Organizational behavior assignment on Organizational Culture

Submitted by: - Sagar gupta Fd1 (ISBE-A)

Index

 Definition of organisational culture  Characteristics and functions  Types of culture and culture cluster  Cultural change and myth about organisational culture  Impact of organisational culture in general and on employee morale  Corporate culture  Case study  Conclusion

. norms. solve problems. One of the issues involving culture is that it is defined both in terms of its causes and effect. treat customers.Defining culture as a manifest pattern of behavior. Both of these approaches are relevant to understanding culture.Many people use the term culture to describe patterns of cross individual behavioral consistency For example. and treat employees.In this case culture is defined as the informal values. when people say that culture is “The way we do things around here. We will address these two questions later in the module.  Process. It is important to know on what types of behavior culture has greatest impact (outcomes) and how culture works to control the behavior of organizational members.So what we think is organizational culture? A single definition of organizational culture has proven to be very elusive. resolve conflicts. and beliefs that control how individuals and groups in an organization interact with each other and with people outside the organization. these are the two ways in which cultures often defined.  Outcomes.Defining culture as a set of mechanisms creating cross individual behavioral consistency.” they are defining consistent way is in which people perform tasks. No one definition of organizational culture has emerged in the literature. For example.

. etc. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. despite the best-laid plans. Organizational change efforts are rumored to fail the vast majority of the time. Practitioners are coming to realize that.Basically. our values on money. values and norms. Inputs include feedback from. etc. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. stories. values.g. e. space and people. the culture of a large. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. -. time. The process is based on our assumptions. society.similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone's personality. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. appearance. Outputs or effects of our culture are. products. strategies. organizational behaviors. Corporate culture can be looked at as a system. what members wear. image. values on competition or service. e. this failure is credited to lack of understanding about the strong role of culture and the role it plays in organizations. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. That's one of the reasons that many strategic planners now place .g. laws.. Usually. e. technologies. For example. but everyone knows it when they sense it. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. There's been a great deal of literature generated over the past decade about the concept of organizational culture -particularly in regard to learning how to change organizational culture. etc.g. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. professions. facilities. services.. heroes. what they brag about. Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to express distinctly. but also changing the corporate culture as well.

performance oriented cultures have been shown to possess statistically better financial growth. efficiency and reduce employee turnover and other counterproductive behavior. A variety of characteristics describe a healthy culture. Characteristics of Healthy Organizational cultures Organizations should strive for what is considered a “healthy” organizational culture in order to increase productivity. Additionally. growth. as well as price  Lower than average turnover rates (perpetuated by a healthy culture)  Investment in learning. training. including:  Acceptance and appreciation for diversity  Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee’s contribution to the company  Employee pride and enthusiasm for the organization and the work performed  Equal opportunity for each employee to realize their full potential within the company  Strong communication with all employees regarding policies and company issues  Strong company leaders with a strong sense of direction and purpose  Ability to compete in industry innovation and customer service. strong internal communications and an acceptance and encouragement of a healthy level of risk-taking in order to achieve innovation. Such cultures possess high employee involvement. and employee knowledge Additionally. organizational cultures that explicitly .as much emphasis on identifying strategic values as they do mission and vision.

Morgan proposes four essential strengths of the organizational culture approach: • • • • It focuses attention on the human side of organizational life. Customs and rituals. Stories and myths about the history of the group. the setup in an empty meeting room). Shop talk—typical language used in and about the group.emphasize factors related to the demands placed on them by industry technology and growth will be better performers in their industries. Morgan proposes that people should ask themselves: "What impact am I having on the social construction of reality in my organization?" "What can I do to have a different and more positive impact?" It encourages the view that the perceived relationship between an organization and its environment is also affected by the organization’s basic assumptions. with outsiders. including the physical space they occupy. It makes clear the importance of creating appropriate systems of shared meaning to help people work together toward desired outcomes. . Overt and implicit expectations for member behavior. Metaphors and symbols—may be unconscious but can be found embodied in other cultural elements. It requires members—especially leaders—to acknowledge the impact of their behavior on the organization’s culture. and finds significance and learning in even its most mundane aspects (for example. Elements of organizational culture may include:• • • • • • • Stated and unstated values. and with their environment. Climate—the feelings evoked by the way members interact with each other.

