Descriptive Statistics

This Chapter Includes : Definition and functions of statistics; Statistical techniques commonly used in business activities. Marks of Short Notes, Distinguish Between, Descriptive & Practical Questions

2003 - Dec [5] {C} (a) Write notes on the following: (ii) Laws of statistics. (4 marks) Answer : (ii) The theory of sampling is based upon the following laws of statistics: (a) Law of Statistical Regularity : This law states that, if on random basis, a large sample is drawn from the population, the same shall represent the characteristics of the population. The theory is backed by the fundamentals of probability theory. (b) Law of Inertia of Large Numbers : This law states that larger is the sample size, better goes the accuracy the reason being greater consistency and stability in large number as opposed to the smaller number. The theory stands as a corollary of the first law. Both these laws of statistics form the basis on which the entire theory of sampling Q&A-2.201

2B 2004 . King. A large number of techniques like correlation. blindness. O CS Foundation Programme Paper . (d) Statistics studies groups only : One of the major flaw in statistics is that is deals with groups and not with individuals. regression etc are available which helps and facilitate comparison and establish relationship between variables. beauty. “statistics can prove anything”Statistical tools can be deployed to distort and manipulate the data in the manner we like. deafness etc. Such statistical inferences / conclusion are based on fundamental theories of mathematics & are not guided by mere intuition. (b) Statistical results are true on average only : This reflects that statistics is an inexact science and the results are not universally true. laws of statistics are not so accurate and exact. They are an outcome of certain set of assumptions and cannot be completely valid in all situations. (e) Inherent limitation of Statistics : Statistics does not provides for the best or the most optimum solution.I.Q&A-2. mathematics etc.202 rests. (iii) Rightly make by W. misuse of statistics are many.e. Analytical Statistics : This division of statistics ambits in itself those techniques and methods which seeks to analyse and compare the two sets of data by establishing functional relation between the two. Therefore it is advised that inferences should not be drawn merely by relying on statistical methods above rather needs to be studied in consonance with the other methods. The reason accorded any statisticians being such qualitative aspects cannot be expressed in numbers. (c) Statistical Laws are not exact : Unlike the laws of physics. quantitative. honesty poverty. (f) Last but not the least. To quote Bowley has said. leaving apart the other important aspect being the qualitative aspects like efficiency.Dec [5] {C} Write notes on the following: (ii) Inferential and analytical statistics (5 marks) (iii) Limitations of statistics (5 marks) Answer : (ii) Inferential Statistics : Inferential statistics refers to that categorisation or classification of statistics wherein techniques of statistics are adopted to derive inferences (conclusions) on the basis of estimates drawn from samples about the population. rather derived on the basis of prior exercise of logical and rational thoughts. chemistry. “Statistics are like a clay of which one can make a God or a devil” Despite of the universal applicability and widespread use of statistics the same suffers from certain limitations which can be summed up as follows: (a) Statistics studies only quantitative facts : This stands as one of the biggest limitation of statistics that it deals with only one characteristics i. Dealing in aggregates leaving apart individuals constitute its major limitation. The user of statistical techniques should . intelligence.

212 (7 marks) 1999 .June [5] {C} (a) Write notes on the following: (ii) Law of statistical regularity Answer : Please refer 2003 . business. taxation. It is the ability of statistics to present comprehensive and complex facts into simple crystalised form.203 be one skilled and experienced. 2005 . (g) Framing and Testing Hypothesis : Statistics helps both in formulating hypothesis and testing the feasibility of such hypothesis so as to arrive at correct decisions. in formulating policies relating to population employment. Its importance can be explained as follows: (a) Presentation of data : Statistics helps in presentation of facts and data in definite. Answer : Please refer 2004 . The modern culture has become a statistical culture due to the widespread use of statistics in the varied fields. This enables them to attempt an effective diagnosis of the problem and arrive at suitable solution. national and even policies at global level. state.June [6] (a) "Statistics can prove anything". law and order. (e) Facilitates forecasting : Statistical information helps in forecasting which refers to the formal process of predicting future event that will guide the future path of an organisation. (d) Useful in making comparisons : It facilitates comparisons and analysis of study of relationship between two facts.Dec [5] {C} (iii) on page no.Dec [5] {C} (a) (ii) on page no. 1999 . statistics has carved out an important place for itself due to its increasing utility. Even helps.[Chapter # 1] Descriptive Statistics O Q&A-2. Such relationship further help in evaluation and in making comparisons. precise and proper convincing form.Dec [6] (a) Discuss the following : (i) Characteristics of statistics (4 marks) (ii) Stages of statistical enquiry (4 marks) Answer : . One needs to have sound knowledge of the subject as well exercise self control of an artist. leaving no room for ambiguity (b) Simplification of complex data in condensed form : Not only statistics present data in definite and precise form but at the same time helps in the conversion of huge data in meaningful and condensed form so that the same become much more understandable. (f) Establishes Cause and effect relationship : Statistics helps in striking out cause and effect relationship between different sets of data. (7 marks) Answer : In the present scenario. 211 (4 marks) DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS 1998 .Dec [6] (a) Discuss the uses and limitations of statistics. (c) Helpful in policy formulation process : Statistics provides the raw data useful for the formulation of economic. Examine.

