Peterson’s

MASTER AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION
2nd Edition Margaret C. Moran W. Frances Holder

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Second Edition

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Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Before You Begin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi How This Book Is Organized. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Special Study Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii Appendixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii You’re Well on Your Way to Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Give Us Your Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Table of Literary Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv Top 10 Strategies to Raise Your Score . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

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PART I AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION BASICS
1 All About the AP English Language & Composition Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Facts About the AP English Language & Composition Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scoring the AP English Language & Composition Test . . . . . Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Plans for Studying for the AP English Language & Composition Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summing It Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 5 8 15 21

PART II DIAGNOSING STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
2 Practice Test 1: Diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Section I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays . . . . . . . Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Synthesis Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 45 55 66 67

Exercise 3. .. . . . . . .. . . A Final Word of Advice on Writing Your Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise 1. . . . . Exercise 2. . . . .. . . . . . Practicing . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . Summing It Up . .vi Contents . . . Exercise 3. . . .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . PART III AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION STRATEGIES 3 About the Multiple-Choice Questions. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..petersons. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 107 113 116 121 122 124 125 127 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 139 140 141 144 www. Summing It Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Answer Key and Explanations. . . . Strategies for Acing the Essays . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Suggestions for Exercise 1 .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . Exercise 1.. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Attacking the Questions . . Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . Practicing . . . . A Final Word of Advice: Educated Guessing . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Analyzing the Question Types. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . ... . . Suggestions for Exercise 5 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . Exercise 5. Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Synthesis Essays . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzing Literature . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Exercise 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . Basic Information About Section I . . . Exercise 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . 71 72 73 74 76 80 81 82 85 87 89 91 94 96 98 100 102 104 4 About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . 105 Basic Information About Section II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer Key and Explanations. . Exercise 2. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . Suggestions for Exercise 4 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Types of Essays on the Test. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . The Essay: A Quick Review .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acing the Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . Exercise 5. . . . . . Suggestions for Exercise 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . ... .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Suggestions for Exercise 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . Answer Key and Explanations. . .

. . . . 196 Answer Key and Explanations. ..... . . . . ... .. . ... . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 287 www. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . .... . . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... . . .. . 265 Appendix B: A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . 229 Section II . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . 183 Section I . .. . . . . .. . . .petersons. . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... .. . . . . .. . . ... . . . . .. . . . .. . and Usage Review. . . . . . . . . 260 Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Synthesis Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .Contents vii . . . . . . . 249 Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays . . . . ... .. .. ... .. .. . . . 171 PART V: TWO PRACTICE TESTS Practice Test 2 .. . . . . .. .com .. . . .. . . . 218 Practice Test 3 . . .. 261 APPENDIXES Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . 240 Answer Key and Explanations. ... . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 147 More Practical Advice on Writing Your Essays . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . 217 Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Synthesis Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 165 Summing It Up . .. Mechanics. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 183 Section II . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .... .. . 229 Section I . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 206 Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays . . . . . . 150 98 Common Usage Problems. . . 147 Grammar for the Multiple-Choice Questions. .. . PART IV: ENGLISH USAGE AND GRAMMAR REVIEW 5 Grammar. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . .. ... . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .

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Inc........ Ltd. Text excerpt from “Politics and the English Language” from Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays by George Orwell.... 1925...... Inc.. by Louis Untermeyer..... 1936 by Harcourt.. and Chatto & Windus... ix ....... Copyright 1951 by William Faulkner. Copyright 1919.... Brace & Co..... by James B.. Heath & Company........ 1921.... ed....... Reprinted by permission of Harcourt. and A....Acknowledgments Text from the Preface of Modern American Poetry. Ltd... Meriweather.. 1930..... . M... Speeches & Public Letters by William Faulkner... “Addressing the Graduating Class” from Essays. Copyright 1946 by Sonia Brownell Orwell and renewed 1974 by Sonia Orwell...... Inc. Reprinted by permission of Professional Publishing Service...... 5th Revised Edition. Reprinted by permission of Random House..

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.................. or just two short weeks to prepare for the exam. • Parts III and IV provide the review and strategies for answering the different kinds of multiple-choice and essay questions and give you numerous opportunities to practice what you are learning.Before You Begin HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED Whether you have five months.... and be careful of your time in order to answer more questions in the time period.... and usage... mechanics. xi .. Peterson’s Master AP English Language & Composition will help you develop a study plan that caters to your individual needs and timetable.. Part II provides a diagnostic test to determine your strengths and weaknesses. work the system to get more correct responses.. These step-by-step plans are easy to follow and are remarkably effective... ... You will also find reviews of grammar....... • The Appendixes provide you with the new Peterson’s College-byCollege Guide to AP Credit and Placement (for more than 400 selective colleges and universities) as well as a review of literary and rhetorical terms you may encounter on the test. • • • Top 10 Strategies to Raise Your Score gives you tried and true test-taking strategies Part I includes the basic information about the AP English Language & Composition test that you need to know.... Use the diagnostic test as a tool to improve your test-taking skills......... • Part V includes two additional practice tests........ It is a good idea to read the answer explanations to all of the questions because you may find ideas or tips that will help you better analyze the answers to questions in the next practice test you take.......... nine weeks.......... Remember to apply the test-taking system carefully..

... www. and/or exemption based on your AP English Language & Composition score....... advice. APPENDIXES Peterson’s College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement.......... By reading the tips.......xii Before You Begin .. and credit awarded at more than 400 colleges and universities.. you will become much more comfortable with the exam and considerably more confident about getting a high score......com .... credit.... Appendix A..... gives you the equivalent classes............ Appendix B provides a review of literary and rhetorical terms you may encounter on the test........ ALERT! Whenever you need to be careful of a common pitfall..... you’ll find an Alert! This information reveals and eliminates the misperceptions and wrong turns many people take on the exam.......petersons................ It includes several features to make your preparation easier............ you will learn how to approach different question types. By taking full advantage of all features presented in Peterson’s Master AP English Language & Composition......... The summaries are a convenient way to review the content of these strategy chapters......... Bonus Information Be sure to look in the page margins for the following test-prep tools: NOTE Notes highlight critical information about the test... TIP Tips draw your attention to valuable concepts.. pace yourself. and shortcuts for tackling the exam... ................. and remember what was discussed previously in the book... Summing It Up Each strategy chapter ends with a point-by-point summary that captures the most important points.. Overview Each chapter begins with a bulleted overview listing the topics that will be covered in the chapter.... scores.. You know immediately where to look for a topic that you need to work on. SPECIAL STUDY FEATURES Peterson’s Master AP English Language & Composition was designed to be as user-friendly as it is complete....... Use this guide to find your possible placement status.........

.....petersons........ You will be studying the most comprehensive guide available and you will become extremely knowledgeable about the exam..com/booksurvey.. NJ 08648 Your feedback will help us to provide personalized solutions for your educational advancement.com . and high school guidance office........ GIVE US YOUR FEEDBACK Peterson’s.. www........ and mail it to us at: Publishing Department Peterson’s 2000 Lenox Drive Lawrenceville.. We welcome any comments or suggestions you may have about this publication and invite you to complete our online survey at www.................. YOU’RE WELL ON YOUR WAY TO SUCCESS Remember that knowledge is power............ tear it out. a Nelnet company..................com...petersons. and you can access us online at www............petersons....................... Or you can fill out the survey at the back of this book.............Before You Begin xiii ..... We look forward to helping you raise your score. library....... ... publishes a full line of resources to help guide you through the college admission process.................... Peterson’s publications can be found at your local bookstore.

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Before You Begin

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TABLE OF LITERARY WORKS
The following list represents all the works discussed in this book, broken out by chapter.

Practice Test 1: Diagnostic
Excerpt from the National Endowment for the Arts Web site. “Reading at Risk,” Research Division Report #46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Walt Whitman, from “Preface” to the 1855 Edition of Leaves of Grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 36 39 42 45 47

George Orwell, from Politics and the English Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mark Twain, from Roughing It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . William Faulkner, “Addressing the Graduating Class,” University High School, Oxford, Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Andrew Carnegie, from Wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 1
Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, from the third essay of Letters from an American Farmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . From “The Law of the Great Peace” from the Iroquois Confederacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elizabeth Cady Stanton, from the “Declaration of Sentiments” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York Herald, “Assassination of President Lincoln” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 87 91 96

L.H. Heller, from “Extinct Animals” in Americana, 1908 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Chapter 2
Ralph Waldo Emerson, from Self-Reliance, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 James Boswell, from “Feelings” in The Life of Samuel Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Mark Twain, “Advice to Little Girls” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Practice Test 2
Louis Untermeyer, from the “Preface” of Modern American Poetry, a Critical Anthology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Benjamin Franklin, from “Dialogue Between Gout and Mr. Franklin” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Adam Smith, from The Wealth of Nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Mary Shelley, from Introduction to Frankenstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Ralph Waldo Emerson, from “The American Scholar” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Practice Test 3
Elizabeth I, “Speech to Her Last Parliament” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Richard Steele, “Dueling” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Simon E. Baldwin, L.L.D., from The American Judiciary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Frederick Douglass, from My Bondage and My Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Henry David Thoreau, from Civil Disobedience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Woodrow Wilson, “Appeal for Neutrality” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

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Before You Begin

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TOP 10 STRATEGIES TO RAISE YOUR SCORE
When it comes to taking an AP, some test-taking skills will do you more good than others. There are concepts you can learn and techniques you can follow that will help you do your best. Here are our picks for the top 10 strategies to raise your AP English Language & Composition score: 1. Create or choose a study plan from this book and follow it. The right study plan will help you get the most out of this book in whatever time you have. 2. Choose a place and time to study every day, and stick to your routine and your plan. 3. Complete the diagnostic and practice tests in this book. They will give you just what they promise: practice—practice in reading and following the directions, practice in pacing yourself, practice in understanding and answering multiple-choice questions, and practice in writing timed essays. 4. Complete all of your assignments for your regular AP English Language & Composition class. Ask questions in class, talk about what you read and write, and enjoy what you are doing. The test is supposed to measure your development as an educated and thinking reader. 5. Highlight the key words in the question so you will know what you are looking for in the answer choices. 6. For a tiered or multi-step question, decide what the correct answer is and then determine which answer choice contains ONLY that answer. 7. 8. All elements in an answer must be correct for the answer to be correct. With not/except questions, ask yourself if an answer choice is true about the selection. If it is, cross it out, and keep checking answers. 9. If you aren’t sure about an answer but know something about the question, eliminate what you know is wrong and make an educated guess. Ignore the answers that are absolutely wrong, eliminate choices in which part of the answer is incorrect, check the time period of the question and of the answer choices, check the key words in the question again, and revisit remaining answers to discover which seems more correct. 10. Finally, don’t cram the night before the exam. Relax. Go to a movie, visit a friend—but not one who is taking the test with you. Get a good night’s sleep.

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AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION BASICS ...................................................................
CHAPTER 1 All About the AP English Language & Composition Test

P ART I

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All About the AP English Language & Composition Test

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chapter 1

OVERVIEW
• • • • • 10 facts about the AP English Language & Composition Test Scoring the AP English Language & Composition Test Suggested reading Practice plans for studying for the AP English Language & Composition Test Summing it up

10 FACTS ABOUT THE AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION TEST
The Advanced Placement Program Offers High School Students an Opportunity to Receive College Credit for Courses They Take in High School.
The AP program is a collaborative effort of secondary schools, colleges and universities, and the College Board through which students who are enrolled in AP or honors courses in any one or more of thirty-eight subject areas may receive credit or advanced placement for college-level work completed in high school. While the College Board makes recommendations about course content, it does not prescribe content. As a result, the annual testing program ensures a degree of comparability among courses in the same subject.

Thousands of Colleges and Universities in the United States Participate in the AP Program.
Neither the College Board nor your high school awards AP credit. You need to find out from the colleges to which you are planning to apply whether they grant credit and/or use AP scores for placement. It is IMPORTANT that you obtain each school’s policy IN WRITING so that when you actually choose one college and register, you will have proof of what you were told.

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. biographers. passages that you will need to synthesize for your answer.... ....... 120 minutes total writing time. historians... This section counts for 45 percent of your total score..... The course will also provide extensive opportunities for students to read a variety of rhetorical modes to analyze how writers’ choices affect style...... By following this model. According to the information from the College Board. but you can hone your skills of rhetorical and stylistic analysis and argumentation and work on refining your own writing style.. The essays count for 55 percent of your total score.... You will also have 15 minutes to read the sources for the synthesis essay. www....petersons......4 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics . The Prose Passages Are Taken from a Variety of Subject Areas.. develop a reasoned body.. typically has between 50 and 60 questions divided among five or six prose passages.. a one-paragraph essay is not going to garner you a high mark because you cannot develop a well-reasoned analysis or argument and present it effectively in one paragraph.. See Chapter 4 for strategies for writing essays........... It is the quality.. Within the multiple-choice section.........com .. You may also find letters. The AP English Language and Composition Test Has Two Parts: Multiple Choice and Essays. According to the College Board’s course description.... An essay of five paragraphs is a good goal..... critics.. There is no way you can read every possible piece of nonfiction.. journalists... essayists...... The AP English Language & Composition Test Measures Your Ability to Analyze the Rhetoric of Prose Passages and to Write Essays in Various Rhetorical Modes................. and you have 60 minutes to complete it. Realistically........... NOTE See “Suggested Reading.. The styles will vary as the subject matter varies....... you will find one selection that has footnotes.....” p.. that counts... diarists.... not the quantity. You have 40 minutes to write each essay....... and provide a solid ending.... possibly as many as six. an AP course in language and composition will enable students to develop and refine their writing styles by writing extensively. Multiple Choice.... In Section II....... and science and nature writers.. political writers and commentators........ you have three essays to write. One of the essay questions will be based on several.... you can set out your ideas with an interesting introduction... The questions usually consist of two essays that require analysis of rhetorical and stylistic strategies in selected prose passages and one that requires a synthesis of sources to support an argument—a persuasive essay based on an analysis and evaluation of sources. you might find selections on the AP exam written by autobiographers... NOTE See Chapter 3 for multiple-choice questions. Section I. 8. There Is No Required Length for Your Essays.....

... The first step is to familiarize yourself with the format and directions for both parts of the test........ No points are deducted for questions that go unanswered on the multiple-choice section. whichever way you will go on test day—to be sure you won’t get lost the morning of the test. you and the colleges you designate will receive a score from 1 to 5.petersons.. Call it “educated guessing.... Studying for the Test Can Make a Difference.... for your AP English Language & Composition Test.......Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 5 ...... and your high school will receive its report a little later. and your essays are graded during a marathon reading session by high school and college teachers..... SCORING THE AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION TEST Around early July. The College Board reports a single score from 1 to 5 for the two-part test.. The College Board suggests guessing IF you know something about a question and can eliminate a couple of the answer choices... The third step is to practice “writing-on-demand” for the essays................ so you do not have to worry about finding a strange school building in a strange city............. with 5 being the highest.. The multiple-choice section is graded by machine... ..... None of the readers knows who you are (that’s why you fill in identification information on your pink Section II booklet and then seal it) or how the others scored your other essays.. The second step is to put those analytical skills you have been learning to work.” below..... with 5 being the highest.... Each reader is familiar with the work or works www........ Educated Guessing Can Help... You will be in familiar surroundings—that should reduce your anxiety a bit.. Add extra time because you may be going during the morning rush hour..... Plan your route to the other school and actually take the trip once before test day—drive or take public transportation... Then............ you will not waste time on the day of the test trying to understand what you are supposed to do.... If the test is given in another school. By understanding how you can balance the number of correct answers in the multiple-choice section and the essay score you need in order to receive at least a “3..........” you can relieve some of your anxiety about passing the test..... A quarter of a point is deducted for each wrong answer.. dissecting and understanding the kinds of questions you will be asked.. NOTE See “Scoring the AP English Language and Composition Test....com .... be sure to take identification with you.. You Will Get a Composite Score for Your Test............ Most likely....” The Test Is Given in Mid-May...... the test will be given at your school..... and don’t expect to have time to answer them all.. A different reader grades each of your essays.

The grading is done on a holistic system... That is.... your spelling...0556 for the essay questions are used to determine a raw score for each section......... What the Composite Score Means The College Board refers to the composite score as “weighted” because a factor of about 1.... much as your teacher uses a rubric to evaluate your writing.. It takes work. Take a look at the charts below.....33) 8 (2.. A score of 107 would have been good enough to get you a “4” for the test in a recent year..66) MC 25 30 35 40 45 SCORE 5 4 Essays (3) 21 (7) 19 (6...... For each essay.....33 ) 23 (7.....0556....com ..... but raising your score may not be that POSSIBLE SCORE DISTRIBUTION FOR A 55-QUESTION MULTIPLE-CHOICE SECTION SCORE 5 5 MC 25 30 35 40 45 Essays (3) 25 (8......33) 17 (5.....” It is not as easy as it may seem.....” The range in a recent year was 112 to 150 for a “5... that is. the overall essay is scored..66) 6 (2) www.... the actual score you get on the multiple-choice questions—say 35—is multiplied by about 1... based on the above example)—is then equated to a number from 5 to 1..3 (1..... discussed in the essay question she or he is reading.. ........66) 15 (5) 13 (4......” What Does All This Mean to You? You can leave blank or answer incorrectly some combination of 20 questions on a 55-question multiple-choice section..66) 21 (7) 19 (6. although a 3 may be good enough to get you college credit or advanced placement.. or your punctuation.... Those two numbers... your raw scores. or the majority of students would not fall into the “3” range.... But 5 more points—112—would have gotten you a “5. the College Board works out grading criteria for the readers to use........ are then added and the resulting score—somewhere between 0 and 150 (107.......3 (the exact number varies from year to year) for the multiple-choice questions and a factor of 3........66) 12 (4) 10 (3......... The actual score that you get on the essay test—say 21—is multiplied by 3. A score of 4 certainly will...6 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics ........petersons.. and still get a “5....33) 17 (5... get a 7 for each of your three essays........2273 for 55 questions in a recent year)..... not just the development of your ideas...33) MC 25 30 35 40 45 SCORE 5 3 Essays (3) 14 (4....

There is a quarter-point deduction for wrong answers........ the difference between a 3 and a 4 or a 4 and a 5 is only a couple of points............ nor do you have to answer them all correctly. Sometimes......... Five Things to Remember The 50 to 60 question multiple-choice section is worth 45 percent of your total score.... You do not have to put all your emphasis on the essay questions..... www............... so the highest total essay score is 27................... It is important to spend time practicing the kinds of questions that you will find in the multiple-choice section. because 45 percent of your score comes from that section. for example. Students who perform acceptably on the essays can receive a 3 if they answer correctly 50 to 60 percent of the multiple-choice questions... The chances are that you will not get a wide range of individual essay scores like 6...Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 7 ..... The three essays together account for 55 percent of your total score... nor write three “9” essays to receive your AP credit.............. and 5..com ... Why Are We Telling You These Facts? Because you can use them to your advantage. and 5......... 5... The highest score you can receive on an essay is a 9.... you could still get at least a 3 and possibly a 4. This chart shows the actual conversion scale in a recent year.. What it means is that you neither have to answer all the questions......... There is no deduction for unanswered questions. AP Grade 5 4 3 2 1 Composite Scores 112–150 95–111 76–94 48–75 0–47 Probability of Receiving Credit Yes Yes Probably Rarely No AP Qualifier Extremely Well Qualified Well Qualified Qualified Possibly Qualified No Recommendation impossible....... Even if you did.. .. 2.....petersons......... about 62 percent of the students who took the test in a recent year received a 3 or better........... The cut-off point for passing grades may change from year to year...... According to the College Board.... It is possible to get a variety of scores on your essays—7. depending on how many correct answers you have in the multiple-choice section weighed against how many wrong answers you have... but it remains around this range.

However...8 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics ... .. SUGGESTED READING The following list of autobiographers.................com ... Remember that you will get an additional 15 minutes to read the sources for the synthesis essay. making certain to reward students for what they do well. NOTE The Diagnostic and Practice Tests will help you pace yourself in the exam.. political writers and commentators. The works have been chosen from a variety of sources to provide a representative list.. journalists... call it EDUCATED GUESSING.. As the College Board cautions its readers for the synthesis essay.... you need to pace yourself so that you spend approximately the same amount of time planning and writing each one. or mechanics....... – You can leave some questions unanswered and still do well. You are not expected to write perfect essays.... and Maureen Dowd. prose style... you may not be able to complete all 50-odd questions on the day of the test. the essay is not a finished product and should not be judged by standards that are appropriate for out-of-class writing assignments. you can skip it and come back to it later and still feel that you are not doomed to a low score.. In writing the essays...... IF you know something about the question and can eliminate one or more of the answer choices... If you do not know anything about the question or the choices.. . and science and nature writers draws heavily from the selection of writers that the College Board suggests students read during an AP English language and composition course.. but answering even one question correctly would gain you another point...........” NOTE See Chapter 3 for strategies on educated guessing..... evaluate the essay as a draft............ Gary Wills... There are also suggestions for books on composition and critical analysis. Rather than calling it guessing. “..... diarists....... In studying for the test. You would need to answer four questions incorrectly to lose one point... Reading essays in magazines like The New Yorker and the New Republic and columnists on the Op-Ed page of the New York Times will introduce you to writers like Cynthia Ozick..... even those scored an 8 or a 9. do not take a chance. Thomas Friedman. Even the College Board suggests this strategy..... critics.....petersons....... There is a guessing penalty. biographers... All essays..... .... www........ If you are looking for models of analysis.. essayists.. use this list as well as writers you are introduced to in class to practice developing essay responses..... may contain occasional flaws in analysis.... writers of history.......... then it is probably worth your while to choose one of the other answers.... If you come across a really incomprehensible passage.... Instead... check page xiv for a list of all works discussed and analyzed in this book. Even though you will be practicing pacing yourself as you use this book...

. Maya.......... “The Myth of the Latin American Woman......... Seven Pillars of Wisdom Malcolm X.... Maxine Hong... James Joyce: The Last Journey Ellmann....... James... Autobiographical Sketches Douglass......... James Joyce Foote.......... A Stillness at Appomattox Churchill. The Autobiography of Malcolm X Newman... Apologia Pro Vita Sua Pepys... Lillian.. Reminiscences of the Civil War.... T... E.. Richard... Black Boy Yezierska..... Frederick. Custer Died for Your Sins Edel... The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Hellman. Charles. One Writer’s Beginnings Wright.. Bruce.. Scoundrel Time Hurston... The Diary of Samuel Pepys Welty... Red Ribbon on a White Horse: My Story Biographers and Historians Bates.... The Heart of a Woman Cofer.. Winston.. “No Name Woman” Lawrence..... Vine... John Keats Boswell. Helen..... Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History Catton. On Heroes..........com . Zora Neale... Judith Ortiz.... Samuel... Dust Tracks on a Road Keller.. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Mr.. Jr. Autobiographers and Diarists Angelou.. Thomas. An American Slave Franklin. John Henry. The Achievement of Samuel Johnson.. 5-volume biography of Henry James.. Anzia... Chickamauga and Other Stories www.. Notes of Travel De Quincey. Richard......... My Early Life DeLoria.......... Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.. Thomas..... Leon.Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 9 ... . Walter Jackson........ Bread Givers... The Story of My Life.petersons. An Unfinished Woman. The Civil War in three volumes. Eudora. Helen Keller’s Journal Kingston.. Lincoln’s Army.. Shelby..... Life of Samuel Johnson Carlyle.” Woman in Front of the Sun: On Becoming a Writer Dana..... Benjamin.

... Thomas.. Simon... And Where I’m Going: Essays. 5001 Nights at the Movies Oates.. Henry Louis.... Ralph Waldo..... Civilisation Croce.... Sketches and Essays hooks............ Redcoat Lerner. A Different Mirror Trevelyan..... Essays in Criticism... Landscape and Memory.... Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives of Feminists of Color Arnold.......... George. Loose Canons: Notes on the Culture Wars Hazlitt...com . Edward....... The Majority Finds Its Past. Joyce Carol.. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Holmes.petersons..... Paula Gunn.. Teaching to Transgress Johnson.. From Slavery to Freedom....... Francis..” History of England Morison....... The Guns of August. Admiral of the Ocean Sea.. American Revolution Tuchman....10 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics . The Weaker Vessel Gibbon. The Age of Jackson.. . Reviews.. Culture and Anarchy Clark.. A Thousand Days Takaki. Making Face. Practising History (collection) Critics Allen. and Prose...... Ronald.. Antonia.. “Self-Reliance. Arthur M... John Paul Jones Parkman.... Going to the Dance Emerson.. Jr... “The Sacred Hoop” Anzaldua. Rembrandt’s Eyes Schlesinger... Where I’ve Been... Contraries: Essays www. Race and History Fraser. The Oregon Trail Schama...... The Idler Kael..... The Rambler.... bell.. Barbara. Arlene...... William... Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza.. Toward a Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism. John Hope.. Matthew..... Gloria.. Franklin........... Pauline. Samuel Eliot. Firing Line. Samuel. Richard. Gerda.......” “The Over-Soul” Gates.... “Milton. Kenneth...... Afterimages. Studies in American Indian Literature: Critical Essays... The Creation of Feminist Consciousness Macaulay...

.. V.... Metaphor and Memory.. Norman. Ideas and the Novel.. James.” “The Liquid City” Fussell.Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 11 .... “On Being a Scientific Booby” Márquez........ Against Interpretation West.. G... Essays.... Francis.. The Return of Eva Peron: With the Killings in Trinidad Olsen. Susan... Axel’s Castle Essayists Addison... The Tatler. Paris Journals: Selected Essays and Reviews Gordimer.... The Spectator Agee.. Essays of Elia Mailer......... The Armies of the Night. A Fire on the Moon........ Maya. Tillie... George. Cornel. The Courage of Turtles Lamb... The Circle Home. Mary. Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays Ozick.. Nancy. The Sense of Beauty Sontag...... Modern Painters. “Miami: The Cuban Presence. How I Grew Montaigne........ Poetic Meter and Poetic Form Gallant. . A Cynthia Ozick Reader www. Wouldn’t Take Nothing for My Journey Now Bacon. Charles. George..........K............petersons....... The AfricanAmerican Century Wilson. The Stones of Venice Santayana........... Keeping Faith: Philosophy and Race in America. The Essays Naipaul. Appreciations Ruskin... Cynthia... James...... Edward.. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men Angelou. Tremendous Trifles Didion. Joan. “Eye of a Blue Day” McCarthy. Race Matters. Gabriel García.....com ........... Walter. The Essential Gesture.. Colours of Good and Evil Baldwin.. Edmund. Nadine....... Paul.. Silences Orwell. John.. Writing and Being Hoagland.... Joseph.. Mavis.S... Pater. The Executioner’s Song Mairs..... Notes of a Native Son Chesterton............ The Renaissance.

American Fried: Adventures of a Happy Eater. Virginia.12 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics . The Children Logan......petersons...........com ......... The Spectator Thoreau..... Red. E.. Elizabeth. Lincoln.. David..... Pax Britannica Trilogy Smith.... Frances. Andy. Tom. Mordecai.” “Beauty: When the Other Dancer Is the Self” White.. “Resistance to Civil Government” Updike.. The Man Who Robbed the Robber Barons Mencken... Richard. Notes on an Endangered Species and Others Selzer.... What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics. Ishmael. Roger.... Views of Sports..... H. Reed.. John. Terry Tempest. Nora... Picked-Up Pieces......... Growing Up Dowd. Washington Journal Ephron.L.. Paper Trail Halberstam...... Richler....B. The Red Smith Reader.. Mortal Lessons: Notes on the Art of Surgery..... “Old Mrs..... The Making of a Quagmire. “The Feminine Mind” Morris....... A Room of One’s Own........ Hunting Tigers Under Glass: Essays and Reports.... Grey” Journalists Angell.. The Shame of the Cities Trillin.... The Summer Game. ..... America Revised Goodman......... The Right Stuff www. Still Looking: Essays on American Art Walker.. Henry David. Shrovetide in Old New Orleans: Essays.... “In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens. Great and Peculiar Beauty: a Utah Centennial Reader Woolf.. Maureen........... Adrienne.... Once More Around the Park Baker. Calvin.. Red Smith on Baseball Steffens.. Ellen. An Education in Georgia Wolfe..... Alice. “The Masked Marvel’s Last Toehold” Steele. Jan. “The Ring of Time” Williams. Walden. Are Men Necessary? Drew..... God Made Alaska for the Indians: Selected Essays Rich. Prejudices.... Russell...... Richard.... The Tatler.... Turning Points. The Breaks of the Game... Crazy Salad Fitzgerald.

......... Jr. J.. Leviathan Jefferson.... Olive... The American Presidency Will. Jonathan. Alexis.... The Second Sex Buckley...... Hector St.. Thomas...... “A Modest Proposal” de Tocqueville. The Souls of Black Folk Fuller. Thomas..... Money and Class in America.. John Stuart....... Thomas..... Decline and Fall of the American Empire. “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” Lapham..... E. Margaret. On Liberty Milton.... John....com . Lincoln at Gettysburg Wollstonecraft.. Mary.. Nixon Agonistes.. Simone..... Areopagitica More. Democracy in America Vidal. John.. Charlotte Perkins........ W. William F.. The Second Treatise on Civil Government Machiavelli... Common Sense. Martin Luther... The Morning After: American Successes and Excesses. Hannah... John Kenneth. The Origins of Totalitarianism de Beauvoir. Matters of Fact and Fiction.... The Prince Mill.. Garry..... Niccolò.......... Lewis H. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman www. The Crisis Schreiner... “The Declaration of Independence” Kennan.. Waiting for the Barbarians Locke....petersons. Political Writers and Commentators Arendt. Thomas... Woman in the Nineteenth Century Galbraith......... Women and Labour Swift........... Up from Liberalism de Crévecoeur.. Explaining America: The Federalist.. Letters from an American Farmer Du Bois............ Gore..... Suddently: The American Idea Abroad and at Home Wills. . B... Memoirs King.. The Affluent Society Gilman. George... John... Women and Economics Hobbes.. Utopia Paine. George..Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 13 .............

.. Refiguring Life Lopez.. Charles... Gretel..... Under the Mountain Wall: A Chronicle of Two Seasons in the Stone Age. Karin Bergstrom. Martin’s Guide to Writing Barzun..... and Charles R. Jonathan. Edward....... Evelyn Fox.. Science and Nature Writers Abbey....... Standing on Earth. Coming of Age in Samoa. Loren. Essays..... Jacques... Teaching a Stone to Talk Ehrlich.. Wildlife in America..petersons... Simple and Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers Berthoff. Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes........ Origin of Species. Jacob. Growing Up in New Guinea Muir. John..... Making Sense of Life.... John Muir: Nature Writings.. ...... Thomas..... Wendell... The Norton Sampler: Short Essays for Composition Corbett. Don Richard and Elizabeth Giddnes....... Crossing Open Ground Matthiessen... The St. “The Brown Wasps” Gould............... The Descent of Man Dillard.. A Continuous Harmony: Essays Cultural and Agricultural.. Margaret. Peter.. The Solace of Open Spaces Eiseley.... Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student Costello.. J.. Lewis. Carl. My First Summer in the Sierra Sagan... Stephen Jay..... Rise B... Annals of the Former World Mead.... Ann E...... The Lives of Cells. Rachel. Crafting Prose www. The Youngest Science: Notes of a Medicine-Watcher Weiner.... The Making of Meaning: Metaphors... Tigers in the Snow McPhee.. John. The Dragons of Eden...... Planet Earth... Late Harvest: Rural American Writing Bronowski.... The Ascent of Man Carson. and the Magister’s Pox: Mending the Gap Between Science and the Humanities Keller.. Edward P. the Fox... Cosmos Thomas. The Hedgehog.. Ever Since Darwin.. Annie. Models and Maxims for Writing Teachers Cooley..... Gendered Voices: Readings from the American Experience Cox..... The Monkey Wrench Gang Berry.. Barry... Cooper.. Of Wolves and Men..........com .... The Beak of the Finch Works on Composition and Analysis Axelrod... Silent Spring Darwin.14 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics ..

............ Donald..... pp. The Craft of Revision Strunk. and the Arts.. www. Staying relaxed about the test is important....... Jr...... pp........... List the areas that you had difficulty with such as timing.. DiYanni.... White.......com .............. Analyzing Prose........ A full-semester study plan also means that you can apply what you are learning here to class work (your essay writing) and apply your class work to test preparation... The plan is worked out so that you should spend about 3 hours on each lesson.. W.. On Writing Well: An Informal Guide to Writing Nonfiction PRACTICE PLANS FOR STUDYING FOR THE AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION TEST The following plan is worked out for nine weeks.. The Elements of Style Warriner.petersons.... English Composition and Grammar: Complete Course Zinsser........ The Scribner Handbook for Writers Elbow. Walker... Donald..... Correct the activities with the Answer Key and Explanations for the exercise... B. Richard. The Contemporary Essay Lanham. .. The best study plan is one that continues through a full semester so you have time to think about ideas........ and to talk with your teacher and other students about what you are learning... Then: Reread Chapter 1 about the basic facts of the test and its scoring.. Nine-Week Practice Plan WEEK 1 First: Take the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic.Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 15 ... The Electronic Word: Democracy.. Technology.. Writing with Power Gibson.. and complete the self-scoring process.. and E........... 71–104...... WEEK 2 Lesson 1 Reread Scoring the AP Language &Composition Test on pp.. ed... Peter... William K.... Revising Prose Murray........ question types... 5–8 to remind yourself that at least a “3” is achievable. John E... Read Chapter 3... 33–68. Robert.. and Pat C... Hoy II... About the Multiple-Choice Questions.. Persona: A Style Study for Readers and Writers Hall.. Practice by completing Exercise 1. Note areas that need improvement....... and you will not feel rushed. and writing on demand..

... Complete the self-evaluation and ask a responsible friend..... Do Exercise 2 in 40 minutes... With your and your evaluator’s comments in mind. A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms... pp.... www......... an AP classmate. Complete the self-evaluation and ask a responsible friend.. Do Exercise 3 in 40 minutes.... WEEK 4 Lesson 1 Reread Chapter 4. as needed.. revise your essay.. revise your essay...... A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms. Do Exercise 1.....com ..... Lesson 2 Read Chapter 4......... pp.......... Time yourself to see how well-developed and complete an essay you can plan and write in 40 minutes.... 105–144.. 71–104.... an AP classmate. Practice answering multiple-choice questions by completing Exercises 2 and 3 in Chapter 3. or a teacher to evaluate your essay against the scoring guide. With your evaluator’s and your comments in mind... Practice answering multiple-choice questions by completing Exercise 4 in Chapter 3........... or a teacher to evaluate your essay against the scoring guide. an AP classmate. About the Multiple-Choice Questions....... Chapter 5 for grammar.. Lesson 2 Read “Grammar for the Multiple-Choice Questions” in Chapter 5 and Appendix B. 147–150. as needed. revise your essay...... and Appendix B. Note those areas where you have improved and those areas that still need work.................petersons... pp..... pp.. pp... Correct the activities with the Answer Key and and Explanations for the exercises.... Note those areas where you have improved and those areas that still need work.... Complete the self-evaluation and ask a responsible friend.... 105–144... or a teacher to evaluate your essay against the scoring guide.............. About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays. Correct the activities with the Answer Key and Explanations for the exercise. With your evaluator’s and your comments in mind.. ....... Lesson 2 Reread Chapter 4...16 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics .. 287–293...... WEEK 3 Lesson 1 Review Chapter 3.

.......... With these areas in mind.. WEEK 5 Lesson 1 Review the list you made after you took the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic to see what you need to review about the multiple-choice section. Where did you improve? What do you still need to work on? Lesson 2 Choose a selection that is used for one of the essay questions in the Diagnostic Test and analyze it as though you were going to create your own multiple-choice test.. Be sure to ask yourself about the mode of the piece.. Note any areas that you think you still need to improve................ including the ones you answered correctly.......... an AP classmate...... pp.............petersons... Lesson 2 Review the list you made after you took the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic to see what you need to review about the essay section of the AP exam........ Revise the first two essays on the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic.....com ... ...Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 17 ..... Pay particular attention to the strategies for answering the questions. www... any literary devices that are employed.... Ask a responsible friend. Use the Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays to assess how much you have improved since you originally wrote the two essays..... About the Multiple-Choice Questions... WEEK 6 Lesson 1 Take Practice Test 2.... Compare your scores on Practice Test 2 to the scores on the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic. or a teacher to evaluate your essay against the scoring guide.... and the theme of the piece.... Determine if there are areas that you are still unsure of...... Revise the remaining essay if necessary....... Review the Exercises in the chapter and the Answer Key and Explanations........ Score your answers against the Answer Key and evaluate your essay against the rubric................... reread Chapter 3....... Reread Chapter 4... 105–144...... Read the Answer Key and Explanations for all the multiple-choice questions..........

WEEK 7 Lesson 1 Take Practice Test 3. www... Be sure to ask yourself about the mode of the piece.. WEEK 8 Lesson 1 Choose a selection that is used for one of the essay questions in the Diagnostic Test and analyze it as though you were going to create your own multiple-choice test...... and the theme of the piece................ or a teacher to evaluate your essay against the scoring guide.petersons....... Choose one of the selections in the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic that is used as the basis for multiple-choice questions and turn it into a practice essay activity.. an AP classmate........com ... Ask a responsible friend. Compare your scores on Practice Test 3 to the scores on the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic and Practice Test 2. Develop a question and then answer it in an essay. any literary devices that are employed............ Develop a question and then answer it in an essay. and the theme of the piece....... Score your answers against the Answer Key and evaluate your essay against the rubric.. Choose one of the selections in the Diagnostic Test that is used as the basis for multiple-choice questions and turn it into a practice essay activity. Be sure to ask yourself about the mode of the piece.... Read the explanations for all the multiple-choice questions...18 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics .......................... any literary devices that are employed. and the theme of the piece... Develop a question and then answer it in an essay.. Choose one of the selections in the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic that is used as the basis for multiple-choice questions and turn it into a practice essay activity............ any rhetorical devices that are used.................................. Where did you improve? What do you still need to work on? Lesson 2 Choose a selection that is used for one of the essay questions in the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic and analyze it as though you were going to create your own multiple-choice test...... including the ones you answered correctly. Lesson 2 Read and analyze five articles in magazines such as The New Yorker and selections in anthologies to practice your skills. ............ Be sure to ask yourself about the mode of each piece....

