (it does not matter which point. Details of the Revolve operation are shown in the Details View at the bottom left of the window.Creating the Solid a. click on the grid line that is aligned with the X-axis of the plane represented by a red arrow (the X-axis of the plane is aligned with the global Z-axis). then click Apply in the Details View. you should find you have a solid as shown below. Revolving the Sketch You will now create the main body of the mixer by revolving the new sketch around the X-axis of the local coordinate frame. Inc. click on the word Axis. In the Graphics window. appears in the Details View. After generation. The Base Object defines the sketch to be revolved. Click Revolve from the tool bar above the Graphics window. You can select this from the 3D Features Toolbar or from the shortcut menu by right-clicking in the graphics window.© 2009 ANSYS. The information of the new sketch. Revolve1. 5. Select Sketch1. click with the right-mouse button over the Graphics window and select Back from the shortcut menu to undo the point selection. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. To activate the revolve operation. right-click and choose Closed End from the shortcut menu. Ensure that Angle is set to 360 degrees and leave the other settings at their defaults. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. To close the polyline after selecting the last point. Note that the longest straight line (4 m long) in the diagram below is along the X-axis (located at Y = 0 m). 1. Leave the name of the Revolve as the default. 2.0 . In the Details View you should see Apply and Cancel buttons next to the Axis parameter. Sketch1. if those buttons are not displayed. Click on each successive point to make the shape. All rights reserved. Leave Operation set to Add Material because you need to create a solid. b. c. Release 12.

click on the plus sign next to 1 Part. Select the Sketching tab. Inc. When prompted. Inc. In the Tree Outline. click the check box beside D1.© 2009 ANSYS. 6. rename the parameter to inDia and click OK. click and hold on the grid to mark the center of the circle. Right-click on Solid and select Hide Body. then click near the circle to set a dimension. 1 Body to expand the tree structure. click on the circle in the sketch. All rights reserved. 2.0 . Release 12. 364 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. b. 5. Create a circle as shown in the figure below: a. 1. In the Details View. Select the Draw Toolbox. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. For clear viewing of the grid during sketching. . Select Circle. you will create two sketches and extrude them. select General. 7. Click New Sketch on the Active Plane/Sketch Toolbar. drag while holding to the desired radius. 3. This dimension will be a parameter that is modified in Design Exploration. Select ZXPlane in the Tree Outline. then release to set the radius. Select the Dimensions Toolbox. you will hide the previously created geometry. 4.Creating the Solid Create the First Inlet Pipe To create the inlet pipes.

Creating the Solid Extrude the First Side-pipe To create the first side-pipe extrude the sketch: 1. Change Depth to 3 (meters) and press Enter to set this value. 3. A discrepancy with the size of the inlet pipe diameters may be visible but is not of concern. All other settings can remain at their default values. Inc. All rights reserved. click New Plane . 365 .0 . Right-click Solid and select Hide Body. In the Tree Outline. make the solid visible again: 1. Make the Solid Visible To see the result of the previous operation. Click Extrude from the 3D Features tool bar. To perform the extrude operation. 2. Click and hold the middle mouse button over the middle of the Graphics window and drag the mouse to rotate the model. Create the Second Inlet Pipe You will create the second inlet so that the relative angle between the two inlets is controlled parametrically. 2. Inc. then from the pull-down menu select Reversed). 4. 3. change Direction to Reversed to reverse the direction of the extrusion (that is. located above the Graphics window. click Generate . In the Details View. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The new plane (Plane4) appears in the Tree Outline.© 2009 ANSYS. rather than a new solid being created. click the word Normal. In the Tree Outline. 2. select ZXPlane. The solid should be similar to the one shown below. right-click Solid and select Show Body. The Add Material setting indicates that material is added to the existing solid. Release 12. In the toolbar. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. enabling you to evaluate the effects of different relative inlet angles: 1.

7. select Circle and create a circle as shown below: 14. Right-click over the Graphics window and select Isometric View to put the sketch into a sensible viewing position. set the name to in2Angle and click OK. name the parameter inDia and click OK. if required. 9. Inc. to see the level of detail in the image below. 15. Click on Major Grid Spacing and set it to 1. In the Details View. Value 1 field. click the check box beside D1. Select the Sketching tab.0 . Leave the other settings at their defaults. All rights reserved. 18. 12. Zoom in. 11. To activate the extrude operation. Click Extrude from the 3D Features Toolbar. Click the check box in the FD1. Click on Settings to open the Settings Toolbox. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click on Minor-Steps per Major and set it to 2. 17. In the Tree Outline click on Plane4. then create a new sketch (Sketch3) based on this plane by clicking New Sketch on the Active Plane/Sketch toolbar.© 2009 ANSYS. 6. 13. click General. 5. . Right-click Solid in the Tree Outline and select Show Body. click beside Transform 1 (RMB) and choose the axis about which you want to rotate the inlet: Rotate about X. Click Generate . 19. The geometry is now complete. 10. Click on Grid and select Show in 2D and Snap. 366 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. When prompted. Select the Dimensions Toolbox. ensure Direction is set to Normal in order to extrude in the same direction as the plane normal. 16. When prompted to create a new design parameter. click Generate .Creating the Solid 3. 4. Release 12. 8. In the Details View. From the Draw Toolbox. In the Details View. This sets the angle of rotation of this plane as a new design parameter. click on the circle in the sketch. Ensure that Depth is set to 3 (meters). then click near the circle to set a dimension.

367 . then rename the Named Selection to: in1 Click Generate . Highlight the outlet by left-clicking the outlet face. 11. 13. Orient the static mixer so that you can see the inlet that has the highest value of Y-coordinate.0 . Highlight the inlet by left-clicking the inlet face. click Apply. Release 12. This enables you to recover the work that you have performed to this point. Orient the static mixer so that you can see the outlet (at the lowest value of the Z-coordinate). 8. then right-click on the outlet and select Named Selection. then rename the Named Selection to: out 12. click Apply. Inc. In the Details View.Creating the Solid Create Named Selections Named selections enable you to specify and control like-grouped items. 3. (You can rotate the mixer by holding down the middle-mouse button or the mouse scroll wheel.) In select mode. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In viewing mode. then right-click on the inlet and select Named Selection. In the Details View. 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In the Details View. Inc. then right-click on the inlet and select Named Selection. until the next time you save the tutorial. if desired. 6. 7. highlight the inlet by left-clicking the inlet face. click Apply. Here. Note The 3D Viewer must be in “viewing mode” for you to be able to orient the geometry and the 3D Viewer must be in ”select mode” for you to be able to select a boundary in the geometry. you will create named selections so that you can specify boundary conditions in CFX-Pre to these specific regions. You set viewing mode or select mode by clicking the icons in the viewer toolbar: To create the named selections: 1. All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS. 10. Click Generate . 2. 9. then rename the Named Selection to: in2 Click Generate . Click Save on the ANSYS Workbench toolbar. 5. orient the static mixer so that you can see the inlet that has the lowest value of Y-coordinate.

0 . Double-click the Setup cell. 368 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3. you can use CFX-Pre to define the simulation. 6. In CFX-Mesh select File > Close CFX-Mesh. right-click the Mesh cell and select Edit. Expand Project > Model (A3) and right-click Mesh. In CFX-Mesh. In the Meshing Application select File > Close Meshing.© 2009 ANSYS. Give the new expression the name: inMassFlow In the Definition area. 5. click Generate Volume Mesh. To set up the case with CFX-Pre: 1. CFX-Mesh starts.Creating the Mesh with CFX-Mesh Creating the Mesh with CFX-Mesh Note This tutorial uses CFX-Mesh. Functions and Variables and right-click Expression and select Insert > Expression. b. 2. In the Tree Outline. Right-click inMassFlow in the Expressions area and select Use as Workbench Input Parameter. create an expression named inMassFlow: a. To create the mesh: 1. All rights reserved. Setting up the Case with CFX-Pre Now that the mesh has been created. c. and select Update. Inc. . return to the Project Schematic. 2. Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. but you could use a different mesh method in the Meshing Application. right-click the Mesh cell. The Meshing Application appears. A small “P” with a right-pointing arrow appears on the expression's icon. In CFX-Pre. Inc. Select Edit in CFX-Mesh. CFX-Pre appears with the mesh file loaded. In the Project Schematic. When the mesh has been produced. 3. expand Expressions. d. type: 1500 [kg s^-1] Click Apply. 4.

369 .Setting up the Case with CFX-Pre 4. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Value Fluid 1 Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 > Water Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Fluids Models d. Double-click Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 > Default Domain to open it for editing. Click OK.© 2009 ANSYS. Click OK. Click the Outline tab. select Insert > Boundary. c. From the CFX-Pre menu bar. name the new boundary in1 and click OK. 5. Inc. In the Insert Boundary dialog. b. Release 12. b.0 . click in the blank field. right-click in the blank field. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 6. Create the second inlet boundary: a. c. From the CFX-Pre menu bar. select Insert > Boundary. Heat Transfer > Option 1 [atm] Thermal Energy Create the first inlet boundary: a. d. click on the Enter Expression icon that appears. Define the characteristics of the domain: a. then select the inMassFlow expression that appears. Apply the following settings to in1: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass Flow Rate Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Value Inlet in1 Mass Flow Rate inMassFlowa 315 [K] a To enter this expression name into the Mass Flow Rate field. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.

Solver Control parameters control aspects of the numerical solution generation process. Click OK. right-click in the blank field. Inlet boundary arrows are directed into the domain. the solver may “think” the solution is converged after one or two iterations and halt the solution prematurely if the default setting (1) is maintained. Create the outlet boundary: a. This change is required because when the solver is restarted from a previous “converged” solution for each design point. 370 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Set the solver controls as follows: a. Value Outlet out Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 0 [Pa] 8. select Insert > Boundary. The time scale can be calculated automatically by the solver or set manually. 7. In the Insert Boundary dialog. Iterations to 5. In the Insert Boundary dialog. b. Click Solver Control . c. On the Basic Settings tab. set Advection Scheme > Option to Upwind. name the new boundary out and click OK. . The three boundary conditions are displayed in the viewer as sets of arrows at the boundary surfaces. Click OK. c. outlet boundary arrows are directed out of the domain. c. Apply the following settings to in2: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass Flow Rate Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Value Inlet in2 Mass Flow Rate inMassFlowa 285 [K] a To enter this expression name into the Mass Flow Rate field. convergence. Apply the following settings to out: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details d. click on the Enter Expression icon that appears. d. click in the blank field. CFX-Pre and ANSYS Workbench both update automatically. Inc. but in general should not be used to obtain final results. The Automatic option tends to be conservative. Set Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control to Physical Timescale and set the physical timescale value to 2 [s]. then select the inMassFlow expression that appears. It is often possible to accelerate convergence by applying a time scale factor or by choosing a manual value that is more aggressive than Release 12. but often slow. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. b.0 . leading to reliable. d. Set Convergence Control > Min. This advection scheme is suitable for obtaining an initial set of results. name the new boundary in2 and click OK.Setting up the Case with CFX-Pre b. Inc. it is also more robust. From the CFX-Pre menu bar. While an upwind advection scheme is less accurate than other advection schemes. All rights reserved.

In the Project Schematic. When the refresh is complete.Setting the Output Parameter in CFD-Post the Automatic option. CFD-Post starts. right-click the Results cell again and select Edit. With the cursor between the parentheses. Release 12. Type OutTempRange and click OK. Inc. it displays the 3D Viewer and the Outline workspace. Setting the Output Parameter in CFD-Post When CFD-Post starts. That specifies the maximum output temperature.0 . b. then right-click and select Locations > out. In the Definition area: a. CFX-Pre and ANSYS Workbench both update automatically. Inc. 2. c. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3. When the Solution cell shows an up-to-date state. On the Expressions tab. you obtain a convergence that is at least twice as fast as the Automatic option. right-click and select Variables > Temperature. All rights reserved. e. which will be the maximum output temperature minus the minimum output temperature: 1. Click OK. right-click on Expressions > New. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. By selecting a physical time scale. right-click the Solution cell and select Update. CFX-Solver obtains a solution. Right-click Functions > CFD-Post > maxVal. You need to create an expression for the response parameter to be examined (Outlet Temperature) called OutTempRange. 10. 9. Left-click after the @. 371 . right-click the Results cell and select Refresh.© 2009 ANSYS.

© 2009 ANSYS. among the new views are: • • Outline of Schematic A7: Parameters. All rights reserved. 4. 6. change the in2Angle value from –45 back to 0 and press Enter. Tip If necessary. then in the Outline of Schematic A7 view. then select View > Project Schematic.minVal(Temperature)@out e. In the Project Schematic. Ensure that this view is wide enough to display the Exported column. We expect the overall output temperature to be the average of the two input temperatures given that the incoming mass flows are equal. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Again. Investigating the Impact of Changing Design Parameters Manually Now you will manually change the values of some design parameters to see what effect each has on the rate of mixing.0 . 372 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In the Project Schematic. . 2. ensure that CFX-Pre has the Expressions view open. 2. These combinations of parameter values where you perform calculations are called design points. A new set of views opens. select View > Toolbox. In the Expressions list. Inc. 4. When you highlight Parameters (cell A7). ensure that those programs are open so that you can see the changes take place. Now you will change the design parameter values from the Outline of Schematic A7: Parameters view: 1. 5. change the in2Angle value from 0 to –45 and press Enter. This expression will be used to monitor the output temperature. 3. which lists one design point named Current. Inc. Note the value of the expression. which lists the input and output parameters and their values (which match the values observed in previous steps) Table of Design Points. right-click Parameters (cell A7) and select Edit. CFX-Pre and ANSYS DesignModeler will reflect the current value automatically. Click Apply. 7. highlight Parameters (cell A7). right-click OutTempRange and select Use as Workbench Output Parameter. Notice how the geometry changes in ANSYS DesignModeler. The Project Schematic reappears. In the Project Schematic. Release 12. To restore it.Investigating the Impact of Changing Design Parameters Manually d. As you make changes to parameters in ANSYS Workbench. In the Project Schematic. In the Project Schematic. notice how the geometry changes in ANSYS DesignModeler. The new expression appears in the Expressions list. Make this expression's definition: massFlowAve(Temperature)@out Be sure to also set this expression to Use as Workbench Output Parameter. Now. highlight Parameters (cell A7). Repeat the steps above for a second expression called OutTempAve. Click Save on the ANSYS Workbench toolbar to save the project. complete the expression so that it appears as follows: maxVal(Temperature)@out . In CFD-Post. right-click Geometry and select Update. you can close the Toolbox view to gain more space. right-click Geometry and select Update. Resize the ANSYS Workbench window to be larger. When you click Apply note the value of the expression. 1. select File > Quit. then in the Outline of Schematic A7: Parameters view. A small “P” with a right-pointing arrow appears on the expression's icon. In particular.

highlight Parameters (cell A7). In the Project Schematic.5 P2 – in2Angle: 0 P3 – inMassFlow: 1500 Right-click in the row for DP 1 and select Update Selected Design Point. When the update is complete. each of which will change the value of one parameter: 1. If you had not kept the check box in the Exported column selected. 3. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. (This command updates any out-of-date design points in a sequential fashion. Right-click in the row for DP 1 and select Update Selected Design Point. In the Project Schematic. highlight Parameters (cell A7). In the Table of Design Points view in the line under Current.wbpj) so that you can refer back to the data for that design point. In this case as only one design point is out of date. the Outline of Schematic view's values and the Table of Design Points view's values have become out-of date. then in the Outline of Schematic A7 view. You have modified design parameter values and returned each to its original value. (the change is not reflected in the Expressions Details view unless you refresh the contents of the tab. the update process writes a copy of the project (as project_name_dpdp_number. This process updates the project and all of the ANSYS Workbench views. In doing this. change the inMassFlow value from 1500 to 1600 and press Enter. you will make changes to design parameters as design points. Repeat the previous step to create the second design point (DP 2) using these values: • • • P1 – inDia: 1 P2 – in2Angle: 0 P3 – inMassFlow: 1600 Right-click in the row for DP 2 and from the tool bar select Update All Design Points. Now. for example by hiding and reopening it). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Modify the design point (DP 1) using these values. Release 12. Notice how the value of the expression has changed in the Expressions tree view in CFX-Pre. change the inMassFlow value from 1600 back to 1500 and press Enter. Click Save on the ANSYS Workbench toolbar to save the project. 373 . Note You should save the project once before you export a design point. then in the Outline of Schematic A7 view. select the check box. Because you selected the check box in the Exported column. Notice that cells autofill with the values from the Current row. so you need enter only the value that differs from that: • • • • P1 – inDia: 1 P2 – in2Angle: -45 P3 – inMassFlow: 1500 In the Table of Design Points > Exported column. ANSYS Workbench recalculates all of the values for the input and output parameters.Investigating the Impact of Changing Design Parameters Manually 5.0 .) 4. make the following entries to create the first design point (DP 1). all of the results cells show current values and all of the cells that display status are marked as being up-to-date. only it will be updated. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. including exporting the design point: • • • P1 – inDia: 1. Right-click any cell in the Table of Design Points view's Current row and select Update Selected Design Point. Inc. 2. the data in the design point's project file would not be rewritten and so the data in that file would not be consistent with the updated results now shown in ANSYS Workbench. 6. highlight Parameters (cell A7). All of the views are updated. ANSYS Workbench may also close any open ANSYS CFX applications and run them in the background. All rights reserved. You will create three design points. In the Project Schematic.

the Table of Schematic B2: Design of Experiments displays the results. 7. The results appear in various views: • • The Toolbox shows the types of charts that are available. The Table of Schematic B2: Design of Experiments appears. 1. 3. as expected. set: • • Lower Bound: –45 Upper Bound: 0 5. The Response Chart for P4 . In the Project Schematic. 374 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If you need to restore the Toolbox. All rights reserved. right-click Response Surface and select Update. In the ANSYS Workbench toolbar. 2. Using Design of Experiments In this section you will use Design Exploration's Goal Driven Optimization feature to minimize the value of OutTempRange. ensure View > Chart is enabled. Double-click the Design of Experiments cell. Note that the best results are returned from a low mass flow and the greatest difference in input angle. . select Response Surface > Response Points > Response Point > Response. Release 12. Inc. This preview gives an indication of the time that the nine solver runs will require. In the Properties of Outline A5: P2 view. Enable P2 – in2Angle and P3 – inMassFlow. 2. drag a Goal Driven Optimization system to the Project Schematic (under the Parameter Set bar). each of which represents a solver run to be performed. Select cell P3 – inMassFlow (cell A6). In the Properties of Outline A6: P3 view. In the Outline of Schematic B2: Design of Experiments view: a. select View > Toolbox. In the ANSYS Workbench menu bar. the OutTempAve value stays very near a constant 300 K. set: • • c. In the next section you will automate that manual process of repeatedly changing variable values by using Design Exploration. Viewing the Response Surface To view the response surface for this experiment: 1.Using Design of Experiments Recall that the goal of this design study is to maximize the mixing (which occurs when OutTempRange reaches its minimum value). select a cell in the Project Schematic to refresh ANSYS Workbench. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. You can monitor the progress of the solver runs by clicking Show Progress in the lower-right corner of the ANSYS Workbench window. Response Surface view. it appears that the best results are obtained by changing the input angle of one inlet. 3. Click on the down-arrow on the P4 – OutTempRange (K) cell to sort in ascending order and show the best combination of input angle and mass flow. Beside the Name column are columns that have the values for the two input parameters. From these manual tests. If no systems appear in the Toolbox. In the Project Schematic. In the ANSYS Workbench toolbar. From the Design Exploration toolbox.OutTempRange shows a 2D graph comparing OutTempRange to in2Angle. clear P1 – inDia. b. 6. click Preview Design of Experiments.0 . 4. ensure that View > Table is set. This table has nine entries in the Name column. and a column to hold the value the solver will obtain for the output parameter. In the Outline of Schematic B3. Lower Bound: 1000 Upper Bound: 2000 Select cell P2 – in2Angle (cell A5). In all studies. Inc. When the processing is complete. right-click the Design of Experiments cell and select Update.