The degree of accuracy of estimated value largely depends on the nature & purpose. (g) Lastly.Q&A-2. (d) Statistics must be based on reasonable standards of accuracy : Reasonable level of accuracy is a prerequisite for ensuring proper use and application. (e) Collection in Systematic Manner : Statistics should be collected in a systematic manner. primary data is data collected by person / investigator himself needs. Statistics should be placed in relation to each other. (ii) Statistical enquiry consists of five stages which can be expressed as follows : (a) Collection of data : The first step in statistical enquiry is collection of data from the various sources available. (f) Collection for a predetermined objective : The objective or aim of collection of data should be very well known. Editing refers to the process of removing commissions. taste. A single number does not constitute statistics as no analysis or inference can be derived from it. the next ingredient classification calls for arranging data into certain classes on the basis of similarity of characteristics while the last tabulation consists of arranging the classified data arrived as above in columns and rows to . For example varied figures like 6 ft height. expressed in terms of numbers. Qualitative aspects like beauty. For example prices of goods are affected by demand. A single figure even though can be numerically expressed cannot be called statistics as the same does not facilitates comparison. 6 mt long. In other words statistical data should be comparable. unpublished and even primary and secondary. A suitable plan before actually collecting data should be prepared so as to collect the actual data needed so that it may lead to proper conclusions.204 (i) O CS Foundation Programme Paper .e. honesty. (c) Affected by multiplicity of causes : Statistics is not merely affected by single factor. (b) Statistics are numerically expressed : Statistics are essentially quantitative i. rather large number of factors simultaneous affect it. income level and numerous other factors. (b) Organisation of Data : Organisation of data constitutes the second most important stage of enquiry This stage consists of editing. their organisations. Sources may further be classified as published. Yet if the data is not mutually related or inter related that can not be considered a statistics. supply. classification and tabulation. preferences. Comparability is the most important attribute for numerical data to be coined as statistics unless the quality of comparison is present they cannot be termed as statistics.2B Main characterstics of statistics can be described as follows: (a) Statistics are aggregates of facts : Statistics is all about the study of aggregate of facts rather than individual facts. the objective should be defined as well as specified in order to derive correct inferences and conclusion. While secondary data is generally organised. While collecting data the aim / objective should be kept clearly in mind for also care otherwise should be taken as this forms the basis of correct conclusions. poverty do not constitute statistics. 70 yrs of age does not constitute statistics though they very well qualify as numerical data.

They equip human beings and enable them to search and open new vistas of knowledge which were till then unknown to mankind. (e) Interpretation of data : The term 'interpretation' means the act of drawing conclusions. This statement clearly reflects that numerical data cannot be automatically termed as statistics. measures of central tendencies. 2000 .[Chapter # 1] Descriptive Statistics O Q&A-2. (7 marks) Answer : To quote Bowley once highlighted the importance of statistics by stating “ The principle function of statistics is that it enlarges individual's knowledge and expertise”.their judgement." Examine. of an individual shall be deemed as irrelevant. charts.June [6] (b) Explain the following: (i) Population and sample (iii) Distrust and misuse of statistics (6 marks) (3 marks) (3 marks) . their knowledge and experience. Various tools & techniques like correlation. While individual knowledge is limited. This task requires high degree of skill. For example figures dealing with height. It provides opportunities to individual . the data needs to be analysed in order to gain insight and to facilitate correct conclusion. care. A single figure even though numerically expressed does not constitute statistics because such figures lack the capacity of being interrelated.June [6] (a) on page no. make them capable of drawing inferences and conclusion. dispersion etc are employed thereof. all are positively affected by statistics.the various techniques of statistics widen the limited human knowledge. graphs. the reason being . thus enlarging both. their knowledge and experience. etc. regression. understanding and include all proper judgement without which the very objective of statistical enquiry conducted shall stand defeated and the whole process & efforts shall be in vain. (d) Analysis of Data : After the data has been properly organised and presented. length weight age etc. cannot be compared and thus conclusions cannot be arrived at. (8 marks) Answer : All numerical statements and data cannot be coined 'statistics' yet all statistics consists of numerical statements and data.213 2001 .June [6] (a) Discuss the functions of statistics. statistics adds to it.Dec [6] (a) "All numerical statements are not statistics. In the present scenario statistics has gained widespread popularity on account of its increasing utility. Elucidate the statement. numerical data should possess certain qualities in addition. Answer : Please refer 1999 .205 enable one to make clear and crisp analysis. (c) Presentation of data : Presentation of data can be done to suit one's need so facilitate statistical analysis data can be presented in form of diagrams. 2001 .June [6] (a) "Statistics widens the field of knowledge". 2000 .