. FUNCTIONS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE A growing organization cannot neglect its human side. what they are trying to do. .Morgan says: We choose and operate in environmental domains according to how we construct conceptions of who we are and what we are trying to do. . It becomes necessary for management to nurture the spirit of oneness and to develop an organizational entity. And we act in relation to those domains through the definitions we impose on them. . (I) the fooling of organisational identify No Organization can grow without strong commitment of its employees to the cause of organization. Organisational culture performs four different types of functions. and what their environment is like have a much greater tendency to realize themselves than is usually believed. Culture is that invisible bond of emotions and feeling that . (ii) Collective Commitment Organisational development is the result of group efforts. Employees are the real fortune makers who make the organization a strong and growing unit. . . The beliefs and ideas that organizations hold about who they are. Organisational culture has its own ability to attract develop and keep talented people.

remuneration and behavior patterns which can socialize the employees without any group conflicts and ideological clashes. The organization provides a stable environment in which employees can develop and exercise their skills. hospitals.ties employees at various levels to develop collective commitment. Researcher Jeffrey Sonnenfeld identified the following four types of cultures. Academy Culture Employees are highly skilled and tend to stay in the organization. Types of Culture:There are different types of culture just like there are different types of personality. (IV) Desired Behavioral Pattern The employees must understand their surroundings. large corporations. while working their way up the ranks. they should learn to behave according to basic philosophy of business. (iii) Socialization of Members The organizational culture develops uniform system of promotions. Examples are universities. No organization can succeed for a long if it has not given proper understanding of its surroundings to its employees. etc. .

Baseball Team Culture Employees are "free agents" who have highly prized skills. such as investment banking. There are many opportunities for those with timely. Fortress Culture Employees don't know if they'll be laid off or not. high-risk organizations. Some More Type Of Cultures Are:This Types of Organizational Culture Organisational culture can vary in a number of ways. weak culture: Organizational culture can be labelled as strong or weak based on sharedness of the core values amongorganisational members and the degree of commitment the members have to these core values. Examples are the military. while a weak culture opens avenues for each one of the members showing concerns unique to themselves. The higher the sharedness and commitment. Some of the bases of the differentiation are presented below: 1. specialized skills. etc. advertising. etc. Club Culture The most important requirement for employees in this culture is to fit into the group. etc. . The organization promotes from within and highly values seniority. It is these variances that differentiate one organization from the others. Strong vs. the stronger the culture increases the possibility of behaviour consistency amongst its members. This type of culture exists in fast-paced. some law firms. large car companies. They are in high demand and can rather easily get jobs elsewhere. Examples are savings and loans. Usually employees start at the bottom and stay with the organization. These organizations often undergo massive reorganization.

payment of overtime. Consequently. the employees consider work to be less important than personal and social obligations. Power Culture Within a power culture. Roles. In a soft culture the employees choose to pursue a few objectives which serve personal or sectional interests. responsibilities. Under pressure from local communities and the government. 3. rules and regulations are components of formal culture. Sinha (1990) has presented a case study of a public sector fertilizer company which was established in an industrially backward rural area to promote employment generation and industrial activity. The culture is welfare oriented. Formal vs informal culture: The work culture of an organization. That person likes control and the power behind it. This resulted in huge financial losses (up to 60 percent of the capital) to the company. Decisions in an organisation that display a power culture are centralised around one key individual. and poor discipline. Soft vs hard culture : Soft work culture can emerge in an organisation where the organisation pursues multiple and conflicting goals. They set the expectations that the organisation has from every member and indicates the consequences if these expectations are not fulfilled. converting mechanised operations into manual operations. Power cultures are usually found within a small or medium size organisation. the organisation can react quickly to dangers around it as no consultation is . control is the key element. 4. accountability.2. people are held accountable for their mistakes but are not rewarded for good performance. As group work is not evident in a power culture. to a large extent. the company succumbed to overstaffing. A typical example of soft culture can be found in a number of public sector organisations in India where the management feels constrained to take action against employees to maintain high productivity. is influenced by the formal components of organisational culture.