OutTempRange value to the value given by the Design of Experiments calculations. 5.Viewing the Optimization • The Properties of Outline A12: Response shows the values that are being used to display the 2D graph. 7. 2. 3. the new design point (DP 3) has no values and requests an update. Inc. All rights reserved. right-click Optimization and select Update. Recall that design points are combinations of parameter values where you perform real calculations (rather than relying on the interpolated values that appear in the response charts). 4. Release 12. In the Project Schematic.© 2009 ANSYS. 4.0 . change the P4 . The various views update and in the Table of Design Points a new design point has appeared. Viewing the Optimization To view the optimization for this experiment: 1. In the Table of Schematic B4: Optimization. You can follow the progress of the update in the Project Schematic as ANSYS Workbench reruns its calculations for the design point's parameters. Compare the P4 . right-click on the Candidate A value and select Insert as Design Point(s). In the Project Schematic. In the Table of Schematic B4: Optimization. Right-click the lightning icon and select Update Selected Design Point. In the Table of Design Points. select Chart > Samples. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. in the Outline of Schematic B4: Optimization. highlight Parameters. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A 3D chart appears that shows in more detail that the best results are returned from a low mass flow and the greatest difference in input angle. 6. To see all of the candidates represented graphically. The Samples Chart appears with the three candidate samples highlighted. 375 . Add the full range of inMassFlow results to the chart: right-click the chart and select Toggle 2D/3D Chart. three design point candidates appear with their interpolated values. Inc. In the Table of Schematic B4: Optimization. highlight Optimization. In the Project Schematic.OutTempRange / Objective cell from No Objective to Minimize. Note that the other variable that was considered in the Design of Experiments (inMassFlow) is held at 1500.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . All rights reserved.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . Inc.Release 12. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

389) Simulating Structural Stresses due to Pressure Loads (p. 379) Starting ANSYS Workbench and Creating a BladeGen System (p. 387) Obtaining a Solution to the Aerodynamic Simulation using CFX-Solver (p. 377) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p.Chapter 25. Component ANSYS BladeGen ANSYS TurboGrid Feature Geometry Mesh Details Transfer of geometry to ANSYS TurboGrid. Inc. 381) Defining an Aerodynamic Simulation using CFX-Pre (p.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 378) Before You Begin (p. 390) Simulating Structural Stresses due to Rotation (p. 377 . Inc. 381) Creating a CFD Mesh using ANSYS TurboGrid (p. 379) Reviewing the Centrifugal Compressor Geometry in BladeGen (p. All rights reserved. H/J/C/L-Grid Topology Shroud Tip defined by Profile Control Point Movements Edge Split Controls Transfer of Mesh to a CFX System CFX-Pre Turbo Mode Machine Type Component Type Analysis Type Boundary Template Flow Direction Domain Type Timestep CFD-Post Report Used to define a Turbomachinery CFD Simulation Centrifugal Compressor Rotating Steady State P-Total Inlet Mass Flow Outlet Cylindrical Components Single Domain Physical Timescale Computed Results Table Release 12. Aerodynamic & Structural Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 389) Viewing the Results of the Aerodynamic Simulation in CFD-Post (p. Tutorial Features This tutorial addresses the following features of ANSYS Workbench.0 . 392) Note This tutorial is intended to be run on Windows-based machines only.

All rights reserved. . Inc. A clearance gap exists between the blades and the shroud of the compressor.0 .© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. The compressor has 24 blades that revolve about the Z-axis at 22360 RPM. Release 12.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Blade Loading Span 50 Streamwise Plot of Pt and P Velocity Streamlines Stream Blade TE Static Structural (ANSYS) System Static Structural Analysis CFX Pressure data applied to Structural Simulation Fixed Support Static Structural Solutions Von Mises Stresses Total Deformation Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial makes use of several ANSYS software components to simulate the aerodynamic and structural performance of a centrifugal compressor. 378 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The outer diameter of the blade row is approximately 40 cm. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

You will then use the Mechanical application to simulate structural stresses on the blade due to pressure loads from the aerodynamic analysis and rotationally-induced inertial effects. A BladeGen system opens in the Project Schematic view. Inc. The directory you create will be referred to here as the working directory. set File name to Compressor. from the examples directory to the working directory. a mesh will be created in ANSYS TurboGrid using an existing design which is to be reviewed beforehand in BladeGen. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. from the Start menu select All Programs > ANSYS 12.bgd. 5. open Component Systems and double-click BladeGen. All rights reserved. browse to the working directory. Use your operating system's tools to create a directory for your project's files. and is ready to be given a name. 379 . Inc. To do this in Microsoft Windows. From the tool bar.0 > Workbench. Once the mesh has been created. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. 6. In the Toolbox view. Centrifugal_Compressor.© 2009 ANSYS.0 . 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. initial parameters defining the aerodynamic simulation will be set in CFX-Pre and then solved in CFX-Solver. 3) Starting ANSYS Workbench and Creating a BladeGen System 1. Copy the provided geometry file. click . In the dialog box that appears. 4. and click Save. You will view an animation that shows the resulting blade distortion. 3. Release 12. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p.Before You Begin To begin analysis of the aerodynamic performance. The aerodynamic solution from the solver will then be processed and displayed in CFD-Post. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. Start ANSYS Workbench.

Inc.Starting ANSYS Workbench and Creating a BladeGen System 7. Later in this tutorial. By clearing the check box. The properties should appear as follows: Release 12. 8. In the Properties view. 2. The Properties view shows properties that control how the geometry is imported into downstream systems. right-click the blue BladeGen cell (cell A1) and select Rename from the shortcut menu. If you need to begin a new rename operation. you are specifying that only the blade geometry. 380 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. most of the other systems involved in this tutorial will simply use default names.© 2009 ANSYS. Type Compressor in the name field and then either press Enter or click outside the name field in order to end the rename operation. should be sent to downstream cells. Inc. To avoid the fluid zone surrounding the blade from also being provided. clear the Create Fluid Zone check box. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Right-click the Blade Design cell of the BladeGen system and select Properties. and not the volume around the blade. . Now that renaming systems has been demonstrated. you will require the Blade Design cell to provide the blade geometry to a Geometry cell of another system. change the Blade Design cell properties as follows: 1.0 .

© 2009 ANSYS. In this section. BladeGen is a geometry creation tool specifically designed for turbomachinery blades. you will create a CFD-compatible mesh based on this geometry. This means that you now have a geometry for the centrifugal compressor that is ready to be used for meshing purposes. Inc. BladeGen opens. Double-click the Blade Design cell. the latter is presently in an unfulfilled state. Return to the Project Schematic view. All rights reserved. Inc. In the next section. right-click the Blade Design cell and select Transfer Data To New > TurboGrid. In this section. Observe the blade design shown in BladeGen. 3.bgd file. select File > Open and load the provided file.Reviewing the Centrifugal Compressor Geometry in BladeGen You now have a BladeGen system that contains a Blade Design cell. 4. In the next section. you will use ANSYS TurboGrid to produce a CFD-compatible mesh based on the centrifugal compressor geometry. and then review the blade design.bgd. 1. you will fulfill the cell requirements by loading the provided geometry file. In BladeGen. and is ready to be given a name. Centrifugal_Compressor.0 . 2. you will simply load the geometry from the provided . 1. In the Project Schematic view. Release 12. you could also fulfill the cell requirements by creating a geometry from scratch. ANSYS TurboGrid is a mesh creation tool specifically designed for turbomachinery blades. 381 . A TurboGrid system opens in the Project Schematic view. Optionally exit BladeGen. as indicated by the question mark. Reviewing the Centrifugal Compressor Geometry in BladeGen This section involves using BladeGen in ANSYS Workbench. in the BladeGen system. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The Blade Design cell now displays a green check mark to indicate that the cell is up-to-date. Creating a CFD Mesh using ANSYS TurboGrid This section involves using ANSYS TurboGrid in ANSYS Workbench. which is in the working directory. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In general. 5.

Click Apply to set the topology. . in the object selector.2a H-Grid Not Matching a A reduced O-Grid width helps to improve mesh quality where the blade thickness is a large fraction of the passage width. the H/J/C/L-Grid topology will be used. Inc. for a newly-added Turbo Mesh cell (and whenever ANSYS TurboGrid is not open). and requires a clearance gap between the blade and shroud.0 . All rights reserved. Apply the following settings: Tab Definition Setting Topology Definition > Method Include O-Grid > Width Factor Tip Topology > Shroud Value H/J/C/L-Grid 0.Defining the Shroud Tip 2. further attention is required in order to bring the cell to an up-to-date status. Double-click the Turbo Mesh cell. 3. The Turbo Mesh cell displays a pair of green curved arrows to indicate that the cell has not received the latest upstream data. 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1. If you were to refresh the Turbo Mesh cell. The next several sections guide you through the steps to create a mesh. Defining the Shroud Tip For this compressor.© 2009 ANSYS. you may choose a topology pattern based on the type of machine being analyzed. the shroud is stationary. Define the tip of the blade using the second blade profile in the blade geometry: 1. as is the case at the upstream end of the hub. Inc. 382 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. double-click Topology Set. ANSYS TurboGrid opens. Accept the default name by pressing Enter. that further action would typically be to run ANSYS TurboGrid and produce a mesh with it. However. Apply the following settings: Tab Shroud Tip Setting Clearance Type > Tip Option Tip Profile Number > Tip Profile 3. Normally. you would right-click such a cell and select Refresh to transfer data in from the upstream cell. In ANSYS TurboGrid. 2. For this geometry. Click Apply. Release 12. double-click Geometry > Blade Set > Shroud Tip. this action is not necessary because ANSYS TurboGrid always reads the upstream cell data upon starting up. This defines the shroud tip of the blade (the surface of the blade that is nearest to the shroud). it would show a question mark to indicate that. although the cell's inputs are current. Value Profile Number 2 Creating the Topology In ANSYS TurboGrid. In the object selector. 2.

The areas that have the smallest angles are marked with red lines in the viewer. Inc. You now have a mesh topology that requires some adjustments before it is suitable for use in creating a mesh. Click Select then move the control points as shown by the displacement vectors in Figure 25. “Modifying Control Points on the Hub Layer” (p.0 . Double-click Minimum Face Angle to highlight the areas of the mesh that have the smallest angles. By choosing a transform explicitly. This prevents unintended automatic changes to the topology. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Transformation > Blade-to-Blade (Theta-M'). 5. the Passage Excluding Tip transform usually exhibits less distortion in the viewer for blades that have a tip that varies in span. Release 12. 383 . Open Layers > Hub in the object editor and note that. 384). you prevent ANSYS TurboGrid from selecting one of these transforms automatically. 6. 384). Compared to the Full transform. “Modifying Control Points on the Hub Layer” (p. 5.1. 8. Inc. 3. the topology is generated. Click Hide all geometry objects . Click Freeze to freeze the topology settings. Turn off the visibility of Layers > Shroud Tip (by clearing the check box next to it) to make the hub topology more visible. Modifying the Hub Layer 1. After a short time. in the object editor. The Passage Excluding Tip transform affects how blade-to-blade coordinates are calculated in preparation for viewing with the Blade-to-Blade (Theta-M') transform (in the next step). 4. You will increase mesh orthogonality in those areas by using control points. 2. All rights reserved. Select Display > Blade-to-Blade View > Use Passage Excluding Tip Transform. 7. Modifying the Topology The mesh previews on the hub and shroud tip layers reveal areas that have low mesh angles. the mesh measures are shown in red text.1. You will also adjust the mesh density locally by using edge split controls. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Modifying the Topology 4. Right-click Topology Set and turn off Suspend Object Updates. Zoom in on the leading edge as shown in Figure 25. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© 2009 ANSYS. You can see a 2D preview of the mesh on each of the two layers.

.1. 385) and select Insert Edge Split Control from the shortcut menu.2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 9. Inc. Right-click the master topology line marked “A” in Figure 25.© 2009 ANSYS.0 .Modifying the Topology Figure 25. All rights reserved. Release 12. Inc. 384 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Modifying Control Points on the Hub Layer Confirm that the Minimum Face Angle and Maximum Face Angle mesh measures have improved for the hub layer. “Adding Edge Split Controls near the Leading Edge on the Hub Layer” (p.

3. Inc. Using the same technique. and will not affect the resulting mesh. Zoom in on the leading edge as shown in Figure 25.0. Note that it is normal for mesh cells next to the blade to have extremely high aspect ratios. Open Layers > Shroud Tip in the object editor. 6. “Modifying Control Points on the Shroud Tip Layer” (p. In the object editor. 4. Click Fit View .2. Click Select then move the control points as shown by the displacement vectors in Figure 25. add an edge split control with the same split factor at the topology line marked “B” in Figure 25. Note also that some elements near the trailing edge appear “crooked” or “wavy”.Modifying the Topology Figure 25. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 11. Inc. Turn on the visibility of Layers > Shroud Tip. 3. 385 .2. Modifying the Shroud Tip Layer 1. “Modifying Control Points on the Shroud Tip Layer” (p. 2. Adding Edge Split Controls near the Leading Edge on the Hub Layer 10. Release 12. This causes more elements to be placed along the topology line marked “A” in the figure. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3. 12. 386).© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. 386). The hub layer is now acceptable for the purposes of this tutorial. this is an effect caused by inaccuracies in the viewer transformation to Blade-to-Blade (Theta-M') coordinates. 5. 7. “Adding Edge Split Controls near the Leading Edge on the Hub Layer” (p. Double-click Minimum Face Angle to highlight the areas of the mesh that have the smallest angles.0 . Click Apply. change Split Factor to 2. 385). Turn off the visibility of Layers > Hub.

Specifying Mesh Data Settings 1.Specifying Mesh Data Settings Figure 25. Open Mesh Data for editing. you will set some parameters that affect the mesh node count and distribution.3. In the next section. 386 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. The topology has been improved. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Apply the following settings: Tab Mesh Size Setting Method Node Count Inlet Domain Outlet Domain Passage Spanwise Blade Distribution Parameters > Method Spanwise Blade Distribution Parameters > # of Elements Spanwise Blade Distribution Parameters > Const Elements Value Target Passage Nodes Medium (100000) (Selected) (Selected) Element Count and Size 25 11 Release 12.0 . . Confirm that the Minimum Face Angle and Maximum Face Angle mesh measures have improved for the shroud tip layer.© 2009 ANSYS. Modifying Control Points on the Shroud Tip Layer 8. All rights reserved. 2.

Return to the Project Schematic view. Click Apply. Except for extremely dense meshes. Optionally quit ANSYS TurboGrid. Click Insert > Mesh. and is ready to be given a name. 387 . In the Project Schematic view. right-click the Turbo Mesh cell and select Transfer Data To New > CFX. the mesh is generated. you will use CFX-Pre in Turbo Mode to define a CFD simulation based on the centrifugal compressor mesh that you created earlier. Inc. Further actions to improve mesh quality are beyond the scope of this tutorial. Generating the CFD Mesh With the topology and mesh data defined. 1. 2. Release 12. CFX-Pre is a CFD physics preprocessor that has a Turbo Mode facility for setting up turbomachinery CFD simulations. it is normal that the mesh elements next to the walls have very high length ratios and volume ratios. All rights reserved. Defining an Aerodynamic Simulation using CFX-Pre This section involves using CFX-Pre in ANSYS Workbench. After a few moments. This helps to guide the mesh along the blade in the spanwise direction. Note Your mesh quality could decrease slightly after increasing the node count. Open Layers for editing. Creating a New Case 1. right-click Hub and select Insert Layer After to insert a layer midway between the hub and shroud tip layers. 4.Generating the CFD Mesh Tab Setting O-Grid > Method O-Grid > # of Elements Inlet/Outlet Inlet Domain > Override default # of Elements Value Element Count and Size 6 (Selected) Inlet Domain > Override default # of Elements > # of 50 Elements Outlet Domain > Override default # of Elements (Selected) Outlet Domain > Override default # of Elements > # 25 of Elements 3. 5.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc.0 . In this section. You may have noticed that some mesh statistics still show problems. the next step is to create a mesh. A CFX system opens in the Project Schematic view. 3. you might want to make minor adjustments to the hub and shroud control points to improve the quality of your mesh before saving it and using it in the aerodynamic simulation that follows. If so. In the list of layers in the object editor. in the TurboGrid system. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

© 2009 ANSYS. CFX-Pre will automatically read the upstream cell data upon starting up for the first time (from this cell). The Setup cell displays a pair of green curved arrows to indicate that the cell has not received the latest upstream data. 9. 388 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Rotation Axis to Z. In Basic Settings panel. Since you have not yet opened CFX-Pre. All rights reserved. Double-click the Setup cell.0 . On the Physics Definition panel. Click Next. Outlet. set Machine Type to Centrifugal Compressor. Inc. . 5. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Creating a New Case 2. 4. 3. Select Tools > Turbo Mode. and leave the other settings at their defaults. Click Next. 6. set the following values: Setting Fluid Analysis Type > Type Model Data > Reference Pressure Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > P-Total Inlet Mass Flow Outlet Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > P-Total Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > T-Total Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > Mass Flow Value Air Ideal Gas Steady State 1 [atm] (Selected) 0 [atm] 20 [C] Per Component Release 12. Accept the default name by pressing Enter. you can disregard the cell status. Passage Main (Selected) Yes 8. Value Rotating 22360 [rev min^-1] Inlet. select R1 and set the following values: Setting Component Type > Type Component Type > Value Mesh > Available Volumes > Volumes Wall Configuration Wall Configuration > Tip Clearance at Shroud Leave the other settings at their defaults. CFX-Pre opens. On the Component Definition panel. 7.