It merely consists of tools in the hands of user and it is upto the user how he makes use of it . (d) Lack of knowledge of the subject. Following can be regarded as the main causes of distrust of statistics: (a) Collection of statistics is not done in correct manner. For example. instead a powerful tool for analysis. figures do not lie." Comment.lies. (b) Even on correct collection.Dec [6] (a) "Statistics should not be used as a blind man uses a lamp post for support. In other way round. rather arises because the users tend to alter the data to suit their convenience. Some of the important uses of statistics include the following: . in a survey of any class all the students constituting that class shall be termed as population. Statistics is subject of doubt and suspicion on account of its misuse by unscrupulous persons who seek their personal gains. optimum use of human and material resources etc. ‘There are three kinds of lies . instead of illumination 2001 . For untrained person. they may be presented in a manner to mislead the end user. instead of for illumination. as such. (7 marks) Answer : The statement that statistics should not be used as a blindman uses a lamppost for support instead of illumination is correct.whether constructive or destructive. statistics. “sample is a miniature picture of population from which it is taken”. liars non expert and unskilled persons make incorrect use of statistics to arrive at predetermined conclusions held by them. Distrust of statistics arises not because of any fault in statistics as a subject matter. Statistics is widely used in almost all areas for better and effective decision making. It is because without an adequate knowledge and understanding of the subject. one cannot make its fruitful use. On the other hand sample is only a part of the population kept under discussion and help us to draw conclusion about the whole of the universe. Sample does not cover each and every item present in the population yet characteristics of `SAMPLE’ are deemed to reveal characteristics of the entire `POPULATION’.206 O CS Foundation Programme Paper . dammed lies and statistics. (c) Different kinds of statistics are obtained in respect of a given problem.2B Answer : (i) The aggregate of all similar units being the subject matter of an investigation is called census or universe or population. Infact statistics is neither to be trusted blindly nor distrusted outright. To sum up. It must be used out cautiously and with full care Thus statistics should not be used as a blind man uses a lamp post for support. Population thus refers to the summation of all items kept under observation. Rightly said “A population is the totality of objects under consideration”. do not prove anything. it is like a lamppost for support to blindman. tools and techniques rightly said.Q&A-2. On the basis of sample drawn. policy formulations. (iii) Distrust of statistics means lack of confidence in statistical statements methods.

for better decision making and optimum utilisation of resources. It is statistics which provides statistical information to solve such questions. growth. It positively contributes towards business activities like purchase. sale.consumption. production control. studies mortality. 2005 . accounting etc. In ancient times also it was used in framing monetary and fiscal policies and even collecting statistical data With changing time and widening scope of state activities. botany. development. how. It also helps in running public administration efficiently and effectively. labour control and market services etc.” (d) Statistics and natural science and social science : Statistics plays a crucial role in the study of all natural sciences like biology. It is also used by the Planning Commission and other Government Department/Agencies in National Income estimates and other Policy formulation to the country. in areas of financial planning. marketing. It. It is used by experts in understanding and formulation of appropriate economics policies for business and state.[Chapter # 1] Descriptive Statistics O (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Q&A-2. and for whom to produce. production plans. Apart from natural sciences. like every other economists have to make bricks.207 It is used by the trade and industry. This increasing applicability in the varied fields has further increased with the increase in computerisation and other development. zoology. for instance. statistics can be applied to many areas. education and other related factors. population. trade is impossible without the use of statistics. Even the role of statistics has increased manifold and accelerate the overall development of the entire system. MG has pointed the widespread use of statistics by stating “statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the . It is also used by economists in formulations of economic planning and forecasting the future. (b) Economics and the state : Statistics play a prime role in ensuring the proper functioning of the state. Apart from this economics . (6 marks) Answer : Unlike ancient times where statistics had only limited applicability. in business field statistics has lot of to contribute. in the present day world it has gained widespread popularity and is used in various areas : (a) Statistics and Economics : According to Marshall “statistics are the straw out of which I. exchange and public finance. production distribution. One of the advancement caused by computerisation is that statistical tools have gained much popularity particularly in field of economic policy formulation.Dec [8] (b) "In the modern age of information technology. It is used by statesman for formulation of hypothesis and testing their validity." Write a note on important areas where statistics can be applied. in all of which statistics has something or the other to contribute. In the present day. (c) Statistics and business : Statistics provide a fertile ground for forecasting which lay the foundation of any successful business. it has widespread applicability in the field of social sciences too. To quote “it is not an exaggeration to say that today mostly every decision in business us made hence.’’ Economics deals with the basic questions of what to produce.