The focus of the organization is the individual or a particular aim. Staff feels motivated because they are empowered to make decisions within their team. which can also lead to high staff turnover. However this culture has its problems. Role Culture Common in most organisations today is a role culture. A task culture clearly offers some benefits. in which members are encouraged to interact with people and approach tasks . Task Culture A task culture refers to a team based approach to complete a particular task. 6. putting together teams to oversee a mission. In a role culture.involved. 7. They are popular in today's modern business society where the organization will establish particular 'project teams' to complete a task to date. What are the Culture Clusters?  Constructive Cultures. The role culture has the benefit of specialization. lack of consultation can lead to staff feeling undervalued and demotivated. Employees focus on their particular role as assigned to them by their job description and this should increase productivity for the company. they will also feel valued because they may have been selected within that team and given the responsibility to bring the task to a successful end. NASA organizes part of their culture around this concept i. 5. organisations are split into various functions and each individual within the function is assigned a particular role. Person culture Person cultures are commonly found in charities or non profit organizations.e. This culture is quite logical to organize in a large organization.

resulting in high levels of motivation. The four cultural norms in this cluster are:     Achievement Self-Actualizing Humanistic-Encouraging Affinitive Organizations with Constructive cultures encourage members to work to their full potential. creativity is valued over conformity. These types of cultural norms are consistent with (and supportive of) the objectives behind empowerment.  Passive/Defensive Cultures. and selfactualization. The Constructive Cluster The Constructive Cluster includes cultural norms that reflect expectations for members to interact with others and approach tasks in ways that will help them meet their higher order satisfaction needs for affiliation. esteem. Constructive norms are evident in environments where quality is valued over quantity.in ways that help them. teamwork. cooperation is believed to lead to better results than competition. in which members believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security. service quality. meet their higher-order satisfaction needs. and effectiveness is judged at the system level rather than the component level. in which members are expected to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security. and sales growth. satisfaction. .  Aggressive/Defensive Cultures. transformational leadership. total quality management.

and learning organizations. re-engineering. Passive/Defensive cultures experience a lot of unresolved conflict and turnover. procedures. and judgment. and organizational members report lower levels of motivation and satisfaction. The Aggressive/Defensive Cluster The Aggressive/Defensive Cluster includes cultural norms that reflect expectations for members to approach tasks in ways that protect their status and security. and orders are more important than personal beliefs. The Aggressive/Defensive cultural norms are:     Oppositional Power Competitive Perfectionist . People are expected to please others (particularly superiors) and avoid interpersonal conflict. ideas. members feel pressured to think and behave in ways that are inconsistent with the way they believe they should in order to be effective. Rules. The four Passive/Defensive cultural norms are:     Approval Conventional Dependent Avoidance In organizations with Passive/Defensive cultures. The Passive/Defensive Cluster Norms that reflect expectations for members to interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security are in the Passive/Defensive Cluster.continuous improvement.

Power Structures: Who makes the decisions. its values. how widely spread is power. These organizations emphasize finding errors. . admit shortcomings. weeding out “mistakes. Factors and elements influencing organisational culture Elements that can be used to describe or influence Organizational Culture: The Paradigm: What the organization is about.” and encouraging members to compete against each other rather than competitors. and the way that work flows through the business. The short-term gains associated with these strategies are often at the expense of long-term growth. controlled. There would be more reliance on individualism in a power culture.Organizations with Aggressive/Defensive cultures encourage or require members to appear competent. and superior. its mission. but also extend to symbols of power such as parking spaces and executive washrooms. and on what is power based? Symbols: These include organizational logos and designs. or concede their position are viewed as incompetent or weak. what it does. Organizational Structures: Reporting lines. Members who seek assistance. Role cultures would have vast rulebooks. hierarchies. Control Systems: The processes in place to monitor what is going on.

Additionally. although this does not guarantee that organizational culture will reflect them. Work environments reinforce culture on a daily basis by encouraging employees to exercise cultural values. . role models. If the culture is valuable. internal integration is an important function since social structures are required for organizations to exist. Organizational culture is shaped by multiple factors. Organizational practices are learned through socialization at the workplace. Organizations often outline their values in their mission statements. symbols and rituals shape organizational culture. Stories and Myths: build up about people and events.Rituals and Routines: Management meetings. These elements may overlap. board reports and so on may become more habitual than necessary. and convey a message about what is valued within the organization. External adaptation reflects an evolutionary approach to organizational culture and suggests that cultures develop and persist because they help an organization to survive and flourish. then it holds the potential for generating sustained competitive advantages. including the following:      External environment Industry Size and nature of the organization’s workforce Technologies the organization uses The organization’s history and ownership Organizational values. The two main reasons why cultures develop in organizations is due to external adaptation and internal integration. Power structures may depend on control systems. which may exploit the very rituals that generate stories which may not be true.