Return to the Project Schematic view. to see detailed output. click an interface listed in the tree view and then examine the associated settings (shown in the lower portion of the panel) and highlighted regions in the viewer. 0. 389 . Create a report and examine some of the results as follows: 1. Viewing the Results of the Aerodynamic Simulation in CFD-Post CFD-Post enables you to view the results in various ways. Optionally quit CFX-Pre. verify that each boundary is set correctly. 12. If the progress indicator is not visible. All rights reserved. Click Next. click a boundary listed in the tree view and then examine the associated settings and highlighted regions. a CFD solution will be generated. or exported for viewing in another application. Click Next. 10. CFD-Post opens. You can present the results in the form of a report that can be viewed in CFD-Post. Double-click the Results cell. 13. verify that each interface is set correctly. charts. Inc. 17. 0 Physical Timescale 0. Release 12.0 . r. On the Final Operations panel. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. t) Solver Parameters > Convergence Control Solver Parameters > Physical Timescale Leave the other settings at their defaults. 16. After some time. return to the Project Schematic view. and figures. Right-click the Solution cell of the CFX system and select Update. including tables. 15. Click Next. Inc. On the Boundary Definition panel. or. leave the operation set to Enter General Mode and click Finish. 11. If no regions appear highlighted in the viewer. Click File > Report > Load 'Centrifugal Compressor Rotor Report' Template. Value 0.© 2009 ANSYS. right-click the Solution cell and select Display After the solution has been generated. ensure that highlighting is turned on in the viewer toolbar. 2.167 [kg s^-1] Cylindrical Components 1. On the Interface Definition panel. 14.Obtaining a Solution to the Aerodynamic Simulation using CFX-Solver Setting Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > Mass Flow Rate Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > Flow Direction Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > Inflow Direction (a. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. you can display it by clicking Monitors.0002 [s] Obtaining a Solution to the Aerodynamic Simulation using CFX-Solver Generate a solution for the CFD simulation that you just prepared: 1. 2.

Inc. All rights reserved. and is ready to be given a name. double-click Computed Performance Results Table. right-click the Blade Design cell and select Transfer Data To New > Static Structural (ANSYS). Optionally quit CFD-Post. 9. This is a plot of the pressure vs. or have otherwise made any changes to the report definition after first viewing the report. Simulating Structural Stresses due to Pressure Loads This section describes the steps required to simulate structural stresses on the blade due to pressure loads from the aerodynamic analysis. 1. Double-click Streamwise Plot of Pt and P. Double-click Blade Loading Span 50. Return to the Project Schematic view.txt file. Double-click Velocity Streamlines Stream Blade TE View. 390 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This report can be viewed in CFD-Post or published to be viewed externally as an .0 . A Static Structural (ANSYS) system opens in the Project Schematic view. streamwise distance along both the pressure and suction sides of the blade at mid-span. 7. This is a trailing-edge view of the streamlines that start upstream of the blade. This is a plot of the streamwise variation of pressure and total pressure. 5. . Note that if you have visited the Report Viewer tab before loading the template. click the Report Viewer tab found near the bottom right of the window. in the Report Viewer 8. To view a full report. in the BladeGen system. In the Project Schematic view. 6. 4. Release 12. you need to click to update the report as displayed. under Report. This table presents measures of aerodynamic performance including required power and efficiencies.html or . A report will be generated (this may take a few minutes) that includes all figures available under Report in the tree view.© 2009 ANSYS. In the tree view. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Simulating Structural Stresses due to Pressure Loads 3. Inc.

You have now chosen the CFD boundary from which to get the CFD pressure data. 13. click Apply. Inc. Inc. If a dialog box asks you if you want to read the upstream data. The field beside Geometry should now display the text “1 Face”. Right-click Project > Model (D4) > Static Structural (D5) in the tree view and select Insert > Fixed Support. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . 9. In the details view next to Scope > Geometry. 12. The Mechanical application opens so that you can prepare a static structural analysis. Select the long thin face of the blade that is at the forefront of the displayed geometry. All rights reserved. Accept the default name by pressing Enter. right-click a blank area of the screen and select View > Bottom.© 2009 ANSYS. 6. Right-click the Geometry cell and select Update. DesignModeler runs in the background. In the viewer. click the field beside Scope > Geometry. Connect the Solution cell of the CFX system to the Setup cell of the Static Structural (ANSYS) system. Right-click the Model cell and select Update.Simulating Structural Stresses due to Pressure Loads 2. then select the blade surface (the large surface. 14. 8. and select R1 Blade from the drop-down. This makes the CFD solution data available for use in a structural analysis. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select the following object from the tree view: Project > Model (D4) > Static Structural (D5) > Imported Load (Solution) > Imported Pressure. 4. 3. click Apply. 11. Double-click the Setup cell. You have now chosen the solid model surface onto which to apply the CFD pressure data. In the details view next to Scope > Geometry. click the field beside Transfer Definition > CFD Surface. and imports the solid model of the centrifugal compressor. and imports the geometry from BladeGen. The Mechanical application runs in the background. not the thin surface along the edge) by clicking it in the viewer. In the details view. Release 12. In the details view. 391 . 5. 10. click Yes. 7.

From the main menu. The Mechanical application opens. 17. click Solve . From the tool bar. 23. Return to the Project Schematic view.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. 15. 20. Inc. (The value will become 22360 RPM (ramped) when you finish entering the number. In general. accurate load mapping requires that the surfaces match in terms of geometry and the length scale of mesh elements. In the details view. set Definition > Z Component to 22360. Double-click the Setup cell in the new system. Note You may need to drag the viewer window up in order to see the Graph window. 16. 24. Wait until you see a green check mark in that cell. 22. right-click Project > Model (D4) > Static Structural (D5) > Solution (D6) and select Insert > Stress > Equivalent (von-Mises). From the tool bar. by clicking Play in the Graph window. 19. 18. change Definition > Define By to Components.) Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. 21. Animate the physical deformation by clicking the Play button in the Graph window. 392 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 7. A second Static Structural (ANSYS) system appears. then click the Inertial button in the toolbar and select Rotational Velocity. click Solve and wait for the solver to finish. the surface onto which the CFX pressures were mapped does not include the blade tip or trailing-edge surfaces. To verify that the pressure data was applied correctly to the blade. Select File > Close Mechanical.Simulating Structural Stresses due to Rotation The face that you selected is now connected to the hub. All rights reserved. 6. Rename the newly created system from Copy of Static Structural (ANSYS) to With Rotation. with its Geometry. When the solver has finished. Simulating Structural Stresses due to Rotation This section shows how to add inertial effects due to rotation. 3. 8. Make sure that Project > Model (E4) > Static Structural (E5) is selected in the tree view. select Units > RPM. 5. 1. . In the tree view. select Project > Model (D4) > Static Structural (D5) > Solution (D6) > Total Deformation to prepare to examine the Total Deformation solution. 4. and Model cells taking information from the same sources as in the original system. Click Project > Model (D4) > Static Structural (D5) > Solution (D6) > Equivalent Stress to prepare to examine the von-Mises stress results. The significant discrepancy shown in the load transfer summary is due to a difference in geometry. Right-click the Model cell in the new system and select Update. inspect Project > Model (D4) > Static Structural (D5) > Imported Load (Solution) > Imported Pressure > Imported Load Transfer Summary. Right-click Project > Model (D4) > Static Structural (D5) > Solution (D6) and select Insert > Deformation > Total. Animate the physical deformation of the blade along with the associated von-Mises stress results. In the details view for Rotational Velocity. Right-click the upper-left corner of the Static Structural (ANSYS) system and select Duplicate.0 .

From the tool bar. in the Graph window. From the tool bar. click 14. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 12. Inc. to save the project. respectively) under Project > Model (E4) > Static Structural (E5) > Solution (E6) and click Play 11. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. To animate the total deformation or equivalent stress of the blade. 12. Inc. Return to the Project Schematic view. Exit ANSYS Workbench.0 . Select File > Close Mechanical. 393 . 13. select the corresponding object (either Total Deformation or Equivalent Stress.© 2009 ANSYS. 10. click Solve .Simulating Structural Stresses due to Rotation 9.

All rights reserved. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Release 12. . Inc.0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Reviewing solution variables particular to the non-equilibrium solution. Setting up an equilibrium steam calculation. 409) Viewing the Non-Equilibrium Case Results in CFD-Post (p. 406) Obtaining a Solution for the Non-Equilibrium Case (p. 398) Starting CFX-Pre (p. 395) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. Post-processing features special to the non-equilibrium solution. 396) Before You Begin (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 398) Defining the Equilibrium Case in CFX-Pre (p. Inc. 409) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • • • Selection of material properties from the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) database. Feature User Mode Machine Type Fluid Type Details Turbo Wizard Axial Turbine Binary Homogeneous Mixture (equilibrium solution) Multi-Fluid Model (non-equilibrium solution) Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Multiple Domain k-Epsilon Total Energy (equilibrium solution) Fluid Dependent (non-equilibrium solution) Boundary Conditions Inlet (subsonic): Total Pressure/Temperature and Component ANSYS CFX-Pre Release 12.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Reviewing solution variables particular to the equilibrium solution. Axial Turbine Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Steam Predictions This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 399) Obtaining a Solution for the Equilibrium Case (p.Chapter 26. 405) Defining the Non-Equilibrium Case in CFX-Pre (p. Setting property table ranges. 404) Viewing the Equilibrium Case Results in CFD-Post (p. Inc. 395 . Setting up a non-equilibrium steam calculation.

The following figure shows approximately half of the full geometry. small droplet phase change (non-equilibrium solution) Nucleation. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. Volume Fractions and Droplet Number (non-equilibrium solution) Outlet: Static Pressure Domain Interfaces Frozen Rotor Periodic Timestep Material Properties Fluid Pair Models Physical Time Scale IAPWS Water Database Small droplet heat transfer. droplets with phase change (non-equilibrium solution) Turbo Surface Contour Fluid Models CFD-Post Location Plots Overview of the Problem to Solve The following tutorial uses an axial turbine to demonstrate setting up and executing equilibrium and non-equilibrium steam calculations using the IAPWS water database for properties.0 . The inflow average velocity is in the order of 100 m/s. . Release 12.Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Details Mass Fraction(s) (equilibrium solution) Inlet (subsonic): Total Pressure/Temperature. small droplet temperature. The full geometry contains 60 stator blades and 113 rotor blades. All rights reserved. 396 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

© 2009 ANSYS.0662 bar Total inlet temperature = 328.0 .Overview of the Problem to Solve The geometry to be modeled consists of a single stator blade passage and two rotor blade passages. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.942. while in the rotor blade passage.5 K Release 12. the flow across the interface will not appear continuous due to the scaling applied. In the stator blade passage a 6° section is being modeled (360°/60 blades). Inc. 397 . Furthermore. Periodic boundaries are used to allow only a small section of the full geometry to be modeled. it is scaled to allow this type of geometry to be modeled. 2:1. All rights reserved. This results in an approximation of the inflow to the rotor passage.372° section is being modeled (2*360°/113 blades). This is an approximation to the full geometry since the ratio of rotor blades to stator blades is close to. the rotor rotates at 523. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.265 bar Static outlet pressure = 0. The important problem parameters are: • • • Total inlet pressure = 0. a 6. Inc. This produces a pitch ratio at the interface between the stator and rotor of 0. As the flow crosses the interface. but not exactly. In this example.6 rad/s about the Z-axis while the stator is stationary.

grd Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. you will generate two steady-state solutions: one using a multicomponent fluid consisting of a homogeneous binary mixture of liquid water and water vapor. the other using two separate phases to represent liquid water and water vapor in a non-equilibrium simulation. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. 1) Release 12.pre WaterVaporEq.cfx WaterVaporNonEq. WaterVaporEq. All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. For details. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p.0 .© 2009 ANSYS.gtm rotor. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • • • 2.Before You Begin In this tutorial. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. . Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. 398 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The solution variables particular to the equilibrium and non-equilibrium solutions will be processed in order to understand the differences between the two solutions. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p.pre stator.

by right-clicking S1 and selecting Move Component Up. As you specify them. 3. 3. Select File > Save Case As. Apply the following setting: Setting Mesh > File a Value stator. 404). Create a new component of type Rotating. Select Turbomachinery and click OK. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 4. This file is provided in the tutorial directory and may exist in your working directory if you have copied it there. 5. If you want to set up the simulation automatically and continue to Obtaining a Solution for the Equilibrium Case (p. run WaterVaporEq.0 . named S1.Defining the Equilibrium Case in CFX-Pre Defining the Equilibrium Case in CFX-Pre The following sections describe the equilibrium simulation setup in CFX-Pre. Component Definition Two new components are required. select File > New Case. Basic Settings 1. Right-click a blank area near the Component Definition tree and select Add Component from the shortcut menu. Inc. In CFX-Pre. 2. If you are notified the file already exists.grda m You may have to select the CFX-TASCflow (*grd) option under Files of type in order to see the file. This tutorial uses the Turbomachinery wizard in CFX-Pre. click Overwrite. 1. 5. if necessary.gtma You may have to select the CFX Mesh (*gtm *cfx) option under Files of type in order to see the file. Click Next. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. 6. Click Save.pre. named R1. 4.© 2009 ANSYS. This pre-processing mode is designed to simplify the setup of turbomachinery simulations. CFX-Pre imports the meshes. Note The components must be ordered as above (stator then rotor) in order for the interface to be created correctly. Under File name. 1. Release 12. Create a new component of type Stationary. 2. Inc. The order of the two components can be changed.6 [radian s^-1] rotor. type WaterVaporEq. All rights reserved. 399 . Apply the following settings: Setting Component Type > Value Mesh > File Options > Mesh Units a Value 523. Set Machine Type to Axial Turbine.

0 . . Click Next. 1. Interfaces are required when modeling a small section of the true geometry. Apply the following settings Tab Physics Definition Setting Fluid Analysis Type > Type Model Data > Reference Pressure Model Data > Heat Transfer Model Data > Turbulence Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > P-Total Inlet P-Static Outlet Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > P-Total Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > P-Static Inflow/Outflow Boundary Templates > T-Total Interface > Default Type Value Water Ideal Gas Steady State 0 [atm]a Total Energy k-Epsilon (Selected) 0. Also see the ANSYS CFX Best Practices Guide for Turbomachinery. to ensure that all is correct. you will set properties of the fluid domain and some solver parameters. Inc. This information should be reviewed in the Region Information section.Physics Definition When a component is defined. 400 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.265 [bar] 0. you should see that a periodic interface has been generated for both the rotor and the stator. but later you will create a new fluid based on the IAPWS database for water and override this initial setting with it. An interface is also needed to connect the two components together across the frame change.© 2009 ANSYS. In this case. The generated periodic interface can be edited or deleted. Note that initially you will choose the fluid to be Water Ideal Gas. This can be accomplished by setting the reference pressure to 0 atm.0662 [bar] 328. 2. Release 12. it is recommended that absolute pressures be used throughout. 6. Turbo Mode will automatically select a list of regions that have been recognized as potential boundaries and interfaces. All rights reserved. Physics Definition In this section. Interface Definition CFX-Pre will try to create appropriate interfaces using the region names viewed previously in the Region Information section (in the Component Definition setup screen). Inc. where an explanation of how this value is calculated is provided. CFX-TASCflow turbomachinery meshes use these names consistently.0005 [s]c Because this tutorial involves vaporization. c The physical timescale that will be set up is derived from the rotational speed of the 113 rotor blades. situated below the Mesh section.. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. b From the problem description.g. Click Next. Review the various interfaces but do not change them. This information will be used to help set up boundary conditions and interfaces. The upper case turbo regions that are selected (e. 1. HUB) correspond to the region names in the CFX-TASCflow grd file.5 [K]b Frozen Rotor Solver Parameters > Convergence Control Physical Timescale Solver Parameters > Physical Timescale a 0.

The pure fluids that will be combined are H2Og. Review the various boundary definitions but do not change them. They can be edited or deleted in the same way as the interface connections that were set up earlier. The mixture will be named H2Olg.0 . a dialog box appears stating that Turbo report will not be included in the solver file because you are entering General Mode. and H2Ol. 2. Click Yes to continue. In this case. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. representing water vapor. 1. The present simulations use the published IAPWS-IF97 (International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam . Click Next. Here. After you click Finish. Click Finish. 401 . you will specify a homogeneous binary mixture to replace it. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1. allowing you to directly select them for use in your simulations. 2.Industrial Formulation 1997) water tables for properties. 2. Defining the Properties of Water Earlier in the physics definition portion of the Turbomachinery wizard. Set Operation to Enter General Mode. The published IAPWS-IF97 equations have been implemented in ANSYS CFX. Inc. 3. a fact that will be used for the non-equilibrium calculations that require this kind of state information. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Next. To create the mixture. Boundary Definition CFX-Pre will try to create appropriate boundary conditions using the region names presented previously in the Region Information section. Temperature (Selected) (Selected) 250 [K]a Release 12. representing liquid water. Inc. you specified Water Ideal Gas as the fluid in the domain. All rights reserved. you will take two pure fluids from the IAPWS database for water and combine them.Boundary Definition 2. The present example uses these properties in a tabular format requiring you to specify the range of the properties (such as min/max pressure and temperature bounds) and the number of data points in each table. Final Operations 1. Enter the following settings for H2Og: Tab Basic Settings Setting Material Group Thermodynamic State Value IAPWS IF97 (Selected) Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic Gas State Material Properties Thermodynamic Properties > Table Generation Thermodynamic Properties > Table Generation > Minimum Temperature Thermodynamic Properties > Table Generation > Minimum Temperature > Min. Click Material Name the new material H2Og. you should see a list of generated boundary conditions. Note that the IAPWS-IF97 properties have been tested for extrapolation into metastable regions.