Dec [5] {C} (iii) on page no. experts have devised the ways and means for segregating the effect of various forces on an event.June [5] {C} (a) Discuss of the following with suitable examples : (i) Statistics is a method of decision-making in the face of uncertainty (3 marks) (v) Law of statistical regularity (3 marks) Answer : (i) Statistical data and techniques like sampling. For example. cannot be regarded statistics although aggregates of such figures would be called statistics because of their comparability and relationship as part of a common phenomenon.Dec [5] {C} (a) (ii) on page no. (v) Please refer 2003 .212 (4 marks) 2007 . place or . Chon rightly remarked.208 O CS Foundation Programme Paper . It is for the simple reason that such figures are unrelated and cannot be compared. a single figure relating to production. However. probability.June [5] {C} (a) Discuss any three of the following with examples : (i) Statistics are aggregate of facts (ii) Statistics are affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes (iii) Statistics should be placed in relation to each other (iv) Statistics do not deal with isolated measurements (3 marks each) Answer : (i) Statistics are aggregate of facts: A single and isolated numerical figures cannot be regarded as statistics. This expresses the applicability and growing importance of statistics in the field of business management wherein statistics has an indispensable role to play.Q&A-2. (ii) Statistics are affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes: Statistical data basically refers to measurement of facts in a complex and dynamic situation. Statistics means an aggregate or a set of numerical figures which are related to one another. death.2B ability to read and write. seeds etc. For example. Most of the factors are even difficult to identify. estimation and forecasting all have crucial role to play. quality of soil. “Statistics is a method of decision making in the face of uncertainity on the basis of numerical data and calculated risks”. 211 2008 . distribution and in industry used extensively in quality control.Dec [5] {C} (b) State the limitations of statistics. statistics provides information to the business units in making decisions about size. employment etc. For example. The business and economic phenomena are complex in the sense that they are affected to a considerable extent by a number of forces or factors operating together. Answer : Please refer 2004 . 2006 . sale. location. (iii) Statistics should be placed in relation to each other: This characteristic of statistics require that the collected statistics should be comparable with reference to time. production. statistics of production of rice are affected by the rainfall. It is very difficult to study separately the effect of these forces on the production of rice. birth.

numerical data should possesses the following characteristics. 2009 . (ii) It should be numerically expressed. all the numerical facts are called statistics and should be comparable. likes are compared with likes.Dec [7] (a) Discuss the usefulness of statistics in economics. Data are statistics when they relate to measurement of masses. Answer : (i) Please refer 1999 . 211 2010 . (iii) It must have a reasonable degree of accuracy. The valid comparisons can be made only if the data are homogenous i.209 any other condition. (b) Please Refer 2003 Dec [5] {C} (a) of Short Notes on Page no. (5 marks) 2010 . 213 (5 marks) 2009 . In order that statistics are comparable.Dec [7] Attempt the following : (i) Define ‘statistics’ and discuss its importance in business and management. 219. Answer : Please refer 2005 . To be a statistics. 217.Dec [8] (b) on page no.” Explain. (iv) It can be affected to market extent by multiplicity of causes.. (iv) Statistics does not deal with isolated measurements: Isolated measurements are not statistics.June [7] Attempt the following : (i) Comment on the statement that 'statistics can prove anything'. For example. data must be collected for pre-determined purpose. (vi) The data should be collected in a systematic manner which require careful planning of data collection approach.e. (5 marks) Answer : It is true that all statistics are numerical statements but all numerical statements are not statistics. (5 marks) (b) Explain laws of statistics. it is essential that they are homogeneous and pertain to same investigation. (i) It should be aggregate of facts.June [7] (a) State the characteristics which the numerical data should possess to be known as statistics. (5 marks) Answer : (a) Please Refer 2008 Dec [7] (i) of Descriptive Question on Page no.June [6] (a) on page no.Dec [7] Attempt of the following : (i) “All statistics are numerical statements but all numerical statements are not statistics. (5 marks) . 2008 . (v) To be a statistics. and not statistics when they relate to an individual item. numerical data cannot be called statistics and hence all statistics are numerical statements of facts but all numerical statements of facts are not statistics.[Chapter # 1] Descriptive Statistics O Q&A-2. In the absence of above characteristics.