the behavior valued by the organization.g. rites. The founding of an organization is a critical period in the life of the organization and the development of its culture. stories) where the culture perpetuates itself. By screening candidates for a cultural fit.The degree to which organizational members are encouraged to be innovative. Additionally. and control. leaders embed culture in organizations by what they pay attention to. by example. creating a sense of corporate identity. organizations select those employees that will be able to uphold the organizational culture. What Types of Behavior Does Culture Control? Using the outcome approach. how they react to critical incidents and crises. the behaviors they model for others. In addition. measure. . The values of founders and key leaders shape organizational cultures. An organization’s founder or chief executive has an influential impact on the development of the organization’s culture since that person is likely to have control in hiring people with the same values and influence the choice of strategy. cultures are described in terms of the following variables: Innovation versus Stability.The individuals that organizations recognize as role models set. but the way these cultures affect individuals is through shared practices. tangible factors such as work environment act as symbols. the legacy of an organizational founder may be reflected in the culture long after that person leaves through the processes of cultural transmission (e. Additionally. creative and to take risks. and how they allocate rewards and other scarce resources.

Strategic versus Operational Focus. This is unfortunate because there .The degree to which the organization focuses on and is adaptive to changes in its environment. Task Versus Social Focus. the people entering an organisation may differ in important ways from those already in it.The degree to which managers and employees are concerned about customer satisfaction and Service rather than minimizing costs Internal verses External Orientation. and these differences may impinge on the existing culture of the organisation.The relative emphasis on effect of decisions on organizational members and relationships over task accomplishment at all costs Team versus Individual orientation. or methods used to achieve these results. events in which one organisation purchases or otherwise absorbs another.The degree to which the members of the management team focus on the long term big picture versus attention to detail. Cultural change There are a number of internal and external factors which are responsible for cultural change in an organisation. Outcome versus Process Orientation.The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals Customer Focus versus Cost Control. goals and results rather than on techniques. rare consideration is given to the acquired organization’s culture. Mergers and acquisitions: Another source of cultural change is mergers and acquisitions. processes.The degree to which management focuses on outcomes. In such cases. Composition of the workforce: Overtime.

Planned organisational change: Even if an organisation does not change by acquiring another. A cultural change programme involves the following steps: 2. to create departments or jobs which are responsible for new activities or to eliminate unnecessary layers of management. One important force in planned organisational change is technology. Recognition to facilitate integration.have been several cases in which the merger of two organisations with incompatible cultures leads to serious problems. the larger and more powerful company attempts to dominate the smaller acquired company. commonly known as culture clashes.stated or unstated. 6. 5. Analyse the management style. Identify the basic assumptions and beliefs and challenge them if necessary. Plan and implement what aspects of the culture need to be changed and what aspects should be maintained or reinforced. Cultural Change Programme 1. Specific approaches to achieve a cultural change are: 1. Analyse the organisational climate. cultural change still may result from planned changes. In such cases. Technology affects the behaviour of people on the job as well as the effective functioning of organisations. . 4. Define or re-define the core values . 3.

3. managing and motivating people. Communication to get the messages across about the values and to achieve the objectives. . Organisation development to improve the effectiveness with which an organisation functions and responds to change. Management by objectives to ensure that managers know what they are expected to do. 6. 5. productivity. 8.2. Organisational culture is same as organisational climate: In management literature there is often ambiguity about the two concepts – organisational culture and organisational climate. Training to help form new attitudes to such matters as customer service. Reward management to enhance the cultural assumption that rewards should be related to achievement by introducing performance-related bonus schemes and remuneration systems. 4. Performance management to ensure that managers. Myths about the organisational culture: 1. supervisors and staff are assessed on the basis of the results they achieve and that performance improvement programmes are used to capitalise on strengths or overcome weaknesses. quality. 7. Recruitment to set out deliberately to change the type of people recruited. As explained earlier.