..... nine weeks. Complete the self-scoring process. Lesson 2 Randomly choose selections from Section I of the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic and the other Practice Tests and review the Answer Key and Explanations to remind yourself of the strategies you can use to unlock the answers.. 5–8.Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 19 ..... Use the scoring guide to assess your answer...... .... and to write the best essays you can. Multiple Choice Answer the multiple-choice section on Practice Test 2.... Assemble all materials you will need on test day: pens.........com . to help you get as many correct answers as possible.. Review Chapter 5.. Review Chapters 3 and 4........ WEEK 1 Read and Scoring the AP English Language & Composition Test..... and see where you may still be having problems with question types. how about two weeks? If you are the kind of person who puts everything off until the last possible minute.. Take Practice Test 1: Diagnostic: Read the directions carefully and use a timer for each section............. Complete the self-scoring process.... Its objectives are to make you familiar with the test format and directions.. pencils..............petersons. here is a two-week Panic Plan.... and your registration information. 5–8.......... Read all the answer explanations.. a watch.... The Panic Plan Eighteen weeks.. Reread Scoring the AP English Language & Composition Test.. including those you identified correctly...... www.. pp....................... Read Chapters 3 and 4 and complete the Exercises......... You can learn a lot about the types of questions in the multiple-choice section by working through the answers..... pp............. Apply an essay question from one of the tests in this book to two of the articles and write a practice essay for each............ WEEK 9 Lesson 1 Read and analyze articles in magazines such as The New Yorker and selections in anthologies to practice your skills.

....... 4.. Choose one essay to revise....... WEEK 2 Reread Scoring the AP English Language & Composition Test.... . and your registration material... pencils........... Assemble all materials you will need on test day: pens.........petersons.. and 5.... Score the essays against the rubric.......... or a teacher to evaluate your essays against the scoring guide...... Multiple Choice Answer the multiple-choice questions in Practice Test 3.... Reread Chapters 1 and 3 if you are still unsure of any of the strategies or information about answering multiple-choice questions.................. 5–8..... Score your essays against the rubric. pp.... an AP classmate...... or a teacher to evaluate your essays against the scoring guide as well.. Ask a responsible friend.. noting areas for improvement..... and Chapters 3... an AP classmate.... Essays Complete the essay section on Practice Test 2... Compare your scores to those on the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic...... working on strengthening your areas of weakness.com ... Essays Write the essays from Practice Test 3. Ask a responsible friend.. a watch...................20 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics ............... Complete the self-scoring process.......... www.....

..com ...........Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 21 ............ • • Section I......................... www..petersons.... The AP English Language & Composition Test measures your ability to analyze the rhetoric of prose passages and to write essays in various rhetorical modes.......... • • • The highest score you can receive on an essay is a 9.......... Section II requires writing 3 essays......................... Two of the essays usually require analysis of rhetorical and stylistic strategies in selected prose passages and one requires a synthesis of sources to support an argument—a persuasive essay based on an analysis and evaluation of sources............. Multiple Choice..... so the highest total essay score is 27.................. .... The multiple-choice questions include the following types: • • • • • • • • • main idea detail inference definition tone and purpose form factual knowledge The multiple-choice section is graded by machine and the essays are graded during a reading session by high school and college teachers..... SUMMING IT UP • • The AP Program offers an opportunity to receive college credit for courses taken in high school........ The three essays together account for 55 percent of the total score The suggested reading list draws heavily from the selection of writers that the College Board suggests students read during their AP English Language & Composition course...... Section II includes three essays...... contains about 50 questions on poetry and prose passages....

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...................................................... CHAPTER 2 Practice Test 1: Diagnostic P ART II .............................................DIAGNOSING STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES .................... .....

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petersons.... O O O O O A B C D E 10.. O O O O O A B C D E 43.... O O O O O A B C D E 11. O O O O O A B C D E 25.. O O O O O A B C D E 24.. O O O O O A B C D E 15... O O O O O A B C D E 12.. O O O O O A B C D E 27... O O O O O A B C D E 50.... O O O O O A B C D E 17.. O O O O O A B C D E 16.. O O O O O A B C D E 41.....com .... O O O O O A B C D E 38. O O O O O A B C D E 29. O O O O O A B C D E 21.. O O O O O A B C D E 44... O O O O O A B C D E 4....... O O O O O A B C D E 47..... O O O O O A B C D E 9... O O O O O 2..... O O O O O A B C D E 19..... O O O O O A B C D E 46. O O O O O A B C D E 39.. O O O O O A B C D E 33... O O O O O A B C D E 23.. O O O O O A B C D E 49. A O B O C O D O E O 20......... O O O O O A B C D E 52. O O O O O A B C D E 31..... O O O O O A B C D E 14.. O O O O O A B C D E 51. O O O O O A B C D E 53...... O O O O O A B C D E 6................ O O O O O A B C D E 34. O O O O O A B C D E 48........ O O O O O A B C D E 7.. O O O O O A B C D E 26.------------------------------------------------------------------- ✁ Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 25 ..... O O O O O www....... O O O O O A B C D E 42.... O O O O O A B C D E 35... answer sheet ANSWER SHEET PRACTICE TEST 1: DIAGNOSTIC SECTION I A B C D E 1.. O O O O O A B C D E 36........ O O O O O A B C D E 32. O O O O O A B C D E 30. O O O O O A B C D E 28... O O O O O A B C D E 37. O O O O O A B C D E 13... O O O O O A B C D E 18... O O O O O A B C D E 5...... O O O O O A B C D E 22.... O O O O O A B C D E 40......... . O O O O O A B C D E 45.... O O O O O A B C D E 54... O O O O O A B C D E 8.... A O B O C O D O E O A B C D E 3.......

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SECTION I
54 QUESTIONS • 60 MINUTES Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content, style, and form. After you have read each passage, select the response that best answers the question and mark the corresponding space on the answer sheet. QUESTIONS 1–11 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. This passage is taken from a report on nationwide literacy prepared by the National Endowment for the Arts.
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In a recent essay, “What use is literature?” Myron Magnet stated that “data are meaningless until we can articulate a story that makes sense out of them, and literature makes sense out of the data of human experience.”46 Data from the 2002 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) demonstrate that many people enjoy literature. Novels, short stories, poetry, and plays attract almost one-half of those 18 or older (47 percent or about 96 million people). Each part of the literary puzzle examined in this monograph—novels, short stories, poetry, and plays— attracts a significant number of people. Poetry (read by 25 million adults) is about as popular as attendance at jazz performances or at classical music events. About as many people read plays (7 million) as attend live opera or ballet. Novels and short stories have an audience (93 million) that is larger than almost any other cultural or leisure pursuit. A number of people have a particularly strong attachment to books; about one in six literary readers (17 percent) read 12 or more books in 2002. Americans participate in literature in a variety of other ways. Almost one in ten (9 percent) listened to live or recorded readings of novels or books, and 6 percent listened to poetry readings during the survey year. About 7 percent wrote creative works of their own, and 9 percent used the Internet to learn about, read, or discuss topics related to literature. Most literary readers are active in a wide range of other cultural and leisure pursuits. . . .

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It is not clear from the SPPA data how much influence TV watching has on literary reading. Not surprisingly, a statistical model created to analyze frequent readers found that watching four hours or more of TV per day had a negative impact on the chances of someone reading 12 books or more per year.47 Watching no TV had a positive impact on the probability of someone reading 12 books or more. Literary readers watch slightly less TV each day than non-readers, and frequent readers watch only slightly less TV per day than infrequent readers. The SPPA results cannot show whether non-readers would read more if they watched less TV, or whether they would use this extra time in other ways. . . . The percentage of U.S. adults reading literature dropped from 56.4 percent in 1982 to 46.7 percent in 2002—a decline of almost 10 percentage points. This may indicate a downward trend over the past two decades, but it is important to note that the SPPA is not conducted on a yearly basis. This monograph looks at the surveys held in 1982, 1992, and 2002—ten-year snapshots. No information is available for non-SPPA years, and it is possible that the 2002 drop is a short, one-year change. If the 2002 data represent a declining trend, it is tempting to suggest that fewer people are reading literature and now prefer visual and audio entertainment. Again, the data—both from SPPA and other sources—do not readily quantify this explanation. As discussed in Chapter 3, television does not seem to be the culprit. In 2002, those who do read and those who do not read literature watched about the same amount of TV per day—three hours’ worth. The Internet, however, could have played a role. During the time period when the literature participation rates declined, home Internet use soared. According to a 2000 Census Bureau report, 42 percent of households used the Internet at home—up dramatically from 26 percent in 1998, one of the earliest years of the Bureau’s tracking.48 By contrast, literary reading rates reported in 1982 and 1992 were virtually identical in a period before the Internet was widely available. It was not until 2002 that the reported percentage of adults reading literature dropped considerably.
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The details of the statistical models created for this report are included in Appendix C. U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, “Home Computers and Internet Use in the United States: August 2000.” Current Population Report, P23-207, September 2001.

1. Which of the following most accurately states the subject of the passage? (A) The reading habits of Americans (B) The effects of television on reading (C) How the Internet makes people read less (D) The popularity of poetry and novels (E) The declining importance of literature

2. The source listed in which footnote would be the best source for information on statistics of home computer use? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 46 47 48 None of the above Any of the above

3. Which of the following is closest to the meaning of “articulate” as used in the first sentence? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Enunciate Convey Clear up Pronounce Decry

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4. Which of the following is the best description of the tone of this passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Informative and unbiased Opinionated and persuasive Appeals to emotions Accurate and hopeful Creative and informational

7. The phrase “about one in six literary readers (17 percent) read 12 or more books in 2002” in lines 16–17, is used to support the assertion that (A) as many people read poetry as attend jazz performances or classical music events (B) many people have a particularly strong attachment to books (C) a small percentage of the population wrote their own creative works (D) most literary readers read at least 12 books in a calendar year (E) since 2002, literary readers read less books per year than before 2002 8. The sentence “Most literary readers are active in a wide range of other cultural and leisure pursuits . . .” at the end of the second paragraph is most likely (A) an opinion based in anecdotal evidence not included in the report (B) included to convince people who read the article to be more cultured (C) a conclusion drawn from results of surveys on which the report is based (D) the authors’ wishes for a more cultural society (E) untrue based on the information in the passage 9. “This monograph looks at the surveys held in 1982, 1992, and 2002—tenyear snapshots.” What type of literary device is represented by the use of the world “snapshot” in this sentence? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Personification Simile Onomatopoeia Iambic pentameter Metaphor

5. The purpose of footnote 48 is to inform the reader that the information in lines 45–47 (A) is about the U.S. Department of Commerce (B) was first published in 2000 (C) appears in Current Population Report, P23-207 (D) was written by the U.S. Census Bureau and edited by the U.S. Department of Commerce (E) appears in a book called Home Computers and Internet Use 6. With which statement would the authors of this article most likely agree? (A) Literary readers watch as much, if not more, television than most non-readers. (B) Only literary readers are important in determining reading statistics for U.S. citizens; non-fiction readers do not count. (C) Internet use has had a very detrimental effect on the percentage of U.S. citizens who are literary readers. (D) All data must have a story to accompany them. (E) A decline in literary readers might be attributed to a growing preference for audio and visual entertainment, but there is no hard data to support this fact.

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10. The word that would have the most accurate meaning if used to replace the word “about” as used in lines 8, 11, 12, and 16 in the second paragraph is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Precisely Near Approximately Exactly Around 11. Footnote 47 is included in order to (A) guide the reader to details about statistical models used in the report (B) show the reader that the passage should be taken seriously (C) help the reader understand the importance of accurate statistical models (D) properly cite the publisher of the statistical model that is mentioned in the passage (E) remind the reader that there are some appendixes to the report

QUESTIONS 12–24 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. From the Preface to the 1855 Edition of Leaves of Grass America does not repel the past or what it has produced under its forms or amid other politics or the idea of castes or the old religions . . . accepts the lesson with calmness . . . is not so impatient as has been supposed that the slough still sticks to opinions and manners and literature while the life which served its requirements has passed into the new life of the new forms . . . perceives that the corpse is slowly borne from the eating and sleeping rooms of the house . . . perceives that it waits a little while in the door . . . that it was fittest for its days . . . that its action has descended to the stalwart and well-shaped heir who approaches . . . and that he shall be fittest for his days. The Americans of all nations at any time upon the earth have probably the fullest poetical nature. The United States themselves are essentially the greatest poem. In the history of the earth hitherto the largest and most stirring appear tame and orderly to their ampler largeness and stir. Here at last is something in the doings of man that corresponds with the broadcast doings of the day and night. Here is not merely a nation but a teeming nation of nations. Here is action untied from strings necessarily blind to particulars and details magnificently moving in vast masses. Here is the hospitality which forever indicates heroes . . . Here are the roughs and beards and space and ruggedness and nonchalance that the soul loves. Here the performance disdaining the trivial unapproached in the tremendous audacity of its crowds and groupings and the push of its perspective spreads with crampless and flowing breadth and showers its prolific and splendid extravagance. One sees it must indeed own the riches of the summer and winter, and need never bankrupt while corn grows from the ground or orchards drop apples or the bays contain fish or men beget children upon women. . . . —Walt Whitman

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12. Which of the following is the best statement of the theme of this passage? (A) A portrait of the beauty of the United States. (B) A forecast of the future of poetry in the United States. (C) A merging of new and old literary styles. (D) A discussion of the resources and poetry of the United States. (E) A poetic definition of the United States. 13. In line 5, to what does the word “corpse” refer? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Old forms of poetry The past Slough Older opinions and manners Current politics

16. When Whitman wrote “perceives that the corpse is slowly borne from the eating and sleeping rooms of the house,” (lines 5–6) he used what type of literary device? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Personification Meter Oxymoron Conceit Metaphor

17. Which is the best interpretation of Whitman’s statement “the United States themselves are essentially the greatest poem” in line 11? (A) The greatest volume of good poetry is from the United States. (B) The nation’s vibrancy, beauty, and diversity are poetic. (C) The people of the nation are very poetic. (D) The United States is the leader in finding new forms of poetry. (E) Literature in the United States has poetry at its root. 18. The sentence “Here are the roughs and beards and space and ruggedness and nonchalance that the soul loves” (lines 17–18) is intended as (A) a challenge presented to humanity (B) symbolic of emotional highs and lows (C) a metaphor for the American landscape: physical and cultural (D) a contrast between something easy and something difficult (E) a reference to style and dress at the time of writing 19. Which of the following descriptions would best characterize the United States, according to Whitman? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Rigid Malleable Anti-intellectual Exuberant Enshrining the past

14. How does Whitman suggest that the past and the present are linked? I. II. III. IV. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The past nourishes and educates the present. In the present, the past is viewed differently. The present is merely a mirror image of the past. The present can be seen only in the context of the past. I only II only III only IV only I, II, and IV only

15. Which of the following statements does NOT reflect Whitman’s ideas about the United States? (A) It is larger than most other countries. (B) The population is more literate than that of other nations. (C) The people of the United States have built a unique nation. (D) It is a country of vast riches in people and nature. (E) It is a country in transition.

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(E) The United States is a culturally diverse nation... 21........... In the second paragraph........ What effect does he create? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A ponderous feeling A sense of predictability Formality Exuberance A musical..... poetic feeling 23............38 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses .. (B) The nation’s resources can support a large population...... “Here the performance” (lines 18–21) is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) push and spreads unapproached and showers unapproached and disdaining spreads and showers crowds and showers 24..” (lines 13–14)? (A) The people of the United States follow a pattern like day becomes night................ 22.............. 20... (D) A person meets challenges on a day-to-day basis.petersons.. The compound verb in the sentence beginning. (B) The nation’s actions are unpredictable. What is Whitman saying in the sentence “Here at last is something in the doings of man that corresponds with the broadcast doings of the day and night.................com ........... (D) Native Americans represent a nation within a nation.. (C) The influence of the United States spreads as widely as day and night.. (E) People have found a place in the United States where their actions are compatible with nature..... What does Whitman mean when he comments that the United States “is not merely a nation but a teeming nation of nations” (lines 14–15)? (A) New Americans have tremendously increased the population........ .... Whitman uses the word “here” to begin numerous sentences................................ (C) People come to the United States to make their fortunes.... (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A gerund phrase A participial phrase An infinitive phrase All of the above None of the above www. The following sentence contains which of the elements listed? Here the performance disdaining the trivial unapproached in the tremendous audacity of its crowds and groupings and the push of its perspective spreads with crampless and flowing breadth and showers its prolific and splendid extravagance......

....com ➡ . you think wordless.... all prefabricated phrases.... (iv) Never use the passive where you can use the active. and so they are.... (ii) Never use a long word where a short one will do. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start..... if you want to describe the thing you have been visualizing you probably hunt about till you find the exact words that seem to fit it. at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning..... and not the other way about. diagnostic test QUESTIONS 25–38 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION.. or with the setting up of a “standard English” which must never be departed from.. needless repetitions...... Our civilization is decadent and our language—so the argument runs—must inevitably share in the general collapse. The defense of the English language implies more than this..... and humbug and vagueness generally..... It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax. .. and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails....petersons... and then switch round and decide what impression one’s words are likely to make on another person........ Afterwards one can choose—not simply accept—the phrases that will best cover the meaning.... On the contrary.. IN POLITICS AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE... In prose. the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you. When you think of a concrete object.. One 40 45 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one..... It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism... From Politics and the English Language Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way.. . ..........Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 39 .. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism.. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY....... which are of no importance so long as one makes one’s meaning clear. (iii) If it is possible to cut a word out. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images..” On the other hand it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial........ (v) Never use a foreign phrase. GEORGE ORWELL EXPRESSES A CONCERN FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND THE MANIPULATION OF LANGUAGE IN THE MODERN WORLD. and then...... Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one’s meaning as clear as one can through pictures or sensations...... but they demand a deep change in attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable... .... and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it... ..... or with the avoidance of Americanisms...... a scientific word.... These rules sound elementary. AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.. like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes.... . though it does imply using the fewest and the shortest words that will cover one’s meaning.. or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent......... with salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech. or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print... simile. (vi) Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous..... the worst thing one can do with words is to surrender to them.. it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has out worn its usefulness. always cut it out........ but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it.... ..... Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase.. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word. and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply. or with having what is called a “good prose style. I think the following rules will cover most cases: (i) Never use a metaphor..

.. (B) You should never break the rules.... The author advocates which of the following actions? (A) Using simplicity to make English colloquial... (C) You can break the rules if the writing makes better sense.. (B) To introduce new grammar rules.... but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of this article.. (E) Rules are never required. (B) The use of detailed.. hotbed..... if one jeers loudly enough.. . could keep all of them and still write bad English........... (C) When there are no guidelines. . (D) The use of common idioms.40 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses ... the author identifies what situation under which rules are necessary? (A) When vagueness is required.... In the second paragraph... but merely language as an instrument of expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought..... One can at least change one’s own habits....... acid test.... This passage is primarily concerned with (A) the meanings of words (B) the rules of syntax and structure in the English language (C) the use of colloquialisms in the English language (D) some rules to be used for better writing (E) integration of scientific and foreign words into the English language 27.com ..... ..... (B) When one’s sense of what is good fails. 30.. melting pot. The general tone of this passage is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) subtly humorous serious and persuasive ironic satirical dramatic and portentous 50 25... direct word selection.. Achilles’ heel.. (C) To teach creative writing. veritable inferno or other lump of verbal refuse—into the dustbin where it belongs. and from time to time one can even. send some worn-out and useless phrase—some jackboot................. (C) Simple.. (D) To find new means of expression........ www............ 29.. —George Orwell 28............. George Orwell would agree with which of the following statements? (A) You can break the rules whenever you want.petersons.... (E) To simplify word use and sentence structure..... Which of the following best expresses one of the author’s goals? (A) To expand the use of the English language. (E) The occasional use of foreign phrases to add interest..... 31..... (D) You can break the rules early in a document if you are consistent... descriptive phrasing... (D) Whenever one is writing informally.......... I have not here been considering the literary use of language........ (E) Rules are useful conventions.... The chief topic of this selection is (A) poor use of English (B) diction (C) chauvinistic disregard for foreign words and phrases (D) grammar and mechanics (E) scientific language and jargon 26. .......

. What is the meaning of “colloquial” in line 18? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Fresh. why would he object to the following sentence: “The rich treasury of our language might go down the drain”? (A) Never use a metaphor. (C) Words should always have the same meaning no matter how they are used.petersons. According to Orwell’s rules. (E) Grammar and syntax are not universally understood...... (B) A writer’s meaning should determine word choice. (C) If it is possible to cut a word out. Which of the following is the best explanation of the author’s rationale for saying that grammar and syntax are not important? (A) Grammar and syntax rules are too strict... Writing will be as good as possible....... (E) More people will write......... (C) He is following his own advice: to simplify.. (B) Grammar and syntax are never a major problem........ Writing will be easier to read... (E) He is using standard English........... This sentence from the third paragraph........ diagnostic test 32... comprehensible GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www...........” he relates more directly to the reader. 38.......... In the third paragraph... More people will read. (E) The shortest and fewest words should be used......... (B) By using “you.com ➡ .. What does the author think will happen if his rules are followed? (A) (B) (C) (D) Anything written will be good... .. (B) Never use a long word where a short one will do.” (lines 21–22) contains which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Simile Metaphor Personification Onomatopoeia Alliteration 37. the worst thing one can do with words is to surrender to them..... informal Regional.... (D) A universal English system should be used..... 34....... 33..... “In prose.. a scientific word. fascinating Understandable. always cut it out... or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. as long as the meaning is clear..... 36... (D) He is using an everyday English equivalent.... simile...... 35..Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 41 ....... colorful Conversational... or other figure of speech that you are used to seeing in print.. and not the other way about” (lines 20–21)? (A) Definitions of words should change depending on context...... (D) Grammar and syntax rules are too lax...... Orwell first uses the pronoun “one” and then switches to the pronoun “you... provincial Intriguing...... What is the best paraphrase for the following sentence: “What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word.. he spotlights poor syntax. (E) Never use a foreign phrase.... (D) Never use the passive where you can use the active. (C) Grammar and syntax are not so important.” What is the effect of that change? (A) By so doing.

.. but the truth. curious 41. and chasing game over the mountains three thousand feet high for recreation... I know a man who went there to die. and did nothing but read tracts and reflect on the future.. eating all he could hold.. and brim full of friskiness.... I think that hardly any amount of fatigue can be gathered together that a man cannot sleep off in one night on the sand by its side........... three times a day. and people will go to “water cures” and “movement cures” and to foreign lands for health.petersons..... but we had plenty of blankets and were warm enough... The air up there in the clouds is very pure and fine. but weighed part of a ton......... bracing and delicious...... —Mark Twain * Lake Tahoe on the California–Nevada border 39..... But the world is slow.... and give him an appetite like an alligator...... There is no end of wholesome medicine in such an experience.... QUESTIONS 39–54 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION...... and could barely stand.. it seldom or never rains there in the summertime.... Which of the following is the best statement of the theme of this passage? (A) Lake Tahoe is beautiful... ... free from soreness.. His disease was consumption.. We never moved a muscle all night. The writer’s purpose in this selection is to (A) amuse and entertain his audience (B) inform the audience about Lake Tahoe (C) teach about the environment (D) advocate a national park system through interesting readers in natural wonders (E) subtly suggest a healthy lifestyle www..... (C) The air and water quality of Lake Tahoe are outstanding...42 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses . That morning we could have whipped ten such people as we were the day before—sick ones at any rate. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY..... Three months of camp life on Lake Tahoe would restore an Egyptian mummy to his pristine vigor.. but waked at early dawn in the original positions... scientific Insightful Argumentative Questioning.. (B) Going to Lake Tahoe can be helpful.............. (E) It is important to keep Lake Tahoe pristine.. and got up at once.. But he made a failure of it..com .. From Roughing It Line 5 10 15 20 It was always very cold on that lake shore* in the night.... I confidently commend his experience to other skeletons.... And why shouldn’t it be?—it is the same the angels breathe. 42... And he was a skeleton no longer....... Three months later he was sleeping out of doors regularly. This selection can be classified as a(n) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) expository essay dramatic dialogue exaggerated anecdote modern myth persuasive essay 40....... but under the sky..... He was a skeleton when he came. but the fresher ones... thoroughly refreshed.. (D) Lake Tahoe and its environs have recuperative powers.. He had no appetite.... of course... This is no fancy sketch.... I do not mean the oldest and driest mummies..... Not under a roof........ AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS....... What is the tone of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Witty Serious..

. diagnostic test 43.....petersons. II........ “But the world is slow........... (E) The passage is structured and static.. II........ Which of the following is the best characterization of Mark Twain’s diction? (A) He uses a great deal of folksy language. 44............... (C) The high deserts of the Southwest in the late 1700s..... (C) His style is very sophisticated.....com ➡ .” (line 11) he is alluding to what aspect of the environment? (A) (B) (C) (D) The altitude The cold The moisture The heavenly scent from the pines (E) The perfection of the biosphere GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www...... III.Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 43 .. what conclusion can be drawn about Twain’s feelings for the locale? I.......... The reference to the Egyptian mummy in line 8 emphasizes the (A) dryness of the region (B) age of the lake (C) rehabilitative powers of the region (D) spiritual aspects of the area (E) beauty of the region 51......” (lines 11–13) he is saying that the speaker thinks (A) (B) (C) (D) people never get enough sleep many people sleep too much sand forms a relaxing bed anyone can get fully rested at Lake Tahoe (E) the sands at Lake Tahoe have medicinal qualities 49....... When Twain writes “I think that hardly any amount of fatigue can be gathered together that a man cannot sleep off in one night on the sand by its side......” in line 6. When Twain writes. . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) He enjoys the environment of Lake Tahoe. the air is what “angels breathe....... He finds the mountain region invigorating............ The words “bracing” and “delicious” (line 11) suggest that the air is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) cold and tasteful supportive and tasty invigorating and enjoyable refreshing and supportive invigorating and refreshing 50.......... (E) The Finger Lakes region of New York at the turn of the century. 45..... he is saying that (A) (B) (C) (D) people lack energy it takes time to communicate people take time to learn it takes a long time to get to a new place (E) there is little that is new 47....... What is the setting of this selection? (A) The Appalachian mountains in the mid-1800s.. (B) The West in the late twentieth century... When Twain states..... Based on this passage. (B) Twain’s diction is erudite... He feels it lacks the depth of the East.. I only II only III only I and II only I.. (D) He is somewhat careless and irresponsible in his word choices......... This passage from Roughing It could be considered an example of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) romanticism realism naturalism classicism regionalism 48........ and III 46.... (D) The mountains of the West in the mid-1800s......

. (E) It imitates Shakespearean sentence structure................................................. How would you characterize the phrase “fancy sketch” (line 20)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) An elaborate drawing A short. 53........ .. the common man.............com ... a humorous account 54............. (C) The speaker seems to be an ordinary person........ (B) He captures the local color..... 52... All of the following rhetorical features are evident in this passage EXCEPT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) personal anecdote figures of speech tall tale colloquialism simple sentence STOP If you finish before time is called................... (D) The language has the flavor and rhythms of common speech..........44 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses ................... www...petersons.... Do not turn to any other section in the test.. you may check your work on this section only... nonfiction anecdote A medical tract discussing cures A short skit or humorous act A tall tale..... Which of the following does NOT apply to Twain’s style in this selection? (A) He uses specific details to create a sense of realism.

. courage and cowardice........ afraid of.. all it could do would be to kill us... Our danger is the forces in the world today which are trying to use man’s fear to rob him of his individuality.. which is nothing. nor even fear of it...... but you don’t know what to do. It is not men in the mass who can and will save Man...petersons.. That is what we must resist. Then. a wise Frenchman said.. created in the image of God so that he shall have the power and the will to choose right from wrong... Mississippi. believing in man’s capacity for courage and endurance and sacrifice.. his soul.... communist or socialist or democratic. trying to reduce him to an unthinking mass by fear and bribery—giving him free food which he has not earned.Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 45 .. So you young men and women in this room tonight. Because he can’t give you a glib answer or pattern either. It is Man himself........ What threatens us today is fear..... when you have got old and experience and observation have taught you answers.. who would reduce man to one obedient mass for their own aggrandizement and power... pity and self.... Not the atom bomb. but the duty and responsibility of man to see that justice and truth and pity and compassion are done. it will have robbed itself of its only power over us: which is fear of it..... frightened.. you have the power to do anything. But he can tell you this....... and in thousands of other rooms like this one about the earth today...—who will believe always not only in the right of man to be free of injustice and rapacity and deception.com ➡ .. And so according to the old Frenchman.. the individual. Explain how the writer uses these elements to communicate with his audience and to achieve his purpose... or because they themselves are baffled and afraid. you no longer have the capacity or the will to grieve over any wrongs but your own. should be able to tell you. know what to do. the economies or ideologies or political systems. you are tired. then anyone standing here with a head full of white hair...... sacrifice and greed..—Man... have the power to change the world.. because if the bomb fell on Oxford tonight.... if age could.... or incapable of.. the tyrants and the politicians.. diagnostic test SECTION II 3 QUESTIONS • 2 HOURS 15 MINUTES Directions: Read the passage below carefully. rid it forever of war and injustice and suffering...... if we are to change the world for man’s peace and security.......... American or European or Asiatic. 1951 Years ago................. you want to be left alone as long as you yourself are safe....” We all know what he meant: that when you are young. the being afraid of it.. “If youth knew.. whatever they wish to call themselves.... before any of you were born. Our danger is not that..... men and women. whatever they call themselves... who will refuse always to be tricked or frightened or bribed into surrendering..... to choose between justice and injustice.. and so be able to save himself because he is worth saving.. not just the right but the duty too... easy and valueless money which he has not worked for.. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www.. you don’t care..... since in doing that...... But maybe this one is not as old and wise as his white hairs pretend or claim. because he believes this. May 28... since you can’t know what to do because you are young.. Write a well-organized essay that evaluates the elements of rhetoric and style found in the passage. Question 1 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES “Addressing the Graduating Class” University High School Oxford.. provided you know how.... .....

petersons..................com ........... will have vanished from the face of it... So.......... who have used... not as a class or classes. you will change the earth....... . men and women...... Never be afraid to raise your voice for honesty and truth and compassion...46 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses ....... If you.............. or are using................ —William Faulkner www.... man’s fear and greed for man’s enslavement...................... and the simple politicians and time-servers who themselves are merely baffled or ignorant or afraid. will do this................ never be afraid.... but as individuals. but in all the thousands of other rooms like this one about the world today and tomorrow and next week....... in one generation all the Napoleons and Hitlers and Caesars and Mussolinis and Stalins and all the other tyrants who want power and aggrandizement..... against injustice and lying and greed.. not just you in this room tonight. or hope to use..............

........ ..... or reading to develop your position. Question 2 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES There remains.... from which the masses reap the principal benefit... only one mode of using great fortunes. and this wealth... the reconciliation of the rich and the poor—a reign of harmony—another ideal.Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 47 . experience. indeed.. persuasive essay that defends.......................... Even the poorest can be made to see this..... challenges.... differing......” 1889 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www........petersons... then................ the types of arguments..... It is founded upon the present most intense individualism.. from that of the Communist in requiring only the further evolution of existing conditions...... the property of the many... but in this we have the true antidote for the temporary unequal distribution of wealth... in which the surplus wealth of the few will become. and the race is prepared to put it in practice by degrees whenever it pleases................ are more valuable to them than if scattered among them through the course of many years in trifling amounts. in the best sense. can be made a much more potent force for the elevation of our race than if it had been distributed in small sums to the people themselves...... passing through the hands of the few. Bear in mind the structure of an argument. and the premises. “Wealth..... Under its sway we shall have an ideal state...... Use evidence from your observations..... because administered for the common good.. Write a well-organized.. not the total overthrow of our civilization.. —Andrew Carnegie... or qualifies the assertions made by the author......com ➡ ....... and to agree that great sums gathered by some of their fellow citizens and spent for public purposes......... diagnostic test Directions: Read this passage about the accumulation and distribution of wealth carefully..

................. challenges.... The assignment requires that you synthesize a number of the sources into a coherent..) or by the descriptions in parentheses............ Question 3 SUGGESTED TIME—15 MINUTES FOR READING AND 40 MINUTES FOR WRITING Introduction: Voter registration in the United States is higher than ever before...........com ......... Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations........ well-written essay that takes a position..... Synthesize at least three of the sources to support your position.... Source B. Directions: The following prompt is based on the following six sources. Use at least three of the sources to support your position............. However... What might account for this gap? Why might people who register to vote not exercise their right to vote? Assignment: Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully.. the number of Americans who are voting is lower than ever before.....petersons....... . Then..48 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses ..... etc.......... Do not simply paraphrase or summarize the sources. or qualifies the claim that people who are registered to vote do not vote because they do not feel that their vote will make a difference... write an essay that defends.................. You may refer to the sources by their titles (Source A.................... Your argument should be the focus of your essay and the sources should support this argument........... Source A (Smith) Source B (Jenkins) Source C (chart) Source D (Allen) Source E (Beggens) Source F (Langevin) www...

they can also register to vote... increased government interest in helping people register to vote is one factor.... they don’t vote.......... when a person registers a vehicle..” Voter Rights Magazine. The Motor Voter act simply makes it easier for people to register to vote........ . “The Registration/Voter Gap.. Yet... so therefore................. and the cycle begins again..............Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 49 ......com ➡ . This can create a cycle in which voters do not vote because they have no confidence in elected officials..... During the first full year of the program.... 2005 The following passage is excerpted from an article about the gap between voter registration numbers and voter turnout in elections.. it is obvious that merely being registered to vote does not cause people to vote. It cuts out lots of bureaucratic red tape.. Why don’t all people who can do so vote? It is an intrinsic right of every American citizen.. voter registration as a percentage of the total voting age (eligible) population has risen dramatically...... GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www... The National Voter Registration Act... The government has launched programs to increase registration in an effort to increase voter participation. But perhaps this is because those who don’t feel that they are adequately represented did not vote in the first place... Our government is run by elected officials... The registration programs do not get to the heart of the issue—the disillusionment of the American public with our political system. Throughout the 1990s. Most states now allow people to register by mail..... because they feel as if the elected officials do not represent them. as evidenced by the fact that they have been voted into office....... Why? Well.. in most states... In addition............. Andrew....... approximately 11 million people registered to vote or updated their registration information..................... The premise is that these officials represent the will of the people.. passed by Congress in 1993 (also known as the Motor Voter program) shares a large part of the responsibility for the increase in voter registration. April 9.. people often feel that their elected officials often don’t represent them...petersons... However..... But how can people who do not exercise their right to help choose their elected officials expect to be properly represented? What is perhaps most frustrating is the fact that a large number of these nonvoters are registered to vote....... diagnostic test SOURCE A Smith.. but this is a fallacy... in reality..

. or maybe we whine about the fact that they don’t have enough rights...... I have seen the numbers.com . are allowing our prized political system to become a joke...... December 2003 issue... Actually.. we are shirking our responsibilities as U...... Vote and make a difference... what do we do about it? How many of us who were eligible to vote actually voted in the last presidential election? How many of us voted in a local election? In fact....... it is apathy toward voting.... We complain about the president.. SOURCE B Jenkins... So... Angela........... The following is excerpted from an online editorial about the lack of political involvement of college students and how that might affect politics in the future. My fellow students.. This political apathy has got to stop.. my friends.... We whine about criminals with too many rights.. Yes..... We sit around in the dining hall and complain about the war..50 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses .. Run for office and make a difference.......... We kick around conspiracy theories and spend hours lamenting how unfair our government system really is....... people............... well. everything that has to do with government. we’ll debate until the day grows long........ .. why do we complain so much? This letter is a call to action... dear reader............... Just do something! www.petersons... We complain about....... But... that is not entirely accurate—it is not apathy toward politics that is the problem. I promise you. we......S... and they are low.... Editorial in the online magazine Students Unite....... citizens........... how many of us even voted for our own student council members? Well...... and this is an important but... It doesn’t really matter what the subject is.

............The following table is adapted from the U........8 8. November 2004....3 6.8 5..0 2...8 65 years and older 3.....2 3..4 6...5 3.. Reasons for Not Registering by Selected Characteristics: 2004 (Numbers in Thousands) Percent distribution of reasons for not registering Not Did not interested know in the where My vote election Did not Not Don’t Permanent or Did not would or not meet eligible know illness how meet not involved registration to or or to residency make a vote refused disability Other register requirements difference Total1 in politics deadlines 32.....8 1.5 6..284 8....6 24...6 3.751 .......6 17.6 3..8 2. Report on voter registration in the November 2004 election..508 44...4 45..... 18 years and older Age 18 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 6........0 45. diagnostic test www... Census Bureau’s report on voter registration in the 2004 election...7 3......7 6..S...0 19.8 3. Current Population Survey.7 50..........2 5.1 5.petersons...7 3...4 3.....1 5..888 13..6 6.9 21..2 2.7 Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic SOURCE C Characteristic Total.5 6...5 4...com Includes only those respondents who answered “no” to the question “Were you registered in the election of November 2004?” Source: U... ............0 4.7 4.3 8.4 9.......6 2.......2 5.....1 3... Census Bureau....9 4..432 46. prepared by the United States Census Bureau.S.. 1 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE ➡ 51 ....0 13......6 3. Table E...2 4....6 4.....

although those 18–24 have the lowest registration and turnout rates of any age group............. ........ This act eliminated literacy tests to vote..petersons....... Mario......” The Magazine.. The following is excerpted from an article that discusses the history of voting rights in America...... www.... including the use of poll taxes and the “grandfather” clause. This increased registration and participation..... but still..... “Voting Rights in America......... This act increased voter registration and participation for southern African Americans..... only white.......52 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses ..com ....... By 1830.. Voting participation was extended to 18 year-olds with the passage of the 26th Amendment....... In 1965......... Finally... as well..... giving women the right to vote.... only white men could vote... this right was in practice denied to African Americans in the South in many ways...... the passage of the “Motor Voter” act in 1993 increased voter registration by millions. It also sent federal representatives to the south to oversee voting registration. the Voting Rights Act was passed... Voting rights in America have come a long way since the nation’s founding....... land-owning men could vote.. August 25. Women began to fight for the right to vote in the years before the Civil War.... However......... The 24th Amendment would eliminate poll taxes in federal elections in 1964............... In the early years of our nation. 2005..... the passage of the 15th Amendment gave all African American males the right to vote... After the Civil War.. in most states requirements of property ownership or religious tests were abolished... SOURCE D Allen....... but it was not until 1920 that the 19th Amendment was ratified.