June [5] {C} (b) Choose the most appropriate answer from the given options in respect of the following : (i) Statistics deals with ) (a) Independent data (b) Quantitative data (c) Qualitative data (d) Both (b) and (c). . with reasons in brief. (1 mark) Answer : (i) (b) Quantitative data. with reasons in brief. 2009 .Q&A-2.June [5] {C} (a) State. (1 mark) Answer : (a) Statistical data 2009 . whether the following statements are correct or incorrect : (i) Statistics studies qualitative phenomenon. (2 marks) Answer : (i) Incorrect: Statistics does not study the qualitative phenomenon Statistics deals with quantitative data only and not the qualitative phenomenon. 2009 .2B OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 2009 .Dec [6] (b) Re-write the following sentences after filling-in the blank spaces with appropriate word(s)/figure(s) : (i) Descriptive statistics deals with _________.Dec [5] {C} (a) State.210 O CS Foundation Programme Paper .Dec [5] {C} (b) Choose the most appropriate answer from the given options in respect of the following : (i) Statistics in plural sense refers to — (a) Statistical data (b) Statistical methods (c) Applied statistics (d) Inductive statistics. 2009 . (2 marks) Answer : (i) Perfect accuracy is unattainable in statistical enquiries because in statistics there remains errors in measurement & collection of data. whether the following statements are correct or incorrect : (i) Perfect accuracy is unattainable in statistical enquiries.

[Chapter # 1] Descriptive Statistics O Q&A-2. (vi) Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics which specialises in data. (1 mark) Repeatedly Asked Questions No. whether the following statements are correct or incorrect: (i) Statistical results are true only on an average. (1 mark each) Answer : (i) Descriptive statistics deals with numerical data. Y Statistical conclusions cannot be regarded as universal truths. (2 marks) Answer : Y Statiscal results depict an average behaviour / tendency.June [7] (b) Frequency 2 Times Table Showing Marks of Compulsory Questions . Y They are true on average basis only and are not perfectly accurate. (1 mark) 2010 .000.Dec [5] (a) (ii).Dec [5] {C} (a) State. 10 .000 it does not indicate that each and every is earning is Rs. (1 mark) Answer : (i) The law of inertia of large numbers is corollary of the law of statistical regularity. 2010 . with reasons in brief. Question 03 . Y For instance. 2010 . statistics was known as— (a) The science of kings (b) The science of Statecraft (c) Political arithmetic (d) All of the above. 1 Explain laws of statistics.211 (vi) _____ is a branch of applied mathematics which specialises in data.June [5] {C} (a) State. 2010 . if average salary of 50 employees is Rs. 10. (2 marks) (b) Choose the most appropriate answer from the given options in respect of the following : (i) In ancient times. whether the following statements are true or false: (i) Statistical laws are not exact. 10. with reasons in brief.June [6] (b) Re-write the following sentences after filling-in the blank spaces with appropriate word(s)/figure(s): (i) The law of inertia of large numbers is of the law of statistical regularity.Dec [6] (b) Re-write the following sentences after filling-in the blank spaces with appropriate word(s)/figure(s) : (i) __________ is indispensable for functioning of the State.