regulations. and artifacts. 2. However. The phenomenon of groupthink is mostly used in a face – to – face situation when dealing with small groups. beliefs. It is a relatively persistent set of perceptions held by organisational members about the organisational culture. goodwill. Culture is same as ‘groupthink’: Since culture refers to shared assumptions and beliefs. consist of a set of expectations and a system of reward and punishment sustained by rules. employee relations. job satisfaction. and stories. culture operates on a system of unseen. myths. it is likely to cause confusion. abstract. Another viewpoint about climate is that various variables get subsumed under the concept of climate. . and commitment at the organisational. symbols. whereas has unique indicators like symbols. 3. feelings. organisational climate is a micro phenomenon and reflects how employees in an organisation feel about the characteristics and quality of culture like morale. 4. Organisations on the other hand. and norms of behaviour. and behaviour of people. is a much larger phenomenon characterised by historical myths.organisational culture is a macro phenomenon which refers to the patterns of beliefs. and emotionally loaded forms which guide organisational members to deal with their physical and social needs. on the other hand. and behaviors reflecting commonality in people working together. Culture is same as organisation: Culture is a result of sustained interaction among people in organisations and exists commonly in thoughts. values. It refers to the psychological environment in which behaviour of organisational members occurs. assumptions. department or unit level. However. Culture. Culture is a social structure: Social structures in various collectives exhibit tangible and specific ways in which people relate to one another overtly. Groupthink refers to group members hiding any differences in how they feel and think and behave in a certain way. rites.

A healthy and robust organizational culture may provide various benefits. The study examined the management practices at 160 organizations over ten years and found that culture can enhance performance or prove detrimental to performance. including the following:  Competitive edge derived from innovation and customer service  Consistent. Proctor and Gamble. Culture has a significant impact on an organization’s longterm economic performance. and McDonald's may be. there is little doubt among experts that this relationship exists. and flexibility are some of the most . efficient employee performance  Team cohesiveness  High employee morale  Strong company alignment towards goal achievement Although little empirical research exists to support the link between organizational culture and organizational performance. Organizations with strong performance-oriented cultures witnessed far better financial growth. The sustained superior performance of firms like IBM. Organizational culture can be a factor in the survival or failure of an organization . Hewlett.Impact of organisational culture: Research suggests that numerous outcomes have been associated either directly or indirectly with organizational culture. Cultural traits such as risk taking. at least partly. a reflection of their organizational cultures.although this is difficult to prove considering the necessary longitudinal analyses are hardly feasible. internal communications.

Additionally. . It has been proposed that organizational culture may impact the level of employee creativity. Organizational culture is reflected in the way people perform tasks. and turnover intent. which suggests that organizational culture is impacted by national culture. and may impact individual performance. and act in response to the opportunities and threats affecting the organization. Deteriorating company performance and an unhealthy work environment are signs of an overdue cultural assessment. set objectives. high turnover may be a mediating factor in the relationship between culture and organizational performance. Safety climate is related to an organization’s safety record. Culture affects the way individuals make decisions. and administer the necessary resources to achieve objectives. Job satisfaction was positively associated with the degree to which employees fit into both the overall culture and subculture in which they worked. A perceived mismatch of the organization’s culture and what employees felt the culture should be is related to a number of negative consequences including lower job satisfaction. higher job strain. Culture contributes to the success of the organization. Individuals tend to be attracted to and remain engaged in organizations that they perceive to be compatible. It was found that the impacts of these dimensions differ by global regions. Organizational culture also has an impact on recruitment and retention. and the reporting of unethical behavior.important drivers of performance. feel. but not all dimensions contribute the same. the strength of employee motivation. general stress. but more research is needed to support these conclusions.

(I) the primary value of the organization.IMPACT OF ORGANISATIONSAL CULTURE ON EMPLOYEE MORALE The nature of corporate culture that exists in a company is going to decide the degree to which the desired results from the employees are obtained. (ii) The existing management style and systems. It also enables people to feel better about what they do. A strong culture is a powerful lover for guiding behaviour. The value system to which the employees support directly or indirectly or by their behaviour indicates the direction in which organizations are likely to move in the future. so they are more likely to work . An organisation culture consists of two primary components. The common perceptions of the individual members about the organisation determines the types of the organisational culture. (i) Individual autonomy (ii) Organisational Structure (iii) Reward organisation (iv) Consideration (v) Conflict Organisationals culture is concerned with how employees perceive each of the five characteristics slated above whether it may be positive or negative. An effective culture is a system of informal rules that spell out how employees are behaving most of the time. It helps the employees to do their job better. The essence of the organizational culture can be stated in its five characteristics namely. These two components significantly determine the degree to which the desired result from the employees is obtained. individuals with realm of universal truths and are broad enough to accommodate any variety of circumstance.