..petersons. Alicia.... the campaign had a decidedly Democratic leaning. It was reasoned that because young people looked up to celebrities... There was barely a difference in the percentage voting from the last election..... Even so.......... pushing a fairly liberal agenda.. The Generation Z Vote Campaign seemed like genius...... the 18.. The following is excerpted from an article about a campaign to get people between the ages of 18 and 24 to vote in the most recent presidential election... The nation’s most popular music station..... There was a real feeling for a while that this time............ And it seemed as if the targeted group was responding..... well. that celebrity endorsement would make voting.......... Alas..... sought to change the way that young people participate in politics today..............Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 53 .. February 2006.. The idea was to make politics interesting.. all over TV and radio. coupled with a huge amount of celebrity support..... .......... “Did the Generation Z Vote Campaign Work?” Rolling Moss Magazine..com ➡ .. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www. Although voter turnout overall in the last presidential election seemed to slightly increase from the previous election............. Which begs the question: did it work? For almost 18 months.... many Republicans came out in support of the campaign...to 24-year-olds would make a difference....... diagnostic test SOURCE E Beggens.......... the 18. it seems it was all for naught. In addition.to 24-year-old turnout numbers were atrocious........ in malls........ cool... They might even swing an election. reasoning that any type of political involvement was better than none at all.............. the campaign seemed to be everywhere: on college campuses.

.. Congress guaranteed the right to vote to citizens whose only disqualification was the color of their skin........... This excerpt contains background information on Congress’s record of enfranchisement... These changes were significant......54 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses .. as a state Representative when I chaired a special legislative commission on election reform and then as Secretary of State........ Rhode Island had the oldest voting equipment in the nation.. www........... and I was pleased to help translate those successes to the national level by participating in the development of the Help America Vote Act—a great bipartisan effort of this committee and the most recent success story in Congress’s long history of expanding voting opportunities to Americans........ local canvassing authorities and the public to investigate voting problems throughout the state and develop an effective resolution.. STOP If you finish before time is called............ We also implemented the requirements of the National Voter Registration Act—popularly known as “Motor Voter”—which reduced certain longstanding obstacles to registration.. Do not turn to any other section in the test....... you may check your work on this section only... Beginning in 1993.....gov/list/press/ri02_langevin/ prvoter62206..com ... We successfully upgraded our election equipment.. It did this while maintaining the integrity of our elections..” United States House of Representatives press release..html The following is excerpted from a government press release regarding Congressman Jim Langevin’s (D-RI) testimony before Congress regarding voter registration and identification requirements... the State Board of Elections.petersons. and we ultimately met our goal of increasing the number of registered voters in Rhode Island by nearly 60.. Though it took us far too long..... can be found at http://www.... It enabled all citizens in our mobile society to register and reregister with ease... SOURCE F “Langevin Testifies on Voter Legislation.... It opened polling places to the disabled...000 between 1993 and 2000..... Our efforts made Rhode Island a model for electoral participation and accessibility. .............................. It did all this on a bipartisan basis...... I worked with my colleagues in the legislature. June 2006..... significantly reducing our error rates and making our polling places and machines accessible to people with disabilities.. It extended the franchise to Americans living overseas.....house...... When I was elected Secretary of State....... Congress should be proud of its record of removing barriers and increasing the opportunity of all Americans to vote...

The correct answer is (C).... For questions like this one.. it is tempting to suggest that fewer people are reading literature and now prefer visual and audio entertainment. 24.. choice (B) is still the best answer to the question.. The correct answer is (A). 27.... 52.. 35.. There is no support anywhere in the passage for the claim made in choice (E)..... so choice (A) is incorrect... you should note that it is a pretty straightforward presentation of facts...... Choice (B) is incorrect... convey. so choice (D) is incorrect.. 21... 28.. a story... 25... Choose the answer choice that makes the most sense... 32... you must use context clues to determine the meaning of the word “articulate” as it is used in the passage. Choice (A). too. 31. 10.. so it. does not make sense in the context of the sentence. may be a tempting choice......... if you do not know the meaning of the word being tested. However. 22.. 6. 48... In fact. . The correct answer is (B). Choice (C) contains a conclusion that simply cannot be drawn from the information in the passage... 30. 17.. 40... enunciate.. The passage does mention poetry and novels but only as supporting details. 19.. D C B D E C B C B B B 34. 46.. 5....... Choice (C) is incorrect because it implies that there is a problem to be solved and does not fit in the context of the sentence. Choice (C). and the conclusions drawn are based on statistics. refers to a study on home computers and Internet use. 51.. Choice (D).. 18.. The correct answer is (A). try rereading the sentence to yourself... To answer this question correctly. does not work..petersons. 43... 41. “If the 2002 data represent a declining trend.. A C B A C E B C E C A 12. 3... this is not the focus of the passage. is closest in meaning to “articulate”—you can convey...... answers ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS Section I 1.. This question tests your ability to read and understand the purpose of certain footnotes.. E C C D C D A E E D 1.. pronounce. 7... 38. as it does imply speaking or articulating... 26. 2.. 20.. Again. Tone refers to the mood of a passage. the writers are careful to warn against drawing unsupported conclusions. 14... Footnote 47 refers to statistical models that appear in appendixes to the passage.. Choice (E)........ or tell... A B C C C A D C A D A 45. In addition. the data—both from SPPA and other sources—do not www. replacing the word being tested with the answer choices. footnote 48.. Choice (A) is the best answer to this question: the passage is part of a report about the reading habits of Americans. choice (B). 4.. 3. Footnote 46 is a citation for the quotation that opens the passage.... there is no bias present in the article.... in the third paragraph.... 4.. 39..... 33. 11..... E B A B E B C B E D B 23. 49. 13.. 50.com diagnostic test .... and would therefore be the best source of information on statistics on home computer use. 2... In reading this passage..... 44. 9..... 29.... 8...... 36.... 47. 54.... because although the passage does mention the effect of television on reading. so it is not the best source for information on home computer use. 53..... 37. In this case. decry.. is incorrect. 42. 15. 16. because it deals with pronunciation.Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 55 ..

but nowhere does it state or imply that nonfiction readers would not count in reading statistics. often in poetry.. so you can eliminate it as well.. This does not fit the use of the word snapshot. refers to the cadence of written words. To answer this question correctly. let alone be more cultured.” 10.. it was compiled in part by the Department of Commerce.. 5.. so eliminate choice (E)...... The correct answer is (C).... because “about” would never mean “precisely.... therefore. Choice (A) is incorrect because the straightforward and scholarly nature of the passage does not suggest the inclusion of any anecdotal evidence.... 8... The correct answer is (E).” which accurately describes the passage..... Remember that in this case... so choice (B) is incorrect... such as “crack!” Choice (D). so choice (E) is incorrect.... The passage specifically states that literary readers watch television as much as or slightly less than nonreaders. but hopeful does not accurately describe the tone of the passage..... 6...... Choice (E) is the only reasonable conclusion that can be drawn based on information in the passage. The correct answer is (E)... The statistic appears after the semicolon in the following sentence....... Personification is the attribution of human characteristics to animals or inanimate objects. you must recall what you know about the literary devices listed in the answer choices. Choice (C) is incorrect: onomatopoeia is a word that represents a sound. Choice (B) is incorrect because the report was published in 2001... To answer this question correctly.. Choice (C) is correct because it is the only accurate citation of the footnote among the answer choices.. choice (A) is incorrect. because it contains the word accurate. Choice (E) is incorrect because Home Computers and Internet Use is not a book... .” This does not fit the use of snapshot....... 9....... there is nothing in the passage that would suggest the information is untrue.... which can all have the same meaning as “about” as used in the www. Choice (D) is incorrect because the report was compiled by both the Census Bureau and the Department of Commerce..com ...” Choice (D) is a synonym for precisely... but the passage is not particularly creative... The article does not attempt to persuade the reader one way or another nor does it appeal to emotions. and (E). The information is not about the Department of Commerce. you can conclude that choice (B) is correct.” Therefore.... The authors do not express wishes for a more cultural society anywhere in the passage. Choice (D) is tempting... choice (A) is the best answer. Here.. Choice (E) contains the word “informational. 7..... Simile describes something using a comparison using “like” or “as. (C). “A number of people have a particularly strong attachment to books... Finally.... iambic pentameter.. Choice (A) is simply untrue based on information in the passage. so choice (A) is incorrect.... A metaphor is the use of a symbol to represent something. Choice (C) is also not supported by the passage.. The passage deals with literary fiction.... You can immediately eliminate choice (A)...56 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses .... reread the part of the passage where the quote appears.... Choice (D) is incorrect.... The correct answer is (C). Choice (D) does not make sense. choice (C) is the best answer among the choices... such as “He is a rock... so you can eliminate choice (B).petersons. so choices (B) and (C) are incorrect...... Choice (B) is not supported by the passage... This leaves you with choice (E)....” Therefore.....” such as “sly as a fox.... The other choices do not make sense when you read the sentence in context.. you must make sure you understand the citations in footnote 48.. you are looking for the word that most accurately matches the meaning of “about” as used in the paragraph...... readily quantify this explanation. based on the tone of the passage as a whole.... The article makes no attempt to convince people to do anything...... The correct answer is (B).... The correct answer is (C). In this case.. so choice (D) is not correct.. This leaves you with choices (B)..

.. choice (C)...... which eliminates choice (A).. so point I seems to be a correct statement about the passage....com . However.” 12... it does not cite the publisher of the statistical models.. Humanity is not Whitman’s subject.. You might not know that..... There is no mention of poetry in the paragraph.. While choices (A)... 15...... Footnotes are not included as “reminders. and (E) mention poetry...... Choice (E) does not make sense..... choice (C).... answers diagnostic test second paragraph. Therefore... is the most accurate and unequivocal of the remaining answer choices. so choice (E) is not the answer. That leaves choice (E). Choices (C)... so point IV is also incorrect. that is not the main focus. whereas Whitman suggests that the past nurtures the present for a time and then leaves... Line 2 mentions politics but in the context of creating the past. you must determine the purpose of a footnote.. choice (D)... The passage is prose.... in Appendix C. While the passage touches on the beauty of the United States. (C).. Certainly... By logically examining the choices.. but from the context.. Choice (D) has virtually nothing to do with the passage. combines two contradictory ideas and is wrong in this context. The correct answer is (A).. the footnote makes reference to statistical models. ... Choice (D) is incorrect because the footnote directs the reader to the appendix.... so choice (C) cannot be the answer. This is a difficult question.. Here. The only answer that indicates the same thing is choice (B).. The correct answer is (C).. The correct answer is (B). figuratively.. gives human characteristics to nonhuman things. literally means the skin of a snake that is cast off. which is choice (B)... choice (C).... It would not seem important enough to be a corpse.... but it is not meant to help the reader understand them. that the nation is poetic.. he calls it a corpse.... 17... 14.. approximately. Choices (C) and (D) contradict Whitman’s assertions that diversity makes the nation unique... Oxymoron.. The correct answer is (B). 18...... 16.. When Whitman writes about the past... metaphor is a more accurate identification of how Whitman uses the figure of speech in context.. Choice (C) is untrue.. A conceit.. Choice (D) is related to choice (C)...... The poet states that the nation is a poem... therefore. you can see that choice (E) is much too simplistic....... The correct answer is (E). Point IV has a subtle implication that the past is always present. nor are emotions.... choice (A) is out because the writer plainly states that the United States is large..Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 57 . 11.. is an extended metaphor comparing two or more ideas and is. but in this instance. the footnote refers to a statistical report mentioned in the passage and tells the reader where to find it.. Personification. Whitman suggests that America accepts the lesson of the past with calmness and that the past informs and educates the present. (D). Points II and III are incorrect restatements of the passage’s theme. choice (A)....... (D).... it means a layer is cast off. and nowhere does the writer speak of Americans’ ability to read. they do not indicate that it is the United States itself that is the poem.. and (E) all relate in some way to the past. Choice (B) does not make sense... The past and the present are discussed. Using the process of elimination.. incorrect...petersons. choice (A).. and is therefore correct. 13. but not in terms of literature... That leaves choice (B)......... the United States is a nation that is changing. In this case.. choice (B).. A contrast is possible but not between www. The correct answer is (A).. so choice (B) is incorrect... so choice (A) is eliminated. choice (A) is correct. so choice (B) is incorrect.. Slough.. including concepts. Nothing really is said about poetry as literature. you could at least figure out that slough was something extraneous—maybe like fuzz—that stuck to something else... The correct answer is (E)... The correct answer is (B). so it is the correct answer.. Only choice (A) has item I..

.... Choice (A) is too simplistic. The correct answer is (D). participles modified by an adverb or adverbial phrase or that have a complement... 28. thus eliminating choices (C) and (D)... That leaves the physical and cultural landscape.. or the teaching of creative writing...... 25...... 27. choice (D)... the answer that covers the broadest portion of the selection is the correct response. Diction deals with the choice of words in written or spoken language. 24... and several participial phrases.58 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses . choice (E)....... choice (B)... The correct answer is (E).. (B). Because the construction to and a verb form is not part of the sentence. The correct answer is (C)....... 21. choices (A).. 20.. 19..... Orwell states that he is an advocate of simple. Each of the remaining four responses are counter to his fundamental thesis of simplicity... 23. Whitman’s tone in the passage is one of exuberance. and (D) may be true...... choice (B) is the most encompassing of the available responses..... the introduction of new grammar rules.. ...com . which he finds positive. but joyous. No verbal form functions as a noun in this sentence...... He may imply a search for new means of expression.. www... which do not relate to the passage... which means that something is not rigid and can be changed and molded. but that better fits the definition of parallelism. choice (D).. Because all of these answer choices are touched on in the passage. The correct answer is (D).. choice (D).. nor formal. One might argue that the repetition is stylistically poetic.. but in this sentence.. There are several participles... forms of a verb acting as an adjective.... While aspects of choices (A).. To choose the right answer here is really an issue of vocabulary. they are not points that Whitman makes in this selection. Whitman stresses the diversity of the United States. choice (E). and (C).. easy and difficult. The correct answer is (B).... The correct answer is (B)....... so choice (A) can be eliminated. but he spends most of his time listing and discussing some rules for better writing. (B). Since there are participial phrases.. the writer using it purposely to create unity and a sense of rhythm. The correct answer is (C)..... The tone of this paragraph is neither ponderous..... 22.. Even if you do not know what choice (B) means.. The author discusses all of these answers at some point in the passage.... Choices (B) and (D) may be true but do not relate to the passage............ but he clearly states a predilection for word and sentence simplification.... choices (A) and (E) can be eliminated because they contradict what Whitman says about the United States. choice (A). Orwell does not propose the expanded use of the English language.... could be nouns or verbs.... Crowds and showers..petersons. crowds is a noun.. but you can eliminate choices (A). choice (E) is incorrect. (B). eliminating the incorrect answers. and (C) because a compound verb has the same tenses for both or all verbs. there is no infinitive. (C)... therefore. He does not mention education. choice (E). The repetition of the word here helps develop that tone. The correct answer is (E).. The question asks for the primary concern of the passage...... Choice (E) may sound important but has no relationship to the passage. direct word selection. A gerund is a form of the verb that acts as a noun.... The correct answer is (D)... 26.. choice (C).... The correct answer is (B). The best approach to this question is to work through the answers.. and..... but he does not characterize the nation that way. so eliminate choice (C)..... That leaves choice (B).. the object of the preposition of. This is a very complex sentence..

The correct answer is (C).. The correct answer is (B). is not in the passive voice...... 30. 32. The correct answer is (A)..... . so he directly addresses the audience... The passage cannot be viewed as humorous... Orwell wants the reader to pay close attention here.. words is given a human characteristic that suggests that a person can surrender to them.” Only choice (B) reflects Orwell’s statement.Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 59 . choice (D). nor does he advocate rigid adherence to rules... The readers of your essays may not agree with Orwell.. . The difference is that components other than following the rules are needed to make writing “as good as possible. A simile uses like or as for comparison.. 31.. The correct answer is (B).. you might think that several of these are possible answers.... The last of these states “Break any of these rules sooner that say anything outright barbarous....... choices (A) and (D).. or jargon. but it is not the most accurate restatement of the essay..... In the sentence given. scientific words... On the other hand.” The context does not support choices (A).. The correct answer is (B). and contains no foreign phrases. the author expresses the sentiment that these rules will not make bad writing good....” thus eliminating choice (B). The chosen words should not alter the writer’s meaning. 35.. The given sentence has no long words.... satirical.... The definition of personification is a figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions are endowed with human characteristics....... “go down the drain.. Orwell says. there is no response that deals with redundancy. choice (E).. . choice (D).. not redundancy.... Choices (B) and (D) are similar... choice (B).. 36.com .. choice (E). 33.... choice (B).. ironic. choice (B)...... the opposite of choice (A).. or dramatic. Choice (C) deals with wordiness. The correct answer is (B)..” However........ At first... and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. which are of no importance so long as one makes one’s meaning clear ..... In this sentence.. writing will be “easier to follow” if the writer follows the rules. answers diagnostic test 29. The author is stating that what a writer intends to say should determine word selection. check to see if they most accurately reflect the content. Be careful of such distracters that seem to be reasonable answers.... The question asks the reader to determine the feel or tone of the excerpt... good writing does not employ these rules. The correct answer is (B). choice (B). “It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax.. choice (C)...... Choice (C) is irrelevant to the passage.. The correct answer is (C).. The author lists six rules that he believes will improve writing.. Choices (A) and (C) incorrectly deal with the definitions of words. and words in a series that repeat an initial consonant sound are examples of alliteration. 34. Orwell is quite serious in his concern for language.. or (E). Words that sound like their meanings are onomatopoeia...... In the last sentence of the second paragraph... www.. Choice (B) is only half right.... The correct answer is (C)... choice (D). He does not advocate irresponsible or unreasoned breaking of rules.petersons........... Regardless of the other components..... choice (A).... A cliché is not jargon.” choice (D). choice (E).... Choice (E) is a statement of opinion that Orwell would probably agree with. 37. The other responses do not make sense in context.” That rule is consistent with choice (C).. choice (A). Remember that the writer states that it is acceptable to break rules if the meaning becomes clearer by doing so.... but he states in the second paragraph. “But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase.. In the second paragraph.. there is figurative language that is a cliché. and his essay is meant to be persuasive.. The statement from Orwell has the qualifier “so long as one’s meaning is clear. Orwell does not address the responses contained in choices (D) and (E) in the lines cited. (D). while a metaphor states that something is something else.” Orwell would also object to the redundant phrase “rich treasury..........

.. 40. Of the two remaining answers. choices (C) and (D). Choice (A) is the opposite of what Orwell is saying... you must look for the response that best matches or sums up the main idea.. so choice (E) can be eliminated... but the author is implying that people have to change their ways— rather than that the information about new things will be delayed... ... (C)..... and his style is not sophisticated....60 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses . to amuse and entertain.. choice (C)...... The correct answer is (C). 46. rather than a myth........... and thus support choice (D).. therefore.. Any answer with that sense would be incorrect.. Choices (A) and (E) focus more on the scenic beauty.... because the excerpt states that Lake Tahoe is on the California-Nevada border. That includes choices (A). Choice (E) is irrelevant to the sentence.. The focus of this passage is clearly on a specific area of the country...petersons.. is the best response...... The correct answer is (A)... The phrase represents a transition from Twain’s listing of health benefits at Lake Tahoe to other approaches that were then in vogue.. so choices (B). so that eliminates choice (C). choice (A)...... Although he chooses words of common speech. The correct answer is (E)... The passage is dynamic rather than static..... 39.. Choice (E) suggests a more indirect approach... so choices (B). Considering the amount of exaggeration.. you might think that choice (D) could be correct. choice (E). 43. The correct answer is (C). www... He suggests that they be thrown in the trash can. The correct answer is (C). 41...... and (E)... a story once believed to be true. This selection should not be viewed as a serious piece of writing.. and (D) can be eliminated.... he tells his audience what they should do. it does not express great emotion or devotion. 38.. Mark Twain wrote in the 1800s..... The locale is not set in a desert.. the passage is an anecdote........ The correct answer is (D)... Choice (D) is the only choice that recognizes the recuperative powers of the area.. 44.. (C).... Much of the selection links Lake Tahoe with improving health. even though nature is prominently featured..... Each of the five answers has an element of Twain’s commentary in them.. Choices (A) and (E) have no relationship to the passage... Choice (B) might seem correct.. This type of advocacy for a territory is known as regionalism. and any response that suggests that view is incorrect... Neither is it an example of naturalism or classicism.. The reference to slowness shows that the author was indicating that it will take time for people to learn about something new and to change.... Humor and wit are more evident in the writing than questioning or curiosity.. The correct answer can be determined by the process of elimination. and choice (C) restates his idea.. The tone of the passage could not be considered serious or deep...... choice (B)... Orwell lists some phrases that were popular at the time he wrote this article. and choices (B) and (C) touch on aspects of the area that might be helpful to good health.. choice (B). 45.. The correct answer is (A). Twain’s diction could not be called erudite.com . choices (A) and (E). (B)...... choice (C).. The possible correct answers can quickly be reduced by two... but choice (D) relates to real movement.. but the question asks what Orwell is saying in the last sentence.. it certainly is not realistic.. On a quick reading..... It is important to put the question in context.. he does so with care to paint vivid images. The speaker is not a teacher or an advocate... Orwell may be advocating choice (D) at some point in the essay. Examples like “brim full of friskiness” (line 5) support choice (A) as the correct answer.. The simple answer. but there is nothing subtle about the speaker. 42.. This is not a romantic passage.. the author is not speaking about literal movement. The correct answer is (D)... Choice (B) would be correct only if you were asked a question about metaphor. The correct answer is (A). This identifies choice (D) as the correct answer... and (D) must be eliminated. In the context of the question.. thus eliminating choice (D).. and the lake is in the mountains. so choice (A) is the better response. a short narrative.. choice (D). choice (B).

The question is asking about sleep.. 51...... Choices (A)..... choice (D)... as evidenced by the use of the first person pronoun..... you will see that choice (A) is a distracter... is a very literal answer... so eliminate choice (C).. The correct answer is (C). is the answer.. and local color........ Taken with the phrase “the air up there in the clouds. while choice (E) does not mention sleep. so choice (B) is not the answer. You must choose which of the answer choices is not found in the passage.. an incorrect answer. On a quick reading. While delicious may mean tasty. In this case. Choices (A) and (B) are incorrect because the author mentions neither the region’s dryness nor the lake’s age..petersons.... choices (C) and (D). sentence 3 and the final sentence—so choice (E) is also incorrect... The items to note in reading the sentence are the antecedent of its (Lake Tahoe) and the recuperative powers of the lake... Although bracing can mean supportive. he is using an exaggerated comparison to make a point about Lake Tahoe... therefore....... it does not mean tasteful.. While brief... invigorating... . 53.. try the process of elimination.. and fits the definition of an anecdote. the topic of the sentence. www. The correct answer is (D). Choices (B) and (C) do not relate to angels... Nor does he refer to spiritual aspects of the area...... choice (A)......” the reference to angels points directly to height as an element in the correct answer. and Twain is not to be taken literally....... 49......... choice (C). or its beauty. choice (B). 52. so you can eliminate choice (A).... which asks you to consider this example as a nonfiction account.. The entire passage is a tall tale.. The correct answer is (E).. making choice (A) a true statement about the passage and. Choices (D) and (E) may distract you..com ... to make his points.. Avoid this temptation and go back to the selection.. so eliminate choice (B). If you do.. Choice (C) can also be considered a distracter... The speaker is also an ordinary person using common speech. answers diagnostic test 47..... The passage is personal..... The correct answer is (C). There are several figures of speech.... 48.. and (C) do not mention the lake. altitude..... and delicious when referring to the senses means enjoyable..Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 61 . The correct answer is (D).. 54. is a better meaning in the context of air. The author uses both specific details... Points I and II reflect this attitude. The correct answer is (A). Both sets of words in choices (D) and (E) mean bracing. whereas point III negatively compares Lake Tahoe with the East....... As Mark Twain often does.. The identification of the correct answer requires you to make an inference about the author’s feelings. Although Twain is known for using colloquialisms in his writing.. choice (A).. There are several simple sentences—for example.. he uses a figure of speech that includes a long-dead mummy to make the point that Lake Tahoe has significant recuperative powers... the example Twain gives should not be taken literally.... If you do not readily see that Twain does not use classical Shakespearean sentence structure. choice (B)........ too... The correct answer is (E). Only choice (D) has both I and II.... (B). 50. choice (E).. but the question asks about the environment—in the mountains.... Choice (D) is incorrect because there is no skit involved. Since angels are said to be “up” in the heavens. These elements identify choice (D) as the answer.... It. It is clear from Twain’s comments that he has a positive feeling for the area. The correct answer is (D).. you might select choice (A) without bothering to read a sentence or two above and below the cited lines... none appear in this passage... so choice (C) is also incorrect.. so they can be eliminated.

....... the speaker Audience.... Setting • • Speech given at graduation Contemporary times—the bomb Point of View • First person www..... Section II SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 1 The following are points you might have chosen to include in your essay on Faulkner’s speech to the graduating class........ using points from this list to strengthen it...... and so be able to save himself because he is worth saving... a speech Persuasive Theme • • Individuals can and must choose to change the world for the better....... tyrants will disappear.... Consider them as you complete your self-evaluation..... Revise your essay once...... Form or Mode • • Prose........ courage...... created in the image of God so that he shall have the power and the will to choose right from wrong.... “It is man himself............... compassion If people choose right actions...........com ......................... sacrifice......... .......62 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses ......” Characters • • Faulkner.......petersons................... the graduating high school students Conflict/Issue/Challenge • Good versus evil Content/Important Points • • • • • • Beginning quotation Youth has power to rid the world of war and injustice Fear danger in the world Danger in those who use human fear to control humankind Right and duty to choose justice..

. complex sentences Much parallel construction: “giving him free food which he has not earned.......... Such a system is more beneficial to the poor than direct distribution of small sums of money to them..... Not Communist because the change that Carnegie advocates requires an evolution......com ..... abandons point in third paragraph Speaking directly to students......Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 63 ............ Point of View • First-person plural to include all readers www.... Revise your essay once.. you Long....petersons........... Wealth should be administered by the few for the public good......... Form or Mode • Persuasive essay Theme • The extra wealth of the few should become the property of all diagnostic test Conflict/Issue/Challenge • How to resolve the unequal distribution of wealth and reconcile the rich and the poor Content/Important Points • • • • • • The wealthy should spend their excess wealth for public purposes and for the public good...................... use of second person.........” “aggrandizement” SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 2 The following are points you might have chosen to include in your essay on Carnegie’s comments about the responsibilities of the wealthy.... Consider them as you complete your self-evaluation...........................” “baffled........ easy and valueless money which he has not worked for” Cadence ministerial... using points from this list to strengthen it...... almost musical Word choice sophisticated but comprehensible: “glib.. answers Diction/Syntax/Style • • • • • • Offers no proof to support opening quotation...... The result is a powerful force that will improve public conditions..... not an overthrow of existing civilization The concept is based on the American ideal of individualism... ......

........” “surplus..... Revise your essay using points from the list to strengthen it if necessary......” “ideal state....... Thesis statement/introduction • Clear definition of the issue—in this case..” “true antidote.................... qualifies...........” “potent.... complicated sentences with many clauses or prepositional phrases Persuasive language: “only one mode............... based on the information provided in the sources Acknowledge opposing arguments and refute them Attribute both direct and indirect citations • • • • • • www. and spelling are correct.... Show a clear connection between the sources you choose to cite Sources are seamlessly integrated with appropriate transitions At least three of the six sources are used Explain the logic of how you arrived at the conclusion you did......” “trifling” SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 3 This question asks for a synthesis essay that supports.....” “great.. It does not matter which position you take as long as you provide adequate support for your argument using your own opinions along with information from the sources....64 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses . a lack of voter participation in the United States Clear statement of your position on the issue: why you agree or disagree with the statement that people do not vote because they do not feel their vote will make a difference • Supporting details • Support is based on your own opinions about the position you take but information in the sources should also be used....... Diction/Syntax/Style • • • • • • Long..... syntax.....petersons.......................... Consider the following as you complete your self-evaluation....” “in the best sense” Use of active and passive voices Sentence variety Some parallel structure: “to see this...... or disputes the argument that people do not vote because they do not feel a sense of political efficacy.... . Remember to proofread your response and make sure your grammar.com . and to agree that” Strong adjectives: “ideal..........” “principal.........

there can be no other conclusion drawn from the evidence except to say that people do not vote because of feelings of a lack of political efficacy.Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 65 ................) • Conclusion neatly sums up your argument................... (ex: In sum....................... diagnostic test www...... .......................... answers Conclusion • Include a restatement of your thesis tied into the supporting evidence you used.................petersons..............com ........................................

.. coherent and unified Overall Impression .. incoherent PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses Well organized and developed........ blank response..SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE FREE RESPONSE ESSAYS 8–9 Demonstrates excellent control of the literature and outstanding writing competence.. virtually error free Virtually error free Generally interesting and effective. numerous errors Severely flawed.. a few errors Adequately varied. some errors in diction Some major errors Little or no variation... extremely immature Extremely flawed ........com Superficial understanding of the text.. mechanical. several errors Several minor errors Numerous major errors... thorough and effective.. fails to respond adequately to part or parts of the question... 6–7 Demonstrates good control of the literature and good writing competence... exhibits perception and clarity... little clarity 0 Lacking skill and competence 66 Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice Grammar and Usage www.. fails to respond to the question. meager and unconvincing treatment of literary elements Somewhat organized and developed.....petersons. incisive Excellent understanding of the text..... elements of literature vague. one or more major errors Somewhat dull and ordinary. coherent and unified Reasonably organized and developed.. includes apt and specific references Meticulously organized and thoroughly developed.... virtually error free Varied and interesting. some incoherence and lack of unity 1–2 Unacceptably brief. or one completely off the topic No apparent organization or development...... original or unique approach..... mostly coherent and unified Effectively varied and engaging. some major errors Mostly dull and conventional... exhibits perception and clarity. adequate skills 3–4 Incomplete thinking. may paraphrase rather than analyze Misreadings and lack of persuasive evidence from the text.. overgeneralized Serious misreadings and little supporting evidence from the text. erroneous treatment of literary elements Little or no organization and development.. less thorough and incisive than the highest papers Good understanding of the text. frequent major errors Numerous major errors Interesting and effective. incoherent and void of unity A response with no more than a reference to the literature.... a few errors Occasional minor errors Occasionally interesting and effective. some errors Somewhat varied and marginally interesting.... dull and uninteresting. includes specific references 5 Reveals simplistic thinking and/or immature writing.

interesting and effective.. somewhat thorough and incisive.. frequent major errors Numerous major errors Word Choice Grammar and Usage www.. coherent and unified Overall Impression .. or qualifies the question accurately Clearly states a position.... some errors in diction....... cites only two sources Misreads sources. uses at least three sources to support that position convincingly and effectively. 6–7 Demonstrates good control of effective writing techniques... one or more major errors Somewhat dull and ordinary...... a few errors No apparent organization or development. extremely immature Extremely flawed 67 .. some major errors Mostly dull and conventional. sophisticated argumentation.... challenges....... uses at least three sources to support that position... or lacks an argument.. dull and uninteresting.. no attempt to integrate vocabulary from the sources Some major errors Little or no variation.. may present overly simple argument Creates weak connections between argument and cited sources....petersons.. adequate development of ideas but less convincing..... cites no sources Effectively varied and engaging. no attempt to integrate vocabulary from the sources Severely flawed. coherent and unified Varied and interesting... or summarizes the sources rather than using them to support a position Lacks coherent development or organization. some errors 3–4 Demonstrates some skill but lacks understanding of question and sources 1–2 Demonstrates little skill in taking a coherent position and defending it or in using sources 0 Lacks skill and competence Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic Use of Organization Understanding Sentences and Development of the Text Demonstrates a somewhat superficial understanding of the sources Takes a position that may misread or simplify the sources. cites one or no sources Position does not accurately reflect the sources....SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE SYNTHESIS ESSAYS 8–9 Demonstrates excellent control of effective writing techniques. some inconsistencies and weaknesses in argumentation Displays some misreading of the sources or some stretching of information to support the chosen position Generally clearly stated position and links between position and cited sources.. no more than a listing of the sources Clearly states a position....com Uses the vocabulary of the topic as evident in the sources. virtually error free Virtually error free Demonstrates ease in using vocabulary from the sources Occasional minor errors Occasional use of vocabulary from the sources. occasionally interesting and effective Several minor errors Numerous major errors.. uses citations appropriately 5 Demonstrates general competence in stating and defending a position.. and well integrated synthesis of source information. incoherent.. cites three sources Adequately varied. close to error free Somewhat varied and marginally interesting...... some weaknesses in logic... uses citations convincingly Takes a clear position that defends...

.......68 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses ................ Question 1 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Question 2 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Question 3 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score www......petersons....... Enter on the lines below the number from the rubric that most accurately reflects your performance in each category............ On the AP test itself................ It is difficult to score yourself objectively...... with 9 being the highest......................... Using the rubrics on the previous pages..... so you may wish to ask a respected friend or teacher to assess your writing for a more accurate reflection of its strengths and weaknesses............... . Rate each category from 9 (high) to 0 (low)......... Then calculate the average of the six numbers to determine your final score.........com .... a reader will rate your essay on a scale of 0 to 9.. rate yourself in each of the categories below for each essay on the test............................

.................................................AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION STRATEGIES ........ CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 About the Multiple-Choice Questions About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays P ART III ................................................... ................

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The multiple-choice questions on the AP English Language & Composition test really are not that different..... you will discover that most of the multiple-choice questions assess how carefully you read..... rhetorical modes.......... 71 ..... there is a lot riding on the AP test.. if you have studied and you know some test-taking techniques..... historical eras.............. and the arts..... just like any other standardized test.... science. or footnotes. Some questions will ask you about grammar. chapter 3 OVERVIEW • • • • • • • Basic information about section I Acing the multiple-choice questions Analyzing the question types Attacking the questions A final word of advice: educated guessing Practicing Summing it up The questions in the multiple-choice section of the AP English Language & Composition Test ask you about passages from a variety of sources. you will find some basic information about Section I of the test... structure. biographies. and literary periods and disciplines.. nature....... On the Advanced Placement examination. organization.. or historical accounts or passages from essays about politics. and you will develop an effective strategy for acing the multiple-choice section of the test.. You may have taken hundreds of multiple-choice tests during your time in school... Of course.. In this chapter.. development... mechanics. but.. how well you interpret what you read.... diaries and journals.About the MultipleChoice Questions . You may read passages from commentaries..... and how well you analyze literature... you can do well.. autobiographies.. rhetorical modes of writing..

www......... Work the system to get more correct responses..... with five choices for each..... You will also have opportunities to practice what you are learning...... Section I has four to five prose passages............. refer to the explanations given... Use the techniques explained in this chapter to practice answering multiple-choice questions on the selections.72 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .................... and each selection has approximately 10 to 15 questions.. Remember the following test-taking tips: • • • Carefully apply the test-taking system that you will be learning in this chapter. This chapter presents some general strategies for taking the objective portion of the Advanced Placement test.... Pay attention to your time. If you do not understand why an answer is incorrect....... and strive to answer more questions in the time period.......... It is a good idea to read the answer explanations to all the questions—even the ones you answered correctly—because you may find ideas or tips that will help you better analyze the answer choices to questions on the next Practice Test that you take and on the real test... The multiple-choice questions require the ability to: • • • • • • • • Analyze rhetorical and linguistic choices Identify stylistic effects that result from word choice Critically examine prose selections Understand an author’s meaning and purpose Recognize structural organization Evaluate the legitimacy and purpose of sources Comprehend rhetorical modes Analyze syntax...... Review the strategies in this chapter.... and tone NOTE You will have approximately 1 minute to answer each multiplechoice question.... Then try taking the next Practice Test....... style. You will have 60 minutes to answer all of the questions...petersons. After you have finished reviewing all the answers...... See how much you can improve your score each time you take a Practice Test..... Correct your responses with the Answer Key provided for each test..... Use the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic and Practice Test 2 as tools to improve your objective test-taking skills......... .... figurative language...... ask yourself what your weak points are and what you can do to improve. In addition............... BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT SECTION I Section I consists of approximately 50 multiple-choice questions. you will learn some special techniques that will allow you to score your highest..............com ....

. We will discuss this penalty in detail later in this chapter.. If you find you are spending significantly more time per section...... If you neglect time... You receive 1 point for each correct answer you give.. This is the guessing penalty........com NOTE Be sure to take a watch so you can pace yourself.... try this technique.... Some questions...... such as those that ask about vocabulary.. Other questions www.......petersons.................. Section I accounts for 45 percent of your final composite score... How do you prevent these things from happening and ensure your highest score? You need to develop a plan to read effectively...... but don’t take one with an alarm.. speed up....... can be answered by reading the lines identified and a few lines above and below to understand the context.... revisit any problem passages to see if you can answer questions that you left blank.. read the questions instead.Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 73 ............. Since you have 60 minutes for Section I...... one-quarter point is subtracted.. You receive no points for each question you leave blank. you may miss opportunities for showing what you know.......... you find that you have only 5 or so minutes and another passage to complete. (You will see under Setting Priorities why it’s not 12 to 15 minutes.. you have probably discovered during your educational career that there are three significant considerations when taking multiple-choice tests: • • • Effective reading and analysis of test material Time management Educated guesses The consequences of failing at any of these can affect your score: • • • If you fail to read the selections or the questions skillfully... then you are missing out on a higher score............ depending on whether there are four or five selections....... The test requires that you understand the terms and conventions of English and use the skills of critical reading and literary analysis.. If you answer incorrectly.. as the hour comes to an end. to manage your time well. ......... In addition to the obvious importance of understanding the material.. If. In the event that you finish with time to spare. you may make errors that are unnecessary. Do not read the passage............. and to use all your knowledge to the best possible effect.. ACING THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS Pacing Yourself The first part of the strategy for acing the multiple-choice section is time awareness.. .. give yourself approximately 11 to 14 minutes for each of the passages.....) Use that 11-to-14-minute time period as a guideline..... If you do not make educated guesses to answer questions about which you are not positive...