measures of central tendency. quantitative analysis etc. In ancient time statistics was popularly known as ‘science of state’. diagrammatic or graphical form and to describe their characteristics. ‘statistics’ means statistical methods tools and techniques deployed in order to derive inferences or conclusions. sampling. index number. On the other hand in singular sense. 1 : What do you mean by statistics ? Answer : Statistics is thought to be derived from Latin word ‘status’ or German word ‘statistic’ or Italian word ‘Statist’ which all means or ‘political state’. It consists of methods which are used to collect data.212 Year Objective Descriptive Total O 06 J 06 D CS Foundation Programme Paper . Science of King’ or ‘science of state craft’ In the modern day world statistics has widespread applicability.2003 . enumerated or estimated according to standards of accuracy. definition of statistics in plural sense of is given by Prof Horace Secrist is ‘statistics are aggregates of facts affected by multiplicity of causes numerically expressed. (b) Applied statistics : This deals with application of statistical techniques to actual situations of life and other specific problem using quality control. Question No. survey. .2B 07 J 07 D 08 J 08 D 09 J 3 4 4 6 6 9 9 3 3 2 3 09 D 3 10 J 2 10 D 3 Topic not yet asked but equally Important for examination Question No. The most comprehensive. besides. 3 : Explain the division or classification of statistics : Answer : Statistics can be categorised as follows : (a) Descriptive statistics : It ambits in itself those methods which deals with facts and figures. to present them in tabular.Shot notes] Question No.Q&A-2. collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other”. 2 : What are the basis of statistics ? Answer : The complete theory of sampling is based on two laws of statistics which are as follows : (a) Law of statistical Regularity : (For content refer June 2005) (b) Law of Inertia of large members (refer Dec . dispersion trend analysis are also used which helps us to draw attention on the description/ characteristics of data which are otherwise not noticed.

(d) Mathematical statistics : This is concerned with the application of various mathematical theories and techniques of statistics. [5] Which of the following is not a stage of statistical enquiry or investigation: (a) Analysis of data (b) Collection of data (c) Modification and manipulation (d) Organising and presentation. (a) Inferential statistics (b) Statistical data (c) Statistical methods (d) Inductive statistics Ans .213 (c) Inductive statistics : This division of statistics covers those methods of statistics which help in daring or estimating.(d) Multiplicity of causes. forecasting or making judgements about particular phenomenon on basis of the observations made and are backed by scientific thoughts and not by hit or any trial method.(b) Quantitative data [4] Statistics is affected by : (a) One factor (b) None factor (c) reasonable causes (d) Multiplicity of causes Ans . matrix etc which have wide applicability in mathematics are used in statistics too. this division is concerned with mathematical aspects of statistics (e) Inferential statistics (f) Analytical statistics Multiple Choice Questions [1] Statistics in singular sense means_______.(c) Statistical methods [2] Which of the following is the law of statistics : (a) Law of small numbers (b) Law of integers (c) Law of random numbers (d) Law of statistical regularity Ans . Thus.[Chapter # 1] Descriptive Statistics O Q&A-2. differentiation. . theory of integration.(d) Law of statistical regularity [3] Statistics deals with : (a) Qualitative data (b) Quantitative data (c) Voluminous data (d) None of the above Ans . For example.

Ans .Quantitative (2) Statistics relates to_______ of facts. Ans . Fill in the Blanks : (1) Statistics in sense of numerical data primarily refers to ----. secondary. Ans .estimating a particular phenomenon.Editing (6) Interpretation of data refers to drawing _______ from the data. inconsistences or any sort of inaccuracy.Mathematical statistics (9) Statistical laws are _______ exact.Cannot (4) During the collection stage of statistical enquiry data may be collected from _______ and _______ sources.2B Ans . Ans . (5) _______ of data refers to removing omission.Q&A-2.(a) Inferential statistics [7] Analytical statistics consists of those statistical methods and techniques which tries to : (a) Estimate particular phenomenon (b) Apply statistical tools to real life problems (c) Establishes relationship between variables. (a) Inferential statistics (b) Descriptive statistics (c) Analytical statistics (d) Inductive statistics. Ans .(c) Establishes relationship between variables. Ans . Ans .Primary.The Law of inertia of large numbers.aspects. Ans . (d) Draw inferences or conclusions Ans .(c) Modification and Manipulation [6] _______ is that division of statistics which is used to draw conclusions and statistical inferences about population based on samples. Ans . better are the results. Ans .Conclusions (7) _______ states that larger the size of sample. . Ans .Aggregate (3) A single number even if numerically expanded _______ be called statistics.not (10) Inductive statistics is concerned with those techniques of statistics which help in_______ on basis of random observation.214 O CS Foundation Programme Paper . (8) _______ in the branch of statistics which deals with application of mathematical techniques and theories to develop statistical theories.

215 .[Chapter # 1] Descriptive Statistics O Q&A-2.

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