11. Inc. Rename Copy of H2Og to H2Ol (using the letter “l” as in “liquid”). 7.15 [K]a > Min. 8. Thermodynamic Properties > Table Generation > Maximum Points Thermodynamic Properties > Table Generation > Maximum Points > Maximum Points a (Selected) 100 The H2Og minimum temperature is set to 250 K as the vapor might possibly supercool (in the NES calculations) to temperatures lower than the triple point temperature.0 . 4. Absolute Pres. Enter the following settings for H2Olg: Tab Basic Settings Setting Options Material Group Material 1 Material 2 Saturation Properties Option Table Generation Value Homogeneous Binary Mixture IAPWS IF97 H2Og H2Ol IAPWS Library (Selected) Table Generation > Minimum Temperature (Selected) Table Generation > Minimum Temperature 273. Absolute Pres.6 [bar] Generation > Maximum Absolute Pressure > Max.Defining the Properties of Water Tab Setting Thermodynamic Properties > Table Generation > Maximum Temperature Thermodynamic Properties > Table Generation > Maximum Temperature > Max. right-click H2Og and select Duplicate. In the Outline tree. Thermodynamic Properties > Table (Selected) Generation > Maximum Absolute Pressure Thermodynamic Properties > Table 0. Inc. 9. Create a new material named H2Olg. under Materials. All rights reserved. On the Basic Settings tab.01 [bar] Generation > Minimum Absolute Pressure > Min.© 2009 ANSYS. Click OK. Temperature Value (Selected) 400 [K] Thermodynamic Properties > Table (Selected) Generation > Minimum Absolute Pressure Thermodynamic Properties > Table 0. 6. 5. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Open H2Ol for editing. change Thermodynamic State > Thermodynamic State from Gas to Liquid. Temperature Release 12. 402 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Click OK 10. .

01 [bar] (Selected) 0. Click OK.Modifications to Domain and Boundary Conditions Tab Setting Table Generation > Maximum Temperature Table Generation > Maximum Temperature > Max. Setting Initial Values 1. each representing the liquid and vapor properties in the pure fluid system. Inc. . Release 12. Click OK. Click Global Initialization . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. This mixture (H2Olg) acts as a container fluid identifying two child materials. On the Boundary Details tab. and assumes that equilibrium conditions relate H2Ol and H2Og at all times. On the Fluid Models tab set Component Models > Component > H2Og > Option to Equilibrium Fraction and click OK. 1. H2Ol and H2Og are each used separately to define the fluids that are active in the domain. delete any existing items by selecting them and clicking Remove selected item 3. Table Generation > Maximum Absolute Pressure Table Generation > Maximum Absolute Pressure > Max. Absolute Pres. 7. H2Ol and H2Og. On the Basic Settings tab under Fluid and Particle Definitions. The equilibrium solution uses the binary mixture fluid. Set Name to H2Olg and click OK. Modifications to Domain and Boundary Conditions You now need to update the initial setting for the domain fluid (initially set while in the Turbomachinery wizard) with the new homogeneous binary mixture fluid you have just created. In the non-equilibrium solution (in the second part of this tutorial). 12. 403 .0 . Absolute Pres. 8.0. H2Olg. Table Generation > Maximum Points Thermodynamic Properties > Table Generation > Maximum Points > Maximum Points Value (Selected) 400 [K] (Selected) 0. 2. 5. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 4. 9. set Component Details > H2Og > Mass Fraction to 1. Set Fluid and Particle Definitions > H2Olg > Material to H2Olg and click Apply. Click Add new item .© 2009 ANSYS. 6. Open domain R1 for editing. Inc. Open Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 > S1 > S1 Inlet for editing.15 K due to the fact that the saturation properties implied by H2Ogl are not likely to be used below the triple point temperature. this is a requirement since the equilibrium constraint is no longer applicable in that case. Temperature Table Generation > Minimum Absolute Pressure Table Generation > Minimum Absolute Pressure > Min.6 [bar] (Selected) 100 a The minimum temperature is set to 273.

Quit CFX-Pre. saving the simulation (.def) File 1. select Shut down CFX-Solver Manager.© 2009 ANSYS.def Obtaining a Solution for the Equilibrium Case When CFX-Pre has shut down.0 . If using Standalone mode. Click Save. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. and CFX-Solver Manager has started. select Post-Process Results. on the completion message that appears. Inc. 3. Release 12. Inc. 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.2 [bar] Initial Conditions > Temperature > Option Automatic with Value Initial Conditions > Temperature > Temperature 328. All rights reserved. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. 3. Click OK. 2. Click Define Run . 4. 404 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Enter the following settings: Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Option Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Relative Pressure Value Automatic with Value 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 100 [m s^-1]a Automatic with Value 0. on the Define Run dialog box. In CFX-Solver Manager.def) File 2.0 H2Og > Mass Fraction a From the problem description.cfx) file. Value WaterVaporEq. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. At the end of the run.5 [K]a Initial Conditions > Component Details > Automatic with Value H2Og > Option Initial Conditions > Component Details > 1. click Start Run. the Solver Input File is set. obtain a solution to the CFD problem by following the instructions below. 2. .

Click Apply. Create a contour plot on Turbo Surface 1 that shows the mass fraction of the liquid phase: 1. Static Pressure and Mass Fraction Contour Plots In the equilibrium solution. If there were any problems initializing a component.0 . the Domain Selector dialog box might appear. 405 . this would be indicated in the tree view. the initialization works without problems. 1. Inc. When CFD-Post starts. mass fraction and temperature. The equilibrium solution mass fraction contour plot will be compared to the non-equilibrium solution one in Viewing the Non-Equilibrium Case Results in CFD-Post (p. you can initialize all components by clicking the Initialize All Components button which is visible initially by default. 4. the mass fraction of the condensed phase (also called wetness) can be directly calculated also based on the IAPWS properties. 2. On the Geometry tab. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to Pressure. All rights reserved. or as an alternative to using that dialog box.Viewing the Equilibrium Case Results in CFD-Post 4. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. or after double-clicking the Initialization object in the Turbo tree view. h.© 2009 ANSYS. 3. The amount of moisture ultimately created from phase transition is determined in the following manner. then click OK to load the results from these domains. Create a new contour plot named Static Pressure. falls below h sat ( P ) at any point. then click Apply. During the solution. 3. if the predicted mixture static enthalpy. and is used to update other two-phase mixture properties required at each step in the solution. 2. The most important ones are static pressure. which will be briefly described here. 3. Turn off the visibility of Static Pressure when you have finished observing the results. Note If you do not see the Turbo Initialization dialog box. Viewing the Equilibrium Case Results in CFD-Post The equilibrium case produces solution variables unique to these model settings. and asks you whether you want to auto-initialize all components. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The static pressure solution field yields the saturation enthalpy through the function h sat ( P ) . set Method to Constant Span and Value to 0. The final results therefore include all of the two-phase influences. On the main menu select Insert > Location > Turbo Surface and name it Turbo Surface 1. In this case. Release 12. Turn off the visibility of Turbo Surface 1.5. Click OK. Click the Turbo tab. Click Yes. Inc. Note that the mass fraction is predicted at each iteration in the solution. available from the IAPWS database. ensure that both the R1 and S1 domains are selected. you are asked to create the pressure and mass fraction contour plots. 1. 2. Displaying the Equilibrium Solution Variables using Contour Plots Make a 2D surface at 50% span to be used as a locator for plots: 1. In the next step. If it does. 409). In the Details view on the Geometry tab. The degree to which wetness is generated depends on the amount by which h is less than h sat ( P ) . 2. Create a static pressure contour plot on Turbo Surface 1: 1. The Turbo Initialization dialog box is displayed. but assuming equilibrium conditions. phase transition occurs the moment saturation conditions are reached in the flow. Create a new contour plot named Mass Fraction of Liquid Phase. The Turbo tree view shows the two components in domains R1 and S1.

2. Defining the Non-Equilibrium Case in CFX-Pre The non-equilibrium calculation introduces a number of additional transport equations to the equilibrium solution. 1. You will also set the droplet number and volume fraction of the condensable phase to zero at the inlet. namely volume fractions for each phase and droplet number for all condensing phases. In addition. Change the name to WaterVaporNonEq. as a result. The location where the phase transition happens is not specified. Opening the Existing Simulation 1. 4. and note that. 2. Static Temperature Contour Plots In the equilibrium solution. Turn off the visibility of Mass Fraction of Liquid Phase when you have finished observing the results.Mass Fraction. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to Temperature. If you want to set up the non-equilibrium simulation automatically and continue to Obtaining a Solution for the Non-Equilibrium Case (p. The non-equilibrium solution is therefore closely dependent on the evolving conditions along the flow path leading to phase transition and subsequent strong interaction (by heat/mass transfer) between phases. but evolves as part of the solution. 2. due to the equilibrium constraint. then click Apply. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to H2Ol. . 8. If required. Select File > Open Case. If this case were to involve wetness Release 12. the condensed and gas phases share the same temperature and. 7. In the following step you are asked to view the temperature field in the solution. Select File > Save Case As. you will specify a nucleation model for the phase that is considered condensable. For details on the nucleation model. In the Details view on the Geometry tab. Selection of the required phase pair conditions is made easier by provision of special small droplet models (where small droplet implies droplet sizes generally below one μm). Click Open. 168) in ANSYS CFX-Solver Modeling Guide. The setup of these equations is automated based on model selections to be described subsequently. 3. Select the simulation file WaterVaporEq. Create a new contour plot named Static Temperature. energy equations need to be specified for each of the phases in the solution. 409).cfx. 6. Important to the predictions are interphase heat and mass transfer between the vapor and condensed phases due to small droplets created by homogeneous nucleation. start it. In this section. Phase transition is initiated based on predicted metastable state (measured by supercooling level) conditions in the flow in conjunction with a classical homogeneous nucleation model. predictions of thermodynamic losses are not possible. see Droplet Condensation Model (p. then click Apply. Inc. set the path location to the tutorial directory.Defining the Non-Equilibrium Case in CFX-Pre 2.© 2009 ANSYS.cfx. 1. All rights reserved. 4. it represents conditions for the mixture. Click Save. the liquid water) is based on vapor supercooling in conjunction with fluid expansion rate and a nucleation model. Once you have observed the results save the state and exit CFD-Post. The condensable phase will appear within the domain by homogeneous nucleation. run WaterVaporNonEq. Inc. If CFX-Pre is not already running. 406 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . Create a contour plot on Turbo Surface 1 that shows the static temperature. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Modifying the Domains The non-equilibrium case is different from the equilibrium case in that the creation of the second phase (that is. 5.pre. In the Details view on the Geometry tab.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.85 H2Og | H2Ol Particle Model Fluid Pair > H2Og | H2Ol > Mass Transfer Phase Change > Option Release 12. 1. Create two new materials named H2Og and H2Ol by using the Add new item Apply the following settings to domain R1: Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > H2Og > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions > H2Og > Morphology > Option Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > H2Ol > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions > H2Ol > Morphology > Option Fluid Models Multiphase > Homogeneous Model Heat Transfer > Homogeneous Model Heat Transfer > Option Fluid Specific Models Fluid Fluid > H2Og > Heat Transfer > Heat Transfer > Option Fluid Fluid > H2Ol > Heat Transfer > Heat Transfer > Option Fluid > H2Ol > Nucleation Model Fluid > H2Ol > Nucleation Model > Option Fluid > H2Ol > Nucleation Model > Nucleation Bulk Tension Factora Fluid > H2Ol > Nucleation Model > Nucleation Bulk Tension Factor > Nucleation Bulk Tension Fluid Pair Models Fluid Pair Fluid Pair > H2Og | H2Ol > Interphase Transfer > Option Value H2Og H2Og Continuous Fluid H2Ol H2Ol Droplets (Phase Change) (Selected) (Cleared) Fluid Dependent H2Og Total Energy H2Ol Small Droplet Temperature (Selected) Homogeneous (Selected) 0. Inc.Modifying the Domains at the inlet. you would have a choice of specifying either droplet number or droplet diameter as a boundary along with the volume fraction.© 2009 ANSYS. icon. delete any existing items by selecting them and clicking Remove selected item 3. 4. On the Basic Settings tab under Fluid and Particle Definitions. 2. All rights reserved. . 407 .0 . Open domain R1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.

it is recommended that you set the physical timescale to a relatively small value. which in turn is calculated from other solution variables such as H2Ol volume fraction and droplet number. 6. Classical nucleation models are very sensitive to the bulk surface tension. Click OK. The value set here was found to be suitable for this simulation by trial and error.Modifying the Domains Tab Setting Value Fluid Pair > H2Og | H2Ol > Mass Transfer Small Droplets > Phase Change Model > Option Fluid Pair > H2Og | H2Ol > Heat Transfer Small Droplets > Option a The Nucleation Bulk Tension Factor scales the bulk surface tension values used in the nucleation model. . a Nucleation Bulk Tension Factor of 0.0 . Click OK. set Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale to 5e-005 [s] and click OK. and only slight adjustments will modify the nucleation rate quite significantly. It is common practice in CFD simulations to alter the bulk surface tension values slightly in order to bring results in-line with experiment. 9. Release 12. Note The small droplet setting for H2Ol heat transfer implies that the temperature is algebraically determined as a function of the droplet diameter. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.85 is the best first setting.5 [K] Boundary Conditions > H2Og > Volume 1. On the Basic Settings tab. 408 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 7. Open S1 Inlet and enter the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Fluid Values Setting Heat Transfer > Option Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > H2Og > Heat Transfer > Option Boundary Conditions > H2Og > Heat Transfer > Total Temperature Value Fluid Dependent H2Og Total Temperature 328. Click Solver Control . 10. 8. Because the non-equilibrium simulation involves vapor and therefore tends to be unstable. The values of Nucleation_Bulk_Tension_Factor range from 0.1 for water.0 Fraction > Volume Fraction Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > H2Ol > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction Boundary Conditions > H2Ol > Droplet Number > Option Boundary Conditions > H2Ol > Droplet Number > Droplet Number a H2Ol 0 Specified Numbera 0 Not Specified Diameter. Apply the same settings to domain S1. Studies suggest that with the IAPWS database and conditions less than 1 bar. Inc.8 to 1. 5. All rights reserved.

4. At the end of the run. Inc. this would be indicated in the tree view. and particle diameter. are supercooling. the Solver Input File is set. Viewing the Non-Equilibrium Case Results in CFD-Post The non-equilibrium calculation creates a number of solution variables. This is a result of the absolute pressure reaching values outside the range of internal material property tables. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The Turbo Initialization dialog box is displayed. 1. Click Yes. When CFD-Post starts.def Obtaining a Solution for the Non-Equilibrium Case The Define Run dialog box will be displayed when CFX-Solver Manager launches. which are briefly described in the following section. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. CFX-Solver Input File will already be set to the name of the CFX-Solver input file just written. 2.0 . In this case. the messages are temporary and stop appearing well before convergence.© 2009 ANSYS. In this case. If there were any problems initializing a component. select Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Inc. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. 1. If using Standalone mode. Click the Turbo tab. 2. on the Define Run dialog box. nucleation rate. droplet number. 3. Release 12. 2. The Turbo tree view shows the two components in domains R1 and S1. If it does. and asks you whether you want to auto-initialize all components. Click Define Run . Click Save.cfx) file at your discretion. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and. Quit CFX-Pre.def) File 1. select Post-Process Results. This can take some time depending on your system. ensure that both the R1 and S1 domains are selected. then click OK to load the results from these domains. or you otherwise suspect that the results might be adversely affected. mass fraction.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. All rights reserved. The most important ones.def) File Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. you can change the ranges of internal material property tables by editing the relevant materials in CFX-Pre. the Domain Selector dialog box might appear. If you encounter a simulation where the messages persist. saving the simulation (. on the completion message that appears. 409 . the initialization works without problems. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. 3. Value WaterVaporNonEq. Note You may notice messages in the solver output regarding problems with evaluating material properties. Eventually a dialog box appears. 4. Click OK. Click Start Run.

or as an alternative to using that dialog box. indicating superheated conditions. 1. 3. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Apply. you will plot the level of supercooling. 2. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to H2Ol. In the Details view on the Geometry tab. along with the droplet number concentration that is present in the flow following nucleation. Set Range to Local and then click Apply. Create a new contour plot named Nucleation Rate. as long as supercooled conditions remain). with peak values remaining in the flow for only a short time (that is. 2. the solution tracks the evolution of metastable conditions in the flow through a supercooling variable obtained on the basis of local pressure and gas phase temperature. 410 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to H2Og. This will display the nucleation front at the point of maximum supercooling. In the Details view on the Geometry tab. 3. Inc. Turn off the visibility of Nucleation Rate when you have finished observing the results. 1. Also. At the inlet. 2. Nucleation Rate and Droplet Number Contour Plots In the next step. At equilibrium conditions. 1. which acts to rapidly reduce vapor supercooling to near zero. 2. Turn off the visibility of Supercooling when you have finished observing the results. In particular. . The supercooling level is the primary variable influencing the nucleation model. In the next step. Note that the nucleation rates reach very high levels. Release 12. supercooling is often shown as negative.Supercooling then click Apply. Inc. or after double-clicking the Initialization object in the Turbo tree view. On the Geometry tab. On the main menu select Insert > Location > Turbo Surface and name it Turbo Surface 1.Displaying the Non-Equilibrium Solution Variables using Contour Plots Note If you do not see the Turbo Initialization dialog box. The supercooled droplets released at nucleation grow rapidly. set Method to Constant Span and Value to 0. depending on rate of expansion in the flow. Displaying the Non-Equilibrium Solution Variables using Contour Plots Make a 2D surface at 50% span to be used as a locator for plots: 1. Create a nucleation rate contour plot on Turbo Surface 1.5. This will display the degree of non-equilibrium conditions in the gas phase prior to homogeneous phase transition. set by the local pressure in the flow. All rights reserved. 4. critical homogeneous nucleation at pressures below one atmosphere generally involves supercooling levels of up to 35 to 40K. you can initialize all components by clicking the Initialize All Components button which is visible initially by default. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Create a supercooling contour plot on Turbo Surface 1.0 . The nucleation model provides an estimate of the rate of production of critically sized nuclei that are stable enough to grow in a supercooled vapor flow. This fact removes further significant nucleation and is why the phase transition process is limited to a narrow region in the flow in most cases. no supercooling is allowed since liquid and vapor phases always share the same temperature. you will plot the nucleation rate to show the level of nucleation attained. and the associated local gas phase temperature. Turn off the visibility of Turbo Surface 1. Supercooling Contour Plot The non-equilibrium solution provides considerable detail on conditions related to phase transition. Create a new contour plot named Supercooling.Nucleation Rate. 1. where the supercooling represents the difference between the saturation temperature. taking mass from the vapor phase and releasing thermal energy.