.. and development...... concentrate and read the selection carefully..... the reader... www........... and other types of nonfiction........... are supposed to receive..... histories.... Read for a clear. modes of discourse. articles.... Note the date as well.... definitions......... If you can identify the type of question you are facing. Answer these sorts of questions when time is short. Setting Priorities The first active step to take is prioritizing the passages... • • Begin by skimming the selection... • In reading a selection with footnotes... Comprehension Questions Most of the multiple-choice questions will test how carefully you read and how well you interpret what you read. The passages can vary from a few short paragraphs to lengthy sections........... form. ... and the publication. Then.... but that does not always happen..... It is not details but the fundamental message that you... structure..petersons.... you can employ the best strategies to answer it correctly. Take only 30 seconds or so to do this.. or you’ll lose your advantage in answering the easiest selection first.... letters....... Read and answer the other passages according to how difficult they seem....... rhetoric.. but more than likely. It may also help you better understand the selection itself.... pay attention to the author....... organization. the title. don’t worry about the details. the passages will be taken from essays.... Don’t spend time agonizing over the order... ANALYZING THE QUESTION TYPES The ideal is to know the correct answer as soon as you read the question.74 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ... specific understanding of the writer’s main idea—the underlying communication that the writer is trying to make...........com ............ All this information may be useful to you in answering questions about the footnote... You want an overview at this point. Quickly scan the passages (this is where the extra 4 to 5 minutes come in) to find which ones seem difficult to you and which seem easier...... Do the most difficult one last and the easiest one first..... Some selections may be from fictional works. Effective Strategies for Reading Selections The first step is obvious: Read the selections. ask specific information about specific portions of the selection.. These comprehension questions fall into several categories: main idea. You do not have to complete questions or passages in the order they appear on the test.. meaning and purpose..

.....Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 75 ..... point of view.. www.. Skimming the first and last paragraphs of a passage is another helpful technique for answering these questions because writers often state their topic in the beginning or the end of a selection..... DEFINITION QUESTIONS These are basically vocabulary questions about difficult words in a passage or about ordinary words that are used with a special meaning. seem. but you must understand the effects these elements have on the piece of writing.......... Questions about rhetoric might ask about syntax... attitude...... Knowing the question type will help you to identify the best strategy to use for answering the question.com .. you are making a guess... RHETORIC QUESTIONS A great many of the questions on the exam are in this category.... You may also be asked to determine the elements of a footnote...... ............. probably. Often... and tone...... suggest...... or figurative language....... return to the selection to find specific sentences that the question refers to. Avoid choosing a word or phrase that looks or sounds like the word to be defined....... description... MODE QUESTIONS A few questions ask you to identify the various rhetorical modes that writers employ. NOTE As you answer multiple-choice questions in the Practice Tests.. imply... Remember that in answering an inference question. exposition. Most inference questions will include one of these key words: think. Reread the sentence in which the word appears. Knowing why an author is particularly effective at using a specific mode will help you with other types of questions.......petersons.. and persuasion.. unless you have checked it in context... and then substitute each of the possible choices to see which is closest in meaning... main idea questions about a passage require that you piece together facts and make an inference based on those facts. try to identify the category of each one..... To get the full sense of the idea.. assume.... infer.. Use the context surrounding the word or phrase in the question to arrive at its meaning... feel. A main idea question may also require you to identify the subject of the passage or to select the choice that best tells what the passage is about.... predict........ The question measures your ability to identify the author’s ideas. Not only must you be able to recognize these devices... you must know how language works within a given passage.... MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS This type of question frequently appears on the AP English Language & Composition Test............ To answer these questions. and make a sound generalization based on the clues. you may need to read the sentences that surround the one containing the word or phrase in question. You must understand the differences among narration.... indicate...... When you come upon a question that contains one of these terms..... and most likely...... but the best guess is based on facts from the selection.....

and development.. organization.. indignation.. or they may test your understanding of literary terminology. These questions may test your knowledge of English grammar.. Well-educated people should know this type of information. The purpose defines the effect the author wants to have upon the audience. The tone reflects the writer’s attitude toward the subject and the audience......... TONE OR PURPOSE QUESTIONS These frequently asked questions ask you to determine how or why the author wrote the material.. • Cultural Questions............ The answer choices offer possible restatements of the footnote.76 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ... Be aware of structure... disappointment. While some authors will use only one form... Learning the Directions It is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the instructions for each part of the test before the real test day. Understanding the tone helps you to understand the purpose... suspicion. pessimism.... This kind of question tests your knowledge of facts that are a part of our civilization...... regret....com ....... respect. Some possible tones are admiration. contempt. • English Language Questions....... Knowing ahead of time what you have to do can save you time—perhaps enough to answer another one or two questions.. observe the patterns of organization used. logical sequence of events. A close reading of the footnote against the answer choices will help you determine the correct answer.. anger....... ATTACKING THE QUESTIONS Remember that the more multiple-choice questions you answer correctly............... .......... punctuation........... and amusement.....petersons....... Writers convey purpose through their choice of words and the impression those words create.. As you read.... combined with your use of critical reading skills. and spatial order. cause and effect. The following test-taking strategies..... Look for comparison and contrast. These are fairly straightforward comprehension questions.. www.... irony......... Factual Knowledge Questions There may be a few other question types that appear on the test.... others may use a combination. adoration. objectivity... the less pressure you will have to do exceptionally well on the three essays.. order of importance....... will help you do well on Section I. FORM QUESTIONS Form is the method of organization that a writer uses....... or mechanics. optimism... pride. surprise.. You may also find a multiple-choice question that asks you to determine the purpose of a footnote.......

DIRECTIONS FOR THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE SECTION The specific directions for Section I read like this: SECTION I 54 QUESTIONS • 60 MINUTES Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content....... If you erase an answer... The page will tell you that the following exam will take approximately 3 hours—1 hour for the multiple-choice section and 2 hours and 15 minutes for the three essays—and that there are two booklets for this exam......... but you may use it for making notes. .. and mark the space on the answer sheet.. erase it completely..... style.....com ............. The final paragraph will remind you to work effectively and to pace yourself.... and form.............Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 77 ........ GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR THE AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION TEST On the front page of your test booklet.. Fill in each oval completely. You will not receive any credit for work done in the test booklet.petersons...... select the response that best answers the question..... one for the multiple-choice section and one for the essays. The page suggests that you skip questions that are difficult and come back to them if you have time.... You are told that not everyone will be able to answer all the questions... you will find some information about the test. After you have read each passage.. You will find not only a paragraph about the guessing penalty—deduction of one-quarter point for every wrong answer—but also words of advice about guessing if you know something about the question and can eliminate several of the answers. www.................... none of it should be new to you.......... Other instructions will tell you to be careful to fill in only ovals 1 through 50 (or whatever the number is) in Section I on your separate answer sheet..... The page will also tell you that Section I: • • • Is 1 hour Has 50 questions (or some number from 50 to 60) Counts for 45 percent of your total grade Then........... and much of it is similar to other standardized tests you have taken.... Because you have studied this book............. you will find a sentence in capital letters that tells you not to open your exam booklet until the monitor tells you to open it.....................

.com ... You can see the framework of the passage in a paraphrase. You can and should answer the selections and then the questions for each selection in the order that works for you. read the selection carefully. you may find the topic sentence at the end or in the middle of the selection.. If a selection is titled.... and there probably won’t be. or offer a series of examples. Then... In most writing... You do not have to answer the selections in the order presented.. Reading the Selections • • Most passages have no titles... since AP exams ask you about challenging literature... transitions..78 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .... look for the topic sentence or thesis statement.. As you read........ and literary devices become clear... skim for an overall impression of the selection............ try writing paraphrases of the selections in this book. show cause and effect... language. As you read........... and the historical period.... the directions for each selection and its accompanying multiple-choice questions read like this: QUESTIONS 1–15.. offer a problem and solution. and form..petersons.. set up a compare-and-contrast situation.. the literary form...... www...... don’t spend a great deal of time on this........ Paraphrasing helps you to discover the subject and the organization of the selection or the thesis and supporting arguments. However.. By showing yourself that you know answers. You may also find a few factual knowledge or cultural questions... ... Scan the passages to decide the order in which you want to answer them..... you will find it near the beginning.. After you have decided the order in which you wish to answer the selections........ you build self-confidence. • • • • TIP If paraphrasing does not come easily to you. think about what it tells you about the work.. Read the footnotes carefully.. highlight words and sentences that seem significant.. Patterns may follow a certain sequence or order.. Skim them when you first read the selection and then read them again when you have finished reading the selection.......... mode...... observe patterns of organization that the writer employs.... However.. If there is no title...... READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS........ Do not skip over confusing sentences. Some authors may use more than one system of organization across paragraphs. tone or purpose...... In general....... sentence types..... You may get a sense of the subject and theme just from the title. definition..... Mentally paraphrase the passages. The writer’s style. rhetoric. Or you may find that the thesis is implied as opposed to stated....... • • Identifying the Question Type • Remember that there are six major types of multiple-choice questions: main idea. Recall what you can about the author.

........ scan or reread any selection if you do not immediately know the answer to a question........ two or three choices might be correct. sentences......petersons................ Too broad 3.......... the correct choice must be entirely true and include as much relevant information as possible.. In fact..... If you understand the passage.... based on the question An area wider than the selection covered...... choose how you wish to answer the multiple-choice questions...... • When answering a main-idea question... based on the question • Nothing to do with the passage • Relevant to the selection but not the question • Distortion of the facts in the selection • Contradiction of the facts in the selection • Not supported by facts in the passage • Not supported by cited passage from the selection 4...... Illogical 6...... ALERT! Don’t check off or circle on the answer sheet the numbers of unanswered questions.. Authors convey that information through diction. Just as you choose the order to attack the passages.... Not/except Answers that correctly represent the selection www....... 7.. Irrelevant REASON TO ELIMINATE Too small a section of the selection covered..... Incorrect 5... ... • In answering a question about tone or purpose....com .... the answer that is most complete is the one to choose.... You must be able to support your answer with specific facts or examples from the selection. Answering the Questions • • Reread lines... you have the correct answer... STRATEGIES FOR ANSWERING OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS/ MAKING EDUCATED GUESSES ANSWER CHOICE 1.. Too narrow 2.. or paragraphs that are identified in the questions......Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 79 ... pay attention to word choice. If the choice makes sense........... Similar choices GO BACK AND REVIEW 1–5 TO TEASE OUT THE DIFFERENCES.......... This could confuse the machine that grades your test and cause an error in your score. However........ In many questions..... This type of question asks you to determine how or why the writer created the selection.... • When you are asked to make judgments about what is inferred or implied in a selection. you must put together clues from the passage...... • Questions that ask about the meaning of words or phrases are best answered by substituting your choice in the sentence or paragraph. answer the questions in order.

... “Is this statement true about the selection?” If you answer “yes... If a choice seems contradictory to other answers you have given. Use this technique when you do not immediately know the correct answer as follows: • Ignore answers that are obviously wrong. Eliminate some answers by finding those that are obviously unrelated...... Many times... skip difficult questions... check to be sure that you also skip that number on your answer sheet. you can make an educated guess from among the remaining possibilities..” for reasons why you should eliminate certain types of answer choices......................... Recognize that if you use this technique....80 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ..petersons. Look for consistency in the answers to the questions about a passage. Read the question stem carefully..... Remember to eliminate any response that has anything wrong about it.. ALERT! A partially correct answer is a partially incorrect answer—and a quarter-point deduction... See the table on page 79.. You’re probably thinking about the quarter-point penalty for an incorrect answer and are wondering if taking a chance is worth the possible point loss......... You are not guessing but making an educated guess.. Since the directions often ask for the best answer. or incorrect.. but answering even 1 question out of 4 correctly that you are not sure about will give you a www...... • Choose the answer you feel is right.... Trust yourself....com ... Having reduced the number of choices. Revisit remaining answers to discover which seems more correct. Your subconscious usually will guide you to the correct choice. • • Discard choices in which part of the response is incorrect...... Convoluted? Yes.. the key to finding the correct answer is to narrow the choices and to make an intelligent guess..... Use the techniques presented in the chart above to reduce the number of choices..... your chances of scoring higher are excellent..... You can forget what it is you are looking for and choose a correct answer for the selection but the wrong answer for the question. “Strategies for Answering Objective Questions/Making Educated Guesses.. Do not argue with yourself. rethink that choice.... and be sure to read all the answer choices.... The not/except questions are tricky....... • If you are not confident about a passage.......... If you skip questions.. ask yourself............ Be sure to mark in the test booklet the ones you have not answered.. illogical.......... You will have to answer 4 questions incorrectly to lose a single point.. as you go through each answer.” cross off the answer and keep going until you find a choice to which you can answer “no..............” • • • • A FINAL WORD OF ADVICE: EDUCATED GUESSING One technique that is especially helpful for achieving your best score is educated guessing. several choices may be logical.. and answer the easy ones first... Look for the most inclusive answer or the generalization. .

.. See where your reasoning and ours differ.... that was written in the eighteenth century by Hector St.....petersons.......com .... act on it............... . No matter which method you choose... If you have an idea about which choice is correct... or you may wish to score the entire section at one time.. John de Crèvecoeur.......... what is the flaw in your reasoning? If your answer is correct.............. Read the selection in Exercise 1.. read all the explanations against your own........ to follow.... If you do not understand the question..... You may refer to the answers question by question..... take the time to practice what you have just learned......... you may check the explanation immediately... www. quarter-point edge........ or did we add to your understanding of the question and the process of arriving at the answer? NOTE Always read all the explanations given for correct answers in the Answer Key and Explanations sections in this book.......... Circle the correct answer........ If your answer is incorrect... Even the College Board suggests that you try—as long as you can eliminate some answer choices..... PRACTICING Now..Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 81 ................. Apply the suggestions and strategies to determine the right answer. and then write out your reasoning on the lines provided below each question.... is your reasoning the same as ours..... The logic might offer you an insight that will help you with other questions.............

.......... who acts upon principles.. the government he obeys.. choose the best response to each question... 45 50 55 60 65 70 The Americans were once scattered all over Europe..... and industry which began long since in the east...** Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men.....82 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .. which you will find in no other country... or the descendant of an European. his labor is founded on the basis of nature.... and form new opinions. were the only cords that tied him: his country is now that which gives him land... and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations.. and form. self-interest. servile dependence. Ubi panis ibi patria* is the motto of all emigrants..... What then is the American....com ... READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY.... can he refuse these? The American is a new man........ QUESTIONS 1–10. The American ought therefore to love this country much better than that wherein either he or his forefathers were born..... and the new rank he holds....... and consequence. he must therefore entertain new ideas... whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world.. a rich abbot........ who are carrying along with them that great mass of arts. now...... vigor. After you have read each passage.... penury........ gladly help their father to clear those fields whence exuberant crops are to arise to feed and to clothe them all.... protection. AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. and useless labor... either by a despotic prince... Here the rewards of his industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor. style. they will finish the great circle.—This is an American.. this new man? He is either an European..... here they are incorporated into one of the finest systems of population which has ever appeared. He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater... who before in vain demanded of him a morsel of bread...... or a mighty lord.. leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners.... and gratitude to God.... receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced. the love of a few kindred as poor as himself.... 40 From the third essay of Letters from an American Farmer Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 What attachment can a poor European emigrant have for a country where he had nothing? The knowledge of the language.. and which will hereafter become distinct by the power of the different climates they inhabit. whose son married a French woman. He is an American.... without any part being claimed. there is one’s country ** Beloved mother www.petersons.. Here religion demands but little of him. rewarded by ample subsistence. hence that strange mixture of blood. who... From involuntary idleness. EXERCISE 1 Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content.... fat and frolicsome. can it want a stronger allurement? Wives and children............. bread... a small voluntary salary to the minister.. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman.... . whose wife was Dutch.. Americans are the western pilgrims..... he has passed to toils of a very different nature... * Where bread is. sciences...

.. (B) Rewards follow their labor. (D) The labor of Americans is founded on their own self-interest............ or lords do not set a levy on crops............. (D) It establishes a new thought.... In the next to the last sentence of the excerpt (line 67). The semicolon after the word “Europe” in line 38 serves which of the following purposes? (A) It sets off two or more independent clauses............. 3...................... Which of the following is NOT a reason for Americans to love this country more than that of their ancestors? (A) Religion demands little of them. how can this selection best be characterized? (A) An eloquent expression of the American dream (B) A charming narrative (C) An ironic discourse (D) A subtle criticism of the new American nation (E) A commentary directed at reforming European countries 5............ Considering diction............petersons....... Which of the following best describes the author’s view of American society? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A melting pot Lacking in prejudices Devoid of principles Class conscious Lawless 4................ .. (C) Abbots....... (E) Charity is freely given.....com ... tone................. what is the meaning of the word “penury”? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Largess Imprisonment Destitution Hard work Corporal punishment 2...Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 83 .... and rhetorical mode... (E) It sets off an introductory phrase. www... (C) It separates parenthetical elements.. (B) It separates items in a series..... exercises 1...... princes..

.... (C) America will cause worldwide changes... Which of the following statements best presents the writer’s theme? 7... Which of the following is the literary form that the writer has chosen to employ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Narrative Personal letter Expository article Epistle Dialogue www.84 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ... (D) American citizens will develop a rigid class structure.................petersons.. ...... What literary device is used to describe the new American in this sentence..............................com .. 8............................. 6............................... (B) The new nation will become an imperialist power......... “He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater”? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Simile Personification Metaphor Apostrophe Hyperbole 9.......... (E) The people will destroy their own country because of their excesses............... The organization of the selection could best be characterized as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) stream of consciousness comparison order of importance contrast argumentation (A) Americans will become selfabsorbed.. What is the best synonym for the word “exuberant” in line 55? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Sparse Abundant Harvested Withered Enthusiastic 10..

.. A scanning of the passage....... That leaves choice (C).. Sometimes.. Reject choice (C) because a metaphor is an implied comparison. 6... or absent person...... find the given word in context. (D)... 5.. Choices (C) and (D) contradict the attitude of the passage..... . so you might select one of these four because they sound familiar. Apostrophe.... and one may clearly stand out as the correct answer. choice (A). answers ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS 1.. 8... The correct answer is (A).. The information in each of choices (A) through (D) is mentioned in the passage in one form or another. thing.. however. and there is no introductory phrase... or to begin a poem or make a dramatic break... lavish exaggeration or overstatement.. 6.. C D 9.. an obvious. The correct answer is (A). two independent clauses...........” Choice (B) is a detail that supports choice (A)..... choice (D)......... E C 5.. and (E) do not reflect the tone...... which means destitute or penniless.. does not seem to fit in a series about working or not working...... some answers may be eliminated... dead. In this case. or personified abstraction. the subject of “charity. 4. choice (E).. Neither that nor choice (E). Choice (B) can be eliminated because there is neither a series nor a parenthetical element.. and substitute each of the answer choices.. Because involuntary idleness might mean either imprisonment or unemployment. The correct answer is (E)...... however.. “a melting pot. This is a straightforward vocabulary question...Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 85 .petersons.. You are looking for the one answer in the series that is either opposite to or not included in the writer’s thesis.. B 10.. The process of elimination is a good strategy to use for determining the answer when you are not sure about the responses... The correct answer is (A).. A A 3.. the obvious choice is the correct answer.... That leaves choice (B) as the only correct response.. which seems like it is personification. Also corporal punishment. You can eliminate choice (A) immediately because a simile is a figure of speech that includes as or like..... 2.....” choice (E).... in the sentence. The style is arguably charming.. 3..... fits the sentence.. but it is not a narrative. exercises www.. Choices (C).. Choice (D) does not follow any grammar rule.... to a place. By doing so. which eliminates choice (C).. shows that the only response that truly reflects the author’s words is choice (A). mode.. The correct answer is (C). The correct answer is (B).... choice (E). Choice (B) is in the running only because of the word charming. Choice (B) might be correct because the author is attributing a lap to America. If you are uncertain of the meaning.. is never mentioned in the passage. eliminate choices (B) and (E) because the author probably would not repeat the same idea.. 4....com ... The key to choosing the correct answer for this question is in noting the word not in the question. is a literary device of calling out to an imaginary... which makes it easy if you know the meaning of the word.. The challenge of this question is to sift through the responses to select the one that most accurately describes the author’s vision of America. or subject matter that is addressed by the author. A B 7......... 2. hyperbole... In this case. C 1. There are...... Choice (E) is not mentioned in the selection and can be eliminated immediately.. but keep reading the answer choices.. inserting the answer choices in context of line 67 easily eliminates choices (A) and (D) because gifts and hard work would not logically appear in the same series as involuntary idleness and useless labor. Your decision should have been between choices (A) and (B)...

he has arranged his thoughts to rise in power and conclude on a very strong note.. which are more conversational and private... 8....... Four of the five possibilities.. The correct answer is (B).......... Your best hint for this is in the title of the selection...... the passage is less expository than persuasive. The writer is very positive about America and America’s future. whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world. There is nothing that could be considered stream of consciousness about the selection. (B). “Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men. 10. a form of argumentation.. keeping in mind the tone and theme of the author... Substitute each of the proposed responses.... Eliminate choices (A) and (E) since there is no story being told and no discussion among people. choice (D).. best captures the author’s meaning.... (D).... are negative. The correct answer is (C). Abundant. You must determine the definition from the context of the sentence....... choice (E).. but it does not make sense in context.... continue on with Exercises 4 and 5.. Neither sparse.. choice (B). and contrast.... choices (A)...... Harvested.. 9.... not a form of organization.. Eliminate choices (A) and (E) because they do not apply to the selection... This question tests your ability to recognize types of organization and structure... nor withered........ You can eliminate all but the correct answer in this question by keeping in mind the general tone of the author...com .. which is a formal composition written in the form of a letter that is addressed to a distant person or group of people.. choice (A)...... While the writer does seem to compare.. but argumentation is a mode of discourse............... and (E)........ would likely be the correct response given the rest of the sentence..... The correct answer is (D)...... www.. try Exercises 2 and 3. choice (C).. None of the responses is an exact synonym for the word exuberant as we use the word today. does not make sense before the crops grow.. If you are still unsure of your ability with multiple-choice questions.. A clue to the answer can be found in the sentence.. 7.....petersons... Unlike personal letters.. While you may have considered choice (C).. This is not so much a vocabulary drill as it is a test of your comprehension..... choice (B).. choice (B).. The author is writing an epistle. epistles are carefully crafted literary works that are intended for a general audience. and select the one that makes the most sense..86 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .... is a synonym for exuberant.. or literary letter.... The correct answer is (C).......... It might be persuasive. Study the explanations for choosing the correct answers..” (lines 28–31) Now that you have a sense of the logic involved in acing Section I of the test.... . choice (D). Enthusiastic.

. and criticism...... He has now become a chief of the League.... Your mind shall be filled with a yearning for the welfare of the people of the League.. exercises EXERCISE 2 Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content...... The thickness of your skin shall be seven spans... style.. in all your official acts...... (E) Be a stern but fair lawmaker...... Neither anger nor fury shall find lodging in your mind. Do not cast over your shoulder behind you the warnings of your nephews and nieces should they chide you for any error or wrong you may do.. Your heart shall be filled with peace and good will... When the pledge is furnished.... even those whose faces are yet beneath the surace of the ground—the unborn of the future Nation....... but return to the way of the Great Lake which is right and just.......... Then shall the opposite side say: We now do crown you with the sacred emblem of the deer’s antlers. With 45 50 55 15 60 endless patience you shall carry out your duty and your firmness shall be tempered with tenderness for your people....petersons.. the Speaker of the Council must hold the shell strings in his hand and address the opposite side of the Council Fire..com ..... You shall now become a mentor of the people of the Five Nations... and they shall be received as evidence of the pledge. According to this passage.... In all your deliberations in law-making. which of the following is conduct that the leaders would be LEAST likely to encourage in a new chief? (A) Punish criticism and offensive behavior.... After you have read each passage........... 20 25 30 35 www.. Such will constitute the evidence of his pledge to the chiefs of the League that he will live according to the Constitution of the Great Peace and exercise justice in all affairs.. and he shall begin his address saying: Now behold him.......... which is to say that you will be proof against anger... self-interest shall be cast away. (C) Be calm in words and actions. (B) Be mindful of future generations..... AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS 1–10.. offensive actions.. but also the coming generations........ choose the best response to each question. At the end of it he shall send the bunch of shell strings to the opposite side...... (D) Consider the welfare of all people.... he shall furnish four strings of shells or wampum one span in length bound together at one end. From The Law of the Great Peace from the Iroquois Confederacy Line 40 5 10 When a candidate is to be installed. and form. . See how splendid he looks..... All your words and actions shall be marked with calm deliberation.... 1.. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY. the emblem of your chieftainship.....Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 87 .............. Look and listen for the welfare of the whole people....... and have always in view not only the present.. An address may then follow............

....... Anger is offensive... ....... 2.. (C) A chief does (D) A chief does (E) A chief does rule him.. right and just” (lines 48–54).. .... which of the following best describes the genesis of the speech? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Tribal customs Logic Ethics Emotion Spirituality 5............. Which of the following can you infer about Native American culture from the imperatives and admonitions included in the installation ceremony? I. After careful rhetorical analysis of the selection...... In the sentence “Do not cast .... The sentence “With endless patience you shall carry out your duty and your firmness shall be tempered with tenderness for your people” contains all of the following EXCEPT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a verb in the passive voice parallel structure specific details a participial phrase courtly diction 10............. future tenses (E) Imperative sentences....... future tenses (C) Imperative sentences. I only II only III only I and II only I and III only 3. what is the best meaning of the word “chide”? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Judge Blame Reprove Criticism Reprimand www... formal diction (D) Imperative sentences.petersons..... ...... The mode of this selection as a whole is best described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) argumentative narrative exposition historical treatise description 8......com ..... In the context of this passage.... active verbs 4..........................88 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies . A chief’s conduct is important.. formal diction (B) Declarative sentences............. not rule not remain angry....... The clause “The thickness of your skin shall be seven spans” (lines 29–30) is an example of which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Simile Analogy Visual imagery Metaphor Alliteration 6. Which of the following is the best interpretation of the sentence “Neither anger nor fury shall find lodging in your mind” (lines 41–43)? (A) A chief does (B) A chief does with anger.. not display anger. II...... not let anger 9... (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Family is important... How does the speaker use rhetoric and style in the second speech of the selection to communicate the conduct expected of a new chief? (A) Declarative sentences............ III. the best interpretation of the word “span” (line 30) is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) span of a life span of a hand span of an arrow the wing span of an eagle span of an arm 7...... not become angry..

.. requires a series of words beginning with the same sound.. The correct answer is (B).Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 89 .... and (E) are illogical... selecting choice (C).. is another type of comparison in which one thing is referred to as another.” Choice (E) is the best because it includes the ideas in choices (B). As you probably have learned through your study of history. Choice (E) is entirely wrong..... A declarative sentence......... This question asks you to find the one answer that is incorrect... 6.. A metaphor..... or comparison of similar things.. answers ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS 1... is a comparison that requires the word like or as. 5.. 4....com exercises . or an arm would not be related to the depth of skin.... Choices (B)..... so it can be eliminated. Although anger and family (nephews and nieces) are mentioned in the passage. Thickness of skin could not relate to life span. C B 5. is the lack of an exclamation point as the end mark. choice (E).. they cannot be interrogative... because you are being asked to find the behavior that is least likely to be encouraged in a leader.... E B 7.. which is not the case here. family. 6.... (D). (C). Choice (E)... 2.. (C). This is a comprehension question... making choice (B) the most logical interpretation.... it. an analogy. Choice (B). Choice (A). The correct answer is (A).. is incorrect because there is no comparison in the sentence.... This question tests your knowledge of English grammar..... This question requires your knowledge of literary elements... C C 9. the offensiveness of anger. choice (D)... simile.. You could return to the passage and skim to find the behaviors required.. too...... but it is a helping verb.. There is no www. but the question is asking you for the “best interpretation.... The correct answer is (C). If you did not see that... The correct answer is (C).. 2. the hand was commonly used as a measure.. can be correct. exposition. 7.. the fundamental message is the importance of a chief’s conduct..... only choice (B).. Choice (A) is a distracter because the selection does not say a chief cannot become angry... 4... C 1. A C 3.... D 10....... a wing. and choice (C). Therefore. choices (A) and (B)..... seven times the span of either an arrow.... only that that anger should not affect his rule. alliteration..... The correct answer is (B). ...petersons. This question asks you to be logical.... One clue that the sentences are not exclamatory... which mentions the chief’s conduct. you could use the process of elimination to find the best choice.. which eliminates those as the answer.. The question asks you to identify the type of discourse used in the selection... (D). 3.. If you found the probable answer by using this logic.. the use of shall instead of the usual will indicates a demand. is easy... making choice (A) incorrect. Because the sentences do not ask a question. and (D).. (C)... Choice (A).... so it is the correct answer. Choice (A) is not behavior that is desirable in a leader.. are incorrect because they do not mention conduct. If you recognized that the purpose is to explain how a candidate is installed as a chief of the Iroquois. simply states an idea.. 8. and (E) are behaviors that are desirable in a leader.. choice (D).. The correct answer is (C). Or you could also use common sense to recognize that choices (B)... is incorrect.. The sentence is imperative. Choices (C). so it can be eliminated... The correct answer is (E). too. and (D) all seem appropriate. Choice (D) is only partially correct because only conduct is correct.. Shall is not a form of the verb to be... you could confirm your answer choice by scanning the selection....

Don’t be fooled...com .. thus eliminating choice (B). This is a difficult vocabulary question. 9.... is gentler and the best choice. it is a noun.... so choice (A) is wrong.. so choices (C) and (E) are incorrect.. The correct answer is (C). which is not the mode used here. and use the process of elimination to find the best definition.. choice (E). The correct answer is (D)... Since the youth are chiding a chief. but remember the conventions of rhetoric—logic.90 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ...... 8.. and there may be some unspoken spiritual overtones. choice (E)... choice (B). This passage discusses the conduct that is expected of new chiefs and. choice (D).... and. while it suggests a very good possibility...... ..” in the passive voice.. ethics........ and emotion. This question tests your understanding of rhetoric and the conventions of English.. A narrative. The correct answer is (C). You must identify what is NOT in the sentence...petersons. There are specific details........... clearly evolves from ethics...... argument or persuasion occurring. Think about the sense of the sentence.. and chide is a verb.... hence. The coordinating conjunction... This is obviously a tribal custom........ tells a story................. A participial phrase....... There is no such structure. which joins two independent clauses..... the purpose of the selection is to present the stages of the ceremony..... You can eliminate choice (D) immediately because............ (B).. this is a not a mode of discourse. which makes the only incorrect choice the right answer! 10.. and the language is courtly. Choice (D) is a distracter.... so choice (A) can be ruled out........ Look for a verb among the other four choices that is similar in meaning to criticism....... www. The sentence contains a verb... is a verb form that functions as an adjective or adverb.. and elegant.. “shall be tempered...... close in meaning to criticize.. choice (A)... Most of the choices make sense in the context of the sentence. you can safely assume that choices (A).... establishes parallel structure. and (D) are too harsh..... formal. While there is a great deal of description..... Reprove..

. having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her..... liberty..... than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed... and to make her willing to lead a dependent and abject life... decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course.. The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward women. After you have read each passage........ that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights.. to destroy her confidence in her own powers.. oppressed.. .... ......... that to secure these rights governments are instituted....... ... choose the best response to each question... We hold these truths to be selfevident: that all men and women are created equal. Now. pursuing 45 50 55 60 65 70 invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism. accordingly.... and organizing its powers in such form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness... and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights.... we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States... . —Elizabeth Cady Stanton www.com ...] He has endeavored........ Such has been the patient sufferance of the women under this government.. From Declaration of Sentiments Line 40 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 When in the course of human events. will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes.. deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.... When any form of government becomes destructive of these ends..... in view of this entire disfranchisement of one-half the people of this country. and such is now the necessity which constrains them to demand the equal station to which they are entitled. it is the right of those who suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it.. laying its foundation on such principles. all experiences hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer......... READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY.... their social and religious degradation... and because women do feel themselves aggrieved. — in view of the unjust laws above mentioned. and form... that among these are life........... in every way that he could.Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 91 ..petersons... exercises EXERCISE 3 Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content... AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.. indeed....... it is their duty to throw off such government... ....... it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied. and to insist upon the institution of a new government. Prudence... But when a long train of abuses and usurpations. but one to which the laws of nature and nature’s God entitle them.... style. QUESTIONS 1–10.. and to provide new guards for their future security... [An explanation of fifteen specific grievances follows this paragraph. ................... while evils are sufferable.. to lessen her self-respect... and the pursuit of happiness..... ..

...............92 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .. III....... God....... II......... portentous www.. ... The writer emphasizes the evils experienced by women in order to further her argument for (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) abolishing all government writing powerful statements holding demonstrations amending the Constitution demanding equal rights 3.........petersons...... establish an extended analogy to the Declaration of Independence create a powerful argument supporting the writer’s position point out the effects of disenfranchisement I only I and II only II and III only I and III only I......... pretentious Dramatic.... ... II...” (lines 44–49).. . 5...com ...... III.. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 6..... which of the following is the best meaning for the word “constrains”? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Restrains Coerces Encourages Demands Entitles 4.... and III II......... 1. .....” (lines 57–61)...... informative Emotional..... society........ In the sentence beginning “He has endeavored ...... (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Provides parallel structure to intensify the message Details the list of grievances Creates an intellectual tone I only II only III only I and II only II and III only 2......... in the sentence beginning “Such has been the patient .... men.... powerful Serious.. angry Objective.... From your reading of this selection... nature.... what does the writer believe about the origin of women’s rights? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) They They They They They come come come come come from from from from from government. Which of the following best describes the tone of this passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Inspiring.. At the end of the second paragraph... To what does the writer liken the plight of women in the United States? (A) To the universal plight of women (B) To the plight of wives (C) To the plight of all oppressed people (D) To America’s plight as a colony (E) To the plight of slaves 7.... The syntax and organization of the passage serve to I. ........ the repetition of the infinitive phrases serves which of the following rhetorical functions? I..

................petersons.. .................................................. In the sentence beginning “We hold these truths to be self-evident: .........com ....... the best meaning for the word “inalienable” is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) undeniable fundamental natural God-given not to be taken away 9.. .....................................Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 93 ......... This passage is an example of which of the following modes of discourse? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Argument Persuasion Exposition Narrative Description 10........... The passage as a whole can best be described as which of the following? (A) A commentary about women’s suffrage (B) An indictment of men’s tyranny over women (C) A declaration of independence for women (D) A feminist diatribe (E) A political lament www......” (lines 12–21)... exercises 8.... .........

A A 9.... some readers of the Declaration of the Sentiments might have considered it emotional and pretentious. so you can eliminate them.. That leaves choice (A) as the correct answer. which is an antonym for constrains in this context. The correct answer is (D).” Choices (C) and (E) are weaker than choices (D) and (B)...S... This comprehension question asks for the main idea. 7. The question. choice (D).94 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ..... (C).. The repetition of infinitive phrases provides both point I. This is a cultural question that relies on your knowledge of U. choice (B).. 2. The remaining choices... what point is the writer making? Stanton certainly does not advocate the overthrow of all governments. parallel structure. The correct answer is (B)... Point III is a distracter. All the choices. 2..... so choice (A) is incorrect... government to apply fairly to all citizens. Point III.. The correct answer is (C)... neither choice is entirely correct. she wants the rules of the U... Choice (D) creates a repetition in the sentence (“which demands them to demand”).. have little or no relationship to the Declaration of Independence. This vocabulary question presents a challenge... Elizabeth Cady Stanton writes..” Ask yourself.. 8. The correct answer is (B)... Choice (B) remains as the strongest verb and best response... ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS 1. nature is rarely if ever called the Creator. You might be able to make a case for nature.. but the question revolves around syntax and organization. choice (D).S... . government. and (E)... make sense in the sentence.. 6. not objective. but that is not the tone the author set out to create. ................. and portentous but not necessarily dramatic. The correct answer is (A). society. 4. with the exception of choice (A)... (A). a list of grievances.. a part of choices (C)......... E D 7.......... . Stanton and her peers felt that U. Although based on the Declaration of Independence.. While the article has some elements of choices (B) and (E). The effects of disenfranchisement are mentioned...... 6.. is a distracter. they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights. “.... choice (A)......... (B)... Ask yourself. The correct answer is (E). 3..... but that is implied in the passage and is not the main idea. Choice (D) would be required to gain equal rights.. The document is serious but not necessarily angry.. You want the strongest choice because the sentence needs a word meaning “forces. B C 3. 5. The author.. The passage is argumentative..... C 10. The correct answer is (D).. However..... Choice (B) is the correct answer because both I and II are used to support the syntax and organization of the passage..... The writer might feel that choices (B) and (C) are good methods for spotlighting the problem.S. but neither reflects the main purpose of the passage..petersons.... women were denied their rights as citizens by the U.. choice (E).. what is the Creator? You know that the Creator is not the government. (D)... so it is not the best choice..S.... so choice (C) is not the answer. Just as the British colonists felt that they were denied their rights as citizens by the British. 4. B D 5.. Don’t be misled.. asks you to recall a detail and interpret it.....com ..... so that choice is not the most accurate. and (E). and point II. or men... E 1. so choice (D) is the correct answer because it is the only answer that has both points I and II.. choice (E).... which is rather easy... www.. history. choice (B)...

. Argumentation is a more powerful type of writing than persuasion.... choice (D)... that is.. choice (A)...... event..... you had a good idea about how to answer this question.............. . place....... answers exercises 8.. and God-given...com ... choice (B).. The word diatribe.......... The answer hinges on your understanding of the difference between persuasion and argumentation........ You must pick the best one... and lament has a connotation of weakness. because this is a very strong piece of writing.... natural... choice (D). so you can eliminate choice (B)..... they cannot be taken away. so choice (A) is incorrect. All the answers for this question make sense. does not tell a story... the most important aspect is that they cannot be made alien.. (D).Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 95 ....... and does not describe a person. The correct answer is (A)........ has a negative connotation.......... and (E) because the selection is not simply informative. The correct answer is (E).. That eliminates choice (B)........ www..... thing... fundamental.. The selection advocates female suffrage...... You can eliminate choices (D) and (E) as inappropriate descriptions of this passage. choice (C). The writer discusses men’s tyranny over women... about the Declaration of Independence..... or idea....... 9. If you remembered question 6.. choice (E).....petersons...... While human rights may be undeniable... You can immediately eliminate choices (C).... The correct answer is (C).......... not just comments on it..... but that is only part of the argument. 10.

style. and children.. The wildest excitement prevailed in all parts of the city.. and the rumors were magnified until we had nearly every member of the Cabinet killed. EXERCISE 4 Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content.. .. Seward’s house... though in a precarious condition.. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY..... The sentence from the second paragraph beginning “Men. shouting the same words repeated by the desperado at Mr.. choose the best response to each question... exhibiting a dagger in his hand. opposite the theatre.. The President and Mrs. 1865 Published in the New York Herald...... listening to the performance of The American Cousin...... 1. and form.. “The South is avenged.. . Some time elapsed before authentic data could be ascertained in regard to the affair... occupying a box in the second tier. and came out the temple..............” and then escaped from the back entrance to the stage.. Lincoln were at Ford’s theatre.. the 45 President was taken and carried to Mr..... April 14....... in Tenth street. April 15..” (lines 11–15) is an example of which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Parallelism Simple sentence Run-on sentence Archaic English Exaggeration 30 35 40 www.... rushed to and fro..... Lincoln in the head..... The assassin then jumped from the box upon the stage and ran across to the other side....... old and young. The moment the astonished audience could realize what happened...... Men... At the close of the third act a person entered the box occupied by the President. . women.. Lincoln fainted............ After you have read each passage.96 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ..... old and young. but at half-past twelve he is still alive.petersons. flourishing it in a tragical manner........ This passage is an example of which of the following modes of discourse? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Description Exposition Narration Persuasion Argument 5 10 15 2.. and the wound was at first supposed to be fatal.. but in his passage dropped his pistol and his hat. rushed to and fro.. Lincoln fell forward from his seat. women..... adding to it. and Mrs...... AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS... Which of the following best describes the tone of this passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Angry Objective Dramatic Solemn Emotional 20 25 3.. by the announcement that the President and Secretary Seward had been assassinated and were dead... Medical aid was immediately sent for.........com . Line Washington. and it was announced that he could not live... 1865 Washington was thrown into an intense excitement a few minutes before eleven o’clock this evening. and children............... QUESTIONS 1–10.... and shot Mr.. Peterson’s house... The shot entered the back of his head. Mr. .....