beliefs. The interest in corporate culture is derived from the organisational behaviour specialists and from the empirical studies. the way in which business should be carried out. supervision. It is a system of shared values that interact with a company's people. The organisation has to survive and thrive in an external environment which could be turbulent or steady. Environmental influences will make a strong impact on the corporate culture. assumptions and norms. organisational characteristics. how work should be organised. and administration. Culture influences behaviour in three areas:  Corporate Values: Belief in what is best or good for the organisation and what should or ought to happen. Against this background. It encompasses the company's goals and dominant ideologies. The corporate culture underlines much of the way in which things get done in the organisation. corporate culture is created by organisational members with the values. organisational structure and control system to produce behavioural norms. Corporate culture contains assumptions about the nature of the business and its markets and customers. Corporate culture: Corporate culture has been defined as the personality of an organisation. It provides a sense of common direction and guidelines for day to day behaviors. It encompasses the company's goals and dominant ideologies. philosophy. Among the factors that affect corporate culture are work groups. with the top management playing a dominant role. They .harder. the sort of people the organisation needs and how they should be treated.

Corporate culture vs organisational culture: Corporate culture is the total sum of the values. Roger Harrison's four-culture typology. there will also be an extant internal culture within the workforce. The values of a corporate culture influence the ethical standards within a corporation.are expressed by reference to both ends (goals) and means (action plans for achieving goals). as well as managerial behavior. but their presence can influence the culture of the organization as a whole. formal or informal. They may be autocratic or democratic. In addition. corporate culture can be 'imported'. tough or easygoing. and adapted by Charles Handy. language and behaviors gained independently of the organization. computer technicians will have expertise. Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which. affect the whole system. Senior management may try to determine a corporate culture. It also describes the way in which managers behave. . For example. customs. and meanings that make a company unique. traditions. since it embodies the vision of the company’s founders. suggests that unlike organizational culture. Corporate culture is often called "the character of an organization". They may wish to impose corporate values and standards of behavior that specifically reflect the objectives of the organization. This will encompass how people feel about and react to the characteristics and quality of the corporate culture and its values. to an extent.  Management Style: It is the way in which managers behave and exercise authority.  Organisational Climate: The working atmosphere of the organisation as perceived and experienced by its members.

Culture spans the range of management . All corporations are also organizations but not all organizations are corporations.Organizational culture and corporate culture are often used interchangeably but it is a mistake to state that they are different concepts. and government agencies. as one of its primary activities or purposes. There is even the Canadian Criminal Code definition of "organized crime" as meaning "a group comprised of three or more persons which has. Organizations include religious institutions." Corporations are organizations and are also legal entities. not-for-profit groups. The corporate culture as a management programme has great motivating impact to motivate employees to improve their own and organizational performance. Conclusion Culture helps the organization to accomplish what it desires to achieve. Organizations often have very differing cultures as well as subcultures. the commission of serious offences which likely results in financial gain.

org/wiki/Organizational_culture http://www.thinking and organizational culture has been one of the most enduring buzzwords of popular management. the critical and the managerial sides of the debate and inform and renew each other so it remains important to explore both. Bibliography http://en. While there may be no definitive answer to the question.com/Faculty_Column/FC905/fc905. core values – seems to have become a necessary asset of the modern company.wikipedia.html . Perhaps most importantly culture penetrates to the essence of an organization – it almost analogous with the concept of personality in relation to the individual and this acute sense of what an organization is – its mission. There is the vexed question of whether or not organizational culture can be managed. Academics interested in understanding and analyzing culture tend to say no.indianmba. Why? What is the appeal of the concept? Organizational culture is apparently unifying and this strongly appeals to management’s concern with projecting an image of the organization as a community of interests.

com/Lesson35OrganisationalCulture.in/bitstream/123456789/35552/1/Unit-21.co.org/org_thry/culture/culture.learnmanagement2.new-paradigm.com/32846-organisation-culture.co.htm http://www.html http://managementhelp.uk/Culture.egyankosh.htm http://www.html http://www.citehr.new-paradigm.htm http://www.p df http://www.com/culture.htm http://www.ac.managementparadise.soi.uk/Culture.http://www.org/reading/change/culture.pdf http://managementconsultingcourses.com/forums/foundation-humanskills/18714-organisational-culture-ready-made-projct.shtml .

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