Without setting the range. The size of the condensed droplets is calculated from the droplet number and volume fraction of the condensed phase. 2. in the range of 5. Turn off the visibility of Mass Fraction of Condensed Phase H2Ol when you have finished observing the results. Because the non-equilibrium solution considers the Release 12. Create a contour plot showing the mass fraction of the condensed phase on Turbo Surface 1. Comparing the mass fraction in the non-equilibrium case to the equilibrium solution previously viewed. In the Details view on the Geometry tab. you will plot the different temperature fields. there is no meaningful droplet temperature. which you will also plot in this section. Inc. their temperature is very close to the saturation temperature. To emphasize the particle diameters proceeding out of the nucleation zone. small amounts of liquid may have droplet diameters that grow to large sizes relative to those coming from the nucleation zone. where expansion rate is reduced. 3.0E-9 m. 1. it is possible to derive a particle diameter. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. they are approximately an order of magnitude larger. From the mass fraction and droplet number. Create a particle diameter contour plot on Turbo Surface 1. 1. Mass Fraction and Particle Diameter Contour Plots In this section. Condensed droplets grow in size and accumulate mass at the expense of the gas phase. Click Apply. 3. before droplets are actually formed. you can see that phase transition is considerably delayed such that it occurs in the blade passages of the rotor rather than the stator. 4. Once the droplets have grown in size. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to H2Ol. 4. Turn off the visibility of Particle Diameter when you have finished observing the results. and reflects real flow situations. you will plot the mass fraction (or wetness) of the condensed phase. In the details view on the Geometry tab. these particle diameters near the walls will be emphasized. droplet sizes continue to increase along with the wetness. 3. This is a typical consequence of non-equilibrium flow. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to H2Ol. for the case of the condensed phase temperature field. Click Apply. Create a new contour plot named Droplet Number. At the point droplets are formed by nucleation. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the gas phase temperature is different from the condensed phase temperature. their temperature is at the gas phase.Droplet Number. It should be noted that. Set Range to User Specified then set Min to 0 [m] and Max to 1e-07 [m]. 2. but grow rapidly so that.Displaying the Non-Equilibrium Solution Variables using Contour Plots 3. Inc. All rights reserved. Create a new contour plot named Particle Diameter. In the Details view on the Geometry tab. The former is determined from a transport equation and the latter from an algebraic relationship relating droplet temperature to its diameter (through a small droplet model already described). Turn off the visibility of Droplet Number when you have finished observing the results.Mass Fraction. In this section. 411 . 1.0 . Create a droplet number contour plot on Turbo Surface 1. you will set the contour range for viewing. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. 2.Particle Diameter. In flow regions near walls. Since the pressure is dropping through the turbine. Create a new contour plot named Mass Fraction of Condensed Phase H2Ol. This will display the predicted droplet concentration resulting from phase transition. 2. 4. when leaving the nucleation zone. Click Apply. Notice that the particle diameters appear in the flow at very small sizes. Gas and Condensed Phase Static Temperature Contour Plots In a non-equilibrium prediction. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to H2Ol. 1.

the influence of thermodynamic losses are included in the predictions. In the Details view on the Geometry tab. . 2. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to H2Og. Once you have observed the results. Create a condensed phase static temperature contour plot on Turbo Surface 1. Click Apply. set Locations to Turbo Surface 1 and Variable to H2Ol. 1.Temperature. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3.© 2009 ANSYS. Click Apply. In the Details view on the Geometry tab. non-equilibrium efficiency predictions are more accurate than ones obtained using an equilibrium model. save the state and exit CFD-Post. Create a gas phase static temperature contour plot on Turbo Surface 1: 1. This is because it becomes possible to account for heat flow between the vapor and condensed phases as they pass through the domain. Release 12.Temperature. 4. Create a new contour plot named Gas Phase Static Temperature. 1. Due to this. Inc. 2. Turn off the visibility of Gas Phase Static Temperature when you have finished observing the results. Create a new contour plot named Condensed Phase Static Temperature. 3. 412 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3. 2. All rights reserved.Displaying the Non-Equilibrium Solution Variables using Contour Plots condensed phase temperatures separate from the gas phase.0 . Inc.

Feature User Mode Domain Type Details General Mode Immersed Solid Fluid Domain Analysis Type Fluid Type Boundary Conditions Transient Continuous Fluid Inlet Boundary Outlet Boundary Domain Interface CFD-Post Charts Fluid Fluid Mass Flow Rate Pressure Difference Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 422) Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Creating an XY-transient chart in CFD-Post.def) File (p. 421) Setting Solver Control (p. Applying a counter-rotating wall boundary. 423) Obtaining a Solution for Simulation using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 413 Component CFX-Pre . 421) Setting Output Control (p. Creating an animation. 423) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • Setting up an immersed solids domain. 416) Setting the Analysis Type (p. 413) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 415) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Inc. 415) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre (p. 416) Creating the Domains (p. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. Monitoring an expression during a solver run. 414) Before You Begin (p. 419) Creating Boundary Conditions (p. All rights reserved. 415) Importing the Mesh (p. 423) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Modeling a Gear Pump using an Immersed Solid This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. 416) Creating the Domain Interface (p.Chapter 27. 415) Creating Expressions for Time Step and Total Time (p.0 .

The inner rotor (gear) rotates at a rate of 7 revolutions per second. 414 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The following conditions will be met to promote the establishment of a cyclic flow pattern: Release 12.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The inlet has a relative total pressure of 10 psi. For more information on immersed solids see Immersed Solids (p. To model the upper surfaces of the teeth of the outer rotor. you will apply a counter-rotating wall condition to the top (high Z) surface of the rotating fluid domain. This tutorial makes use of the Immersed Solids capability of ANSYS CFX in order to model a solid that moves through a fluid.3 cm. Inc. The diameter of the fluid region between the rotors is approximately 7. 11). .© 2009 ANSYS. 133) in ANSYS CFX-Solver Modeling Guide. you will apply a rotating wall condition on the non-overlap portions of the lower (low Z) surfaces of the inlet and outlet chambers. and a stationary fluid domain to model the water in the inlet and outlet channels. All rights reserved. Inc. see Non-overlap Boundary Conditions (p. on the non-overlap portion (which lies between the inlet and outlet channels).Overview of the Problem to Solve Component Feature Animation Details Velocity Vector Movie Overview of the Problem to Solve In this tutorial. the outer rotor rotates at 6 revolutions per second. the average static pressure at the outlet is equal to the reference pressure. You will use an immersed solid domain to model the inner rotor. To model the stationary pump housing (not shown in the figure). a rotating fluid domain to model the water immediately surrounding the inner rotor. you will simulate a gear pump that drives a flow of water. For more information about non-overlap conditions.

Select File > Save Case As. Click Save.gtm from your working directory. For details. Inc. if this is the first tutorial you are working with. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 3). (The mesh inside the immersed solid domain has no effect in this tutorial. 4. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. Select File > Import > Mesh. Inc. 1) Defining a Case in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the case automatically using a tutorial session file. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p.cfx. 415 . 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. The mesh on the outer boundary of the immersed solid domain should be rotationally periodic so that it looks the same after each (inner) rotor tooth passes. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 2. ImmersedSolid.0 .Before You Begin • • The mesh of the rotating domain should be rotationally periodic so that it looks the same after each (outer) rotor tooth passes. proceed to the following steps: This section describes the step-by-step definition of the flow physics in CFX-Pre for a steady-state simulation. Click OK. 2. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. Release 12.pre. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3. All rights reserved.pre ImmersedSolid. In CFX-Pre. 5. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. For details.) An integer number of time steps should pass as one rotor tooth passes. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned off.gtm Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre. 423). 3. Click Open. Under File name. Select General and click OK. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • 2. set Files of type to CFX Mesh (*gtm *cfx) and select ImmersedSolid. In the Import Mesh dialog box. 1.© 2009 ANSYS. select File > New Case. Importing the Mesh 1. 5. run ImmersedSolid. • Before You Begin It is strongly recommended that you complete the previous tutorials before trying this one. If you want to set up the case manually. type ImmersedSolid. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution for Simulation using CFX-Solver Manager (p. However. 4. Default domain generation should be turned off because you will create three domains manually later in this tutorial.

Creating Expressions for Time Step and Total Time Creating Expressions for Time Step and Total Time Next. 1.© 2009 ANSYS. Analysis Type > Time Duration > Total total timea Time Analysis Type > Time Steps > Option Analysis Type > Time Steps > Timesteps Timesteps dt Analysis Type > Initial Time > Option Automatic with Value Analysis Type > Initial Time > Time 0 [s] a You first need to click Enter Expression beside the field. Functions and Variables > Expression. 3. using the expressions you created earlier. 1. Click OK. 1. 3. Click Apply to create the expression.0 . 5. One tooth of the inner (or outer) rotor passes every 1/42 s. you will create an expression defining the time step size for this transient analysis. Creating the Domains This simulation requires three domains: two fluid domains and one immersed solid domain. Set Definition. Next. edit Analysis Type Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting External Solver Coupling > Option Analysis Type > Option Analysis Type > Time Duration > Option Value None Transient Total Time . 2. select Insert > Expressions. . In the Insert Expression dialog box. Release 12. From the main menu. Create an expression called total time. Click OK. Inc. to (1/42)[s]/30. type dt. Inc. 4. 2. Under the Outline tab. Make the simulation run long enough for 3 rotor teeth to pass: 3/42 s. Set Definition to (3/42)[s]. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Apply. Setting the Analysis Type Define the simulation as transient. 2. All rights reserved. 416 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. First you will create an immersed solid domain. Choose a time step that resolves this motion in 30 intervals. 3. you will create an expression defining the total simulation time. This will give the solution time to establish a periodic nature.

0. 2. 3. Inc. If a default domain is present.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. set the name to ImmersedSolid and click OK.Creating an Immersed Solid Domain Creating an Immersed Solid Domain Ensure that no default domain is present under Flow Analysis 1. Create a new domain named StationaryFluid. 0 Axis Definition > Rotation Axis From Domain Models > Domain Motion > Axis Definition > Rotation Axis To 4. 0. right-click it and select Delete. 417 .00383. 1 Creating the Stationary Fluid Domain 1. or click Domain . Select Insert > Domain from the main menu. Click OK.00383. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Location and Type > Domain Type Value Inner Rotor Immersed Solid Location and Type > Coordinate Frame Coord 0 Domain Models > Domain Motion > Option Domain Models > Domain Motion > Angular Velocity Domain Models > Domain Motion > Axis Definition > Option Rotating 7 [rev s^-1] Two Points Domain Models > Domain Motion > 0. In the Insert Domain dialog box. All rights reserved. 0.© 2009 ANSYS. Create the immersed solid domain as follows: 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Location and Type > Domain Type Value Channels Fluid Domain Location and Type > Coordinate Frame Coord 0 Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid 1 Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 Material Library > Option Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 Water > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions > Fluid 1 Continuous Fluid > Morphology > Option Release 12. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 2.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. Medium Intensity and Eddy Viscosity Ratio Creating the Rotating Fluid Domain Create the rotating fluid domain according to the problem description: 1.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved.Creating the Rotating Fluid Domain Tab Setting Value Domain Models > Pressure > Reference 1 [atm] Pressure Domain Models > Buoyancy > Option Non Buoyant Domain Models > Domain Motion > Option Stationary Domain Models > Mesh Deformation > None Option Fluid Models Heat Transfer > Option Turbulence > Option Turbulence > Wall Function Combustion > Option Thermal Radiation > Option Initialization Domain Initialization Domain Initialization > Initial Conditions > Velocity Type Domain Initialization > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Domain Initialization > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Domain Initialization > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Domain Initialization > Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W None k-Epsilon Scalable None None (Selected) Cartesian Automatic with Value 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] 0 [m s^-1] Domain Initialization > Initial Automatic with Value Conditions > Static Pressure > Option Domain Initialization > Initial 0 [Pa] Conditions > Static Pressure > Relative Pressure Domain Initialization > Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Option 3. Inc. Click OK. Release 12. Inc.0 . . right-click Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 > StationaryFluid and select Duplicate. From the Outline tree view. 418 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Right-click Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 > Copy of StationaryFluid and select Rename.

419 . 3. Rename the domain to RotatingFluid. Mesh Connection Method > Mesh Connection GGI > Option Additional Interface Mass and Momentum > Option Models Mass and Momentum > Interface Model > Option 4. Inc. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Domain Models > Domain Motion > Option Domain Models > Domain Motion > Angular Velocity Domain Models > Domain Motion > Axis Definition > Option Domain Models > Domain Motion > Axis Definition > Rotation Axis 6. Value Gear Chamber Rotating 6 [rev s^-1] Coordinate Axis Global Z Creating the Domain Interface Add a domain interface that connects the StationaryFluid and RotatingFluid domains: 1. 2. All rights reserved. 5. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (Filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Interface Models > Option Interface Models > Frame Change/Mixing Model > Option Interface Models > Pitch Change > Option Value Fluid Fluid StationaryFluid Channel Side RotatingFluid Chamber Side General Connection Transient Rotor Stator None .Creating the Domain Interface 3. Inc.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Edit RotatingFluid. Click OK. 4. Click OK. Click Insert > Domain Interface from the main menu or click Domain Interface Accept the default domain interface name and click OK. Conservative Interface Flux None Release 12. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .

because these surfaces represent faces of the rotor teeth of the outer rotor.0 . Inc. 1. select Show Interface Boundaries in Outline Tree. because this surface represents part of the stationary housing of the pump. 1. 2. Inc. . and the latter rotates at 6 rev/s about the Z axis.Creating the Domain Interface Apply a counter-rotating no-slip wall condition to the non-overlap portion of the domain interface on the rotating domain side. If this object does not appear in the tree view. Value (Selected) No Slip Wall (Selected) Counter Rotating Wall Apply a rotating no-slip wall condition to the non-overlap portions of the domain interface on the stationary domain side.© 2009 ANSYS. Edit RotatingFluid > Domain Interface 1 Side 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Setting Nonoverlap Conditions Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Option Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity > Option 3. 420 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and click OK. Click OK. All rights reserved. Edit StationaryFluid > Domain Interface 1 Side 1. Click OK. Value (Selected) No Slip Wall (Selected) Rotating Wall 6 [rev s^-1] Coordinate Axis Global Z Release 12. 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Setting Nonoverlap Conditions Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Option Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity > Option Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity > Angular Velocity Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity > Axis Definition > Option Nonoverlap Conditions > Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity > Axis Definition > Rotation Axis 3. then edit Case Options > General.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Normal to Boundary Condition Medium (Intensity = 5%) Outlet Boundary Create an outlet with an average static pressure equal to the reference pressure: 1. Apply the following settings: Release 12. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK. 421 . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Value Inlet Inlet Total Pressure (stable) Mass And Momentum > Relative Pressure 10 [psi] Flow Direction > Option Turbulence > Option 4. Create a boundary named out in the StationaryFluid domain. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Value Outlet Outlet Average Static Pressure Mass And Momentum > Relative Pressure 0 [Pa] Mass And Momentum > Pres. Set Name to in and click OK. as specified in the problem description.Creating Boundary Conditions Creating Boundary Conditions This section outlines the steps to create the inlet and outlet boundary conditions. right-click StationaryFluid and select Insert > Boundary.05 Average Over Whole Outlet Setting Solver Control 1. Inlet Boundary Create a total pressure inlet at a relative pressure of 10 psi: 1.© 2009 ANSYS. 2. Click OK. In the Outline tree view. Click Solver Control . 2. 2. 3. Profile Blend Pressure Averaging > Option 3. All rights reserved.0 . Inc. 0.

Release 12. Click OK. 4.0 . 7. on every time step: 1. 3. 2. Set Option to Expression. Under Monitor Points and Expressions: 1.© 2009 ANSYS. Coeff. . All rights reserved. click Add new item click OK. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and velocity in the stationary frame. 6. Coefficient Loops RMS 1. Click the Monitor tab. velocity.Setting Output Control Tab Basic Settings Setting Advection Scheme > Option Transient Scheme > Option Value High Resolution Second Order Backward Euler Transient Scheme > Timestep Initialization Automatic > Option Turbulence Numerics > Option Convergence Control > Min. Click Add new item . Inc. Loops First Order 1 Convergence Control > Max. Click the Trn Results tab. Click Output Control . In the Transient Results list box. Accept the default name and click OK. . 2. Velocity in Stn Frame (Selected) All Every Timestep 5. set Name to Transient Results 1. and Apply the following settings to Transient Results 1: Setting Option File Compression Output Variables List Output Boundary Flows Output Boundary Flows > Boundary Flows Output Frequency > Option Value Selected Variables Default Pressure. Loops 10 Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Criteria > Residual Type Convergence Criteria > Residual Target 3. Inc. 422 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Velocity. 3. Select Monitor Options. Coeff.0 E −4 Setting Output Control Set up the solver to output transient results files that record pressure.

2. 423 . Set Expression Value to massFlow()@in. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post In this section. Click OK. If using Standalone Mode. 4. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and.cfx) file at your discretion. complete with velocity vectors. 6. Rescale the monitor plot so that you can readily see the time-periodic oscillations in mass flow that occur after the initial transient phase: 1. obtain a solution to the CFD problem by following the instructions below: 1. Set the lower and upper bounds to 0.Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. Click the User Points tab (which appears after the first time step has been computed) and monitor the value of Monitor Point 1 as the solution proceeds. 2. you will generate a chart to show the mass flow rate through the machine as a function of time. Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3.16 and 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the Solver Input File is set. 5. Inc. Click OK. 4. Click OK. You will also prepare a movie animation of the machine in operation. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.23 respectively. 3.def) File 4.0 . 3. the information required to perform a solver run is entered automatically in the Define Run dialog box. Right-click anywhere in the User Points plot and select Monitor Properties. 2. Click Save. saving the simulation (. 8. In the Monitor Properties: User Points dialog box. All rights reserved. In CFX-Solver Manager.def) File 1. on the Range Settings tab. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. select Set Manual Scale (Linear). If using Standalone Mode. Value ImmersedSolid. The solver run begins and the progress is displayed in a split screen. on the Define Run dialog box. ensure that the Define Run dialog box is displayed. Click Start Run. Click Define Run . select the check box next to Shut down CFX-Solver Manager.def Obtaining a Solution for Simulation using CFX-Solver Manager When CFX-Pre has shut down and the CFX-Solver Manager has started. Inc. 4.© 2009 ANSYS. 7. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. quit CFX-Pre. If CFX-Solver Manager is launched from CFX-Pre. Release 12.

Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Here. Create a new plane named Plane 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Domains Definition > Method Value RotatingFluid XY Plane Release 12. Creating a Velocity Vector Plot Create a slice plane and then make a vector plot on the slice plane as follows: 1. 2. adjust the vertical axis range to focus on the time-periodic oscillations in mass flow that occur after the initial transient phase. As you did in the monitor plot. Inc. 6. Value (Selected) Inlet Mass Flow (Selected) massFlow()@in a (Cleared) 0.23 You will have to either type it manually or right-click and choose massFlow()@ from theFunctions > CFD-Post and type in. All rights reserved. which is the time it takes a rotor tooth to pass. The Chart Viewer tab appears.16 0. or click New Apply the following settings: Tab Data Series Setting Series 1 Name Data Source > Expression Data Source > Expression Y Axis Axis Range > Determine ranges automatically Axis Range > Min Axis Range > Max a . Click Apply. 4. Click the Data Series tab.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab General Setting Type Title Value XY-Transient or Sequence Mass Flow Rate at the Inlet over Time 3.© 2009 ANSYS. The mass flow rate settles into a repeating pattern with a period of 1/42 s. you observed a monitor plot that showed mass flow versus time step. 2. Right-click in the Data Series list box and select New. 1. . Click the 3D Viewer tab. Create a new chart named Mass Flow Rate.Creating a Chart of Mass Flow versus Time Creating a Chart of Mass Flow versus Time During the solver run. 5. 424 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3. you will make a similar plot of mass flow versus time.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Changing the Appearance in Preparation for a Movie Tab Setting Definition > Z 4. Turn off the visibility of Plane 1. Click Apply. Inc. 6.© 2009 ANSYS. Edit StationaryFluid > in. Click Apply. Apply the following settings: Tab Render Setting Show Faces Show Mesh Lines Show Mesh Lines > Edge Angle Show Mesh Lines > Line Width Show Mesh Lines > Color Mode 3. Value (Cleared) (Selected) 105 [degree] 2 Default Make the inlet and outlet channels visible as follows: Release 12. 2. Apply the same settings to StationaryFluid > out. Click Apply. All rights reserved.003 [m] Changing the Appearance in Preparation for a Movie Make the inlet and outlet visible as follows: 1. Create a new vector plot named Vector 1.0 . 425 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.03 Velocity Use Plot Variable User Specified 0 [m s^-1] 2 [m s^-1] Arrow3D 10 (Cleared) Value 0. 7. Value All Domains Plane 1 Rectangular Grid 0. 5. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Domains Definition > Locations Definition > Sampling Definition > Spacing Definition > Variable Color Mode Range Min Max Symbol Symbol Symbol Size Normalized Symbols 8. 4.

Rotate the view a few degrees so that you can see the 3D nature of the geometry.0 . you will record a short animation that can be played in a repeating loop in an MPEG player. 426 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards +Z. Turn off the visibility of User Locations and Plots > Wireframe. Start the animation at the 61st time step (a time at which the flow has settled into a repeating pattern) Release 12. you will generate an animation that shows the changing velocity field on Plane 1. Click Apply.8 (Cleared) Make the walls of the rotating fluid domain visible as follows: 1. Apply the following settings: Tab Color Setting Mode Color Render Show Faces Show Faces > Transparency Show Mesh Lines 3. To take advantage of the periodic nature of the solution. Value Constant (White) (Selected) 0. 2. 2. Inc. 2. Edit StationaryFluid > StationaryFluid Default. All rights reserved. Value (Selected) 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Edit RotatingFluid > RotatingFluid Default. Apply the following settings: Tab Render Setting Show Faces Show Faces > Transparency Show Mesh Lines 3.0 (Cleared) Make the following other changes in preparation for the animation that you will create in the next section: Generating an Animated Movie In this section. .Generating an Animated Movie 1. Value Constant (Blue) (Selected) 0.© 2009 ANSYS. 1. Inc. Click Apply. Apply the following settings: Tab Color Setting Mode Color Render Show Faces Show Faces > Transparency Show Mesh Lines 3.0 (Cleared) Make the walls of the immersed solid domain visible as follows: 1. Click Apply. 3. Edit ImmersedSolid > ImmersedSolid Default. 2.

Generating an Animated Movie and end it at the 90th time step. Inc.0 . In the Animation dialog box. but the animation has not yet been produced.048413 s (which is the 61st time step). Click Play the animation • • • . to create KeyframeNo2. then press Enter while the cursor is in the # of Frames box. select the Keyframe Animation option.071429 s (which is the 90th time step). is pushed down to show more animation settings. 13. Because the 60th and 90th time steps look the same. Click New to create KeyFrameNo1. Note To explore additional animation options. then set # of Frames to 28. 2. Ensure that the Repeat forever button 11. the 60th time step is omitted to avoid having a pair of adjacent identical frames in the animation when the latter is played in a repeating loop. the JPEG or PPM files used to encode each frame of the movie will persist after movie creation. Select KeyframeNo1. When you have finished. 9. the 1/42 s interval is the period over which the solution repeats. 4. and the 90th corresponds with 3/42 s. 18. The 60th time step corresponds with 2/42 s.mpg. Tip Be sure to press Enter and confirm that the new number appears in the list before continuing. 12. All rights reserved. 15. 7. To view the movie file. Use the Timestep Selector to load the time value of 0. next to Repeat is not selected (not pushed down). Release 12. Click Timestep Selector Click Animation . Click Browse next to Save Movie. since results for each time step will be loaded and objects will be created. otherwise. 16. The movie file name (including path) has been set. 17. 19. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. On the Advanced tab of the Animation Options dialog box. 1. 10. 6. In the Animation dialog box. you need to use a viewer that supports the MPEG format. click New Ensure that More Animation Options Select Loop. 3. The MPEG will be created as the animation proceeds. This will be slow. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 14. quit CFD-Post. Set Format to MPEG1. Inc. Click To Beginning .© 2009 ANSYS. and load the time value of 0. Select Save Movie. Set File name to ImmersedSolid. they will be deleted. click the Options button. set the path location to a different directory. Click Save. This ensures that the animation will begin at the first keyframe. there is a Save Frames As Image Files check box. If required. 8. By selecting this check box. 5. 427 .

0 .© 2009 ANSYS.Release 12. Inc. . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. All rights reserved.

437) Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model Over Range of Inlet Pressures (p. Creating a drop curve chart in CFD-Post.Chapter 28. a decrease in the local pressure is present. When liquid is suddenly accelerated in order to move around an obstruction. 429) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. 431) High Pressure Simulation of Pump without Cavitation Model (p.© 2009 ANSYS. 440) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • Preparing and running a series of related simulations to generate cavitation performance data for a pump. 429 . Sometimes. 430) Starting CFX-Pre (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. 429) Before You Begin (p. 431) High Pressure Simulation of Pump with Cavitation Model (p. Drop Curve for Cavitating Flow in a Pump This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. All rights reserved. this pressure decrease is substantial enough that the pressure falls below the saturation pressure Release 12. Using isosurfaces in CFD-Post to visualize regions of cavitation. running and postprocessing a cavitation problem in ANSYS CFX. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Details General Mode Steady State Transient Fluid Type Water at 25 C Water Vapour at 25 C Fluid Models Domain Type Turbulence Model Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions Homogeneous Model Single Domain k-Epsilon Isothermal Inlet (Subsonic) Outlet (Subsonic) Wall (Counter Rotating) Timestep CFD-Post Plots Physical Time Scale Contour Component CFX-Pre Overview of the Problem to Solve This tutorial uses a simple pump to illustrate the basic concepts of setting up.0 .

99). The model conditions for this example are turbulent and incompressible. 3) Release 12. and when significant.0 . The speed and direction of rotation of the pump is 132 rad/sec about the Z-axis (positive rotation following the right hand rule). the vaporization of the liquid. 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. thus minimizing the computer resources required to obtain a solution. The drop curve is a chart of Head versus Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH). can cause damage to solid surfaces. The relevant problem parameters are: • • • • Inflow total pressure = 100000 Pa Outflow mass flow = 16 kg/s Inlet turbulence intensity = 0. to be able to determine if cavitation is present. This tutorial provides the data for the drop curve. the fluid begins to vaporize in a process called cavitation.© 2009 ANSYS. In addition. but also has instructions for optionally generating the data by running a series of simulations with progressively lower inlet pressures. 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. including where and the extent of the cavitation. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. The objective of this tutorial is to show pump cavitation performance in the form of a drop curve. In such cases. For details please refer to the CFX Best Practices Guide for Cavitation (p.03 m The SHF (Societe Hydraulique Francaise) pump has seven impeller blades. Furthermore it is also useful to examine this behavior for a range of conditions. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Due to the periodic nature of the geometry. Inc. it is desirable. Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. . can influence the flow distribution and operating performance of the device. All rights reserved. and the subsequent collapse of the vapor bubbles as the local pressure recovers. only a single blade passage of the original pump needs to be modeled. For these reasons (among others). Each simulation is initialized with the results of the previous simulation. in the design and operation of devices required to move liquid. Inc. 430 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.03 Inlet length scale = 0.Before You Begin determined by the temperature of the liquid. Cavitation involves a very rapid increase in the volume occupied by a given mass of fluid.

Starting CFX-Pre

Starting CFX-Pre
1. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • • 2. CavitationIni.pre CavitationIni.cfx Cavitation_100000.pre Cavitation.gtm

Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details, see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 1)

High Pressure Simulation of Pump without Cavitation Model
A steady-state high-pressure (inlet pressure of 100,000 Pa) simulation of the pump without cavitation (that is, simulation of the pump without water vapor) will first be set up to be used as an initial values file for the cavitation simulation later on in the tutorial. If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file, run CavitationIni.pre. For details, see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 3). Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 436). If you want to set up the simulation manually, proceed to the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In CFX-Pre, select File > New Case. Select General and click OK. Select File > Save Case As. Under File name, type CavitationIni.cfx. Click Save. Choose to overwrite CavitationIni.cfx if the software asks you for confirmation.

Importing the Mesh
1. Right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > Other. The Import Mesh dialog box appears. 2. Apply the following settings Setting Files of type File name 3. Click Open. Value CFX Mesh (*gtm *cfx) Cavitation.gtm

Loading Materials
Since this tutorial uses water at 25 °C and water vapor at 25 °C, you need to load these materials. Note that you will only use the liquid water for the first part of the tutorial. The vapor is being loaded now in anticipation of using it for the cavitation model later in the tutorial. 1. In the Outline tree view, right-click Simulation > Materials and select Import Library Data. The Select Library Data to Import dialog box is displayed.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 431

Creating the Domain 2. 3. 4. Expand Water Data. Select both Water at 25 C and Water Vapour at 25 C, holding the Ctrl key. Click OK.

Creating the Domain
1. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned on. A domain named Default Domain should appear under the Simulation branch. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rename Default Domain to Pump. Edit Pump. Under Fluid and Particle Definitions, delete Fluid 1 and create a new fluid definition named Liquid Water. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Liquid Water > Material Domain Models > Pressure > Reference Pressure Domain Models > Domain Motion > Option Domain Models > Domain Motion > Angular Velocity
a

Value Liquid Water Water at 25 Ca 0 [atm] Rotating 132 [radian s^-1]

Click the Ellipsis

icon to open the Material dialog box.

6.

Click OK.

Creating the Boundaries
Inlet Boundary
1. 2. Create a new boundary named Inlet. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass And Momentum > Option Value Inlet INBlock INFLOW Stat. Frame Tot. Press

Mass And Momentum > Relative Pressure 100000 [Pa] Flow Direction > Option Flow Direction > X Component Flow Direction > Y Component Cartesian Components 0 0

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 432 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Creating Domain Interfaces Tab Setting Flow Direction > Z Component Turbulence > Option Value 1 Intensity and Length Scale

Turbulence > Option > Fractional Intensity 0.03 Turbulence > Option > Eddy Length Scale 0.03 [m] 3. Click OK.

Outlet Boundary
1. 2. Create a new boundary named Outlet. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Value Outlet OUTBlock OUTFLOW Mass Flow Rate

Mass and Momentum > Mass Flow Rate 16 [kg/s] 3. Click OK.

Wall Boundaries
Set up the hub and shroud to be a stationary (non-rotating) wall. 1. 2. Create a new boundary named Stationary Wall. Apply the following settings to Stationary Wall: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Value Wall OUTBlock HUB, OUTBlock SHROUD a (Selected) Counter Rotating Wall

Boundary Details

Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity Mass and Momentum > Wall Velocity > Option

a

Click the Ellipsis

icon to open the Selection Dialog dialog box. In that dialog box, select OUTBlock HUB and OUTBlock

SHROUD, holding the CTRL key. Click OK.

3.

Click OK.

Creating Domain Interfaces
1. 2. Click Insert > Domain Interface and, in the dialog box that appears, set Name to Periodic Interface and click OK. Apply the following settings to Periodic Interface:

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 433

Setting Initial Values Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Side 1 > Region List Value INBlock PER1, OUTBlock PER1, Passage PER1a INBlock PER2, OUTBlock PER2, Passage PER2b Rotational Periodicity

Interface Side 2 > Region List

Interface Models > Option
a

Click the Ellipsis

icon to open the Selection Dialog dialog box. In that dialog box, select INBlock PER1,OUTBlock PER1

and Passage PER1, holding the CTRL key. Click OK.
b

Click the Ellipsis

icon to open the Selection Dialog dialog box. In that dialog box, select INBlock PER2,OUTBlock PER2

and Passage PER2, holding the CTRL key. Click OK.

3.

Click OK.

Inblock to Passage Interface
1. 2. Select Insert > Domain Interface and in the dialog box that appears, set Name to Inblock to Passage Interface and click OK. Apply the following settings to Inblock to Passage Interface: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Region List Mesh Connection Method > Mesh Connection > Option 3. Click OK. Value OUTFLOW INBlock INFLOW Passage 1:1

Passage to Outblock Interface
1. 2. Select Insert > Domain Interface and in the dialog box that appears, set the Name to Passage to Outblock Interface and click OK. Apply the following settings to Passage to Outblock Interface: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Region List Mesh Connection Method > Mesh Connection > Option 3. Click OK. Value OUTFLOW Passage INFLOW OUTBlock 1:1

With the boundary conditions and domain interfaces defined above, the default boundary of a rotating wall is applied to the blade and the upstream portions of the hub and shroud.

Setting Initial Values
The initial values that will be setup are consistent with the inlet boundary conditions settings.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 434 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Setting Solver Control 1. 2. Click Global Initialization Apply the following settings: Tab Global Settings Setting Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > Option Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > U Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > V Initial Conditions > Cartesian Velocity Components > W Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Option Initial Conditions > Static Pressure > Relative Pressure Value Automatic with Value 0 [m/s] 0 [m/s] 1 [m/s] Automatic with Value 100000 [Pa] .

Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Option Intensity and Length Scale Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Fractional Intensity > Option Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Fractional Intensity > Value Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Eddy Length Scale > Option Initial Conditions > Turbulence > Eddy Length Scale > Value 3. Click OK. Automatic with Value 0.03 Automatic with Value 0.03 [m]

Setting Solver Control
1. 2. Click Solver Control . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Max Iterations Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale Convergence Criteria > Residual Target
a

Value 500 Physical Timescale 1e-3[s]a 7.5e-6

The physical timescale that will be setup is derived from the rotational speed of the blades and the fact that there are 7 blades in the full machine.

3.

Click OK.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 435

Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File

Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File
1. 2. Click Define Run . Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Click Save. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and, on the Define Run dialog box, the Solver Input File is set. 4. Save the simulation. Value CavitationIni.def

Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager
CFX-Solver Manager should be running. You will be able to obtain a solution to the CFD problem by following the instructions below. 1. 2. Ensure Define Run is displayed. Click Start Run. You may see a notice about an artificial wall at the inlet. This notice indicates that the flow is trying to exit at the inlet. This can be ignored because the amount of reverse flow is very low. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. This can take a long time depending on your system. Eventually a dialog box is displayed stating that the simulation has completed. 3. 4. 5. At the end of the run, on the completion message that appears, select Post-Process Results. If using Standalone mode, select Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Click OK.

Post-Processing the Solution for High-Pressure Simulation of Pump without Cavitation Model
CFD-Post should be running. This case is run with temperatures around 300 K. The vapor pressure of water at this temperature is around 3574 Pa. To confirm that water vapor or cavitation is not likely for this operating condition of the pump, an isosurface of pressure at 3574 Pa will be created. Create an isosurface of pressure at 3574 [Pa]: 1. 2. Select Insert > Location > Isosurface and accept the default name. Apply the following settings in the Details view: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Variable Definition > Value 3. Click Apply. Notice that the isosurface does not appear. There is no place in the blade passage where the pressure is equal to 3574 Pa, which implies that there is no water vapor. 4. Quit CFD-Post, saving the state at your discretion. Value Pressure 3574 [Pa]

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 436 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

High Pressure Simulation of Pump with Cavitation Model

High Pressure Simulation of Pump with Cavitation Model
CFX-Pre should be running; start it if necessary. The simulation will be modified in CFX-Pre to include water vapor and enable the cavitation model. Monitor points will also be defined to observe the Net Positive Suction Head (NSPH) and pressure head values. If you want to set up the simulation automatically and continue to Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 439), run Cavitation_100000.pre.

Defining the Simulation in CFX-Pre
The following topics are discussed: • • • • Modifying the Domain and Boundary Conditions (p. 437) Creating Expressions (p. 438) Adding Monitor Points (p. 439) Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File (p. 439)

Modifying the Domain and Boundary Conditions
1. 2. If CFX-Pre is not already running, start it. Open CavitationIni.cfx and save it as Cavitation_100000.cfx. “100000” indicates the inlet pressure of the simulation. 3. 4. 5. Open Pump for editing. In the Fluid and Particle Definitions section, click Add new item Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Liquid Water > Material Fluid and Particle Definitions Fluid and Particle Definitions > Water Vapor > Material Fluid Models Fluid Pair Models Multiphase > Homogeneous Model Fluid Pair > Liquid Water | Water Vapor > Mass Transfer > Option Fluid Pair > Liquid Water | Water Vapor > Mass Transfer > Cavitation > Option Fluid Pair > Liquid Water | Water Vapor > Mass Transfer > Cavitation > Mean Diameter Value Liquid Water Water at 25 C a Water Vapor Water Vapour at 25 C (Selected)b Cavitation Rayleigh Plesset 2e-6 [m] and name it Water Vapor.

Fluid Pair > Liquid Water | Water Vapor (Selected) > Mass Transfer > Cavitation > Saturation Pressure

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 437

Defining the Simulation in CFX-Pre Tab Setting Value

Fluid Pair > Liquid Water | Water Vapor 3574 [Pa]c > Mass Transfer > Cavitation > Saturation Pressure > Saturation Pressure
a

Click the Ellipsis

icon to open the Material dialog box, then click Import Library Data

to open the Select Library Data

to Import dialog box. In that dialog box, expand Water Data in the tree, then multi-select Water at 25 C and Water Vapour at 25 C and click OK. b The homogeneous model will be selected because the interphase transfer rate is very large in the pump. This results in all fluids sharing a common flow field and turbulence. c The pressure for a corresponding saturation temperature at which the water in the pump will boil into its vapor phase is 3574 Pa.

6. 7.

Click OK. Open Inlet for editing and apply the following changes: Note that you are setting the inlet up to be 100% liquid water, hence a volume fraction of 1. Consequently, the volume fraction of the vapor is set to 0. Tab Fluid Values Setting Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Water Vapor > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions > Liquid Water > Volume Fraction > Volume Fraction Value Water Vapor 0 Liquid Water 1

8. 9.