.............. which of the following best characterizes the writer’s style? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Informal diction Colloquial diction Slang diction Formal diction Pretentious diction 9......................... In the last sentence of the last paragraph (lines 44–49)....... which of the following patterns of organization is most in evidence? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Development by details Chronology Cause and effect Analysis Synthesis 5. In this passage............ In the fourth paragraph.. what is the best meaning for the word “precarious”? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Risky Dangerous Vulnerable Uncertain Treacherous 7................com ..petersons...... Which of the following best summarizes the purpose of the passage? (A) To discuss the reason for the city’s excitement (B) To report the news of President Lincoln’s death (C) To clarify the report of the assassination attempt on President Lincoln (D) To report that President Lincoln is still alive (E) To give an account of the events at Ford’s Theatre www............ ........ what is the best meaning of the word “tragical” (line 30)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Sorrowful Dramatic Terrible Threatening Deadly 6... In the first two paragraphs... II............. III... In this selection.....................Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 97 ....... which of the following rhetorical devices is most evident? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Appealing to authority Massing of factual information Abstract generalizations Emotional appeal Anecdotal information 10.. exercises 4........ Reviewing the diction of the passage. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) excitement and chaos fear and tragedy terrible news and uncertainty I only II only III only I and II only I and III only 8...... the writer’s rhetoric and syntax combine to create an impression of I..

. authorities are not cited. it would read like Beowulf or The Canterbury Tales. but it is not an overwhelming amount. 3. Thus.... so choices (D) and (E) can be eliminated.......... The correct answer is (A)... This sentence is certainly not archaic English. Does the article appeal to authority? No. choice (A)... Is there a mass of information? Yes.... Although the assassination of Lincoln was indeed a tragedy and undoubtedly generated fear (point II). 4.. Choice (A).... That people were angry and emotional is true.. so choices (B) and (C) are incorrect.. the telling of a story.. 4.... D 1..... 5.... yet the writer presents the situation in an informative and impersonal manner. To answer this question correctly... The article is a factual report... so choice (B) is invalid.petersons. 2. You probably recognized several examples of parallel construction in the sentence....... To be so. what. A E 5. There is no effort to persuade in the selection.. ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS 1... the purpose is to inform.. where.. choice (E).... but the factual nature of the piece eliminates narration. choice (A) is incorrect. The gesture was dramatic.. choice (C)... There is no exaggeration in this factual reporting of a very distressing event...... They talk about excitement and rumors and people rushing to and fro. C D 9. News articles almost always are expository.... The question is about rhetoric and its effect in creating an impression in the first two paragraphs. 8.com .. answering who. 6. is illogical..... choice (E) is incorrect.... . thus excluding choice (A). or deadly.. 6.. why.. Consequent events were solemn... making choice (C) incorrect.. The sentence is a grammatically correct compound-complex sentence. where the selection is identified as a newspaper article...... These facts relate to points I and III.. Did you notice that several of these answers made sense in the sentence..... the article presents information..... but only one made sense in the context of the article? This is why in order to choose the correct answer. so choices (C) and (D) are incorrect. making choice (D) invalid. choice (D).. not this article. choice (D).. The passage explains what happened at Lincoln’s assassination. let alone addressed. The correct answer is (E)... This question may seem difficult.. not the feeling of the event reported........ and not very threatening.. You might have thought twice about choice (C).. when... you need to read a few lines above and below the line that is identified..... That leaves choice (B) as the correct answer... The correct answer is (B)..... and how.. 2.. that is not the sense that was related in the first two paragraphs. you could discover the answer by the process of elimination... If not. The only answer choice that includes both points is choice (E)..... While there are some descriptive elements. www.98 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies . containing neither abstractions nor appeals to emotion. nor emotional. The correct answer is (E). A clue is offered in the introduction.. Don’t be carried away by what you know about the historical event. choice (E). B E 7.... choice (B). The correct answer is (B). choice (C). but you can eliminate the incorrect answers through logical thinking. you need to identify the feeling that the article gives you.. but the tone is neither angry............ B B 3... more than terrible. Therefore.. The correct answer is (B). The event is very dramatic.. sorrowful. The assassin waved a dagger after he shot Lincoln.... B 10...

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7. The correct answer is (C). You may have found this main-idea question fairly easy. All responses except choice (B) are truthful. However, choices (A), (D), and (E) are support for the purpose of the article—to give the facts about the assassination attempt on the president. 8. The correct answer is (D). Several of the answers, choices (A), (B), and (C), are redundant, so you can conclude that these are incorrect. The article is not affected or ostentatious, which eliminates choice (E). 9. The correct answer is (B). Choices (C), (D), and (E) are easily ruled out because although they may be in evidence in parts of the article—cause and effect in the description of why rumors were flying—none of them predominates in the article. The selection offers details, but in terms of the pattern of organization, choice (B), chronology, is the most important feature. 10. The correct answer is (D). For vocabulary questions, substitute in the sentence each of the possible choices to see which is closest in meaning. Using this process, choices (A), (B), and (E) don’t quite fit the context. Choice (C) is tempting, but the actual definition of the word precarious is “uncertain, insecure.”

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EXERCISE 5
Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content, style, and form. After you have read each passage, choose the best response to each question.

QUESTIONS 1–10. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.

1. Which of the following best characterizes the tone of this passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Reproachful Serious Scholarly Impassioned Objective

From Extinct Animals written by L. H. Heller in 1908
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Many animals which inhabited the earth in bygone periods have entirely disappeared, leaving not even a modern representative of their race. Others, no doubt, were known to pre-historic peoples, concerning which no record has come down to us. But within the period of recorded observation, many animals have lived and died out; various causes contributing to their extermination, not least among these being in the presence of mankind. Man reconstructs the face of the earth to suit his needs; he cuts down forests, plows or burns over prairie lands, changes the course of rivers, drains the swamps, and thus destroys the natural environment of many of nature’s wild children. Then, too, he destroys creatures directly; he kills them for food, for clothing, or for other utilitarian purposes; he hunts them because he fears them, as dangerous foes to himself, or to his agricultural pursuits; he destroys them for sport; and finally he draws them from feral conditions by domestication. Not only thus does man directly injure by exterminating influences, but his coming accompanied by exterminating influences, kills out certain other creatures. These, when man has destroyed their natural prey, practically die of starvation before they can adapt themselves to changed conditions. Then the domestic dogs, cats, etc. help on the work of slaughter in certain ways, by preying upon wild life.

2. What is the function of the first sentence of the passage? I. II. III. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) To state the main topic of the selection To state the author’s opinion To arouse interest in the thesis I only II only III only I and II only I and III only

3. The mode of discourse for this passage may best be characterized as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) descriptive narrative expository argumentative persuasive

4. The best meaning for the word “feral” (line 26) is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) primitive untamed deadly fierce tricky

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5. The first sentence of the passage (lines 1–4) contains all of the following EXCEPT a(n) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) coordinating conjunction negative adverb prepositional phrase participial phrase intransitive verb

9. In the sentence beginning “Not only thus does man . . .” (lines 27–32), to what does “thus” refer? (A) The direct and indirect actions of humans (B) Humankind’s hunting of animals (C) The previous sentence (D) Humankind’s fear of some animals (E) Humankind’s alteration of the environment 10. In the clause “[man] destroys the natural environment of many of nature’s wild children” (lines 17–19), “wild children” is an example of which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Simile Metaphor Personification Analogy Figurative language

6. Which of the following best describes the theme of the passage? (A) Humankind as a destructive force in nature (B) The extinction of wild animals (C) Human beings’ effect on wild animals (D) Humankind’s responsibility for extinction of wild animals (E) Humankind’s role in halting the extinction of wild animals 7. In this passage, which of the following rhetorical devices is most evident? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Stereotyping Emotional appeal Statement of facts Causal relation Simile

8. In the final sentence of the passage, which phrase(s) intensifies the mood of the selection? I. II. III. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Domestic dogs, cats, etc. The work of slaughter Preying upon wild life I only II only III only I and II only II and III only

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1. 2. C D 3. 4. D B 5. 6. A D 7. 8. D E 9. C 10. C

1. The correct answer is (C). The key to this question is to sift through the choices to select the one that is best. Choice (E) is easily eliminated because the author examines only one side of the issue, people’s negative effect on the environment. Choices (A), (B), and (D) are somewhat true, but choice (C) best characterizes the author’s attitude and, therefore, most accurately reflects the tone of the passage. 2. The correct answer is (D). Evaluate the Roman numeral points first to see which one(s) may be true in relation to the question. Does the sentence state the main topic of the passage? Yes. Does it state the author’s opinion? Yes. Does it arouse interest in the thesis? Not really. The rhetoric and style of this sentence is not exciting; it does not provide a “hook” to entice readers to read on. This means that you can eliminate any response with point III in it, choices (C) and (E). The sentence functions to state both the main topic and the author’s view; therefore, choice (D), which includes both I and II, is the correct answer. 3. The correct answer is (D). This is a question about the mode of discourse of this selection. Using the process of elimination, choice (A) is wrong because the writer is not simply describing something. Choice (B) is incorrect because the author is not telling a story. You can eliminate choice (C) because the author is not simply telling or explaining something. Choice (E) may be tempting because the author does indeed want you to think as he does, but choice (D) is the best response because the author’s primary purpose is to give the reader information from which to draw certain conclusions. 4. The correct answer is (B). This is a vocabulary question. Use the context of the sentence to help you make your choice. Reread the sentence in which the word appears, and then substitute each of the possible choices to see which is closest in meaning. In context, Choices (C), (D), and (E) are easily eliminated because they do not make sense in the context of the sentence. Choice (A) is incorrect because primitive can be applied to an animal or its condition only if the connotation is prehistoric. Choice (B) is the correct answer, given the context and the fact that it modifies conditions. 5. The correct answer is (A). This question tests your knowledge of English grammar. Sift through each of the grammatical applications in the sentence until you identify all that are present. There is a negative adverb, choice (B), “not even.” There is a prepositional phrase, choice (C), “of their race.” There is a participial phrase, choice (D), “leaving not even.” There is an intransitive verb, choice (E), “have disappeared.” What remains? Choice (A). There is no coordinating conjunction. 6. The correct answer is (D). This kind of question asks that you select the choice that best tells what the passage is about. Choice (E) is eliminated because the idea, although implied, is not actually stated in the passage. Choices (A), (B), and (C) are touched on in the passage, but choice (D) is the strongest message to the reader.

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7. The correct answer is (D). The writer makes a number of statements as if they were factual, but they may actually be opinions, so choice (C) can be eliminated. In a simile, a writer says something is like something else; there is no evidence of that figure of speech in this piece, so choice (E) can also be eliminated. Depending on whether or not you agree with the author, you may see stereotyping in the passage, but that was not the author’s intent, so cross off choice (A). The author is building his case on a series of reasons, so choice (B) is incorrect. That leaves causal relation, choice (D). Even though all the causes contributing to extinction may not be mentioned, the device is still causal relation. 8. The correct answer is (E). Point I, part of choices (A) and (D), contains no words that would intensify the mood. The words slaughter and preying in points II and III have emotional connotations that would intensify the mood of the sentence and assist the author in achieving his purpose. Only choice (E) has both points and is, therefore, the correct answer. 9. The correct answer is (C). The antecedent of thus refers to the previous sentence and all the actions of humankind described in it, choice (C). Choices (B) and (E) are too narrow. The remaining choices do not make sense in context. 10. The correct answer is (C). This is a language question that tests your knowledge of figures of speech. You can eliminate choices (A), (B), and (D) immediately because each refers to some kind of comparison, and there is no comparison in the clause. Figurative language, choice (E), a kind of vivid imagery, is generally true but not appropriate. This is a specific example of personification, the giving of human qualities to nonhumans, e.g., wild animals.

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SUMMING IT UP
The questions in Section I ask you about passages from a variety of sources, rhetorical modes, historical eras, and literary periods and disciplines. Most of the questions assess how carefully you read, how well you interpret what you read, and how well you analyze literature. Some questions will ask you about grammar, mechanics, structure, organization, development, or footnotes. You will have approximately one minute to answer each multiple-choice question. You receive one point for each correct answer you give. You receive no points for each question you leave blank. If you answer incorrectly, one-quarter point is subtracted. This is the guessing penalty. Section I accounts for 45 percent of your final composite score. Scan the passages to decide the order in which you want to answer them. You do not have to answer the selections in the order presented. Then skim for an overall impression of the selection. Finally, read the selection carefully. You may find a multiple-choice question that asks you to determine the purpose of a footnote. These are fairly straightforward comprehension questions. A close reading of the footnote against the answer choices will help you determine the correct answer.

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....... mechanics. There are several things to remember about the test..... your time is limited. On the AP test.. Finally... On this test. If you are wondering how you are going to be successful... First.. you most likely have not seen the selections previously.. most of the essays you have written in English class involve literature you and your classmates have studied.........About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays ... chapter 4 OVERVIEW • • • • • • • • • • Basic information about section II Types of essays on the test Strategies for acing the essays The essay: a quick review A final word of advice on writing your essays Analyzing literature Practicing Self-evaluation rubric for the free response essays Self-evaluation rubric for the synthesis essays Summing it up Section II of the Advanced Placement test for English Language & Composition contains three essays asking you to analyze literary style.. Second.... and sentence structure..... revise........ You do not know the individuals who will score your AP essays..... You recognize your teacher’s preferences in organization........ In addition. you have adequate time to brainstorm.. this chapter will help you 105 ..... so you cannot write to the audience. you know your English teacher.... and defend a position.. prewrite.. discuss rhetorical usage.... and edit.... usually when you work on an essay. This chapter lays out some basic information about the essay portion of the test and about good writing in general. You know what he or she thinks is important...... we can help..

. Score your essay against the Self-Evaluation Rubrics. Again...... NOTE You will need a pen to write your essays.... Compare each essay to the list of suggested points that you might have developed in that essay........ and unified essay..... compare the points you made with the ones we suggest...... stop.......... You won’t have that opportunity during the test. You will have 2 hours to write the essays and 15 minutes to read the sources for the synthesis essay.106 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies . and defend a position.. Use the rubrics and scoring guides to pinpoint your weaknesses and to improve as you write each subsequent essay....... an AP classmate.... coherent.... The College Board suggests you allot approximately 40 minutes to write each essay.... Keep in mind what you learned on your first try and go on to the next essay.. BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT SECTION II Section II has three essay questions...... strengthening the weak areas. too. TIP Check the Practice Plans for Studying for the AP English Language & Composition Test on pp.......... You will explore the different types of essays on the AP test and have ample opportunities to practice writing sample essays.... 15–20.. www...... Each essay is scored from 0 to 9.. not panic.. you must synthesize the information in at least three of those sources to support your argument..... to understand what the essay questions ask and how to answer each specific type of question.. and make notes about the sources for the synthesis essay... with 9 being the highest........ The techniques described in this chapter will help you to write each of your practice essays in 40 minutes......... so you will have the self-confidence to excel.... They probably will ask you to analyze literary style.. Do not keep working on the same essay to polish it to perfection. Reevaluate your essay. One of the three essay questions will include several sources.com . turn to the Answer Key and Explanations section.. Where are you weak? What can you improve? Take several of the points from the list and rework your essay with those points.. The purpose of reworking your essay is to help you pinpoint what the question is really asking and how you can best answer it with a clear... Give yourself the full 15-minute reading period to read.... In writing your essay.. or a teacher to evaluate your essay holistically.. Be safe: take at least two.......petersons........ .. Use the Practice Tests as tools to improve your writing... analyze. Now is the time to plan and practice.............. discuss rhetorical usage....... Ask a reliable friend...... Did our suggestions help you to better understand what the question is asking? Is your rewritten essay more tightly focused on the question and more clearly developed as a result of incorporating some of our points? Still need work on your weak points? How much did you improve? Now. When you have finished each test...

.... incoherent... Use the remaining time—35 minutes each—to write and revise those two essays..... What does all this mean? It means that you need to do some planning and practicing.. If your cursive style is tiny and cramped or large and ill-defined.... and finally...... do it neatly and clearly. You will not have time for much revision.. While neatness does not count.... If you have 2 hours—120 minutes—to write all three essays......... TYPES OF ESSAYS ON THE TEST There are two types of essays on the AP English Language & Composition Test: free response and synthesis.. you cannot spend 90 minutes on one and 15 minutes apiece on the other two....... whereas the purpose of persuasive writing is to influence the reader’s opinion and to lead your reader to act in a certain way.. Write as neatly as you can....... but if you do revise... The free response essays are typically expository or persuasive....... Skim the three questions and then put them in the order in which you want to answer them.... try printing....... unified—and neatly written—essays will brighten each grader’s pile of vague. The purpose of expository essays is to inform the reader of something...petersons. you can be confident that your clear. You cannot expect a reader faced with hundreds of papers to score to take time to puzzle over your handwriting....... write the most difficult... Knowing the elements of each mode of writing ensures that you can work effectively in that manner..... Instead............. and illegible essays...... The purpose is to convince the reader of your position on an issue.Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 107 ...... you don’t have to worry that one weaker essay will pull down the scores for the other two essays... Typically..... it does matter.. When you practice. www....... The essays together account for 55 percent of your final composite score... take 5 or so minutes for each of the nonsynthesis essays to read each question and selection and to plan what you will say.. Why? Neatness affects legibility. Because your three essays will be read by three different people....... You will have 15 minutes to read the sources for the synthesis essay... Begin with the easiest... then move to the next hardest..com ............ coherent. ............ fragmented. the synthesis essay will ask you to take a position and support it by synthesizing information from several sources.. You are probably thinking that our mentioning a neatly written paper is a bit fatuous.... A different reader with knowledge of the literary work that you discuss will read each of your essays...

. www... clarifies...... informative tone. Move logically through the steps of the process or through the supporting details for a concept by providing all the information a reader needs to understand what you are presenting................. Concentrate on explaining as you write. Your support should be organized logically in subtopics that develop important elements of your main point..... 3. you set out a thesis.... Expository Essays If the essay prompt asks you to present information. of your own and proceed to defend it. or opinion. Expository essays are usually objective and straightforward..... the essay’s thesis statement should be clearly explanatory.. Such information should be verifiable.. Argument and Persuasion An essay that asks you to defend....... These guidelines will help you plan..... Organize the subtopics and their supporting information for clarity.” In writing an argument..... to explain style... Guidelines for Exposition 1...... so avoid controversial statements. or to analyze rhetoric. Brainstorm supporting information that you will need in order to explain your main idea thoroughly to your reader.... Be sure to use transitions to assist your audience in following your explanation. to define a concept or idea.. The distinguishing characteristics of exposition are an explanatory purpose and an informative tone... because expository essays are intended to communicate factual material... As you write your expository essay.. Review your word choices to ensure an objective.. The formal definition of argument is writing that attempts “to convince the reader of the truth or falsity of a given proposition or thesis... 2... and revise an expository essay.... Be sure that your main point lends itself to a factual treatment. write... The supporting information furthers the explanatory purpose by providing sufficient examples and details to give your reader an understanding of your main point.......... checking for unity and coherence. NOTE Review literary and rhetorical terms in Appendix B........... or qualify a claim is argumentation.... so it can be developed in the 40-minute time period.petersons. However......... and explains.108 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ..... An expository essay should follow the standard three-part essay structure....... Develop a thesis statement and break it down into several subtopics.. revise your essay............ you are being asked to write an expository essay.. ...... presenting a factual statement that the body of the essay elaborates upon. 5... challenge.... 4. 6........ If time remains..... Limit your main point. focus on explaining your topic to the audience...com .

. and believable......... In writing either a persuasive or argument paper for class... The purpose is to influence the reader to take an action that agrees with your thesis. In addition to the sources.. lighthearted approach or a serious....... yet... This is one step past argument... you must cite the source—whether you quote directly from it or just restate ideas or information from it in your own words. However........ appealing even to those readers who disagree with you.. but your essay should demonstrate that you thought carefully... You are attempting to persuade the reader to adopt your point of view and then to do something about it. If you are asked to write an essay that analyzes which is the more persuasive argument between two positions or to consider opposing positions on an issue and develop a solution. conclusion... . In writing both persuasive and argument essays.com . you are being asked to write a persuasive essay. Support must consist of logical reasons or examples. You might choose a humorous... facts. Your tone should be persuasive but reasonable.. Argument stops at the attempt to change the reader’s mind about an issue. academic tone............. authoritative..... Your supporting information should never be based on unsubstantiated opinions.. For the free-response persuasive essays on the AP English Language and Composition Test....... You may not be able to convince every reader of the validity of your opinion...... you must include in both types logical reasoning and convincing factual information in order to defend your opinion effectively.......... you must include supporting material that provides convincing evidence for your thesis statement.. The stronger the link between your argument and your sources.. you may include ideas from your own experience and reading.petersons............. You want to show your readers that you are well informed and have thought about opposing arguments. all the information that you use from the sources along with your own ideas must be synthesized to create a coherent.. However.......Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 109 . The thesis statement should present your position in a reasonable tone... so • Including infinitives and participles • Beginning with adjectives and adjective phrases • Employing inversions www. the latter is probably the better tone for TIP Vary your sentence structure by: • Beginning with a prepositional phrase • Using adverbs and adverbial phrases • Starting with dependent clauses • Using various conjunctions— not only........ both modes of writing are similar to expository essays in that they use the same three-part essay format—introduction........ Your evidence should be solid... critically...... you will have to rely on your own experience and reading and whatever information you may find in the relatively brief selection. Or the free response essay prompt may be only a quotation that you must support from your own experience and reading..... body. or strongly opposed to your position........... Both modes of writing are often subjective... rational.. and details... remember that in using information from a source....... However. apathetic.. The synthesis question will provide a number of sources that you are to draw upon to find support for your position.... you would adjust your tone to your audience and take into consideration whether your audience might be sympathetic. and logically about the issue. unified essay. forceful but respectful of opposing viewpoints.. Both modes of writing differ from other kinds of essays in tone and in the requirement that they include supporting evidence.. Depending on the topic.. the higher your score will be on the exam.. Also.. either.. All of your support must defend your position.

...petersons.. Be sure to maintain whatever tone you choose throughout the essay.. Use concrete. Determine your readers’ probable response to your position. Revise your paper by examining your word choices to ensure a balanced. consider the opposing arguments and list evidence for and against your position........... www. an effective method for developing supporting information is to list the principal arguments for your position and then marshal the strongest arguments against your viewpoint........110 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ...... Be sure your language is reasonable but compelling..... specific words............ Consider conceding one or two points to the other side if your main point is highly controversial.... You do not want to lower the score of a well-written essay because you failed to follow instructions........ present counterarguments for your side... and consistent tone. ... Decide how persuasive you must be to make your points—the intensity of your purpose and tone. facts. Brainstorm for specific examples. When you advocate a highly controversial opinion..com ... A WORD ABOUT THE SYNTHESIS ESSAY The following tips will help you specifically with planning and writing the synthesis essay: • Use at least the minimum number of sources to support your argument.. Don’t be emotional . After each opposing argument.... and supportable.. reasons... not the sources.................. The following eleven guidelines will help you with writing both argument and persuasion essays: Use your knowledge and beliefs to choose an opinion/topic that you can support...... TIP Use transitions to create a roadmap for your argument.. details........... not the other way around.. Your arguments and sources should support your thesis......... both the persuasive and argument essays...... • Incorporate the sources in your argument... but be careful to ensure that your argument is the focus of the essay........ significant. If your opinion is controversial. forceful... logical transitions.......... and events that support your thesis statement.. Organize your support in order of importance... State your opinion in a thesis statement that is direct.......... Employ smooth.........

.. without taking into account qualifying factors. A valid generalization is supported by evidence and holds true in a majority of circumstances. of course.. or it may reflect a judgment or prediction based on facts...... There are two types of formal reasoning: inductive and deductive.. assuming as true something that needs to be proved or explained.. but each can lead to invalid conclusions when used incorrectly. Deductive reasoning moves from the generality that is assumed to be true to specific cases. • • Do not simply summarize or restate the information provided in the sources....... A fact.... Example: Teenage drivers have poor skills..... you must distinguish fact from opinion. you must think logically and reasonably about the material. the result is a logical fallacy...petersons. they cause most of the automobile accidents...... No matter which. Logical fallacies occur when deduction is used incorrectly..Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 111 .. www........ Each produces valid conclusions when used properly.. you must analyze and evaluate the information so you can decide if it is reliable.... Show an understanding of the sources and successfully develop your position.......... • A non sequitur is an idea or conclusion that does not follow logically from the preceding idea.... After you have verified facts and determined that the opinions are valid............. Example: Vladimir would be a great history teacher because he was born in Europe and has traveled extensively on three continents..... an opinion is not valid if the facts supporting it are insufficient... therefore....... Second....... or a generalization........ Inductive reasoning moves from specific facts to a conclusion...... you must think critically. An opinion is subjective and should be supported by relevant facts before it is considered valid....... To draw valid conclusions... you must analyze how the information is presented.....com NOTE Applying logic can help you with the multiplechoice section as well as the essay questions. • “Begging the question” occurs when a general statement is restated without supporting evidence or facts........ based on those facts. A WORD ABOUT LOGIC When you write persuasively or argumentatively...... First...... you must distinguish between valid and invalid forms of reasoning to determine if a position holds up under scrutiny. ... is a statement that can be verified by objective means. An opinion may express personal feelings about an idea or condition............. If the reasoning is illogical.. Errors in logic can take the form of the following: • A hasty generalization or statement that is made about a large number of cases or a whole group on the basis of a few examples... .. To determine if material is reliable..........

...... How are the things similar? Is the comparison logical or does it lead to a false analogy? 3.... A cause-and-effect sequence is one in which something is affected by one or more events that occurred before it. By using them throughout this chapter....... What other events might have caused the second event? 3..... I can run 5 five miles in the morning..... An analogy is a comparison between two things that are similar in some ways but are essentially dissimilar. you will know automatically which ones are appropriate to use with a given prose passage... Example: Debbie is like her sister because they both have freckles.... When you apply logic to an analysis or to your own writing... use these questions to examine an author’s logic...... How are the two things compared essentially different? 2.. or does the cause-and-effect sequence reveal a non sequitur? 2.... Are enough cases or examples presented to lead you to a solid conclusion........ Could the second event have occurred without the first? Analogies 1... What is the truth that the comparison tries to show? NOTE: These questions are general... • A false analogy is one that overlooks essential dissimilarities between two things being compared... You will need to adapt them to the type of prose you are reading.......112 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ... . What facts are being presented as evidence to support the general statement? 2........ What evidence is there that the first event or situation could have caused the second... Example: The lawyer said he is qualified to try the case because he has tried other cases.. • A false cause results when one thing preceding another is assumed to have caused a second event........ In addition to inductive and deductive reasoning........ Example: If I sleep 8 hours tonight. two other forms of reasoning can be used to reach valid conclusions: cause and effect and analogy...........................com ...........petersons............ while others work better with nonfiction. Some questions may be more appropriate for fiction... Are there any exceptions to the statement? 3.... www... or does the material lead you to jump to hasty generalizations? Cause and Effect 1............ Questions for Valid Reasoning Generalizations 1.....

petersons... Are you being asked to explain how the writer’s use of a motif affects the mood? Underline explain.... but the selections are short..... If you fully support that thesis with interesting.. the selection’s impact. First.... you will ace the essay questions.... and special techniques... You now know that one of the things you will need to look for as you read is a motif. coherent. It may be a fabulous “9” essay in all other ways. This section sets out two customized plans of attack for writing the two types of essays.com ... You also must make the effort to understand the writers and be sensitive to their meaning. The second time. motif.. You will not that many of the strategies are the same. you need to determine the theme or meaning of the piece first.. In order to talk about elements of the selection.. ....... and you will need to read it several times.. apt... Plan of Attack for the Free Response Essays STEP 1: READ THE MATERIAL The mistake that students often make is writing an essay about something other than the question they are asked to answer... identify the type of essay question you are being asked to answer... Follow these steps to get the most out of each reading: • Regardless of what the question is asking....... • • • The first time you read. you are ready to read the selection. NOTE You will be given paper for your essay... NOTE Write the essay that you feel most confident about first......... NOTE Remember to use present tense when you analyze writing.............. and/or evaluation of the selection? Underline the important points or key words in the question. read carefully.... Once you know what you will need to write about.. tone... Save the most difficult for last................. and you will be able to use your test booklet for scratch paper. Remember..... and logical information that is well-organized... If you also include good word choice and tone. fully developed... STRATEGIES FOR ACING THE ESSAYS Analyzing and evaluating literature requires skill and thoughtfulness...... person....... you can state it clearly on paper.... it will earn you a low score..Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 113 ... Is it asking you for interpretation.. analysis... Be aware of language and diction. Restate the question to yourself—paraphrase it—to be sure you understand what you are being asked to do.... and mood... skim the passage........ Writing good essays about language and literature requires the realization that your reader and evaluator can only receive what you place on your paper.... the writer’s intentions and purpose. not your unstated ideas... but if it does not answer the question... If your thesis is clear in your mind... It is important to read the material carefully.. www... your reader has a far better chance of understanding your message. you have about 5 minutes to read and plan..... and unified........... you need to know what the piece is about.

. Jot down notes.... List how each literary element enhances the communication in the passage.. However. Restate your thesis and summarize how your essay supports it..... Underline the important points or key words in the Assignment... Brainstorm or list ideas and thoughts........ Include your insights....... You don’t need to use complete sentences...... www. Try it for the essays you have to write about prose selections in school.. • • Read the Introduction carefully. Consider what you think about the topic... ............ and see how much easier it is to organize and develop your thoughts.... That way you will become comfortable with the time limits on the actual AP test... STEP 2: PLAN AND WRITE YOUR ESSAY • After you have completed your reading.... The chart “Analyzing Literature” on pp....... Periodically reread your introductory paragraph to be sure you stay on track to prove your thesis. If you have been following your informal plan to develop your thesis. Cross out any irrelevant ideas or words and make any additions—neatly......... However... Make another list of examples and supporting evidence from the passage. Organize your ideas and begin writing..... and emotions..... students make the mistake of not reading the question carefully and thoughtfully... underline words and sentences that seem significant and that you might want to quote in your essay. reactions.. Use this chart to prepare the practice essay questions in this chapter........ 122–123 suggests questions to ask yourself to help you analyze literary elements to find the meaning in what you read. • • • • • NOTE Time yourself as you plan and write your practice essays....petersons. These are the things that you will need to look for as you read the sources... Review anything you underlined in the passage to include in the lists...... Do more than summarize.. What you want to do is analyze the passage..114 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ...... Be sure to include examples from the selection to support your points...... • As you read.. take a few minutes to plan what you will write........... STEP 3: REVISE YOUR ESSAY Pace yourself so that you have at least 2 minutes to reread your essay for proofreading and revision.. Check through your notes and lists and develop your thesis........ too..... Write an effective concluding paragraph... you can use this time to make sure your grammar and mechanics are correct and your handwriting is legible... Outlining wastes time.............. but do not outline. Plan of Attack for the Synthesis Essays STEP 1: READ THE MATERIAL As in writing the free response essays.com . do not spend a lot of time doing this. don’t try to use copious quotations to fill up the sheets... you can use ellipses.....

.......petersons... etc. defend..... Jot down notes... ...... Note how the sources are identified.. do not spend a great deal of time doing this..... the intended audience. or qualify the claim. Remember also that quoting sources is not the same as internalizing the information from sources and producing a synthesis of ideas....... • Once you have decided. • • • • The first time you read each source...... underline words and sentences that seem significant and that you might want to quote in your essay....... and any bias or propaganda elements in each piece. read carefully. Whatever you decide. For example.. Choose now which identifying system you want to use.. However..Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 115 . Regardless of the type of essay you have to write... so it is important to keep an open mind at this point......... Reread the Assignment and make the final decision about whether you are going to challenge...... skim.. Note that reading the sources may change your mind about how to approach the claim... keep your decision in mind as you read the sources..... go back to the Introduction to the question and ask yourself if you have changed your mind about what you think about the topic.. • Restate the question to yourself—paraphrase it—to be sure that you understand what you are being asked to write about..... you first have to determine the theme or meaning of the selection.) or by a designated name provided in parentheses next to the source letter..... • As you read.... review the sources and your notes and choose at least the minimum number of sources to use in your essay.com . Source B.. The Assignment will give you a minimum number of sources to cite in your essay... The letter system is faster.... you will be given two ways to refer to the sources—either by letter (Source A..... any rhetorical devices... or qualify the claim... so that you don’t confuse yourself or your reader... The second time.......... decide if you want to challenge........ defend. you may be asked to use a minimum of three sources to support your argument.......... www. STEP 2: PLAN AND WRITE YOUR SYNTHESIS ESSAY • • After you have completed reading the sources.. • When you read the claim made in the Assignment... As part of the prompt.. the source’s impact. the writer’s purpose...... You will need to read each selection or source several times... Begin to use the identifier as soon as you begin to make notes................ if there are six sources. You now have slightly fewer than 15 minutes to read and analyze the sources..... Be aware of the theme....

too..... Begin writing.. List points that you want to make and list information that supports those points.e. The directions state you are “to attribute both direct and indirect citations... Cross out any irrelevant ideas or words and make any additions—neatly.. Do not summarize or just paraphrase the sources.... Audience You have an audience of one—a College Board–trained reader who teaches high school or college English and who will be reading hundreds of similar papers... called the introduction......... The reader will consider every aspect of writing for its impact www....... and mechanics. there is no single score for things like grammar and punctuation... ........... Restate your thesis and summarize your support.. Check your handwriting for legibility. Periodically reread your introduction to be sure you stay on track to prove your thesis... and a concluding paragraph.... called the conclusion—diagrammed on the next page... and the ending. informative introductory paragraph will make a good impression on your readers.. usage.com .................... what your purpose is.. THE ESSAY: A QUICK REVIEW You will recall that an essay is a group of paragraphs that work together to present a main point.......116 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .. You can see the parts of a five-paragraph essay—the beginning... For the AP essays...... called the body.. and what the appropriate tone is....... you must determine who your audience is.... An essay contains an introductory paragraph... Write an effective conclusion... Integrate the information in the sources to create convincing support for your argument..... • Brainstorm or list information from the sources and your own knowledge and opinions that relate to the topic and the position you are taking. consider the following suggestions.” Students tend to overlook the need to provide citations for ideas that come from sources....... Organize your ideas by numbering them in the order you want to use them.. i..... Using your notes..... formulate a thesis statement.. or thesis...petersons... This is also the time to check for errors in grammar. NOTE An intriguing.... Do not create a formal outline.... Include your own ideas with the information from the sources........... This is the time to make sure that you have given attribution to every idea that you have used from the sources....... He or she will score your essay holistically. separate paragraphs that develop the thesis. She or he has knowledge of the literary work you have written about and will have a scoring guide or rubric to evaluate your paper.. To communicate clearly and precisely. Your writing must be clear and coherent. the middle........ • • • • STEP 3: REVISE YOUR ESSAY Pace yourself so that you have at least 2 minutes to reread your essay for proofreading and revision.....

......................... .......... and present the thesis statement or the main idea...Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 117 ...................... Summary or Final Remarks The conclusion of an essay should bring the essay to a satisfactory close and remind the reader of the main point................ Body Paragraph 3 Supporting Information Each paragraph within the body of the essay should develop a subtopic of the main point by providing strong supporting information....petersons.............................. ➠ CONCLUSION Reminder of Thesis Statement www..... Body Paragraph 2 Supporting Information Each paragraph within the body of the essay should develop a subtopic of the main point by providing strong supporting information.........com ➠ . establish the purpose and tone....... INTRODUCTION Interesting Material and Background Information on Topic Thesis Statement The introduction should catch the reader’s attention...... Body Paragraph 1 Supporting Information Each paragraph within the body of the essay should develop a subtopic of the main point by providing strong supporting information...........................

... and every sentence in the paragraph must relate to every other and add to the development of the topic sentence..... In addition........ That means: • • Using proper grammar and punctuation.... coherent... Your essay will seem stronger.. do not be too casual either by writing things like “you know what I mean........” Most students............ ..... may be lighthearted........ A writer’s tone. ... Unity Unity is another word for clarity.... on the overall impression of your essay. you need to write a unified. a unified paper is one that is clearly www....... ... Your style should be your own natural style that you use for school essays... and consistent essay that answers the question...... the body.... write in the active voice.. How do you develop the proper tone? Through style... and every paragraph must support the overall thesis.. however....” TIP Whenever possible....) Purpose Your purpose is to get a score of 5 or better......” versus “Jones is both a rascal and ... and the conclusion—should all focus on the main idea.118 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies . In other words... err on the side of “faux” erudition.. To do that. A well-written essay that misses the point of the question will not get you a good score..com .... .... can make a paper interesting to read. for example.. Tone Your tone is the reflection of your attitude toward the subject of the essay. The safest tone to adopt is formal and subjective.... Interesting words and phrasing.... or serious...... as much as a unique point of view about a subject. ....... All of your essay’s ideas and information must belong together and be essential to the development of the thesis.. since you are being asked your opinion...” • Avoiding hackneyed phrases and clichés such as “The writer was on cloud nine” versus “The writer’s tone showed her enthusiasm. brusque..petersons..... Your style adds interest to the paper.” On the other hand. Each paragraph must relate to every other..” • Avoiding the use of several words when one will do: “There are a number of aspects to the character that are dynamic such as ................ Choosing words that convey your meaning in an interesting rather than a pedestrian or vague way: “The author created a dynamic personality in Tom Jones” versus “The main character is interesting.. The parts of the essay—the introduction..... using big words and convoluted constructions... write what you mean simply and directly.... You do not want to be stuffy and pretentious by using phrases such as “one understands” or “we can surmise. (Our rubric singles out the various descriptors so you can pinpoint your weaknesses to work on and increase your overall score. each paragraph within the essay must be unified... When is doubt. Each paragraph must have a topic sentence.

... in all probability you will write a unified essay. Perhaps the most important element creating unity in an essay is the clarity of the thesis statement... it outlines the scope of the essay and the boundaries separating the relevant from the irrelevant..Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 119 ............. the subtopics must logically grow out of the thesis.. The following chart offers five methods for organizing your work..... When the subtopics represent significant aspects of the main point and relate to each other..... Remember that your thesis statement contains the central idea that you have developed from brainstorming ideas to respond to the essay prompt..... Coherence depends on clear.... Then the conclusion echoes the ideas or key words of the introduction.... a reader can move smoothly and logically from one thought to another.... A coherent essay is one in which the ideas within each paragraph and within the essay as a whole are in logical order and their connections flow..... Although you can place your thesis statement anywhere in your essay.... or valuable about your subject.... Coherence In a coherent essay.. so you can refer to it as you write to be sure that everything you are writing develops and supports it..... that venerable college English manual............. Putting the thesis first also gets you started writing..... states: “[Your thesis statement] is basically a claim statement................. developed........ even as the first sentence. that is.... The introduction and the conclusion work together to create unity.... it is probably safest to put it in the introduction....... In the same way... interesting..... ............ it indicates what you claim to be true....petersons...... Organization of Supporting Information Chronological order Spatial order Order of importance Compare and contrast Developmental order Information arranged in time sequence Information arranged according to space relationships Information arranged from least important to most important or vice versa Information arranged according to similarities and differences between two or more subjects Information arranged so that one point leads logically to another www..” If the thesis statement is focused and clear.com ...... The introduction establishes the main point................ relevant ordering of ideas and the introduction of transitional words and phrases. Many methods exist for organizing ideas logically. As the Harbrace College Handbook..

.petersons...........120 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .. synonyms....... a coherent essay moves smoothly from one thought to the next because its ideas are connected by transitions......................... ....... while repetition of words ties ideas together...... repetition of key words. and pronouns.. The following are some transitions that help establish logical order................................................. Time Relationship after before during earlier finally first second third Spatial Relationship above ahead before behind beneath beyond here inside Comparison or Contrast although conversely however in contrast indeed in like manner instead likewise Cause and Effect accordingly as a result because of consequently inevitably on account of since Addition also as well besides furthermore in addition moreover Emphasis indeed in fact in other words most of all Examples also as an illustration for instance for example in particular namely specifically that is most significantly not only too then therefore thus nonetheless similarly whereas yet near outside over there later meanwhile next then www.................. Transitions indicate how one idea relates to another. Transitions In addition to being logically organized..................................com ..

petersons..... justifications.......com . An essay about an author might describe details about his or her career.. and interesting essays... NOTE Do not forget the simple things such as capitalization................ If you keep these suggestions in mind as you write your practice essays.. ... and develop your ideas—neatly... well-reasoned... and spelling.. plan... facts.... coherent.... punctuation. Events A well-developed essay must contain enough support to meet the expectations established by your introduction and thesis statement....Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 121 .... Check your list of ideas... or An essay advocating gun control might causes.........include an explanation of ineffective tion why? about the main idea current laws.. • Write a transition into the second paragraph... At the end of the first paragraph...... Kinds of Support Type of Support Definition Example An essay about the best movies of the year might include a discussion of three or four films...... these steps will come naturally to you on the day of the test.... often answering the ques... details.... or events........ Examples Particular instances of a general idea or principle Details Small items or pieces of information that make up something larger Specific pieces of information that can be verified Facts Reasons Explanations.......... Adequate Development What is an “adequate development”? You have approximately 40 minutes to read.. reasons. See Chapter 5 for a quick review. In addition to the thesis statement. The five types of support will work with both synthesis and nonsynthesis essays... www........... Support consists of examples... the supporting information must make the essay seem complete.... your essay must contain enough specific information to explain your main idea.. Incidents or happenings An essay about a travel memoir might include one or two amusing anecdotes.. The following chart presents five types of supporting information that you can use to develop your thesis.. read it to be sure that your ideas are logically following each other and supporting the thesis.......... In addition........ well-organized.......... Take a full 5 minutes to be sure that you are writing a clearly stated and interesting introduction.... • • Begin writing your first paragraph by stating the thesis clearly.... An essay about the tone and style of a selection might include quotations. A FINAL WORD OF ADVICE ON WRITING YOUR ESSAYS The following are some suggestions to help you write clear.....

................ or external..... Does the setting create a mood or feeling? 4. ................. Is the passage told from the first-person or from the third-person point of view? 2......... Who is the author? 2..... Does the piece have an introduction? 3. What is the subject of the passage? 2....... What type of prose is it—fiction or nonfiction? Exposition.. with another character. Is the central conflict internal.......... If so..... What do you know about the time period or literary period in which the passage was written? Title 1.. What details does the writer use to create the setting? 3..com .. What does it suggest about the subject or the theme (meaning) of the passage? Subject 1... In what struggle is the protagonist involved? 2.. Is the setting a symbol for an important idea the writer wants to convey? 5. examples.. or nature? 3... ANALYZING LITERATURE IDENTIFICATION Genre/Mode of Discourse 1... society..... How is the theme conveyed? LITERARY ELEMENTS Setting 1.. persuasion... narrative.. events.... What is the theme.... Where and when does the selection take place? 2.. what does it tell you? 2.... within the main character’s mind.....petersons................... what does the reader learn in the introduction? www.. facts.. or central idea. If there is a title.122 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ... Does the setting play a role in the central conflict? Point of View 1.. Are points developed by definitions... What is this selection about? Theme/Thesis 1....... Is the narrator limited or omniscient? 3....... or drama? 2.... What events take place in the selection? 2. How is the conflict resolved? Development 1.... argument.... of the selection? 2. or quotations and citations? Author 1... description. What do you know about the writer? 3.. What effect does the point of view have on the way you experience the selection? Central Conflict 1....

..... 5...... By using them throughout the chapter........ or concrete? NOTE: These questions are general.. metaphor............... Is there conflict among characters? 4.. 4. 6. How is the passage organized? 5........ What is the tone? Organization and Structure 1.......... What kinds of sentence structure are present? 2....... Does the selection contain jargon or euphemisms? 6.. connotative words. What is the inciting incident? What happens during the development? When does the climax occur? What events mark the resolution? Does the selection have a denouement? Are there special plot devices. 8.. idiomatic....... or simile? 3... www. Is there symbolism? What is it? Diction 1....... or flashbacks? Characterization 1.....petersons... formal.. while others work better with nonfiction. Is the word choice colloquial...... you will become so familiar with the questions that you will know automatically which ones to use with each prose passage on the test. Is the language inflated by scholarly.... Are overstatement or understatement used? 4.... What are some of the writer’s best-worded phrases? 7. What type of structure did the writer use? Literary Devices and Figures of Speech 1.... Some questions are more appropriate for fiction....... Which characters change and which are flat? LANGUAGE AND STYLE Rhetorical Elements 1.... You will need to adapt them to the type of prose you are reading.........com .. ...... How does the writer develop each of the characters or the speaker? 5.. Is there a specialized vocabulary? 2......Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 123 . technical.... 7.. Is there sentence variety? 3..... Does the writer make use of devices such as euphony or alliteration? 2... Does the passage contain any examples of figurative language. Does sentence length vary? 4.. abstract words. or inclusive words? 3.. informal.. Who is the protagonist or speaker? 2. What words does the writer choose? 2... 9. such as a surprise ending...... scientific..... Who are the other major and minor characters? 3.... Are there denotative words. such as hyperbole... or scientific words or overly long phrases? 5... Does the writer employ irony to communicate meaning? 3.. foreshadowing.

cross it out neatly......com . use it if it fits............... Keep writing until you have used all the RELEVANT ideas on your list...... • • Do more than summarize. Then check your essay by reading the Rubric for the Free Response Essays on p............petersons.... If you must change something..... or referring in some way back to your opening paragraph... • • • • Use transitions........... 140...... Do not be concerned about perfection..........124 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ...... Apply the suggestions and strategies you have just read and write about the excerpt from Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Self-Reliance... Periodically reread your introductory paragraph to be sure you are staying on track to prove your thesis.. summarizing the main points.. Include your insights.... Do not leave the reader wondering....... ....................... If a new idea comes from the flow of your writing............ reactions..... and emotions......... There are several ways to approach the conclusion: rephrasing the thesis.......... No essay can be perfect in just 40 minutes. suggested points of discussion that follow..... Allow time to write a solid concluding paragraph......... Evaluate yourself by using the Self-Evaluation www. “So what?” PRACTICING The following questions and selections are very similar to those that you will find on the actual AP test..

.......... Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string..... A man is relieved and gay when he has put his heart into his work and done his best.. tone. Self-reliance is its aversion.. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. The virtue in most request is conformity.... but God will not have his work made manifest by cowards. and are ashamed of that divine idea which each of us represents. as his portion.. Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist.. adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines.. nor does he know until he has tried. He who would gather immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of goodness.. the society of your contemporaries... betraying their perception that the absolutely trustworthy was stirring at their heart... and must accept in the highest mind the same transcendent destiny. ........... working through their hands. but names and customs.. and not minors and invalids in a protected corner....... Society is a joint-stock company in which the members agree for the better securing of his bread to each shareholder.. Consider such elements as literary devices... to surrender the liberty and culture of the eater.. From Self-Reliance Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 There is a time in every man’s education when he arrives at the conviction that envy is ignorance.petersons... exercises EXERCISE 1 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES Directions: Read the following passage carefully...... for worse... A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds........ ..... . It was written by Ralph Waldo Emerson........ the connection of events..... and you shall have the suffrage of the world..... that it might testify of that particular ray.. no muse befriends... but guides. one of the most influential of the Transcendentalists...... Great men have 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 always done so and confided themselves childlike to the genius of the age.... He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall.. predominating in all their being... no invention...... It loves not realities and creators.. Accept the place the divine providence has found for you. This sculpture in the memory is not without preestablished harmony.... It is a deliverance which does not deliver. that he must take himself for better.. one character. .com ......... It may be safely trusted as proportionate and of good issues. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of our own mind.. In the attempt his genius deserts him. and rhetoric. Absolve you to yourself. shall give him no peace. Discuss how the author’s style contributes to his arguments espousing transcendental ideas. no hope. that though the wide universe is full of good. And we are now men. and benefactors. Society everywhere is in conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members.. ... but must explore if it be goodness. We but half express ourselves... Speak what you think now in hard words and tomorrow speak what tomorrow thinks in hard words www. one fact makes much impression on him.. no kernel of nourishing corn can come to him but through his toil bestowed on that plot of ground which is given to him to till.. obeying the Almighty effort and advancing on Chaos and the Dark. and none but he knows what that is which he can do... and another none..... .. .. Not for nothing one face.. redeemers.......... The power which resides in him is new in nature........Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 125 ... that imitation is suicide. so it be faithfully imparted.... With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. but what he has said or done otherwise.

...... ...... 140. To be great is to be misunderstood. “Ah... again..................... and Galileo... and Socrates.. and Jesus......... and 90 85 Copernicus...com ..... score your essay using the Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays on p....petersons...126 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .... so you shall be sure to be misunderstood?”—Is it so bad.... . ...... —Ralph Waldo Emerson Before you turn the page and read our suggestions for an essay on this selection............................. then. and Newton......... and Luther.................. www....... though it contradict everything you said today... to be misunderstood? Pythagoras was misunderstood.... and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh....................... ..

...... Author A philosopher. in fact... Emerson’s profound conviction that each person must count one’s self. you cannot find this in the selection..Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 127 .... is self-reliance.. Of course... By studying nature........... Adherents believed that all forms of being are united through a shared universal soul.. orator... ... and to think little of society’s regard..... The title speaks to one of Emerson’s core beliefs.... He uses imagery when he says “every heart vibrates to that iron string.......” He employs a number of metaphors—“Society is a joint-stock company... The Transcendental philosophy is one of responsible individualism. form the heart of the philosophical system known as Transcendentalism.. Subject The subject.......... many great and wise spirits were misunderstood........... corn.. count for one’s self. account to one’s self. exercises Title This selection is excerpted from Self-Reliance. Emerson advises each person to trust one’s self..... answers SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 1 The following are points that you might have chosen to include in your essay on a passage from Self-Reliance...... by identifying the author... to accept one’s self and one’s place in life.” Emerson makes reference to individuals who made important contributions in www. While you were not asked about this point directly in the question.... and writing the title you have a place to begin and you give yourself an opportunity to include information that should impress your readers.” comparing the effort needed to produce corn to the effort people must make to reach their potential.. and nurture the seeds of greatness to be found within.... Transcendentalists thought they would come to know themselves and discover universal truths. a piece of nonfiction.. The Transcendentalists valued intuition.. However...... . They believed that God and the human spirit were reflected in nature....petersons.... “kernel of . Consider them as you perform your self-evaluation..... along with intuition and individuality...... individuality.... a group of Massachusetts intellectuals of the mid-nineteenth century. Mode of Discourse This selection is a persuasive essay.. but you might remember some of this from your study of American literature....com ......... and writer.. naming the type of literature.. obviously...... to resist conformity.. You will notice that we discuss elements of literature that are not called for in the essay question... poet...” and “a foolish consistency is the hobgoblin...... which..” “immortal palms. The information may help you understand the selection better.. and self-reliance.. by being specific about what type of literature you read... Ralph Waldo Emerson became the most influential member of the Transcendentalists.. you appear to know literature. the importance of self-reliance.. . Literary Devices and Figures of Speech In the first paragraph.... Emerson uses an analogy......

.. or perhaps one of Emerson’s images......... www. A simple summary of your major points creates an effective conclusion. He conveys these beliefs directly and clearly throughout the essay.. a quotation.. harmony. society) would be better served by espousing a creed of responsible individualism... therefore.. an anecdote...... He uses a variety of sentence structures and employs a rhetorical question in the conclusion of the last paragraph. Once you have evaluated your essay with the Self-Evaluation Rubric on p.... a rhetorical question...... with an educated diction................ trust) and negative ones for words describing conformity (dark.. Your Style You have just read some important points that you might have included in your essay... do not spend a great deal of time trying to make it perfect. However.. You can also end an essay with a relevant quote.... How does your own evaluation match with a more objective view? Keep the differences in mind as you write and score more essays...... Now that you have a sense of the logic involved in acing the free response essay questions of Section II.... as we must be.. A specific suggestion works well in a persuasive essay....... Themes and Theses Emerson’s thesis is that people (and. and yet at the same time he writes in a logical and erudite manner.............. the fields of mathematics.... religion. ask a classmate or your teacher to evaluate your essay for you using the Self-Evaluation Rubric.. Style The author’s tone is one of heartfelt emotion.......... Look at your concluding paragraph. Study the points for evaluation and use the Self-Evaluation Rubric.128 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .. continue with Exercises 3 and 4. philosophy....petersons......... conspiracy.... If it seems a little dry. 140 and reviewed our points.. He has immense faith in human potential. He develops his ideas point by point..... and he advocates that one must obey internal dictates only and that one must resist the pressures of society to conform. foolish)... But whatever you add has to relate to your thesis..... in order of importance.......com .. He uses a positive denotation for words proposing self-reliance (nourishing. Whether you revise or not.. . They were great spirits and self-reliant. consider trying one of these types of openings to punch it up: more forceful or vivid language.... Now review your introductory paragraph.... If you are still unsure about writing free response essays. and science and who were also nonconformists and misunderstood......... try Exercise 2........ consider a vivid image of the consequences... you may choose to revise your essay using the points suggested here.. If you have organized your writing around a problem/solution. Revise it simply to see how adding some of our points may make it stronger.....

. and when I observed he was a fine cat....” Read the following passage carefully.... which he discovered upon all occasions.... 140 to help you assess your progress in writing your essays..petersons. great and good as he was..... Write an essay analyzing how Boswell’s style contributed to success or failure in achieving his goal..” And then. was another unquestionable evidence of what all.. “Feelings” Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 [Said Johnson:] “Pity is not natural to man. but I have had cats whom I liked better than this..... saying... and said.. exercises EXERCISE 2 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES Directions: James Boswell stated: “to write...” This reminds me of the ludicrous account which he gave Mr...............” and giving them sweetmeats. apparently with much satisfaction. but their happiness in the next.. Children are always cruel. while my friend. he was running about town shooting cats.. and I own I frequently suffered a good deal from the presence of this same Hodge. was an undoubted proof of the real humanity and gentleness of his disposition.. for whom he himself used to go out and buy oysters... must not be supposed to be entirely perfect . not his panegyrick. ..... no... a very fine cat indeed. which.. in every picture there should be shade and light.. for we have not pity unless we wish to relieve them. unluckily. when I heard of him last.... his cat. Nor would it be just.... www. and finding it late... rubbed down his back and pulled him by the tail. yes. ... in a sort of kindly reverie.. I may feel unpleasantly that the animals are put to pain. Langton of the despicable state of a young gentleman of good family... sir.. point of view.. without pity.. I recollect him one day scrambling up Dr... “But Hodge shan’t be shot.. I never shall forget the indulgence with which he treated Hodge.. From The Life of Samuel Johnson. knew to be true...... Johnson’s breast... not only for their comfort in this world. “Sir.... have bid the coachman make haste. who were intimately acquainted with him. I wish him to drive on...... should take a dislike to the poor creature. so that I am uneasy when in the room with one.. no.... “but he is a very fine cat... “Why..... I am.. Savages are always cruel.. having that trouble....... and tone. Hodge shall not be shot....... to omit the fondness which he showed for animals which he had 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 taken under his protection... lest the servants.. as if perceiving Hodge to be out of countenance.. one of those who have an antipathy to a cat.. but his Life. but I do not wish him to desist....Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 129 .. adding. which must be all praise.. When I am on my way to dine with a friend.. We may have uneasy sensations from seeing a creature in distress. His uncommon kindness to his servants. he bethought himself of his own favorite cat. under this head.. smiling and halfwhistling......... . sir.... calling them “pretty dears.....” and then..” Johnson’s love of little children... and serious concern.. Consider such literary and rhetorical elements as diction..” —James Boswell Use the Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays on p...com .. if I happen to attend when he whips his horses.... Pity is acquired and improved by the cultivation of reason.... No.

......... Hodge shall not be shot......... respect. no..... varied... frank Examples: allergy to cats...... SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 2 Background Information • • • • Mode: nonfiction. excerpt from biography Author: James Boswell... kindly reverie..... conscientious record... but clear Examples: “But Hodge shan’t be shot....... mid.. kind feelings...” Use of specific details: pulling Hodge’s tail........ Style • • • • • • • Most biographers are objective.... characterization of Johnson Point of View • • • • First person Author as narrator Personal knowledge and experience Accounts of personal dialogues Characterization • • • • • Two characters: Johnson and Boswell Boswell: admiration of Johnson.. Tone: admiration..petersons............ one of the fullest records of a man’s life ever written....com ...... Boswell is not. no.... indulgence........to late 1700s Title: a biography... idiosyncratic Examples: getting oysters himself. A man as great as Johnson has quirks and idiosyncracies just as others do..... amusement Sentences: direct quotes from conversation................ thinking Hodge could understand language Theme or Thesis • • People are made of contradictory qualities........ Diction shows admiration: fondness........ complex. character of Johnson revealed Subject: attitude toward animals..... almost idolatry. half-whistling Organization: anecdotal www... humor.. approval.. ... Johnson is a man to be admired......130 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ... respect............ story of Langton Johnson: fondness for animals.....

.. it is wrong to reply that you won’t..... And you ought not to attempt to make a forcible swap with her unless your conscience would justify you in it................... ....... 140 to help you assess your progress in writing your essays. You secure his immediate attention to the lessons you are inculcating. —Mark Twain Use the Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays on p. and possibly the skin. and for your beautiful clothes.... while one of your more fortunate little playmates has a costly China one..... because it will spoil 35 40 45 50 55 his clothes................ Consider such literary elements as diction.....com .... for then you obtain desirable results.. and for the privilege of staying home from school when you let on that you are sick..... do not correct him with mud—never. In the artless simplicity natural to his time of life. and you know you are able to do it. Therefore you ought to respect their little prejudices........... You ought never to “sass” old people unless they “sass” you first. and then afterward act quietly in the matter according to the dictates of your best judgment... satire. throw mud at him... You ought never to take your little brother’s “chewing-gum” away from him by main force...... and humor their little foibles until they get to crowding you too much... This retaliation should only be resorted to under peculiarly aggravated circumstances.. www.. It is better and more becoming to intimate that you will do as she bids you.. Good little girls always show marked deference for the aged........... and point of view. You should ever bear in mind that it is to your kind parents that you are indebted for your food.... It is better to scald him a little..... exercises EXERCISE 3 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES Directions: Read the following work carefully.. you should treat her with a show of kindness nevertheless.Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 131 ...... he will regard it as a perfectly fair transaction... In all ages of the world this eminently plausible fiction has lured the obtuse infant to financial ruin and disaster. in spots. it is better to rope him in with the promise of the first two dollars and a half you find floating down the river on a grindstone. If at any time you find it necessary to correct your brother..... and at the same time your hot water will have a tendency to move impurities from his person.. on any account..petersons...... Then write a well-organized essay in which you discuss how the selection uses humor to comment on human nature and human conduct.. From “Advice to Little Girls” Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 Good little girls ought not to make mouths at their teachers for every trifling offense... and your nice bed................ narrative pace.. If you have nothing but a rag-doll stuffed with sawdust..... If your mother tells you to do a thing.......

............................................petersons...... ................... advice on how girls can actually do what they want while appearing to be ever so proper Setting • Mid-1800s Point of View • Written to the second person Diction • • • • • Very informal Much humor “And you ought not to attempt to make a forcible swap with her unless your conscience would justify you in it........... Form or Mode • Humorous essay Theme • Facetious advice telling girls how to behave Characters • • Narrator..........” Tone: tongue in cheek Folksy language www............. and you know you are able to do it.....132 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ........ Revise your essay using points from this list to strengthen it......” Consider them as you perform your self-evaluation.com .......... SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 3 The following are points you might have chosen to include in your essay on Mark Twain’s “Advice to Little Girls....... Mark Twain Addressing girls in general Dialogue • • No specific dialogue Chatty and familiar style Conflict • Girls versus convention Plot/Development • Basically.........................

................... lead and motivate others.....................Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 133 .................... in the workplace..com ........... www...... on the playing field.... . exercises EXERCISE 4 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES Directions: Write a persuasive essay that either qualifies......... Many behavioral scientists and psychologists have come to believe that success in school......... agrees with..petersons........... or disagrees with these social scientists’ assertion.. and inspire team spirit...... and elsewhere in life is not so much determined by intellect but by social intelligence—the ability to work with others............................................

...... SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 4 The following are some of the points you might have chosen to include in your persuasive essay... • • Evidence in the form of statistics... • • • A thesis that states your stand or point of view on the reasons for success.... Bear in mind that the more commonly acknowledged or the more widely shared an experience.................... Evidence that the reader should be willing to accept as true without further proof Evidence comprising a major portion of the essay... Did you fall into any of the traps of illogical reasoning? Revise your essay using points from this list to strengthen it................... especially if you have created a controversial or complex thesis... the fewer examples you need................. ............. specific examples... occurrences reported by authorities Perhaps demonstration of proof...com .. showing the connection between the truth of the supporting evidence and the truth of the assertion....134 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ..............petersons.. often signaled by words because or as well • • • • Definition of any term whose exact meaning is essential to clearly communicating your position Soundly reasoned with no distortions of evidence Answers to objections from the opposition Matching of structure to your audience and goal www........ personal experience........... It must be supported by valid evidence........... Consider them as you perform your self-evaluation................. illustrations.......

...... well-written essay........ Assignment: Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully........ For this practice exercise. This assignment requires that you synthesize a number of sources into a coherent........... take a position that defends or challenges the claim that reality TV will replace scripted TV because reality TV is more popular with television viewers today...........com .......) or by the descriptions in parentheses. Do not simply paraphrase or summarize the sources....petersons.. Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations.......... Source A (TPN press release) Source B (Chart) Source C (Tolly) www.. television stations have increasingly turned to reality TV shows and away from scripted shows in an effort to gain higher view ratings.......................... use all three sources in your answer...... some people believe that reality TV might replace scripted TV in the future..... Reality TV shows are inexpensive to produce compared to scripted shows... Source B... Refer to the sources to support your position..... in an essay that synthesizes all three of the sources for support... Then. You may refer to the sources by their titles (Source A....... Introduction: Beginning in the 1990s........Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 135 .... Your argument should be the focus of your essay and the sources should support this argument.... exercises EXERCISE 5 SUGGESTED TIME—15 MINUTES FOR READING AND 40 MINUTES FOR WRITING Directions: The following prompt is based on the following three sources......... etc.......... which translates to increased profits for many stations........... . Because they are inexpensive to produce and highly popular with viewers....

........................” and “Finding True Love..... we strive to please the viewers..com .petersons.....” Three of these shows are competitions. Real TV Nite will revolutionize the television industry........ These hour-long shows have been created in response to viewer-enjoyment surveys taken over the past year. to 11 p.... we will be adding four brand-new. We also strive to please our shareholders and.... in which the chief request of viewers was additional longer-format reality shows....... hour-long reality TV shows........... The Popular Network (TPN)..... and here at TPN. September 2006 The Popular Network (TPN) would like to announce an exciting new change in our programming format....” and “College Dorm Days.. our shareholders will notice a significant increase in profit....... Tuesday nights on TPN will be “Real TV Nite... beginning at 7 p..... Due to the recent success of “The Jones Family.......m... In addition to our already popular shows mentioned previously... so stay tuned for the exciting developments! www.” “Creating the Band.. real-life shows...” an exciting new format in which all shows aired from 7 p.m...... Beginning in October....” “Becoming a Music Star........ SOURCE A Press Release.... survey responses indicated that viewers wanted to see more contests.......” “Castaways.... ... The new shows are “Race from Coast to Coast......... due to lower production costs of reality TV... will be unscripted......” “Dr..m......” we have decided to deliver to viewers even more reality television.. Dana’s Advice Hour....136 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .....

................... ..... (S) denotes a scripted show...000 3 million 2 million 1 million 2 million 3 million 2... Number of Viewers 1 million 1........ 10–11 p.............. 8–8:30 p.. 2006.........5 million 500....m..m..m...... 10–11 p....m...m... 9–10 p..m. exercises SOURCE B Selected results from the NETWORK RATINGS SYSTEM for June 22... 8–8:30 p...........5 million * (R) denotes a reality television show................m.Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 137 ....m......................com ... 9–10 p..... 9–10 p... www.. 10–11 p.... Shows/Designation* Pals (S) The Beach (R) Singing Star (R) For the Defense (S) My Nanny (R) Doctors in Love (S) Finding the Truth (S) Looking for “The One” (R) Who Did It? (R) Time Slot 8–8:30 p....m......petersons.........

...... “What do teenagers want to watch?” Parents Television Guide Monthly...... MMV began airing reality shows that involve teenagers and college kids in a variety of formats... Networks seemed to believe that they finally captured the attention of today’s teenagers.... such as dating shows and make-over shows. teenagers were watching them........ from small town kids to city kids..... many parents and industry professionals now believe that the spike in network-based (as opposed to cable-based) ratings among teenagers will be short lived and is only a result of the fact that this type of programming is new and novel...... whether parents liked the shows or not.......... is that the novelty of reality TV will wear off if reality TV is all that is available.. Jennifer. April 2006.... Networks should not discount the fact that variety in programming is a good thing. but the answer is not so apparent to many television networks. However...138 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .... their ratings soared.. Many of these shows were meant to be informative.......petersons. such as “A Day in the Life.....” which attempts to show how teenagers throughout the U.. many network stations began airing more and more reality TV shows....... What do teenagers want to watch? This is a question that perhaps many teenagers and their parents could easily answer. and ever-fickle teens can quickly change their mind—reality TV can become un-cool as quickly as it became cool....... Beginning last year............. According to the networks. www.. The question is: are they correct. And what have the networks decided? They have decided that what teens want is reality TV........ The fear that many networks should have..... It is a fact that teenagers today watch much more television than their parents ever did and..S. teenagers have become the new “target market” for networks... However...... SOURCE C Tolly. are both similar and different........... and network television took notice. because of this.... if they do not already...... or is this an error in judgment that will cost many networks a whole lot of money? The reality obsession began with shows on a popular music video network.... MMV.com ........... ............ Other reality shows on the network seemed to be less educational or informative......

............ qualifies....... Revise your essay using points from the list to strengthen it if necessary... syntax................... as long as you can support this claim... Thesis statement/introduction • • Clear definition of the issue—in this case. Consider the following as you complete your self-evaluation....... or disputes the argument that reality TV will replace scripted TV because reality TV is more popular with television viewers today... (ex: In sum..................petersons........ there can be no other conclusion drawn from the evidence except to say that in the future people will demand even more reality TV than they do today.............. www. and spelling are correct............................ based on the information provided in the sources • • Acknowledge opposing arguments and refute them Attribute both direct and indirect citations exercises Conclusion • Include a restatement of your thesis tied into the supporting evidence you used..com . It does not matter which position you take as long as you provide adequate support for your argument using your own opinions along with information from the sources. ....... answers SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 5 This question asks for a synthesis essay that supports....... reality TV programming replacing scripted TV Clear statement of your position on the issue: statement of the reason you agree or disagree with the statement that reality TV will replace scripted TV because reality TV is more popular with viewers Supporting details • • • • • Support is based on your own opinions about the position you take but information in the sources should also be used Show a clear connection between the sources you cite Sources are seamlessly integrated with appropriate transitions All three sources are used Explain the logic of how you arrived at the conclusion you did......Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 139 .... Remember to proofread your response and make sure your grammar....) • Conclusion neatly sums up your argument............. You may argue that reality TV will replace scripted TV for reasons other than popularity with viewers......

original or unique approach.. elements of literature vague... may paraphrase rather than analyze Misreadings and lack of persuasive evidence from the text. blank response. 140 6–7 Demonstrates good control of the literature and good writing competence.petersons... little clarity 0 Lacking skill and competence Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice Grammar and Usage www....... fails to respond to the question... overgeneralized Serious misreadings and little supporting evidence from the text. includes apt and specific references Meticulously organized and thoroughly developed.. includes specific references 5 Reveals simplistic thinking and/or immature writing. a few errors Adequately varied.. mechanical... fails to respond adequately to part or parts of the question... several errors Several minor errors Numerous major errors.. mostly coherent and unified Little or no organization and development.... erroneous treatment of literary elements A response with no more than a reference to the literature... one or more major errors Somewhat dull and ordinary..... incoherent and void of unity Effectively varied and engaging. coherent and unified Reasonably organized and developed.. thorough and effective.... extremely immature Extremely flawed ...com PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies Superficial understanding of the text. exhibits perception and clarity. or one completely off the topic No apparent organization or development. incoherent Well organized and developed. some incoherence and lack of unity 1–2 Unacceptably brief.... incisive Excellent understanding of the text....... meager and unconvincing treatment of literary elements Somewhat organized and developed.... virtually error free Virtually error free Generally interesting and effective. less thorough and incisive than the highest papers Good understanding of the text... exhibits perception and clarity. some errors Somewhat varied and marginally interesting... virtually error free Varied and interesting..SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE FREE RESPONSE ESSAYS 8–9 Demonstrates excellent control of the literature and outstanding writing competence.. frequent major errors Numerous major errors Interesting and effective.. some errors in diction Some major errors Little or no variation. numerous errors Severely flawed.... a few errors Occasional minor errors Occasionally interesting and effective.. dull and uninteresting.. some major errors Mostly dull and conventional. adequate skills 3–4 Incomplete thinking.. coherent and unified Overall Impression .....

. cites one or no sources Position does not accurately reflect the sources... a few errors No apparent organization or development... extremely immature Extremely flawed 141 .. no attempt to integrate vocabulary from the sources Severely flawed. uses at least three sources to support that position convincingly and effectively.. cites three sources Adequately varied.SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE SYNTHESIS ESSAYS 8–9 Demonstrates excellent control of effective writing techniques. incoherent.... and well integrated synthesis of source information.... one or more major errors Somewhat dull and ordinary. interesting and effective. frequent major errors Numerous major errors Word Choice Grammar and Usage www..... some errors in diction......... uses citations convincingly Takes a clear position that defends...... adequate development of ideas but less convincing. or lacks an argument. or qualifies the question accurately Clearly states a position. uses citations appropriately 5 Demonstrates general competence in stating and defending a position.... sophisticated argumentation... cites only two sources Misreads sources.. some major errors Mostly dull and conventional.. coherent and unified Overall Impression . no attempt to integrate vocabulary from the sources Some major errors Little or no variation. 6–7 Demonstrates good control of effective writing techniques.... challenges. or summarizes the sources rather than using them to support a position Lacks coherent development or organization.... dull and uninteresting.. virtually error free Virtually error free Demonstrates ease in using vocabulary from the sources Occasional minor errors Occasional use of vocabulary from the sources. uses at least three sources to support that position....... some errors 3–4 Demonstrates some skill but lacks understanding of question and sources 1–2 Demonstrates little skill in taking a coherent position and defending it or in using sources 0 Lacks skill and competence Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays Use of Organization Understanding Sentences and Development of the Text Demonstrates a somewhat superficial understanding of the sources Takes a position that may misread or simplify the sources. coherent and unified Varied and interesting. no more than a listing of the sources Clearly states a position.. close to error free Somewhat varied and marginally interesting... may present overly simple argument Creates weak connections between argument and cited sources.. some weaknesses in logic...com Uses the vocabulary of the topic as evident in the sources. somewhat thorough and incisive..petersons... occasionally interesting and effective Several minor errors Numerous major errors. some inconsistencies and weaknesses in argumentation Displays some misreading of the sources or some stretching of information to support the chosen position Generally clearly stated position and links between position and cited sources. cites no sources Effectively varied and engaging......

.. a reader will rate your essay on a scale of 0 to 9...............petersons.....................142 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies .......... with 9 being the highest....... Exercise 1 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Exercise 2 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Exercise 3 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score www..com .... Using the rubrics on the previous pages........................... Enter on the lines below the number from the rubric that most accurately reflects your performance in each category................ . Then calculate the average of the six numbers to determine your final score..... Rate each category from 9 (high) to 0 (low)...... so you may wish to ask a respected friend or teacher to assess your writing for a more accurate reflection of its strengths and weaknesses................ rate yourself in each of the categories below for each exercise................ On the AP test itself. It is difficult to score yourself objectively...................

.......... Exercise 4 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Exercise 5 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score www... ....................................petersons.........................................com .............................................Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 143 .......................

......... you must synthesize the information in at least three of those sources to support your argument. Your essay will seem stronger.............. Each essay is scored from 0 to 9. The essays together account for 55 percent of your final composite score.................. Save the most difficult for last......................com ........ and emotions..... In writing your essay.... .. • • • • • • • • www.... SUMMING IT UP Section II contains three essays asking you to analyze literary style........ Do more than summarize........... write in the active voice.. with 9 being the highest score...... One of the three essay questions will include several sources.......... and defend a position. discuss rhetorical usage......... you don’t have to worry that one weaker essay will pull down the scores for the other two essays... reactions. Include your insights...petersons...... You will have 2 hours to write the essays and fifteen minutes to read the sources for the synthesis essay..... Whenever possible..............144 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies ...... Write the essay that you feel most confident about first.. Because your three essays will be read by three different people....

... CHAPTER 5 Grammar.......... and Usage Review P ART IV ................................................. Mechanics..............................................ENGLISH USAGE AND GRAMMAR REVIEW ................ ..

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or antecedents.... and (3) suggestions for avoiding the top 98 usage problems... (2) an overview of the mechanics and punctuation that you will need in order to write a grammatically correct essay. or clauses) acting as essential nouns that tell you who or what the sentence is about.. intelligence.. or word groups (gerunds......... conjunctions....... and Usage Review ... verbs...... Edgar Allan Poe 147 ....... pronouns.. adverbs.” —The Murders in the Rue Morgue. prepositions.Grammar.... remember: Functions of Nouns and Pronouns • For the subject.. and interjections—or they will ask you to classify parts of a sentence—subjects.. chapter 5 OVERVIEW • • • • Grammar for the multiple-choice questions More practical advice on writing your essays 98 common usage problems Summing it up This chapter has three parts: (1) a quick review of parts of speech for the multiple-choice section. look for nouns.. They will ask you to identify one of the parts of speech—nouns...... To answer questions in the multiple-choice section. complements.. GRAMMAR FOR THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS Any grammar questions on the AP English Language & Composition Test are really disguised comprehension questions... or perhaps of a diseased. modifiers...... predicates... participial phrases.. Mechanics. adjectives.......... “What I have described in the Frenchman was merely the result of an excited.......... as well as some recommendations for refining your diction..

...” Walt Whitman A sentence can have both an object and an indirect object.... A participle in a participial phrase may have objects.. An indirect object is a noun or pronoun that appears with a direct object and names the person or thing that something is given to or done for....” —The Murders in the Rue Morgue. “Whichever way I turn......” Walt Whitman • • • • • www...148 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review .....” —“Sea-Drift. rephrase the sentence by changing it into a whom or what question.......... Henry James A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and serves as a noun.... “I believe that I have omitted mentioning that in my first voyage from Boston to Philadelphia.com . the person or thing acted on.... Describing the Frenchman was a tour de force for Poe.... .........” —The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin........ and modifiers. Benjamin Franklin Rephrased: I have omitted whom or what? The direct object is mentioning... Edgar Allan Poe The direct object is a noun................... and modifiers of its own. our crew employed themselves catching cod and hauled up a great number.... complements.petersons. O I think you could give me my mate back again if you only would........ “Do talk to me as if I were one.......... It may take objects..... pronoun..... or perhaps of a diseased............” —“Sea-Drift.. —The Portrait of a Lady....... intelligence.. A participle is a verb that ends in either -ing or -ed and modifies a noun or pronoun....” said Lord Warburton... Note: The subject will not be stated if the sentence or clause is imperative... or group of words acting as a noun that receives the action of a transitive verb. “Whichever way I turn.. “What I have described in the Frenchman was merely the result of an excited... To find a direct object.... O I think you could give me my mate back again if you only would.............. complements.... being becalmed off Block Island.....