Click OK. Open Outlet for editing.

10. On the Boundary Details tab, set Mass and Momentum > Option to Bulk Mass Flow Rate and Mass Flow Rate to 16 [kg s^-1]. 11. Click OK.

Creating Expressions
Expressions defining the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and Head are created in order to monitor their values as the inlet pressure is decreased. By monitoring these values a drop curve can be produced. • Create the following expressions. Name Ptin Ptout Wden Head NPSH Pvap Definition massFlowAve(Total Pressure in Stn Frame)@Inlet massFlowAve(Total Pressure in Stn Frame)@Outlet 996.82 [kg m^-3] (Ptout-Ptin)/(Wden*g) (Ptin- Pvap)/(Wden*g) 3574 [Pa]

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 438 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager

Adding Monitor Points
Two monitor points will be added to track the NPSH and head using the expressions created in the previous step. 1. 2. 3. Click Output Control . .

On the Monitor tab, select Monitor Options and click Add new item

Enter NPSH Point as the name of the monitor point then enter the following settings: Tab Monitor Setting Monitor Options > Monitor Points and Expressions > NPSH Point > Option Value Expression

Monitor Options > Monitor Points and NPSH Expressions > NPSH Point > Expression Value 4. 5. Create a second monitor point named Head Point with the same parameters as the first, with the exception that Expression Value is set to Head. Click OK.

Writing the CFX-Solver Input (.def) File
1. 2. Click Define Run . Apply the following settings: Setting File name 3. Click Save. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and, on the Define Run dialog box, the Solver Input File is set. 4. Save the simulation. Value Cavitation_100000.def

Obtaining a Solution using CFX-Solver Manager
CFX-Solver Manager should be running. Obtain a solution to the CFD problem by following these instructions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure Define Run is displayed. Select Initial Values Specification. Select CavitationIni_001.res for the initial values file using the Browse Click Start Run. You may see a notice about an artificial wall at the inlet. This notice indicates that the flow is trying to exit at the inlet. This can be ignored because the amount of reverse flow is very low. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. This will not require many iterations or much time, depending on your system, because only minor changes have been made from the initial simulation. A dialog box is displayed stating that the simulation has completed. 5. 6. 7. At the end of the run, on the completion message that appears, select Post-Process Results. If using Standalone mode, select Shut down CFX-Solver Manager. Click OK. tool.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 439

Post-Processing the Solution for High-Pressure Simulation of Pump with Cavitation Model

Post-Processing the Solution for High-Pressure Simulation of Pump with Cavitation Model
You will create an isosurface to observe the volume fraction of water vapor at 25 °C. Note that the pressure below the threshold is the same as found earlier in High Pressure Simulation of Pump without Cavitation Model (p. 431). Create an isosurface for the volume fraction of water vapor at 25 °C, at 0.1: 1. 2. 3. CFD-Post should be running; start it if necessary. Click Insert > Location > Isosurface and accept the default name. Apply the following settings in the Details view: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Variable Definition > Value 4. Click Apply. Notice that the isosurface is clear. There is no water vapor at 25 °C in the blade passage for the simulation with cavitation because at an inlet total pressure of 100000Pa, the minimum static pressure in the model is above the vapor pressure. 5. Quit CFD-Post saving the state at your discretion. Value Water Vapor.Volume Fraction 0.1

Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model Over Range of Inlet Pressures
In order to construct a drop curve for this cavitation case, the inlet pressure must be decremented from its initial value of 100000 Pa to 17500 Pa, and the Head and NPSH values must be recorded for each simulation. The results are provided in Table 28.1, “Pump Performance Data” (p. 440).

Table 28.1. Pump Performance Data
Inlet Pressure Pa 100000 80000 60000 40000 30000 20000 18000 17500 NPSH m 9.859e+00 7.813e+00 5.767e+00 3.721e+00 2.698e+00 1.675e+00 1.470e+00 1.419e+00 Head m 3.537e+01 3.535e+01 3.535e+01 3.536e+01 3.538e+01 3.534e+01 3.528e+01 3.184e+01

Optionally, if you want to generate the data shown in Table 28.1, “Pump Performance Data” (p. 440), then follow the instructions in the following two sections (Writing CFX-Solver Input (.def) Files for Lower Inlet Pressures (p. 441) and Obtaining Solutions using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 441)). Those instructions involve running several simulations in order to obtain a set of results files. As a benefit to doing this, you will have the results files required to complete an optional postprocessing exercise at the end of this tutorial. This optional postprocessing exercise involves using Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 440 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Writing CFX-Solver Input (.def) Files for Lower Inlet Pressures isosurfaces to visualize the regions of cavitation, and visually comparing these isosurfaces between different results files. If you want to use the provided table data to produce a drop curve, proceed to Generating a Drop Curve (p. 442).

Writing CFX-Solver Input (.def) Files for Lower Inlet Pressures
Produce a set of definition (.def) files for the simulation, with each definition file specifying a progressively lower value for the inlet pressure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. CFX-Pre should be running; start it if necessary. Open Cavitation_100000.cfx. Open Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 > Pump > Inlet. On the Boundary Details tab change Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure to 80000 [Pa]. Click OK. Right-click Simulation and select Write Solver Input File. Set File name to Cavitation_80000.def. Click Save. Change the inlet pressure and save a corresponding CFX-Solver input file for each of the 6 other pressures: 60000 Pa, 40000 Pa, 30000 Pa, 20000 Pa, 18000 Pa, and 17500 Pa.

Note
There are other techniques for defining a set of related simulations. For example, you could use configuration control, as demonstrated in Flow from a Circular Vent (p. 79).

Obtaining Solutions using CFX-Solver Manager
Run each of the CFX-Solver input files that you created in the previous step: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Start CFX-Solver Manager if it is not already running. Ensure Define Run is displayed. Under Solver Input File, click Browse Select Initial Values Specification. Select Cavitation_100000_001.res for the initial values file using the Browse Click Start Run. You may see a notice about an artificial wall at the inlet. This notice indicates that the flow is trying to exit at the inlet. This can be ignored because the amount of reverse flow is very low. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. This can take a long time depending on your system. Eventually a dialog box is displayed stating that the simulation has completed. 7. 8. When the completion message appears at the end of the run, click OK without selecting the option to post-process the results. Repeat this process until you have run all the CFX-Solver input files for all 6 other inlet pressures: 60000 Pa, 40000 Pa, 30000 Pa, 20000 Pa, 18000 Pa, and 17500 Pa. The pump simulation with cavitation model at an inlet pressure of 17500 Pa will converge poorly because the performance of the pump is decreasing considerably around that pressure. Note that the initial values should be taken from the previously generated results (.res) file. tool. and select Cavitation_80000.def.

Release 12.0 - © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 441

All rights reserved. Creating a Head-versus-NPSH Chart 1. After generating the drop curve. Inc. .© 2009 ANSYS. 2. Enter the NPSH values in the left column and the head values in the right column. proceed to Creating a Table of the Head and NPSH Values (p. 3.csv) 5.1.0 . If you have chosen to run all of the simulations and have obtained all of the results files. The optional exercise of visualizing the cavitation regions requires the results files from the 60000 Pa. Click Save. “Pump Performance Data” (p. 442 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 441) Obtaining Solutions using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 4. you will need the values for Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and head as the inlet pressure decreases. Creating a Table of the Head and NPSH Values 1. Start CFD-Post. 440). 3.Viewing the Solution for the Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model Viewing the Solution for the Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model To see the pump performance. 441) Generating a Drop Curve To generate a drop curve. 40000 Pa. If you have not generated those results files and want to complete the optional exercise. This data is provided in Table 28. and apply the following settings: Value Drop Curve Values Comma Separated Values — Excel Readable (*. 442).1. Inc. then generate the results files by following the instructions in: • • Writing CFX-Solver Input (. Click Save Table Setting File name Files of type . “Pump Performance Data” (p. Set the name to Drop Curve and click OK. you can obtain the drop curve data yourself by following the instructions in the Creating a Head-versus-NPSH Chart (Optional Exercise) (p. you will generate a drop curve to show the pump performance over a range of inlet pressures.csva (Cleared) 0 Release 12. If you want to use that data. Click Insert > Chart. 20000 Pa. there is an optional exercise for visualizing the cavitation regions using isosurfaces. 444) section. and 17500 Pa simulations. Apply the following settings: Tab General Data Series Setting Title Data Source > File Data Source > File > Browse X Axis Axis Range > Determine ranges automatically Axis Range > Min Value Drop Curve (Selected) Drop Curve Values. Click Insert > Table and set the name to Drop Curve Values. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. Enter the values from Table 28. 440) for the 8 inlet pressures in the table.def) Files for Lower Inlet Pressures (p.

Release 12.© 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Also. This is due to the fact that. cavitation will appear but will have no significant impact on performance (incipient cavitation) until the blade passage has sufficient blockage due to vapor. 4. for a part of the test. At that point. 443 . which implies that the normalized pressure rise across the pump is constant. although you may start at a high inlet pressure where there is no cavitation. Inc. Inc.0 . 443). Viewing the Drop Curve Here is what the drop curve created in the earlier steps should look like: You can see here that there is not significant degradation in the performance curve as the inlet total pressure is dropped. as you drop the inlet pressure. the inlet total pressure is sufficiently high to prevent cavitation. Click Apply and proceed to Viewing the Drop Curve (p. performance degrades (rapidly in this case).Viewing the Solution for the Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model Tab Setting Axis Range > Max Axis Labels > Use data for axis labels Axis Labels > Custom Label Y Axis Axis Range > Determine ranges automatically Axis Range > Min Axis Range > Max Axis Labels > Use data for axis labels Axis Labels > Custom Label Line Display a Value 10 (Cleared) NPSH [m] (Cleared) 0 45 (Cleared) Head [m] Triangle Line Display > Symbols Created in the previous steps.

Otherwise. proceed to Visualizing the Cavitation Regions (Optional Exercise) (p. 444 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Set the name to Drop Curve and click OK. Each of the previous initial values files is available as a timestep (in this case a sequence) through the Timestep Selector. Important This setting. 3. Start CFD-Post. Click Open.res.0 .Viewing the Solution for the Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model When the inlet total pressure reaches a sufficiently low value. When the final results file is loaded into CFD-Post using the Load complete history as: A single case. On the right side of the Load Results File dialog box. 9. persists when you close CFD-Post. 2. Not doing so could lead to undesirable results when post-processing other cases. . unless already set. by default theContinue History From option was on. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. To load the results file. Creating a Head-versus-NPSH Chart (Optional Exercise) 1. What is called the point of cavitation is often marked by the NPSH at which the pressure rise has fallen by a few percent. All rights reserved. In the Load Results File dialog box. This enables the results file to retain a reference to the initial value results file. Inc. The performance curve then starts to drop at a pressure of 18000 Pa as you can see on the chart. it includes results from all the initial values files as well as the final results. Set this option to Load complete history as: > A single case. If you want to complete an optional exercise on visualizing the cavitation regions.© 2009 ANSYS. saving the state at your discretion. Ensure that you set this back to the original setting noted above. Apply the following settings: Tab General Setting Type Title Data Series Data Source > Expression Data Source > Expression X Axis Y Axis Data Selection > Expression Axis Range > Determine ranges automatically Axis Range > Min Axis Range > Max Line Display Line Display > Symbols Value XY . Click Insert > Chart or click Chart . Click Apply and proceed to Viewing the Drop Curve (p.Transient or Sequence Drop Curve (Selected) Head NPSH (Cleared) 0 45 Triangle 10. 7. as instructed to do so at the end of the tutorial. Release 12. cavitation occurs. under CFX run history and multi-configuration options. 6. When you started the CFX-Solver run using initial values. which is around 17500 Pa in this case. select Cavitation_17500_001. 445). Click OK when prompted with a Process Multiple Results as a Sequence message. 8. Inc. select File > Load Results or click Load Results . 5. quit CFD-Post. 4. 445). note down the current setting under CFX run history and multi-configuration options.

cavitation occurs. which implies that the normalized pressure rise across the pump is constant. The performance curve then starts to drop at a pressure of 18000 Pa as you can see on the chart. 445 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Important If you want to complete an optional exercise on visualizing the cavitation regions.Viewing the Solution for the Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model Viewing the Drop Curve Here is what the drop curve created in the earlier steps should look like: You can see here that there is not significant degradation in the performance curve as the inlet total pressure is dropped. performance degrades (rapidly in this case). then generate the results files by following the instructions in: • • Writing CFX-Solver Input (. Use Cavitation_60000_001. Otherwise. 446). What is called the point of cavitation is often marked by the NPSH at which the pressure rise has fallen by a few percent. At that point. as you drop the inlet pressure. cavitation will appear but will have no significant impact on performance (incipient cavitation) until the blade passage has sufficient blockage due to vapor. 441) Obtaining Solutions using CFX-Solver Manager (p. This is due to the fact that. 441) Cavitation does not occur for the 100000 Pa and 80000 Pa simulations. Launch CFD-Post and load Cavitation_60000_001. All rights reserved. 40000 Pa. When the inlet total pressure reaches a sufficiently low value. for a part of the test. Inc.res to create an isosurface: 1. the inlet total pressure is sufficiently high to prevent cavitation.© 2009 ANSYS. Create an isosurface for 10% water vapor (by volume fraction).res. Inc. for the 60000 Pa. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 20000 Pa. and 17500 Pa simulations: 1.def) Files for Lower Inlet Pressures (p. 20000 Pa.0 . 445). 40000 Pa. proceed to Visualizing the Cavitation Regions (Optional Exercise) (p. which is around 17500 Pa in this case. proceed to Restoring CFX run history and multi-configuration options (p. Release 12. and 17500 Pa simulations. Visualizing the Cavitation Regions (Optional Exercise) This is an optional part of the tutorial that requires the results files from the 60000 Pa. If you have not generated those results files and want to complete this optional exercise. although you may start at a high inlet pressure where there is no cavitation. Also.

Inc. 3. Otherwise. then turn on visibility for the isosurface in the Outline tree view. Click a blank area inside the viewport named View 2 (which contains the results that you just loaded) to make that viewport active. 7.res. Important If you created the drop curve by setting the CFX run history and multi-configuration options. Restoring CFX run history and multi-configuration options As mentioned above the setting under CFX run history and multi-configuration options persists when you close CFD-Post. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Apply. 3.res to the current results: 1. Select Cavitation_40000_001.0 . 2. Observe that the amount of water vapor increases as the inlet pressure decreases. Value Water Vapor. Select File > Close to close the current file. saving the state at your discretion. quit CFD-Post. Release 12. load Cavitation_20000_001. Apply the following settings in the details view: Tab Geometry Setting Definition > Variable Definition > Value 4. select Cavitation_17500_001. Load a results file by selecting File > Load Results or click Load Results . Click Close if prompted to save. Click Open. In the Load Results File dialog box. 5. 6. by selecting File > Quit. Select Insert > Location > Isosurface and accept the default name. restore the original settings under CFX run history and multi-configuration options. 446). 1. Under Case options. 4. Click Open.1 Add Cavitation_40000_001. select both Keep current cases loaded and Open in new view. In a similar way. 3. Select File > Load Results.res and Cavitation_17500_001. 446 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. 5. Rotate the view (from any viewport) to inspect the results. . proceed to Restoring CFX run history and multi-configuration options (p. 5. On the right side of the Load Results File dialog box.© 2009 ANSYS. 3. Quit CFD-Post. Inc.Volume Fraction 0. Click Synchronize camera in displayed views so that all viewports maintain the same camera position.res. 2. 4. This section outlines the steps to restore CFX run history and multi-configuration options to its original setting. 2.res and make the isosurface visible on these results.Viewing the Solution for the Pump Simulation with Cavitation Model 2. 4.

455) Viewing the Results in CFD-Post (p. 447) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. Editing and creating boundary conditions in CFX-Pre. Adding particles that evaporate. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 455) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • • • Importing a CCL file in CFX-Pre. Spray Dryer This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. Inc. 449) Defining a Steady-State Simulation in CFX-Pre (p. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type Domain Type Boundary Conditions Details General Mode Steady State General Fluid Single Domain Water Nozzle Air Inlet Outlet Domain 1 Default Domain Interface Timescale Particle Coupling Control Extra Output Variables List CFD-Post Plots Fluid Fluid Physical Timescale Selected Selected Contour Plots Particle Tracking Component CFX-Pre Overview of the Problem to Solve In this example.Chapter 29.0 . and of averaged values of mean droplet diameter and droplet temperature in the spray dryer. 447) Before You Begin (p. 447 . 449) Starting CFX-Pre (p. a spray dryer is modeled in which water drops are evaporated by a hot air flow. Creating contour plots and inserting particle tracking in CFD-Post.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Creating a domain interface in CFX-Pre. 449) Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. as well as the temperature and size of individual water drops as they travel through the spray dryer. All rights reserved. Inc. Release 12. The goal of this tutorial is to observe the variation of gas temperature and mass fraction of water vapor.

mass fraction of water.Air Inlet mass and momentum radial component = 0 m/s. 448 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Air Inlet mass and momentum theta component = 10 m/s Static temperature at Air Inlet = 423 K Relative pressure at Outlet = 0 Pa Normal speed of Water = 10 m/s • • • The approach for solving this problem is to first import a CCL file with the fluid properties. Minor changes will be made to the information imported from the CCL file. Finally. The spray dryer has two inlets named Water Nozzle and Air Inlet. Release 12. Periodic boundaries are used to allow only a small section of the full geometry to be modeled. the inlets are located at the top of the vessel and the outlet at the bottom. .0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. particle tracking will be used for plotting the temperature of liquid water. The Air Inlet is for the swirling.Overview of the Problem to Solve The following figure shows approximately half of the full geometry. Inc. Inc. The relevant parameters of this problem are: • • • Static temperature at Water Nozzle = 300 K Size distribution for the drops being created by the Water Nozzle is prescribed using discrete diameter values and associated fractions of the droplet mass flow rate.© 2009 ANSYS. The Water Nozzle inlet is located in the middle of the circular Air Inlet.33e-4 kg/s. All rights reserved. Air Inlet mass and momentum axial component = 30 m/s (downwards along the axis of the spray dryer). Boundary conditions and a domain interface will also be added. The geometry to be modeled consists of a 9 degree section of the axisymmetric dryer shape. and averaged temperature of liquid water in the spray dryer. The Water Nozzle is where the liquid water enters in a primary air flow at a mass flow rate of 1. contour plots will be created to see the variation of temperature. In CFD-Post. drying air flow. and one outlet named Outlet. average mean particle diameter of liquid water. When the spray dryer is operating. domain and boundary conditions in CFX-Pre.