. I looked forward to the moon To slacken all those bonds which seemed too soon And quickly tied to make a lasting troth.” and the adverbial phrase “the first time” answers the question “when.. . “Of all historical problems.. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Looked is an intransitive verb and................ also known as linking verbs.... • An antecedent is a noun or words taking the place of nouns for which a pronoun stands........... will cover all needful moral ground: if the youthful aspirant take it to heart it will illuminate for him many of the mysteries of ‘purpose. also known as predicate nouns...... more rich than Rubies bright............ Ye Angells bright..... look.. remain.... become..... Mechanics........... Forward is an adverb that answers the question “where..” —“American Ideals......... and taste)... —Sonnets from the Portuguese... feel...” Henry Adams www.. are intransitive verbs and have no objects.. continue. sound...... The first time that the sun rose on thine oath To love me.. “No good novel will ever proceed from a superficial mind...........” Edward Taylor • Verbs that express occurrence or state of being...” Henry James Functions of Verbs • Verbs express action. has no object. that seems to me an axiom which. pluck from your Wings a Quill...... the nature of a national character is the most difficult and the most important...Chapter 5: Grammar.. therefore... occurrence (appear. seen.’ ” —“The Art of Fiction... grow............ —“Meditation Sixty: Second Series. for the artist in fiction. or state of being (the verb to be)........” • Linking verbs may have predicate adjectives or predicate nominatives..........petersons..com .... and Usage Review 149 .... Make me a pen thereof that best will write: Lende me your fancy and Angellick skill To treate this Theme....

150 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review .. I talked with the group........ I had been talking with you when he arrived..... Sentence Structure Good writing has a variety of sentence structures: simple. and compound-complex...... I did talk with you about that... As you write your next essay.... I have been talking too much... I have talked for almost an hour.... MORE PRACTICAL ADVICE ON WRITING YOUR ESSAYS The basic grammar and punctuation we are talking about here will help you with writing.. and emphatic form.................. Each tense has a basic... Consider the following examples as possibilities that you have to choose from.. .. not necessarily because you may find multiple-choice questions about them but because the review will help you when you write your own essays....... I will have been talking about this project for a month before I get approval.. I had talked to him a year ago....... All quotations are from Henry Adams’s “American Ideals.... I will be talking at the conference. keep in mind any rules with which you had trouble...... TENSES AND FORMS OF VERBS Basic Form Present Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect I talk a lot.petersons.... It is important that you are comfortable with the rules of grammar and punctuation. focus on one rule at a time...... compound. Emphatic Form I do talk more than most students.. they flow naturally as you write.. Review the following rules and tips before you write a practice essay.... complex..... that way.. and then evaluate your finished essay against them..... Verb Tenses It would also be useful to review the tenses and forms of verbs.........................” www.. Sentence combining is one way to be sure you have a varied sentence pattern that adds to the interest of your writing. progressive.. and note the correct punctuation for each. I will talk to you Sunday......... Progressive Form I am talking about it now.... If necessary......... and you don’t spend time thinking about where the commas should go.............com .. I will have talked to the recruiter by the end of the week.. Verbs have six tenses to reveal the time of an action or condition. I was talking when you interrupted...

....... and dreaded so greatly his own reputation as a visionary that he seldom or never uttered his whole thought....... and this was the capital on which the greatest clock-manufactory in the world began its operation.. Ralph Waldo Emerson.... another Connecticut Yankee of the same class..... social influence... evaluating them..... for he represented the hopes of science as well as the prejudices of Virginia............. . a more distinct idealist.. and Usage Review 151 .. www. do not fall prey to run-on sentences. try using words. was born in 1780....... and underline sentences that you could combine..... Probably Jefferson came nearest to the mark... Jefferson.. Review your own essays. Mechanics.... sentence fragments. they rarely received one......Chapter 5: Grammar.. nor patron to back his ingenuity..... most importantly... Eli Whitney was better educated than Fitch................... COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES Benjamin Franklin had raised high the reputation of American printers....... SIMPLE SENTENCE Of all historical problems.. contributes to ease in reading.petersons. NOTE Writing timed essays. COMPOUND SENTENCE After the downfall of the French republic. COMPLEX SENTENCE Lincoln was born in 1809....... and then working to improve the weaknesses you identify is the best way to prepare for the test. and........ Parallelism reinforces equal ideas... and clauses in parallel constructions. and during the next twenty years.. Then try combining them on a separate sheet of paper... and the actual President of the United States.... But do not try for variety for the first time during the real test. phrases... or comma splices.... the literary representative of his class.. In the year 1800 Eli Terry. The most simple parallelism employs comparisons and contrasts... took into his employ two young men to help him make wooden clocks. who signed with Franklin the treaty of peace with Great Britain..... When combining sentences. was the son of a farmer.......com NOTE Remember to use present tense when writing about the author’s intention in literary works. spoke chiefly for Virginians.......... PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION In addition to using dependent and independent clauses to add variety.. This is a good exercise to get you accustomed to varying your sentence structures as you write.... ..... but had neither wealth. and had himself kept a school in his youth. the moment when American character stood in lowest esteem.. the nature of a national character is the most difficult and the most important. they (Americans) had no right to expect a kind word from Europe... adds clarity and rhythm to your ideas.

... Milton was.. like Dante.... a statesman and a lover.... like Dante. If it has a verb form—a verbal such as a participle—it may look like a sentence.... Such as it was.. .. and glowing with patriotic hopes. and....... 4....... in the prime of health and manly beauty... Milton was....... moreover.. And/or a semicolon in a complex or compound-complex sentence The following examples are taken........ RUN-ON SENTENCES A run-on sentence is a compound or compound-complex sentence in which neither a conjunction nor punctuation separates two or more independent clauses.... a statesman and a lover. Loaded with literary distinctions.... A transitional phrase 4. 2.. like Dante. a statesman and a lover. if you are writing a compound sentence 2. he [Milton] returned from his travels........ like Dante.. on the eve of great events....... a statesman and a lover... A coordinating conjunction. like Dante...com ....... You can fix a run-on sentence by using: 1............. 3.... ..... (Macaulay’s choice) Did you notice that these sentences are also examples of both comparison and the use of independent clauses as parallelism? SENTENCE FRAGMENTS A sentence fragment is just that—part of a sentence. a group of words that does not express a complete thought........ like Dante.. You can avoid sentence fragments by always making sure that: • The verb is a verb—not a participial form (-ing or -ed) without its auxiliary (some form of have or be) or an infinitive (to plus a verb). A coordinating adverb 3. Milton was.. When.. www... 1..... he had been unfortunate in ambition and in love.petersons..... he had been unfortunate in ambition and in love....... like Dante. in addition.... .... he had been unfortunate in ambition and in love.....152 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review . but it is not a sentence.. he had been unfortunate in ambition and in love.... Milton was. . from “Milton” by John Babington Macaulay...... like Dante....... with our apologies..........

....... in the prime of health and manly beauty. www. it was a task beyond his powers... or you combine the fragment so it becomes a sentence.. If there is none...... ... on the eve of great events........... and glowing with patriotic hopes............. • There is a subject. ...... and Usage Review 153 ...... he [Milton] returned from his travels. He was loaded with literary distinctions........ The following is an example of a comma splice. .......... loaded with literary distinctions.Chapter 5: Grammar..... Such as it was..... . CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS also anyhow anyway besides consequently finally furthermore hence however incidentally indeed likewise meanwhile moreover nevertheless next nonetheless now otherwise similarly still then therefore thus TRANSITIONAL PHRASES after all as a consequence as a result at any rate at the same time by the way even so for example in addition in fact in other words in the second place on the contrary on the other hand COMMA SPLICES Comma splices occur when two or more independent clauses are joined by a comma (1) when some other punctuation or (2) a coordinating conjunction or (3) subordinating conjunction should have been used.... add one or attach the fragment to a sentence.. When. on the eve of great events. .. on the eve of great events.....com ....... . Euripedes attempted to carry the reform further...... in the prime of health and manly beauty.. perhaps beyond any powers...... . ....... in the prime of health and manly beauty. loaded with literary distinctions.. Such as it was........ .. • You remove any incorrectly used subordinating conjunctions..... Mechanics.......petersons.. When. he [Milton] returned from his travels.............. .. The following is Macaulay’s choice: Such as it was when. and glowing with patriotic hopes..... he [Milton] returned from his travels...... and glowing with patriotic hopes......

........” John Babington Macaulay www.... until unless when. whomever whose You can also use subordinating conjunctions...................154 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review ........ perhaps beyond any powers.. it was a task beyond his powers.. ........... Euripedes attempted to carry the reform further.............. whoever whom. conjunctive adverbs... . (Macaulay’s choice) 2....... Now let us compare with the exact detail .. . —“Milton. compare ....com .. While Euripedes attempted to carry the reform further............ the task was beyond his powers.... but it was a task beyond his powers. Euripedes attempted to carry the reform further..... whenever where..... wherever whether while why RELATIVE PRONOUNS (used to introduce subordinate clauses that function as nouns) that what which who......petersons. perhaps beyond any powers... Once more.. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS and but or for nor so yet SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS after although as far as as soon as as if as though because before even if even though how if inasmuch as in case that insofar as in that no matter how now that once provided that since so that supposing that than though till.... You could correct it by any of the following: 1.. .... and transitional phrases to link ideas between sentences and even paragraphs....... on the contrary....... We venture to say........... .. perhaps beyond any powers.. ... .. ........ 3.........

petersons. Capitalize names of specific events and periods of time....... that errors in punctuation may interfere with clarity..... Mechanics and Punctuation What do you need to know about mechanics and punctuation for the AP English Language & Composition Test? Enough to be able to write and punctuate grammatically correct sentences........... Capitalize the first word in a quotation if the quotation is a complete sentence... NOTE Do not capitalize words that indicate direction............ CAPITALIZATION You have studied capitalization throughout your school years. political parties. races... The following list recaps the rules for capitalization you have learned.... Do some of the practice exercises that the text undoubtedly has.... Capitalize the first word after a colon if the word begins a complete sentence... Capitalize the names of organizations. not as a mistake.... Mechanics. NOTE Concentrate on those rules that you are most likely to need for your own writing.............. nationalities.... an occasional sentence fragment works... but do not take the chance in your essays......... but you want to make sure that your mechanics and punctuation are as correct as possible.. go back to your English composition text and review the appropriate section in more depth. by the way............. . french fries... Using the correct punctuation makes a good impression on the readers. The same is true about punctuation. www.... and religions.... Do capitalize them when they name a section of a larger geographical area....Chapter 5: Grammar. venetian blinds....... Nouns • • • • • • Capitalize the first word in interjections and incomplete questions..... and Usage Review 155 . Capitalize geographical and place names... for example African in African American. Jello pudding. for example. is a sentence fragment......... Adjectives • • • Capitalize most proper adjectives. for example... government bodies.) If you find any of the rules in the following brief review unfamiliar. (This...... Do not capitalize certain frequently used proper adjectives....... In your own writing..... The test evaluators may not expect you to write a flawless essay.......com ... Remember.. Everything you do well adds to the favorable impression necessary for a high score..... The reader may not understand that you wrote a sentence fragment for a purpose.. Capitalize a brand name used as an adjective but not the common noun it modifies.. too... languages....

............ Use numerals when referring to fractions.. and percentages... Names and Titles of People • • • Use a person’s full given name in formal writing.........petersons....... Capitals in Titles • Capitalize titles of people when used with a person’s name or when used in direct address... • • • • NOTE Abbreviations for both traditional and metric measurements should only be used in technical and informal writing and only with numerals.. The following list reviews guidelines for using abbreviations...... Capitalize the first word and all other key words in the titles of books... Iron Age tools............ Spell out all numbers found at the beginning of sentences.... Abbreviations of social titles before a proper name begin with a capital letter and end with a period.com .. unless the person uses initials as part of his or her name....... Capitalize titles showing family relationships when they refer to a specific person..... Do not capitalize prefixes attached to proper adjectives unless the prefix refers to a nationality. the poet A.. paintings. Housman........ In formal writing............ Abbreviations of other titles used before proper names begin with a capital letter and end with a period.... spell out numbers or amounts less than 100 and any other numbers that can be written in one or two words. decimals. . However.. as well as addresses and dates. E....... you should not use abbreviations when you are writing formal English...... pre-Columbian art but Franco-American music... for example... unless they are preceded by a possessive noun or pronoun. sometimes abbreviations are appropriate...... stories. Abbreviations of titles after a name begin with a capital and end with a period.....156 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review ...... for example............ and other works of art. poems. periodicals... for example... • • ABBREVIATIONS Usually......... plays... • • Do not capitalize a common noun used with two proper adjectives... www...........

.... Use a comma to prevent a sentence from being misunderstood.. Do not use commas to separate adjectives that must stay in a specific order.... an incomplete question......... • Use a colon to introduce a sentence that summarizes or explains the sentence before it..... a forceful imperative sentence...... Use a comma after an introductory word........ COMMAS • • • • • • • • • Use a comma before a conjunction that separates two independent clauses in a compound sentence.. Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence... but..... a mild imperative......com ..... nor.......... or a statement intended as a question.... or.......... NOTE Many writers overuse commas... Use a colon to introduce a formal or lengthy quotation or one that is missing an introductory expression.. END MARKS • • • Use a period to end a declarative sentence.... or clauses in a series. Use commas to set off nonessential expressions. SEMICOLONS AND COLONS • • Use a semicolon to join independent clauses not already joined by a coordinating conjunction (and... Use commas to separate adjectives of equal rank..... or clause.. . so....... or an indirect question.... www. • • Use a colon before a list of items following an independent clause.. Use an exclamation mark to end an exclamatory sentence...Chapter 5: Grammar.. or an interjection of strong emotion..... Make certain that you know why you are adding a comma to a sentence.... phrases... and Usage Review 157 .............. Use a semicolon to join independent clauses separated by either a conjunctive adverb or a transitional expression.petersons................... phrase... Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions... Mechanics...... Use commas to separate three or more words. yet)..... Use commas to set off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence......

................... shows..... or their parts.......... DASHES.......... or collections.. a title. Use parentheses to set off asides and explanations only when the material is not essential or when it consists of one or more sentences........ .... and other works of art... Place a comma or a period inside the final quotation mark. QUOTATION MARKS AND UNDERLINING If a word. already punctuated... or a summary statement.. AND BRACKETS • Use dashes to indicate an abrupt change of thought. • Underline (italicize) words and phrases from a foreign language when not used commonly in English.......com . songs. Use dashes to set off a nonessential appositive... or parenthetical expression when it is long.... • • • • www... Use brackets to enclose words you insert into a quotation when you are quoting someone else... symbols.... TIP Do not use quotation marks around an indirect quotation (a restatement of someone’s words).. • • • • • • • • • Use quotation marks to enclose a person’s exact words..... episodes in a series. modifier..petersons....... NOTE Do not underline or place in quotation marks the titles of holy books... • Underline (italicize) numbers... parts of musical compositions... Underline (italicize) titles of long written works........ Place a question mark or exclamation mark inside the final quotation if the end mark is part of the quotation..... letters. or especially dramatic. Use three ellipsis marks in a quotation to indicate that words have been omitted.. you would use the italics function......... and words used as names for themselves.. Use single quotation marks for a quotation within a quotation...... Place all punctuation after the parentheses in a sentence with a set-off phrase.... Place a semicolon or colon outside the final quotation mark....... a dramatic interrupting idea... If you were writing your essay on a computer.....158 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review ... PARENTHESES. Use quotation marks around titles of short written works.. films. then you need to underline it when you write it by hand... such as the Koran or the Bible............. or a name would be italicized in printed material.. Place a question mark or exclamation mark outside the final quotation if the end mark is not part of the quotation..

the boys’ club...) The following are some suggestions to help you refine your writing and polish your choice of words..... symbols... the mutual funds’ investors. for example. one’s jacket.. • If a word must be divided at the end of a line... p’s....... for example.. NOTE Do not use an apostrophe with the possessive forms of personal pronouns... Add an apostrophe to show the possessive case of plural nouns ending in s or es. for example........ Use a hyphen to connect a compound modifier before a noun........... somebody’s chair.. • To show joint ownership.. Mechanics... HYPHENS • • • • Use a hyphen when writing out the numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine........ and self.. for example. the mice’s nests.....petersons.. To show individual ownership.. www...com ... the Joint Committee’s decision...... Use a hyphen with fractions used as adjectives.. Marie and Leslie’s apartment.... APOSTROPHES • • • • Add an apostrophe and an s to show the possessive case of most singular nouns.. hers.... place a hyphen between syllables.. beautifully dressed. Diction Word choice speaks volumes about you. • Use an apostrophe and an s to write the plurals of numbers.... make the final noun possessive... (That phrase is a cliché that would be best to avoid... Add an apostrophe and an s to show possession with plural nouns that do not end in s......... 8’s... the tomato’s flavor.....and words with the suffix -elect.. . &’s. for example.. cat’s dish....... for example........ and Usage Review 159 .....Chapter 5: Grammar. for example....... not hers’... make each noun possessive.. and letters.... for example.............. Native American poem. unless it includes a word ending in -ly or is a compound proper adjective. Use a hyphen in words with the prefixes all-.... women’s clothing. ex-.......... Add an apostrophe and an s or just an apostrophe (if the word is plural and ends in s) to the last word of a compound noun to form the possessive.. for example. but Mike’s and Tom’s cars... • Use an apostrophe and an s with indefinite pronouns to show possession.

....... www....com ................ ......................160 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review . Cliché: Whether the author really believed what he wrote was the sixty-four-dollar question........ Stand up and be counted....................... worn-out phrase that has been used so often it has become virtually meaningless........... but I was ecstatic when the personnel manager offered me the job...... for example: Cliché: I was shaking in my boots before the interview................. Raining cats and dogs The sixty-four-dollar question Day in and day out Have a nice day.... but I was happy as a lark when the personnel manager offered me the job... Clichés make your writing seem commonplace and secondhand... Replace clichés and trite expressions with livelier............ REPLACE CLICHÉS WITH FRESHER IMAGES AND WORDS A cliché is any stale........ more concrete language.. Some common clichés and trite expressions include the following: CLICHÉS AND TRITE EXPRESSIONS Ugly as sin Pretty as a picture Happy as a lark Hard as a rock Fresh as a daisy Skinny as a rail Sly as a fox Stiff as a board Old as the hills Mad as a hornet Soft as silk Warm as toast Dumb as a doorknob Smart as a whip Crazy as a loon Honest as the day is long As much fun as a barrel of monkeys Quiet as a mouse Loose as a goose Phony as a three-dollar bill Pure as the driven snow Crystal clear True blue Like pulling teeth Like a fish out of water Like finding a needle in a haystack Like a bump on a log Like a hot potato Sky high Sparkling clean Filthy rich Dirt cheap Costing an arm and a leg Heart of gold One in a million Between a rock and a hard place Out of the frying pan and into the fire When push comes to shove Working fingers to the bone Come out smelling like a rose Tooting my/your/one’s own horn In a New York minute Variety is the spice of life...... Improved: I was terrified before the interview......petersons.......... Improved: Whether the author really believed what he wrote was difficult to determine from the answers he gave the interviewer...

........... because you may need several words to say what one direct word could convey.. as in the above example................ Euphemism: Because she was constantly late to work.... or your audience—but eliminate euphemisms whenever possible so your writing does not seem insincere.. Leslie was let go.......... your writing should never become overloaded with unnecessary adjectives and adverbs that serve only as decoration... When you write......... saying someone is no longer with us instead of dead....... the subject of your writing. complicated sentences often adopts self-important language....... questionnaires were designed and posted well in advance of the launch of the promotional marketing campaign.. avoid that type of language.............com .......... www.. . Occasionally... dry desert.. Euphemisms can lead to wordiness.............. we designed and mailed a marketing survey to find out what consumers were looking for. and they can mislead your readers. and Usage Review 161 ... Euphemisms also lessen the impact of a thought or idea.......... for example... Improved: Amit could not attend the meeting Thursday because he was sick.......Chapter 5: Grammar. Euphemism: Amit could not attend the meeting Thursday because he was indisposed..... Flowery: The glimmering.petersons. a simpler way of expressing yourself is more effective... AVOID EUPHEMISMS A euphemism is a word or phrase that is less direct but that may be considered less offensive than another word or phrase with the same meaning.. Improved: The rays of the sun shimmered above the hot. golden rays of the brilliant orb of the sun shimmered above the white-hot sands of the vast desert... AVOID SELF-IMPORTANT LANGUAGE A writer who tries to impress readers with unnecessarily obscure words and lengthy.... However.. Improved: Because she was constantly late to work. AVOID FLOWERY LANGUAGE AND EMOTIONALLY LOADED WORDS Good writing should include vivid modifiers and interesting phrases.... NOTE Polysyllabic.... Usually. Improved: Before we began advertising. general nouns and long verbs that end in -ate or -ize. Eliminate vague.... Leslie was fired. you may choose to use a euphemism to protect someone’s feelings—yours... The result is bad tone and a confused message..... Self-important: To facilitate input by the maximum number of potential purchasers. Mechanics.. high-sounding words can make your writing sound pretentious rather than erudite.... sere and lifeless..

...petersons.. NOTE Jargon is language aimed at specialists... Discard these empty words that pad your sentences and create roundabout constructions... avoid slang words and expressions because you cannot be sure that your audience is familiar with current idioms............... ELIMINATE DEADWOOD Check your essay for words that contribute nothing to your ideas.... ...com . Improved: Brian’s mother reprimanded him for failing his physics test.......... remember that slang quickly becomes dated.. which is the most cost effective in a crane configuration. understandable phrases............ and reconnaissance assistance is provided by the S-3X helicopter.......... No matter what your tone......162 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review ................. COMMONLY USED EMPTY WORDS AND PHRASES a great deal of is the one who is there is there are by way of due to it is a fact that the thing that of the opinion that to the extent that which is to say the area of what I mean is for the reason that in a manner that Deadwood: It is a fact that sunburn can cause skin cancer.. overly emotional language can produce a harsh tone and make your readers reject your point of view..... and reconnaissance............. transportation... Your readers may easily become lost if you do not replace jargon with concrete. You will find some of the most common “empty words” in the following box.... Similarly.... Improved: Sunburn can cause skin cancer.. Avoid emotional language and substitute more rational diction...... transport........ Emotional: The idiot who wrote that essay should have his head examined. Use it only if you are writing a highly technical report and must use special terms for the topic.... Jargon: Close-support.. Slang: Brian’s mother reprimanded him for bombing his physics test....... AVOID WORDS THAT MAY NOT BE UNDERSTOOD You should use only vocabulary and expressions that your readers will understand. Also...... However.. Improved: The writer who developed that argument based it on a faulty assumption.... some types of language can be confusing.. Similarly..... www.... jargon can confuse readers and destroy your tone... In general...... Improved: The S-3X helicopter provides support. the helicopter is most cost effective when it works as a crane....

........... adverbs. It prevents writing from being concise.......com ..petersons.............. AVOID REDUNDANCY Redundancy occurs when you repeat an idea unnecessarily. Improved: If a major earthquake occurs in this region...Chapter 5: Grammar.... prepositional phrases..... Improved: Tamiko prefers letters to telephone calls......... Redundant: The consensus of opinion in our community is that commercial building should be restricted.... Wordy: Denee sang every Christmas carol in a loud voice... Writers use qualifiers to be noncommittal...... don’t eliminate all hedging words in your writing... www. The following list contains words and phrases that unnecessarily qualify what you want to say: NOTE Be careful that you don’t eliminate all hedging words in your writing..... Sometimes you need to qualify what you are saying. Sometimes you can replace a phrase with a single word...... Mechanics.. it will cause a great deal of damage.... Saying the same thing repeatedly not only sounds awkward but adds deadwood to your essay. Other deadwood you should eliminate are hedging words and phrases....... or qualifiers.. However.. Sentences can be rewritten by using appositives.. BE SUCCINCT Less obvious than deadwood and redundant language are wordy phrases and clauses that can weaken the impact of your writing......... and Usage Review 163 .. Improved: The consensus in our community is that commercial building should be restricted... “Everyone in the stadium cheered the touchdown” needs to be qualified unless you know that the opposing team had no supporters in the stands. For example. To eliminate redundancy in your writing..... Improved: Denee sang every Christmas carol loudly. but using them results in a vague and indefinite essay.......... adjectives............ Redundant: Tamiko prefers the written letter to the telephone... .... COMMONLY USED HEDGING WORDS AND PHRASES almost tends to somewhat rather in a way kind of it seems sort of that may or may not Hedging: A major earthquake that may or may not occur in this region can cause a great deal of damage.... or possessive nouns.. look for words or phrases that repeat the meaning of another word......................... Shorten wordy phrases and clauses if you can without changing the meaning of your sentence....

You might do the exercise with a friend.. verb........ Also substitute appositives. AUTOBIOGRAPHY Diction verbose wordy flowery Style convoluted elegant precise www... If your essay has a great many adjective clauses..... accurately portrays the signing of the Declaration of Independence.... NOTE To review more about combining sentences. .... Here is a start to your list.... participial phrases. and so on.......petersons... CREATING AN IDEA BANK Before you begin practicing for the essay section of the test... and compounds for wordy clauses..... Wordy: Tourists from Germany and Canada love to vacation in the Caribbean..... biography.. science article..... Wordy: The painting.................com ......... you can simplify sentences by dropping the clause’s subject..... and consult it before you begin each practice essay............. Make categories under each........ which hangs on the museum’s third floor. brainstorm all the words and phrases you can think of to describe a literary work of nonfiction—critical essay.... NOTE Having this list in mind will keep you from having writer’s block during the test..... Use this as your idea bank and your word bank.. and other unnecessary words...164 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review .......... autobiography. accurately portrays the signing of the Declaration of Independence.... 150 in this chapter...... on the museum’s third floor..... and then share lists to gather as many words as you can..... opinion piece.... Improved: Many German and Canadian tourists love to vacation in the Caribbean......... Improved: The painting....... see p.........

. allege Accuse means “to blame.” 4...... effect is a verb that means “to cause. 8.M..... 9..... a lot..” Sometimes. a...... A.. and Usage Review 165 . among.. accept. already All ready.. to hours after noon.. 2... ain’t Ain’t is nonstandard English... o.... Others occur because words that are similar in meaning or spelling are confused.. aggravate Aggravate means “to make something worse”. affect. means “by or before this time” or “even now. means “an opinion... between Among and between are prepositions.... 12....... it should not be used to refer to an annoyance.” Advise is a verb that means “to express an opinion to... It should never be used.... adapt.” 3. Between is generally used with only two items. in formal written English. P... advice..... P.....” whereas allege means “to state as fact something that has not been proved.” 7. 1....... Use the two-word version.....petersons.....” 11. adopt Adapt means “to change.... Alright is a nonstandard spelling. which functions as an adjective..... Words beginning with h.......” 5..... an Use the article a before consonant sounds and the article an before vowel sounds. all right.. Alot is nonstandard spelling. effect Affect is normally a verb meaning “to influence... accuse.M. alot The verb allot means “to divide in parts” or “to give out shares.........com . the language of everyday use..” 13................. Among is used with three or more items......” and except is a preposition meaning “other than” or “leaving out.. advise Advice... Mechanics... all ready. Numbers are not spelled out when you use these abbreviations. 98 COMMON USAGE PROBLEMS Many usage errors result from using colloquialisms. all together... www. A. alright..Chapter 5: Grammar.. 10.. refers to hours before noon...” Already.. is an expression meaning “ready......” A lot is an informal phrase meaning “a great many.. ..” 6. except Accept is a verb meaning “to receive. allot.M. an adverb.M.... The following is a list of 98 common usage problems that you should avoid in your writing....” Altogether means “completely.” but adopt means “to take as one’s own. a noun.... and u can have either sound. altogether All together means “all at once. nor should you use phrases such as “in the morning” or “in the evening” with them.” so you should not use it in formal writing.” Effect is usually a noun that means “result... 14..

being as.. a while Awhile is an adverb.........petersons............. 33..... can’t help crying. Use number when items can be counted. besides Beside means “at the side of” or “close to. Substitute about.... awful.... 22...166 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review .” Do not use bunch to mean “group... number Amount is used with quantities that cannot be counted......” 34..... 15......... beat.... bunch Bunch means “a number of things of the same kind...... take Bring means “to carry from a distant place to a nearer one....... bring.. but what But what is nonstandard English... anxious Anxious means “worried” or “uneasy...” 31. bust.. anyone..” They are not interchangeable. because Eliminate because if it follows “the reason...com .” Awfully is also informal.” Win means “to achieve victory in.. busted Burst is the present...... meaning “very.......... can’t help but Use can’t help plus a gerund instead of can’t help but. 21...” Replace win if the sentence sense is beat.... awfully Awful is used informally to mean “extremely bad... Use that...... at Eliminate at when used after where. anywhere..” A while is an article and a noun and is usually used after the preposition for.. .. Bust and busted are nonstandard English..” 24... being that Replace either phrase with since or because.” or rephrase the sentence. and past participle of the verb to burst... meaning “for a while... somewhere These adverbs should never end in s. any one. 32..... at about Eliminate at or about if you find them used together. NOTE In formal writing. 29.. past. amount. for example.... anyway.. “to carry from a near place to a more distant place..” It should not be used to mean “eager..” 20.. everywhere..” 30.. awhile.” 18.... burst.” and every one means “every single person or thing.. everyone... win Beat means “to overcome. nowhere..” Use may to mean “to have permission to... as to As to is awkward. 28...” Take means the opposite.. awful should be used to mean only “inspiring fear or awe..” www..” 17. 19. 27. may Use can to mean “to have the ability to.” Besides means “in addition to.. beside.... 25. 23....” Any one means “any single person or thing... can.. as As should not be used to mean “because” or “since. 16.. 26.. every one Anyone and everyone mean “any person” and “every person..

. www.. enthused.. 45. and healthy refers to people........ 38. condemn. former... 42. farther.. and Usage Review 167 ..... get.. good..... hung Hanged means “executed... and no helping verb is required. doesn’t...... Emigrate means “to leave a country.. Condemn means “to express disapproval of...... enthusiastic Enthused is nonstandard English..... . don’t Use doesn’t with third-person singular subjects.. dove Use dived instead of dove for the past tense of the verb dive. use enthusiastic..... the past participle of the verb to do. due to the fact that Use since or because instead.. 51. 50... follows a helping verb.... different from.. immigrate These are opposites. went Gone.... the past participle of the verb to go... each other. but further means “to a greater degree. gotten Although these verbs are acceptable.” 37.. further Farther is a reference to distance.. former designates the first and latter.. one another Most of the time these expressions are interchangeable..... nice Try to use more specific adjectives in their place........... done Done. therefore... healthful... 43..Chapter 5: Grammar. requires a helping verb.” and immigrate means “to enter a country... 48... emigrate... have become..... got.. 49..com .... 41.. less Fewer is properly used with things that are counted. 46... continuous Continual means “occurring over and over in succession.... continual......” 36.... fewer. gone. Sometimes each other is used when only two people or things are involved.” 47.. 52. the second.... lovely...... latter In referring to two items. such as become..... due to Use due to only when the words caused by can be substituted... condone These words have nearly opposite meanings......petersons.. it is a reference to establishing a residency. 35.. different than The expression different from is more accepted. became. and one another is used when more than two are involved..” Condone means “to pardon” or “excuse. Went is the past tense of go. Mechanics. healthy Healthful is used with things (healthful diet)...” In both cases..” but continuous means “occurring without stopping. 39... and less is used with qualities or quantities that are not counted......... 40. hanged......” 53. it is better to select different verbs if possible...” and hung means “suspended... 44..

and whether must be used with or not. OK.... of Do not use of after the verbs should..” 66. like Like is a preposition and should not be used in place of as...” and it is usually followed by a direct object..........” May be is a verb...... Judicious means “to show wisdom. learn... sort of a Do not use a following kind of or sort of. maybe.. that is....” 58. I am the only one you love..” immediately before the word it modifies... and lain.. inside. Also eliminate of after the words outside. 70..... in which case if won’t work. 54.. let Leave means “to allow to remain.... may be Maybe is an adverb that means “perhaps.. laying. lying.. mad When used in formal language.. 69... 62. loose. kind of a. The principal parts of lie are lie..petersons. O.. kind of......” and it is never followed by a direct object. could.” and let means “to permit. www.... judicial. or must. numeral Use number to mean quantity and numeral to mean the figure representing the number............... and atop.. the numeral that comes after 3 is 4.. but into implies movement (the kitten stepped into the bowl of milk).... okay Do not use these words in formal writing. judicious Judicial refers to a legal system... mad means “insane. lay. lie Lay means “to set or put something down.. irregardless This is nonstandard English.. You say you love only me.. would... 61. “I’ll go whether you come with me or not” is not the same as “I’ll go if you come with me.....168 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review . ......... 56..... only Make sure to place only immediately preceding the word it logically modifies......... NOTE The principal parts of lay are lay.” 55.....” 60. Use have instead.... if.. Use regardless instead.. it means “angry. into In is a position reference (the kitten drank the milk in the bowl).. laid..... you say it but you don’t mean it. 57.com .. whether These conjunctions are interchangeable.. that is... except when the intention is to give equal stress to alternatives.. lay..” When it is used in informal language..K. off.... 68.” whereas teach means “to give knowledge.... number. 71.... 59.” 67.. that is...... just Place just. sort of Do not use these words to mean “rather” or “somewhat... leave. lose Loose is commonly an adjective.” 64. teach Learn refers to “gaining knowledge.. in.. 65.. when it is used as an adverb meaning “no more than.. Lose is always a verb meaning “to miss from one’s possession.. and laid... You only say you love me...” 63. Lie means “to recline.....

persecute.. 72.. precede.... poorly Do not use poorly to mean “ill” in formal writing. 85.. ... which refers to time.... sit Set is usually followed by a direct object and means “to put something in a specific place. I read a book. 89...” 74. rise Raise normally takes a direct object.. NOTE You can remember the difference by thinking of “your princiPAL as your PAL.. I did not finish the book I was reading. www... since.. 83... which—only things....petersons...... outside of Do not use outside of to mean “besides” or “except. 88. that. and it means “a basic law... 75.........” whereas prosecute means “to bring a lawsuit against.....” 79..... It may be plural.” but “I rise every morning at 6. 77... ought Do not use have or had with ought.. Since I last saw them... nouns....” Principle is always a noun... which... 73..” and proceed means “to go forward...... as in “I was seen at the movies.. than...” 80..... for example.. raise..” 84.. principal.... as in “I raised the flag.” and as an adjective.. ought not to cry...” and it is never followed by a direct object.... real Do not use real to mean “very” or “really” in formal language.... and who—only people...” 81...com ALERT! If a word ends in a or i.......” TIP Careful writers still use slow only as an adjective...” 76.. not singular... Make sure that you treat them as plural. and Usage Review 169 . ...... says Do not use says in place of said. parameter Use parameter only in mathematical contexts to designate a variable..... then Than is a comparative and is not to be confused with then..... because Use since when time is involved and because when a reason is involved.. criteria and phenomena are plural. do not use the word shape to mean “condition..Chapter 5: Grammar... be careful... 78. Mechanics.. As a noun. ought to wash. plurals that do not end in “s” Some nouns are made plural in the same way that they were in their original language.. 82.. it means “a person who has controlling authority........ who These pronouns refer to the following: that—people and things....... 86... it means “most important. 87. but rise never takes a direct object.. seen Seen requires a helping verb....” Sit means “to be seated... slow. Ought is used with an infinitive..” as in The boxer was in good shape. For example. slowly It is preferable to use slow as the adjective and slowly as the adverb. principle Principal can be a noun or an adjective.... shape In formal language. prosecute Persecute means “to subject to ill treatment.” not “I seen him at the movies..... set. but Because they came last Saturday.. proceed Precede means “to go before.

.... 98. therefore............... their... not sort.com ... two To is a preposition.... when. want out These are nonstandard expressions and should not be used... 97..... 96. they’re Their is a possessive pronoun....petersons. do not use where as a substitute for that.. 91...... . They’re is a contraction of they are. 94... delete here or there.. these here.. until These words are interchangeable... this here...170 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review . Replace with these or those if an adjective is required. till........... Too is an adverb used to modify adjectives and adverbs. 90... 93.. not but what because of.. not due to because......... or that there.... NOTE To correct a sentence containing them there.. this here....... that there These are nonstandard expressions and should not be used... too. Also..... to........... 92. ways Ways is plural. Two is a number..... Be sure to use but that... but they are often misspelled. not on account of rarely or hardly ever.... want in...... it should not be modified by words such as very or most............ them there. where Do not use these words directly after a linking verb.... There is an expletive or an adverb. 95.... not rarely ever kind or kind of a. -wise Do not use this suffix to create new words.. there.......... sort of www. unique Unique means “one of a kind”.......... Do not use the article a immediately preceding ways........ these here.

. Mechanics...................petersons. and Usage Review 171 ...... • • Remember to use the present tense when writing about the author’s intention in literary works............................... ..................com ....... SUMMING IT UP • Any grammar questions on the test are really disguised comprehension questions.................... www.. evaluating them.. and then working to improve the weaknesses you identify are the best ways to prepare for the test. They will ask you to identify one of the parts of speech or they will ask you to classify parts of a sentence..........Chapter 5: Grammar.............................. Writing timed essays..................

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.......... TWO PRACTICE TESTS ................. .....................P ART V PRACTICE TEST 2 PRACTICE TEST 3 ............................................................................

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O O O O O A B C D E 19. O O O O O A B C D E 17..------------------------------------------------------------------- ✁ Practice Test 2 175 . O O O O O A B C D E 27........ O O O O O A B C D E 33. O O O O O A B C D E 23..... O O O O O A B C D E 39.... O O O O O A B C D E 47... O O O O O www..... O O O O O A B C D E 6..... O O O O O A B C D E 41.. O O O O O A B C D E 11..... O O O O O A B C D E 49..... O O O O O A B C D E 40........ O O O O O A B C D E 18.... O O O O O A B C D E 12......... O O O O O A B C D E 24.... O O O O O 2. O O O O O A B C D E 13... O O O O O A B C D E 37. . O O O O O A B C D E 51.. O O O O O A B C D E 44... O O O O O A B C D E 38... answer sheet ANSWER SHEET PRACTICE TEST 2 SECTION I A B C D E 1..... O O O O O A B C D E 8............petersons.. O O O O O A B C D E 50.. O O O O O A B C D E 32... O O O O O A B C D E 31. O O O O O A B C D E 45.... O O O O O A B C D E 52.. A O B O C O D O E O 21. O O O O O A B C D E 4.........com ....... O O O O O A B C D E 28. O O O O O A B C D E 5. O O O O O A B C D E 29....... O O O O O A B C D E 22........ O O O O O A B C D E 15.. O O O O O A B C D E 26..... O O O O O A B C D E 54....... O O O O O A B C D E 30.. O O O O O A B C D E 7..... O O O O O A B C D E 36... O O O O O A B C D E 25... O O O O O A B C D E 48... O O O O O A B C D E 35. O O O O O A B C D E 20..... O O O O O A B C D E 34.. O O O O O A B C D E 10. A O B O C O D O E O A B C D E 3.. O O O O O A B C D E 14. O O O O O A B C D E 43. O O O O O A B C D E 46...... O O O O O A B C D E 42. O O O O O A B C D E 53. O O O O O A B C D E 16... O O O O O A B C D E 9.......