Apply the following settings Setting Files of type File name 3. Click Save. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager (p. Value CFX Mesh (*gtm *cfx) spraydryer9. 2. Select General and click OK. Click Open. CFX-Solver Manager and CFD-Post. type SprayDryer. see Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 3.pre. 3) Starting CFX-Pre 1. 455).© 2009 ANSYS.Before You Begin Before You Begin If this is the first tutorial you are working with. 4. Edit Case Options > General in the Outline tree view and ensure that Automatic Default Domain is turned off. In CFX-Pre. 1. All rights reserved.gtm In addition to the files from the examples directory. If you want to set up the simulation manually. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • 2.ccl file from the etc/model-templates directory. should also be copied over to the working directory.pre spraydryer9. 4) Playing a Tutorial Session File (p. 6. Select File > Save Case As. Inc. 3. 5. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2.0 . 1) Running ANSYS CFX Tutorials in ANSYS Workbench (p. Importing the Mesh 1. the evaporating_drops.gtm Importing the Evaporating CCL Drops Model Template ANSYS CFX Command Language (CCL) consists of commands used to carry out actions in CFX-Pre. domain and domain properties will be Release 12. The physics for this simulation such as materials. it is important to review the following topics before beginning: • • • • Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. Set the working directory and start CFX-Pre For details. select File > New Case. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1) Defining a Steady-State Simulation in CFX-Pre If you want to set up the simulation automatically using a tutorial session file. Select File > Import > Mesh. see Preparing a Working Directory and Starting ANSYS CFX in Standalone Mode (p. 3). SprayDryer. Under File name. proceed to the following steps: This section describes the step-by-step definition of the flow physics in CFX-Pre for a steady-state simulation. Inc. 449 . 1) Changing the Display Colors (p. run SprayDryer. For details.

1. Note that the water data could also have been imported from the library in CFX-Pre. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In the tree view. then click Edit. which enters from the Water Nozzle. Ignore this error message as the issue will be addressed when Domain 1 is being edited. 4. 5. 450 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select File > Import > CCL The Import CCL dialog box appears. The inlet boundary is set up with a default static temperature of 573 K.2 [kg m^-3] a Release 12. 1. A domain named Domain 1 that includes the Gas mixture and H2Ol as a fluid pair as well as an inlet boundary is also specified in the CCL file. This error occurs as the CCL contains a location placeholder that is not part of the mesh. Note An error message related to the parameter Location will appear in the message window.81 [m s^-1] Y Dirn. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Buoy. Click Open.0 . Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity -9. Editing the Domain The fluid domain imported in the CCL file will be edited in this section. Note The physics for a simulation can be saved to a CCL (CFX Command Language) file at any time by selecting File > Export > CCL. Inc. which determines the rate of evaporation of the water.0 [m s^-1] X Dirn. The template sets up the materials water vapor H2O with a thermal conductivity of 193e-04 W/mK and water liquid H2Ol. We will first analyze the evaporating_drops. Density 1. 2.ccl model template and then import it into the simulation.ccl with a text editor and take the time to look at the information it contains. . This will start with the existing CCL already generated and append the imported CCL.© 2009 ANSYS. Open evaporating_drops. All rights reserved. Inc.ccl. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Location and Type > Location Value B34 Domain Models > Buoyancy > Option Buoyant Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity 0.0 [m s^-1] Z Dirn. Note Replace is useful if you have defined physics and want to update or replace them with newly-imported physics. The template also creates a continuous gas phase named Gas mixture containing H2O and Air Ideal Gas and a binary mixture of H2O and H2Ol. 3. Ref. right-click Domain 1. Under Import Method. 2. Select evaporating_drops.Editing the Domain imported as a CCL. Domain Models > Buoyancy > Gravity 0. select Append.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 K Normal Speed 10. All rights reserved. we can set the fluid to non buoyant.© 2009 ANSYS. Since any natural convection in the gas can be neglected. 451 . then click Edit. which will allow us to have particles of more than one specified diameter. Inc. The total of mass fractions and the total of number fractions will sum to unity. A mass fraction as well as a number fraction will be specified for each of the diameter entries. Two boundary conditions.0 [m s^-1] 500a 3. right-click inlet. Creating and Editing the Boundary Conditions In this section. The particle diameter distribution will be set to Discrete Diameter Distribution. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature Fluid Values H2Ol > Mass and Momentum > Option H2Ol > Mass and Momentum > Normal Speed H2Ol > Particle Position > Number of Positions > Number H2Ol > Particle Mass Flow > Mass Flow Rate Value Inlet two fluid nozzle Normal Speed 10. In the tree view. Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. right-click Water Nozzle. In the tree view. Water Nozzle Boundary The inlet boundary where the water enters in a primary air flow will be renamed and edited with the particle mass flow rate set consistent with the problem description.2 as representative of air. Click OK. Diameter values will be listed as specified in the problem description. Set the new name to Water Nozzle. 3.32e-6 [kg s^-1]b Release 12. the Inlet and Domain 1 Default boundary conditions that were imported in the CCL file will be edited. 2. then click Rename.0 . 3. under Domain 1. 1.Creating and Editing the Boundary Conditions Tab Fluid Specific Models Setting Fluid Value Gas mixture Fluid > Gas mixture > Fluid Buoyancy Non Buoyant b Model > Option Fluid H2Ol Fluid > H2Ol > Fluid Buoyancy Model Density Difference > Option a b The buoyancy reference density is set to 1. Air Inlet and Outlet will also be created for the spray dryer simulation.0 [m s^-1] Static Temperature 300.

3. drying air flow will enter will be created with temperature component. 1. 4.11e-5 [m] 10*0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2.48e-5.0 K a b The number of representative drops was chosen to be 500 through experience of particle transport calculations. Inc. Click OK.1 10*0. Inc.Creating and Editing the Boundary Conditions Tab Setting H2Ol > Particle Diameter Distribution > Option H2Ol > Particle Diameter Distribution > Diameter List Value Discrete Diameter Distribution 5. 1.09e-5. radial and theta components set consistent with the problem description. 3. Components -30. Click OK. 1.27e-5. Select Insert > Boundary from the main menu or click Boundary Under Name. Release 12. 2.© 2009 ANSYS. 4. All rights reserved. Vel.0 . 2. .9e-6. Mass and Momentum > Radial Component 0. 452 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. mass and momentum axial.0 [m s^-1] Mass and Momentum > Theta Component Axis Definition > Option Axis Definition > Rotation Axis Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Static Temperature 5.25e-5.54e-5. Air Inlet Boundary A second inlet in which the swirling.0 [m s^-1] Coordinate Axis Global Y Static Temperature 423. 1.0 K Outlet Boundary The outlet boundary will be created as an opening with pressure as specified in the problem description.0 [m s^-1] . Note that this mass flow is only 1/40th of the total mass flow rate of water because only a 9 degree sector is modeled. 1. 10.1 Static Temperature H2Ol > Particle Diameter Distribution > Mass Fraction List H2Ol > Particle Diameter Distribution > Number Fraction List H2Ol > Heat Transfer > Option H2Ol > Heat Transfer > Static Temperature 300.39e-5. Click OK.88e-5.7e-5. type Air Inlet. 1. 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Axial Component Value Inlet air inlet Cyl.

periodic1 and periodic 2 regions. Click OK. 2. Heat Transfer > Outside Temperature 3.© 2009 ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.0 [Pa] . 4. will be mapped by a single rotational transformation about an axis. 1. All rights reserved. Click OK. Click OK. Domain 1 Default The Domain 1 Default boundary will be edited to use a heat transfer coefficient of 3. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Boundary Type Location Boundary Details Mass and Momentum > Option Mass and Momentum > Relative Pressure 5.Creating a Domain Interface 1. Select Insert > Domain Interface. 453 . Select Insert > Boundary from the main menu or click Boundary Under Name.0 [K] Creating a Domain Interface A domain interface will be created to connect the Domain 1. 2. Value Heat Transfer Coefficient 3. Value Outlet outlet Average Static Pressure 0. 3. type Outlet. In the tree view. 2. 1. Accept the default name. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 [W m^-2 K^-1] 300. periodic1 and periodic 2. right-click Domain 1 Default. The two sides of the periodic interface. Coeff. then click Edit.0 W/K/m and an outside temperature of 300 K. Apply the following settings: Tab Boundary Details Setting Heat Transfer > Option Heat Transfer > Heat Trans. Inc.0 . Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Interface Type Interface Side 1 > Domain (filter) Interface Side 1 > Region List Interface Side 2 > Domain (filter) Interface Side 2 > Region List Interface Models > Option Value Fluid Fluid Domain 1 periodic1 Domain 1 periodic 2 Rotational Periodicity Interface Models > Axis Definition > Rotation Global Y Axis Release 12.

two additional variables. Apply the following settings: Release 12. Writing the CFX-Solver Input (. All rights reserved.Setting Solver Control Tab Setting Value Mesh Connection Method > Mesh Connection Automatic > Option 3. H2O1.E-4 Based on the air inlet speed and the size of the dryer. Setting Output Control In this section. Apply the following settings: Tab Basic Settings Setting Convergence Control > Max. Click OK.Averaged Temperature. 1. 3.def) File 1. . 454 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Iterations Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Timescale Control Convergence Control > Fluid Timescale Control > Physical Timescale Convergence Criteria > Residual Type Convergence Criteria > Residual Target a Value 100 Physical Timescale 0. then select H2Ol.05 [s]a RMS 1.Averaged Mean Particle Var. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click OK.Averaged Temperature will be specified. These variables will be used when viewing the results in CFD-Post to understand the flow behavior. 3. holding the Ctrl key. Inc.Averaged Mean Particle Diameter and H2Ol. 2.Averaged Temperaturea a Click the Ellipsis icon to open the Extra Output Variable List dialog box.© 2009 ANSYS. H2Ol.0 . Click Solver Control . Click Define Run . Click Output Control . Inc. 2. Click OK.Averaged Mean Particle Diameter and H2O1. Click OK. List Diameter. 2. Apply the following settings: Tab Results Setting Extra Output Variables List Value Selected Extra Output Variables List > Extra Output H2Ol. Setting Solver Control 1.

4. 455 . Click Start Run. Select the check box next to Post-Process Results when the completion message appears at the end of the run. 3. right-click the contour you just created in the tree view and select Hide. Click Apply. All rights reserved. Set the name to Temperature Contour. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Finally. Viewing the Results in CFD-Post In this section. particle tracking will be used for plotting the temperature of liquid water. liquid water average mean particle diameter and liquid water averaged temperature. will first be created. From the main menu. Apply the following settings: Tab Geometry Setting Location Variable 5.def. 6. 3. Displaying the Temperature Using a Contour Plot A contour plot located at the Domain Interface 1 Side 1. water mass fraction. 2.def Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager When CFX-Pre has shut down and the CFX-Solver Manager has started. select the check box next to Shut down ANSYS CFX-Solve. Inc. Value SprayDryer. CFX-Solver Input File should be set to SprayDryer. Value Domain Interface 1 Side 1 Temperature Release 12. obtain a solution to the CFD problem by following the instructions below. Inc. This ensures that the view is set to a position that is best suited to display the results. the Solver Input File is set. This can take a long time depending on your system. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > View Towards −Z. Quit CFX-Pre. If using Standalone Mode. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1. Click OK.Obtaining a Solution Using CFX-Solver Manager Setting File name 3. Eventually a dialog box is displayed. CFX-Solver Manager automatically starts and.© 2009 ANSYS. When you have finished. Click Save. 4. saving the simulation (. 1. 5. Particle tracking will trace the mean flow behavior in and around the complex geometry of the spray dryer. on the Define Run dialog box. Click OK. 2. 4. CFX-Solver runs and attempts to obtain a solution. Ensure Define Run is displayed. and used to show the temperature variation through the spray dryer.cfx) file. contour plots located on one of the periodic regions of the spray dryer will be created to illustrate the variation of temperature. select Insert > Contour. on the Periodic 1 region.0 .

In step 4. the temperature of the hot gas coming from the Air Inlet decreases as the process takes place. Apply the following settings: Tab Color Setting Mode Variable 5. • Repeat steps 1-6 in the Displaying the Temperature Using a Contour Plot (p. This ensures that the view is set to a position that is best suited to display the results. As the air carries the thermal energy by convection. From the contours and particle tracks. • Repeat steps 1-6 in the Displaying the Temperature Using a Contour Plot (p. During the spray drying cycle. Based on this flow of the water drop. In step 4. resulting in a decrease in droplet diameter and an increase in the amount of water vapor. 1. change the contour name to H2Ol Averaged Mean Particle Diameter Contour. . In step 3. change the variable to H2Ol. Displaying the Liquid Water Averaged Mean Particle Diameter Using a Contour Plot A contour plot located at the Periodic 1 region will be created and used to show the H2Ol. Click OK. Inc. Displaying the Liquid Water Averaged Temperature Using a Contour Plot A contour plot located at the Periodic 1 region will be created and used to show the H2Ol. Click Apply.Averaged Temperature. which leads to evaporation. 2. change the variable to H2O. change the contour name to H2O Mass Fraction Contour. change the variable to H2Ol. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. • Repeat steps 1-6 in the Displaying the Temperature Using a Contour Plot (p. Displaying the Liquid Water Temperature Using Particle Tracking This section outlines the steps for using particle tracking to trace the variation of the water temperature. All rights reserved. In step 4. 3. From the main menu. Value Variable H20l. In step 3. the air transfers its thermal energy to the liquid water drops. 455) section. Set the name to H2Ol Temperature. In step 3. Inc.Mass Fraction variation through the spray dryer.0 .Displaying the Water Mass Fraction Using a Contour Plot Displaying the Water Mass Fraction Using a Contour Plot A contour plot located at the Periodic 1 region will be created and used to show the H2O.Averaged Temperature variation through the spray dryer. 455) section.Averaged Mean Particle Diameter variation through the spray dryer. change the contour name to H2Ol Averaged Temperature Contour. leading to evaporation. 455) section. notice that the water droplets entering the spray dryer through the Water Nozzle recirculates in the region between the two inlets before merging in with the stream of hot air entering the spray dryer through the Air Inlet.Temperature Release 12. liquid water droplets that are close to the Air Inlet see their temperature increase. select Insert > Particle Track.Mass Fraction.© 2009 ANSYS.Averaged Mean Particle Diameter. Right-click a blank area in the viewer and select Predefined Camera > Isometric View (Z up). 4. 456 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Repeat steps 2-5 in the Displaying the Liquid Water Temperature Using Particle Tracking (p. change the name to H2Ol Mean Particle Diameter.0 .Displaying the Diameter of a Water Drop Using Particle Tracking Displaying the Diameter of a Water Drop Using Particle Tracking This section outlines the steps for using particle tracking to trace the variation of water droplet diameter. the diameter of water drops decreases as they evaporate. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In step 3. its diameter decreases as a function of the temperature increase. change the variable name to H20l.© 2009 ANSYS. Inc. In step 4. 457 . Inc. we can see that as the air from the Air Inlet transfers its thermal energy to the liquid water.Mean Particle Diameter From the water drop diameter particle track. All rights reserved.cst) file at your discretion. Release 12. 1. 2. Quit CFD-Post. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 456) section. saving the state (. So when the water drop move away from the Water Nozzle.

Release 12. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. .© 2009 ANSYS.0 . Inc. Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

624e-3 kg/s and pulverized coal particles entering at a mass flow rate of 1. you will model coal combustion and radiation in a furnace. 459) Before You Begin (p. Feature User Mode Analysis Type Fluid Type CCL File Domain Type Boundaries Details General Mode Steady State Reacting Mixture. 459) Overview of the Problem to Solve (p. and one outlet.© 2009 ANSYS. 461) Coal Combustion Simulation (p. Three different coal combustion simulations will be set up: • • • Coal Combustion with no-swirl burners where there is no release of nitrogen oxide during the burning process. Coal Combustion with swirl burners where there is release of nitrogen oxide during the burning process. 472) Coal Combustion Simulation with Swirl and Nitrogen Oxide (p. 476) Tutorial Features In this tutorial you will learn about: • • • Importing a CCL file in CFX-Pre.0 . Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.015e-3 Release 12. 459 . All rights reserved. 461) Starting CFX-Pre (p. Coal Combustion This tutorial includes: • • • • • • • Tutorial Features (p. Setting up and using Proximate/Ultimate analysis for hydrocarbon fuels in CFX-Pre. Inc. The Coal Inlet (see the inner yellow annulus shown in the figure inset) has air entering at a mass flow rate of 1. The following figure shows half of the full geometry. Inc. Coal Combustion with swirl burners where there is no release of nitrogen oxide during the burning process. Hydrocarbon Fuel Import Single Domain Coal Inlet Air Inlet Outlet No-slip Wall Periodic Symmetry CFD-Post Plots Particle Tracking Component CFX-Pre Overview of the Problem to Solve In this tutorial. The coal furnace has two inlets named Coal Inlet and Air Inlet. 461) Coal Combustion Simulation with Swirl (p.Chapter 30. Viewing the results for nitrogen oxide in CFD-Post. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Overview of the Problem to Solve kg/s. In the case of non-swirling flow. in the case of flow with swirl. a pair of symmetry boundaries is sufficient.0 . All rights reserved. 38. . 460 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Each simulation will make use of either symmetric or periodic boundaries to model the effects of the remainder of the furnace. The outlet is located at the opposite end of the furnace and is at a pressure of 1 atm. The Air Inlet (see the outer red annulus shown in the figure inset) is where heated air enters the coal furnace at a mass flow rate of 1.© 2009 ANSYS. The relevant parameters of this problem are: • • • • • • • • • Coal Inlet static temperature = 343 K Size distribution for the drops being created by the Coal Inlet = 12.232 Release 12. 88 [micron] Air Inlet static temperature = 573 K Outlet average static pressure = 0 Pa Coal Gun wall fixed temperature = 800 K Coal Inlet wall fixed temperature = 343 K Air Inlet wall fixed temperature = 573 K Furnace wall fixed temperature = 1400 K O2 mass fraction = 0. The provided mesh occupies a 5 degree section of an axisymmetric coal furnace. 62. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. a periodic boundary with rotational periodicity is required.035e-2 kg/s. Inc. Inc.

pre CoalCombustion_nonox_swirl. as well as the mass fractions of carbon. Then proceed to Obtaining a Solution for the Simulation using CFX-Solver Manager (p. 2. Importing the Mesh 1. Prepare the working directory using the following files in the examples directory: • • • • • 2. 3. Click Save. sulfur and nitrogen. Only small changes to the boundary conditions will be made to create the second simulation. Inc. into CFX-Pre. 471).pre CoalCombustion_nox