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.............................................................................com Question 3 .................................................. 180 www..... PART V: Two Practice Tests ..........------------------------------------------------------------------- ✁ .............petersons...

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and form..” writes Fred Lewis Pattee (A History of American Literature Since 1870)...Practice Test 2 .. “and they contented themselves with reëchoings of the old music... and patriotic verse without adding more than four or five memorable pieces to the anthologies.... The arts declined. Aftermath of the Civil War 10 15 20 25 The Civil War inspired volumes of indignant. Bryant.... READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. Its end marked the end of an epoch— political... The poets had overstrained and outsung themselves..” Within a period of six years.. Such poets as Longfellow.. the Brahmins (that famous group of intellectuals who had dominated literary America) withdrew into their libraries. the New England group began to disintegrate... and Walt Whitman........ there appeared Longfellow’s Divina Commedia...... to determine the boundaries as well as the beginnings of “modernism.... Herman Melville.... a Critical Anthology Line 5 It may be difficult....... from 1867 to 1872... Taylor.... or left creative writing altogether and occupied themselves with translations. religious.. and it is with the Civil War and the publication of the third edition of Leaves of Grass that modern American poetry is defined..... “an extension of experience. military..... Norton’s 183 .... “They had been borne into an era in which they had no part... and literary. practice test 2 SECTION I 54 QUESTIONS • 60 MINUTES Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content... style... From the “Preface” of Modern American Poetry. if not impossible... select the response that best answers the question and mark the corresponding space on the answer sheet.... turned their eyes away from the native scene. E. it was a time of surrender and swan-songs. Unable to respond to the new forces of political nationalism and industrial reconstruction. C. After you have read each passage....” For them poetry ceased to be a reflection of actuality. the conflict produced a vast quantity of poems but practically no important poetry... QUESTIONS 1–15 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE. In the history of poetry the line may be drawn with a measure of certainty.” but only a few appraisers will deny that American literature became modern as well as American with the advent of Mark Twain. social.

.. and patriotic verse without adding more than four or five memorable pieces to the anthologies... “overstrained and outsung themselves” (lines 14–15)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Tired out Lost creativity Worked too hard Gone beyond their knowledge Sought new insights 4.. social... to determine the boundaries as well as the beginnings of “modernism.. But it was a gathering force. but typically “Boston gentlemen of the early Renaissance.. ignored the surge of a spontaneous national expression... the movement seemed of little consequence............. (D) The conclusion of the Civil War marked the end of an epoch— political.. Walt Whitman.... Holmes—were not only products of the New England colleges. ... the pilothouse. T. Vita Nuova... James Whitcomb Riley—these were men who had graduated from the farm...... John Hay... the frontier...... Which of the following is the thesis that the author explores? (A) The Civil War inspired volumes of indignant.. This selection is an example of which mode of writing? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Descriptive Narrative Persuasive Expository Argument 3....... if not impossible.......... The poets of the transition. W. Bret Harte.... the new men must have seemed like a regiment recruited from the ranks of vulgarity. Parson’s Inferno..... military. What is the best explanation of the expression....184 PART V: Two Practice Tests ..... and the East discovered the West..... jangling. the impact of Whitman and the Westerners was averted.... Suddenly the break came. 30 35 40 2. William Cullen Bryant’s Iliad and Odyssey. with a deliberate art.......... “an extension of experience” (lines 24–25)? (A) A reference to existentialism in poetry (B) Poetry as a reflection of the real world (C) A definition of modern poetry (D) A reflection of the universal nature of poetry (E) Poetry as an art form www...” (C) Only a few appraisers will deny that American literature became modern as well as American with the advent of Mark Twain. Lowell.petersons. What is the meaning of the expression.com .. Longfellow... and Walt Whitman... They were even successful in holding it back. vigorously democratic. Mark Twain.” To them. and Bayard Taylor’s Faust................. America developed a national consciousness.. (E) The Brahmins withdrew from the literary scene because they could not respond to the changes made by the Civil War. The old order was changing with a vengeance.... Joaquin Miller... the aristocratic leaders made way for a new expression.. crude...... —Louis Untermeyer 1.... Joel Chandler Harris.. All the preceding writers—poets like Emerson........ religious...... Grudgingly at first.... Herman Melville... and literary.... (B) It may be difficult. the printer’s shop! For a while.. the West discovered itself... the mine...

.............. (D) The Civil War marked the beginning of modern American poetry..................... GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www..... Which of the following best summarizes the thoughts of the author in this piece? (A) The Brahmins’ poetry.....Practice Test 2 185 .... (B) The more liberated modern American poetry outshone the older styles......com ➡ ...... The author contends that the Brahmins viewed the new poets as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) vulgar intellectual uneducated simple insightful 9.... (E) Poetry from the West became the dominant verse.. (B) There was a break in thought between the East and West... practice test 5.. Longfellow’s Divina Commedia is an example of the author’s contention that (A) modernism began with the end of the Civil War (B) the New England poets no longer created vibrant. Which of the following changed the role of the Brahmins? (A) The Civil War and Reconstruction (B) Religious freedom and politics (C) Political nationalism and industrial reconstruction (D) Industrial growth and the westward movement (E) Philosophical creativity and the scientific revolution 6...... “ ‘reëchoings of the old music’ ” (lines 23–24)? (A) Tired old songs (B) Rewriting old material (C) Hearing influences from the past (D) Metaphorical sounds of the past (E) Redone philosophical treatises 8...... What does the author mean in the first lines of the final paragraph.................petersons..... Which of the following is the best characterization of the tone of this passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Harsh and scathing Scholarly and informative Condescending and irritating Humorous and witty Dry and pretentious 11... (C) The Brahmins were essentially the creators of modern American poetry.... .. (D) The Brahmins and modern poets were in conflict. was lost after the Civil War.... (C) American modern poetry found itself.. but turned to translations (C) modernism developed along political lines (D) modern literature grew slowly in most areas (E) the New England writers provided a more studied view of life 7.......... original verse......... 10...... What is meant by the expression.. although superior to modern poetry.........”? (A) People in the East were moving west......... America developed a national consciousness. (E) The experiences of the Civil War formed the basis of some of the Brahmins’ work... “Suddenly the break came... the West discovered itself..... and the East discovered the West.....

....... Franklin. Franklin” Franklin. How can you so cruelly sport with my torments? Sport! I am very serious.... Line 5 10 Franklin. (D) It created new advocates of poetry... Gout. Do you remember how often you have promised yourself...... Franklin...... READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. in the garden de la Muette.... The author characterizes the new poets as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) brash and arrogant spiritual and philosophical malleable and whimsical forceful and inventive crude and cutting edge 15. at another. too warm... when in truth it was too nothing but your insuperable love of ease? That I confess may have happened occasionally......” (line 40)? (A) The transitional poets were deliberate in their poetry...... at one time. It is too long a detail...... with a deliberate art... Gout. (C) It developed the skills of the Brahmins.. or what else you pleased.petersons.. (C) The Brahmins paid little attention to the changes in poetry. (E) There was little support for the Brahmins’ poetry..... The author characterizes the Brahmins as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) educated and mercurial stuffy and intransigent light-hearted and introspective serious but easygoing brilliant and forgiving QUESTIONS 16–30 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION.... Gout... I am all attention.....com ... but I will briefly mention some particulars... a walk in the grove of Boulogne.. alleging.. (E) It produced a number of forums for poets. I have here a list of offenses against your own health distinctly written and can justify every stroke inflicted on you. it was too cold. then.. Proceed... the following morning........ but little poetry... What is the meaning of the sentence beginning “The poets of the transition.. 12. and have violated your promise.. probably ten times in a year................... From “Dialogue Between Gout and Mr.............186 PART V: Two Practice Tests ... too wind. . Read it... or in your own garden........... The author would agree with which of the following statements about the Civil War? (A) It produced a great number of poems. 13.. too moist.... (B) It produced many poets... 14....... (B) The Brahmins worked to prevent changes in American poetry.. (D) The spontaneous growth of modern American poetry overwhelmed the Brahmins.. www............ THIS PIECE WAS WRITTEN IN 1780 WHEN BENJAMIN FRANKLIN WAS RESTRICTED TO HIS HOUSE DURING AN ATTACK OF GOUT......

. Oh! Oh!—for Heaven’s sake leave me! And I promise faithfully never more to play at chess but to take exercise daily and live temperately... it should not be forgotten that I am your physician....... at the same time.......... or. You found the charming lady with her lovely children and friends eager to walk with you and entertain you with their agreeable conversation. You philosophers are sages in your maxims and fools in your conduct.. that will be good for your body.com ➡ .. You have been in the practice of visiting this amiable family twice a week. . I will do it for you: not once... etc. Is it possible? So possible...... after your visit to the Brillons’.. Auteuil... On the contrary... you call for tea and the chessboard. Franklin. Brillon’s? Certainly. Gout... You may rely on the accuracy of my statement. you step into your carriage.... You know M. and lo! You are occupied in your seat till nine o’clock. 20 25 30 Franklin. and then.......... Your confession is very far short of the truth. you would at least get heat out of it once in this way. Franklin. and how often? I cannot immediately answer that question.... 35 40 Franklin.. you know the handsome flight of a hundred steps which lead from the terrace above to the lawn below...... Gout... There . Order your coachman to set them down. 45 Franklin.. if you dislike that proposal.. But do you charge among my crimes that I return in a carriage from M...... . then....... Franklin..... practice test 15 Gout....... for. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www... How absurd to suppose that all this carelessness can be reconcilable with health without my interposition! I am convinced now of the justness of poor Richard’s remark that “Our debts and our sins are always greater than we think for... and that besides two hours’ play after dinner... What then would you have me do with my carriage? Burn it if you choose... Gout............ if you return on foot.. Brillon’s gardens and what fine walks they contain.... to my office. without taking one step to descend and walk about in them.. that it is fact.. ... Gout......” What an opportunity was here for you to have had exercise in both these ways! Did you embrace it. Franklin.. Gout... During the summer you went there at six o’clock. Gout. after dinner.. After a most fatiguing day these people have to trudge a mile or two to their smoky huts.. you may find every day among these deserving creatures four or five old men and women bent and perhaps crippled by weight of years and too long and too great labor....... and it is a maxim of your own that “a man may take as much exercise in walking a mile up and down stairs as in ten on level ground.... satisfying yourself with the fine prospect and passing your eye over the beauties of the garden below.... having been seated all the while. you cannot object the fatigue of the day and cannot want therefore the relief of a carriage... and what has been your choice? Why to sit on the terrace.. 50 55 60 Franklin. and. Not once? Even so. Ah! How tiresome you are! Well. The gross amount is one hundred and ninety-nine times...... Gout..petersons.. Chaillot. which would have bestirred you a little...... instead of walking home. This is an act that will be good for your soul. here’s another for you: observe the poor peasants who work in the vineyard and grounds about the villages of Passy.........Practice Test 2 187 .” So it is...

yet humorous Formal and structured Silly and frivolous Objective 22.. and you are sensible now that I am your real friend...... 70 I know you too well....... (B) We believe that we should not have any debts..... Let us then finish the account.......... (D) We believe that committing a sin should not create a debt that we must pay..... Which of the following best summarizes the theme of this excerpt? (A) A statement on the health of wealthy individuals (B) A delineation of the reasons to exercise (C) A fanciful discussion between a man and his disease (D) A lamentation of a man who is hurting (E) A dialogue for a morality play 17. From this dialogue.. (E) We believe that others do not have to pay as heavily for their sins.......... When Franklin acknowledges the justness of the statement...... www..... your fine promises will be forgotten like the forms of last year’s clouds.......... what assumption can be made about what Franklin advocates? (A) Walking when in a foreign country (B) Helping the poor and less fortunate (C) Reasonable and responsible behavior on the part of the individual (D) Involvement in the health practices of others (E) Limiting time playing games 23.. What is the best definition for the word “interposition” (line 40)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Intercession Interdiction Involvement Absence Interview 16.. but................ “Our debts and our sins are always greater than we think for.... You promise fair............petersons. ... and I will go..........188 PART V: Two Practice Tests . scientific Reasoned...... —Benjamin Franklin 20.. What is the tone of the dialogue? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Clinical... What is the literary process that gives Gout voice? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Alliteration Metaphor Allegory Personification Simile 21.......... you will return to your old habits.. Gout’s attitude toward Franklin is best described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) disgusted conciliatory superficial stern pedantic 19...... (C) We believe that our debts and our sins are always smaller than they turn out to be. after a few months of good health.... But I leave you with an assurance of visiting you again at a proper time and place.... for my object is your good.........” (lines 41–42) which of the following is he confirming? (A) We believe that many of our debts are too great. Which of the following is the best characterization of Gout’s reaction to Franklin’s statement that Gout is sporting with him (line 1)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Indignation Pleased Chastised Contrite Oblivious 18... 65 Gout................com .

............. What is the meaning of the word “object” (line 47)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Feel Dispute Argue Silence Save 28.......................petersons... III.... not being serious. How does the dialogue reflect the eighteenth century’s interest in science? (A) The mention of gardens (B) Recognition that walking is important exercise (C) Use of scientific reasons for medical conditions (D) Use of scientific language (E) Inclusion of quotations from an important scientific work 30.... “So it is. (B) He enjoys being with friends. (E) He puts his work second to pleasure....... 26.........com ➡ . (D) It challenges the reader to take the side of either Gout or Franklin. and III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www.” (lines 43–44)? (A) Philosophers are ignorant........ (D) Intelligent comments aren’t always used.. and what has been your choice?” contains I....... II. 27.. (E) People can make ill-considered statements... (C) He likes to be outside in the sun....................... (B) It makes it easier for Franklin to dispute the misinterpretation of Gout.. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A participial phrase A compound verb in the past tense An infinitive I only II only III only I and III only I.. ....... (C) The author’s only purpose was to be light-hearted.... (D) He enjoys a sedentary lifestyle..... Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the interests of Franklin? (A) He likes walking in the gardens. The sentence “You found the charming lady with her lovely children and friends eager to walk with you and entertain you with their agreeable conversation... forgetful...... practice test 24.. Why does the author elect to express his ideas with a dialogue between Gout and Franklin? (A) It allows clarity between Gout’s thoughts and Franklin’s reaction... feeling guilty.... II....... (B) Wise people are infallible. What does the sentence “I cannot immediately answer that question” (line 27) say about Franklin’s state of mind? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) He He He He He is is is is is argumentative.. (E) It leaves ambiguity as to the motives of Gout and Franklin......Practice Test 2 189 ........ (C) People can make wise statements and take unwise actions. What is Franklin the author suggesting by Gout’s statement... 29.. tired of Gout.... 25.. You philosophers are sages in your maxims and fools in your conduct....

...... are the two greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind.. by enabling them to relieve one another’s wants.... READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS..... and to encourage one another’s industry. it is said... the inhabitants of those other countries..... Spain and Portugal furnish but a small part of it... for almost all the different nations of Asia. It is the object of that system to enrich a great nation rather by trade and manufactures than by the improvement and cultivation of land........... one of the principal effects of those discoveries has been to raise the mercantile system to a degree of splendour and glory which it could never otherwise have attained to... frequently enjoy a greater share of the real benefit of it. in some measure. The author’s tone in the passage is best described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) objective didactic pedantic persuasive reasoned www..... to increase one another’s enjoyments................. Other countries. but I do not pretend to warrant the quantity. for example.. But.... Africa..... But this great consumption is almost entirely supplied by France...... the commercial towns of Europe.... rather by the industry of the towns than by that of the country....... The countries which possess the colonies of America. give more real encouragement to the industry of other countries than to that of Spain and Portugal.. the whole show and splendour of this great commerce.. By uniting...petersons.... to be more than three million sterling a year...... 32.. it is impossible that the whole extent of their consequences can have been seen.. the most distant parts of the world... (that part of Europe which is washed by the Atlantic ocean.... in the short period of between two and three centuries which has elapsed since these discoveries were made... and America. each of them much greater and more extensive than the old one... enjoy.. Their consequences have already been very great: but. instead of being the manufacturers and carriers for but a very small part of the world. and in some respects the manufacturers too. The capital which supplies the colonies with this great quantity of linen is annually distributed among. and the market of one of them growing still greater and greater every day.... Two new worlds have been opened to their industry.. and Germany.... What benefits or what misfortunes to mankind may hereafter result from those great events. and the countries which lie round the Baltic and Mediterranean seas)..com .... Holland.. and furnishes a revenue to.. QUESTIONS 31–43 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. indeed......190 PART V: Two Practice Tests .. In the meantime. no human wisdom can foresee.... notwithstanding all the invidious restraints by which it is meant to exclude them.. however... and which trade directly to the East Indies.. From The Wealth of Nations Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 The discovery of America.. and that of a passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope. in consequence of those discoveries.... The colonies of Spain and Portugal.... In the single article of linen alone the consumption of those colonies amounts...... their general tendency would seem to be beneficial.... and the carriers.. Flanders..... have now become the manufacturers for the numerous and thriving cultivators of America. Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude toward expansionism? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Ambivalent Sympathetic Very positive Conservative Progressive 31.. .......

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33. In the sentence beginning “Other countries, however, notwithstanding all the invidious restraints” (line 26), the best meaning for the word “invidious” is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) ensnaring deceptive treacherous offensive invincible

37. In the first paragraph, the sentence beginning “By uniting, in some measure, the most distant parts of the world” (lines 7–8) contains which of the following elements? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A gerund phrase An infinitive phrase A prepositional phrase An adverb phrase All of the above

34. This selection is an example of which of the following modes of discourse? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Narrative Description Exposition Argument Persuasion

38. In the sentence beginning “In the meantime, one of the principal effects of those discoveries” (line 11), the writer employs which of the following rhetorical devices? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Overstatement Hyperbole Conceit Oversimplification Imagery

35. The first sentence in the first paragraph, “The discovery of America, and that of a passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, are the two greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind,” presents the author’s view of I. II. III. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) History Expansionism Economics I only II only III only I and II only I, II, and III

39. This passage is primarily concerned with the writer’s views on the (A) benefits of global commerce (B) effects of colonialism on America and the East Indies (C) effects of global commerce on colonies (D) effects of laissez-faire economics (E) effects of revenues on imperialist nations 40. According to this passage, what does the writer believe about European expansionism? I. II. III. IV. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) It is impossible to evaluate fully. It represents exploitation of native populations. It creates global commerce, which is good for all. It enriches countries other than those possessing the colonies. I and II only I, II, and III only II and III only II, III, and IV only I, III, and IV only

36. This passage reads most like which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A letter A history lesson A current events lesson A statement of opinion An essay supporting expansionism

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41. In the last paragraph, the writer employs which of the following stylistic devices to support his arguments? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Generalization Causal relation Analogy Anecdote Example 43. Which of the following is the best rephrasing of this sentence from the final paragraph? In the single article of linen alone the consumption of those colonies amounts, it is said, but I do not pretend to warrant the quantity, to be more than three million sterling a year. (A) In the single article of linen alone the consumption of those colonies’ amounts, it is said, but I do not pretend to warrant the quantity, to be more than three million sterling a year. (B) The consumption of those colonies’ amounts of linen alone may be more than three million sterling a year, although I cannot warrant the quantity. (C) Regarding the consumption of linen alone, those colonies’ amounts of that article, it is said, to be more than three million sterling a year, but I do not pretend to warrant the quantity. (D) Not pretending to warrant the quantity, in the single article of linen alone the consumption of those colonies amounts, I have heard said, to be more than three million sterling a year. (E) In the single article of linen alone the consumption of those colonies amounts being more than three million sterling a year, but I do not confirm that quantity.

42. What is the antecedent of “their” in the following independent clause from the first paragraph? . . . but, in the short period of between two and three centuries which has elapsed since these discoveries were made, it is impossible that the whole extent of their consequences can have been seen. (A) The discovery of the Americas and the passage to the East Indies (B) The short period (C) These discoveries (D) Important events (E) Whole extent

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QUESTIONS 44–54 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. Directions: Read the passage carefully and then choose the answers to the questions. This passage is an excerpt from an article on South American Cichlids.
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When many people think of fish tanks in the home, they think of tropical, saltwater fish. And there is no doubt that saltwater fish are some of the most colorful, unusual creatures on Earth. However, if aquarists simply focus on saltwater fish, they are missing out on a wonderful world of freshwater tropical fish. In particular, an aquarist looking for lots of action in a tank in addition to lots of color should consider keeping a tank of either South American or African Cichlids, or perhaps one tank of each. These wonderful fish are “filled with personality and provide hours of pleasure and relaxation to aquarists.”1 But, before one embarks on the wonderful world of cichlids, one must fully understand the nature of these breathtaking creatures, because to love a creature is to understand a creature. As graceful as ballet dancers and at times as aggressive as sharks, South American Cichlids are perhaps the most interesting fish a freshwater aquarist can have. South American Cichlids are lake fish. More specifically, they are found in the lakes of South America and Central America. With the exception of South American Cichlids that are considered dwarf fish, most South American Cichlids can grow to sizes of up to a few feet. In a home aquarium, the fish will grow as much as the tank allows, and a cichlid may need to be moved to a larger tank in order to avoid stunting its growth. Live feeding, using feeder goldfish, is often recommended for South American Cichlids, but aquarists should be aware that live feeding greatly increases the growth rate of these fish. According to Stanley Almira, “live feeding is perhaps the most exciting part of owning S.A. Cichlids, however, one should be warned of the excessive growth that can result. One must moderate live feeding to control size and also keep in mind the aggression live feeding can cause.”2 As well as keeping size in control, as Almira mentions, live feeding can contribute to the natural aggression seen in many South American Cichlids. In fact, regardless of feeding habits, the aquarist must be aware of the innate aggressive (or non-aggressive) tendencies of these fish. Reputable dealers of S.A. Cichlids will always let a buyer know about the level of aggressiveness of the fish they wish to buy. Certain types of S.A. Cichlids are classified as extremely aggressive, and these types of fish often have problems living in a community tank. The most aggressive of the fish are Managuense Cichlids (Parachromis managuensis) and Red Devil Cichlids (Amphilophus labiatus). These two types of S.A. Cichlids are so highly aggressive that even one Managuense or Red Devil dropped into a tank of less aggressive cichlids will likely quickly set to work killing every less aggressive fish in the tank. “Could there be more evil fish than these devil fish? They seek to destroy everything in their path and are best left to the wild,”3 is the observation made by Gregori Anessi upon completion of his 10 year study into the aggressive habits of Red Devils and Managuense. The Managuense, also called the Jaguar Cichlid, originated in Nicaragua—Lake Managua, specifically. It is gold with black markings and hints of red and blue in the fins of the adult male. As they mature, Managuenses develop two “canine” type teeth protruding from their bottom jaw. These teeth are used to tear through the delicate flesh of other fish. Since a Managuense can grow to up to 2 feet long, fish of all smaller sizes are in danger of becoming dinner for the great fish. The Managuense is

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45

also known as one of the smartest freshwater fish. In fact, for a fish, the eyes display a depth of understanding counter to most people’s impressions of fish as unthinking creatures.
1

Frieshman, Gene R. The Amazing Aquatic World of the Cichlid. (New York: Brown and Brown, Inc., 2001), p. 305. 2 Almira, Stanley. Feeding and Caring for Your South American Cichlids. (Philadelphia: Creatures of the Sea Publishing Co. 1999), Chapter 11, “Live Feeding and Its Ties to Growth/Aggression,” p. 311. 3 Anessi, Gregori. The Managuense, Brains, Brawn, and a Killer Instinct in Parachromis managuensis and Amphilophus labiatus. (California: Aquarists Press, 1961), p. 111

44. What best describes this passage? (A) A passionate plea for increased ownership of South American Cichlids (B) A dire warning of the danger presented by Managuense and Red Devil Cichlids (C) An informative guide to the caring and feeding of tropical saltwater fish (D) An instructive article for choosing and raising South American Cichlids (E) A presentation of statistics about South American Cichlids 45. Which of the following rhetorical devices is used in the following sentence? “Could there be more evil fish than these devil fish?” (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Parody Rhetorical question Emotive language Hyperbole Anecdote

47. Which of the following is an accurate reading of the information in footnote 2? (A) Stanley Almira wrote a book called “Live Feeding and Its Ties to Growth/Aggression.” (B) Stanley Almira is the editor of “Feeding and Caring for Your South American Cichlids.” (C) Creatures of the Sea Publishing published “Feeding and Caring for Your South American Cichlids” in 1999. (D) Chapter 11 of “Feeding and Caring for Your South American Cichlids” begins on page 311. (E) Stanley Almira wrote his book in Philadelphia in 1999. 48. What word best describes the attitude of the author toward South American Cichlids? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Condescending Indifferent Fearful Reproachful Fondness

46. What is the meaning of the word “innate” as used in line 26? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Natural Ungrateful Learned Extraordinary Strange

49. What is true about the footnotes as a whole? (A) They are all provided to show how the author researched the article. (B) They are all cited as sources of direct quotes in the article. (C) They are used to help promote the books written by Frieshman, Almira, and Anessi. (D) None of the above (E) All of the above

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50. Based on the information in the last paragraph, what is the most likely reason that the Managuense is called a Jaguar Cichlid? (A) Because it (B) Because it markings (C) Because it (D) Because it markings (E) Because it cichlid has many teeth has blue and red is aggressive is gold with black is the smallest

53. What word would Gregori Anessi most likely use to describe Red Devils and Managuenses? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Remarkable Placid Incorrigible Moral Malevolent

51. The phrase “to love a creature is to understand a creature” in lines 9–10 is an example of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Parallel construction Onomatopoeia Alliteration Personification Analogy

54. What word is closest to the meaning of the word “great” in the sentence “Since a Managuense can grow to up to 2 feet long, fish of all smaller sizes are in danger of becoming dinner for the great fish.” (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Wonderful Huge Famous Magnificent Heroic

52. Which book was written by Gene R. Frieshman? (A) The Managuense, Brains, Brawn, and a Killer Instinct in Parachromis managuensis and Amphilophus labiatus (B) Feeding and Caring for Your South American Cichlids (C) The Amazing Aquatic World of the Cichlid (D) Creatures of the Sea (E) Live Feeding and Its Ties to Growth/Aggression

STOP

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section in the test. www.petersons.com

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SECTION II
3 QUESTIONS • 2 HOURS 15 MINUTES Directions: Read the passage below carefully. Write a well-developed essay analyzing how the author uses rhetoric and style to engage the reader. Pay special attention to such elements as diction, tone, style, and narrative pace.

Question 1
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The Publishers of the Standard Novels, in selecting Frankenstein for one of their series, expressed a wish that I should furnish them with some account of the origin of the story. I am the more willing to comply, because I shall thus give a general answer to the question, so very frequently asked me: “How I, then a young girl, came to think of, and to dilate upon, so very hideous an idea?” It is true that I am very averse to bringing myself forward in print; but as my account will only appear as an appendage to a former production, and as it will be confined to such topics as have connection with my authorship alone, I can scarcely accuse myself of a personal intrusion. . . . I busied myself to think of a story, a story to rival those which had excited us to this task. One which would speak to the mysterious fears of our nature and awaken thrilling horror—one to make the reader dread to look round, to curdle the blood, and quicken the beatings of the heart. If I did not accomplish these things, my ghost story would be unworthy of its name. I thought and pondered—vainly. I felt that blank incapability of invention, which is the greatest misery of authorship, when dull Nothing replies to our anxious invocations. Have you thought of a story? I was asked each morning, and each morning I was forced to reply with a mortifying negative. . . . Many and long were the conversations between Lord Byron and Shelley, to which I was a devout but nearly silent listener. During one of these, various philosophical doctrines were discussed, and among others the nature of the principle of life and whether there was any probability of its ever being discovered and communicated. . . . Perhaps a corpse would be reanimated: galvanism had given token such things. Perhaps the component parts of a creature might be manufactured, brought together, and endured with vital warmth. Night waned upon this talk, and even the witching hour had gone by, before we retired to rest. When I placed my head on my pillow, I did not sleep, nor could I be said to think. My imagination, unbidden, possessed and guided me, gifting the successive images that arose in my mind with a vividness far beyond the usual bounds of reverie. I saw—with shut eyes but acute mental vision—I saw the pale student of unhallowed arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together. I saw the hideous phantasm of a man stretched out, and then, on the working of some powerful engine, show signs of life and stir with an uneasy, half vital motion. Frightful must it be, for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavor to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world. His success would terrify the artist; he would rush away from his odious handiwork, horror-stricken he would hope that, left to itself, the slight spark of life that he had communicated would fade; that this thing, which had received such imperfect animation, would subside into dead matter; and he might sleep in the belief that the silence of the grave would quench forever the transient existence of the hideous corpse that he had looked upon as the cradle of life. He sleeps; but he is awakened; he opens his eyes; behold the horrid thing stands at

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. I see them still: the very room. I could not so easy get rid of my hideous phantom: still it haunted me....... I began that day with the words.. practice test 40 45 50 his bedside....... opening his curtains....... that a thrill of fear ran through me... the closed shutters................. watery.... making only a transcript of the grim terrors of my waking dream...................com ➡ ......” On the morrow I announced that I had thought of a story............ and looking on him with yellow................... the dark parquet....... The idea so possessed my mind.. but speculative eyes... I must try to think of something else...... I recurred to my ghost story—my tiresome unlucky ghost story! O! if I could only contrive one that would frighten my reader as I myself had been frightened that night! Swift as light and as cheering was the idea that broke in upon me... with the moonlight struggling through............... I opened mine in terror.......petersons...... and the sense I had that the glassy lake and white high Alps were beyond....... “I have found it! What terrified me will terrify others... —Mary Shelley GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www. .. and I need only describe the specter that haunted my midnight pillow..... It was on a dreary night of November.Practice Test 2 197 ... and I wished to exchange the ghastly image of my fancy for the realities around.....

must write its own books............. it now inspires.... among the worst... so high does it soar... we have the book worm.. stands upon it..... Directions: Read carefully this passage from Ralph Waldo Emerson’s speech.... who start wrong. not by Man Thinking. In proportion to the completeness of the distillation..... .......... and makes an outcry.... The writer was a just and wise spirit. Henceforward it is settled.. who set out from accepted dogmas... . The scholar of the first age received into him the world around: brooded thereon.... . and uttered it again. “The American Scholar. —Ralph Waldo Emerson www. as love of the hero corrupts into worship of his statue. believing it their duty to accept the views which Cicero. the act of thought.. by men of talent. having once received this book.. Henceforth the chant is divine also..198 PART V: Two Practice Tests .... The guide is a tyrant....... ...... ... Hence. gave it a new arrangement of his own mind... Precisely in proportion to the depth of mind from which it issued.... . Meek young men grow up in libraries........ Instantly. abused. Locke and Bacon were only young men in libraries when they wrote these books. well-reasoned essay that critically analyzes how Emerson used the English language and conventions to promote his ideas.. if it disparaged..... was felt to be a divine man.... It can stand. the book is perfect.. which Bacon.... The sacredness which attaches to the act of creation.... The sluggish and perverted mind of the multitude... Write a well-organized.com .. and it can go. .. it depends on how far the process had gone.. it is found. have given. so long does it sing.. ... well used. The poet chanting.... But none is quite perfect......... that is. it now flies.. Books are written on it by thinkers. ..... not from their own sight of principles. always slow to open to the incursions of Reason. forgetful that Cicero.. It now endures. .. instead of man thinking. or rather. of transmuting life into truth... Yet hence arises a grave mischief..... Books are the best of things.. is instantly transferred to the record.. Question 2 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES Line 5 10 15 20 The theory of books is noble. Or. ...” given as the Phi Beta Kappa address at Harvard in 1837. which Locke..petersons... .. each generation for the next succeeding. .. having once so opened....... so will the purity and imperishableness of the product be. Each age. Colleges are built on it......... I might say. The books of an older period will not fit this.... the book becomes noxious.

......... Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations..... Source A (Allsworth) Source B (Jones and Brooks) Source C (Gates) Source D (McDonald) Source E (Chart) Source F (Lopez) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www. ....... Source B... write an essay that supports...... Satellite radio delivers content to listeners who are paid subscribers........... Do not simply paraphrase or summarize the sources....... or disputes the argument that satellite radio will replace terrestrial radio because of government censorship.......... Your argument should be the focus of your essay and the sources should support this argument... Question 3 SUGGESTED TIME—15 MINUTES FOR READING AND 40 MINUTES FOR WRITING Introduction: In recent years............... Because satellite radio is a paid service... Use at least three of the sources to support your position.. might satellite radio eventually replace terrestrial radio? Assignment: Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully. Traditional radio (terrestrial radio) is subject to censorship........... The assignment requires that you synthesize a number of the sources into a coherent......... Synthesize at least three of the sources to support your position...... Then.... qualifies............... You may refer to the sources by their titles (Source A...Practice Test 2 199 ..... etc... government censorship of content delivered over public airwaves has become an issue........petersons........... well-written essay that takes a position........ Because of its ability to deliver uncensored content..... practice test Directions: The following prompt is based on the following six sources.com ➡ ...... it is not regulated by government...) or by the descriptions in parentheses.

...... in Massachusetts and in Alaska! For anyone who takes long car trips.......... Unlike traditional radio. May 22......... In addition to the technical differences between satellite and traditional radio. “New Gadgets.............. so listeners can also receive commercial-free radio..... .. such as a station that plays only Elvis tunes........... That product is satellite radio.... www... For example....... Elissa.200 PART V: Two Practice Tests ..petersons. there are significant content differences...” Pastimes Magazine Monthly.......... Radio hosts who have been fired in recent years due to questionable content may find new homes on satellite radio........... The communications industry is buzzing about a new product that some say may revolutionize the way people listen to the radio... Because satellite radio is delivered to paid subscribers......... Because satellite radio is a paid service. there is a lot of freedom in the content offered... which works by broadcasting content over local frequencies...... those who do not agree with government censorship of music can listen to uncensored music and talk radio via satellite radio. commercials are not needed.....com .......... music stations can devote themselves to one very specific type of music...... at the same number on your dial.......... 2001 The following passage is excerpted from an article that talks about satellite radio as a new option for radio listening. this is a wonderful product. satellite radio content is delivered via satellite......... SOURCE A Allsworth........... In addition... Satellite radio has an advantage over traditional radio in that you could drive across the country and never have to change your radio station! You could pick up the same station......

.... “DJ Extreme was warned numerous times about his on-air behavior. his tenure with this radio station. as word spread that DJ Extreme was on the airwaves once again... the DJ appeared to disappear.. August 2003 The following passage is excerpted from an online article about a DJ who was fired from traditional radio and began a new show on satellite radio............ Maybe firing DJ Extreme was not such a good idea after all.... Janna..... over... sales of his brand of satellite radio increased by 1 million subscriptions...... The bit caused the station to have to pay almost a million dollars in fines to the government for airing content that is against regulations.. “DJ Extreme Takes His Show on the Road” Available at http://talkradiomagazine........ .... And in the two weeks that followed his debut. indeed... it looked like the career of DJ Extreme was.....petersons......... though... That’s right—1 million! And according to the satellite company... possibly leaving their traditional radios in the dust....... and Dana Brooks........ is over..com ➡ ...... Fans of DJ Extreme were extremely disappointed last year when the popular afternoon DJ was fired from his job at WWCB radio for “a questionable bit” on his show.................... he was back—but this time.. After an initial flurry of talk show appearances following his ouster from the station............. practice test SOURCE B Jones.... GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www.... Due to this....... and he continued to try to push it as far as he could go. But last month.” And for a while... and possibly his radio career.... the subscription numbers continue to grow. The lack of fanfare did not last long.........com.. with almost no fanfare..... Says a station employee who asked not to be named.......Practice Test 2 201 .. because at least 1 million people have made the switch to satellite radio..... on satellite radio.

...... And I predict that as the years go by......... as long as you want to pay for it..... Sure............... In addition...... That’s right...... when it comes down to it... almost 60 percent do not renew their subscription after their free year is up.....com .... Juan.... and sometimes your favorite song is censored.. The following passage is excerpted from an article that refutes the idea that satellite radio will replace terrestrial radio..... I said fad. But what the satellite companies don’t want you to know is that a high percentage of subscribers do not renew their subscriptions because they do not want to pay for them... 2005.. traditional radio will never die... February 15...petersons... “Terrestrial Radio Is Not Dead” Radio Weekly..... SOURCE C Gates. you have to listen to commercials.... It’s a neat alternative to radio..... more and more people will come to their senses and stop paying for something you can get for free. of all people who have won satellite receivers and free one-year subscriptions in nationwide contests....... since it is available for free across the nation. but there is a catch—you have to pay for this great content.... And some people will pay for satellite radio.. they don’t want to pay for it.. And for this reason....202 PART V: Two Practice Tests .. Please! In the few years that satellite radio has been available.......... it’s a new product and seems to offer some exciting broadcasting possibilities... Satellite radio providers would like you to believe that soon satellite will be your only option because terrestrial radio will become a thing of the past....... www... .. there have been large numbers of initial subscribers......... Sure... but is that really a problem? Who would disagree with not allowing foul language on public airwaves? It seems strange that people would get so hung up on such a small amount of censorship.......... It seems silly to pay for radio.. many already have. Satellite radio seems to be the new fad.... This says that although many people may enjoy the content.................

...... And while it is true that free speech is protected.... However.............. she said a bad word” fills the car. ..... But when it comes to bleeping out a dirty word on public air.....com ➡ .... It is not legal to slander someone.. and everyone seems to agree with these regulations. some people get all up in arms. April 2006 The following passage is excerpted from a letter to the editor of Issues Digest about the necessity of censorship in some cases...... We are hiding from the issue that censorship is simply necessary in some cases.. it is wonderful to know that there is a government agency on our side.... GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www.... Yes........ While parents of course share in this responsibility. you should simply change the station...petersons.. isn’t it nice that the government makes it possible that we don’t have to? The issue is our children being protected from unsuitable content... one can simply change the station..... Now........ People pay for satellite radio....... not all speech is protected........” or “ohhh. But these people perhaps have never been riding in a van full of children and been a bit to slow to change the station before a chorus of “what does that mean... If they do not like the content.. Aurora.... It is not legal to yell “fire!” in a crowded theater. Will satellite replace terrestrial radio? Should we let that happen? I don’t think so.... some may tell you that if you don’t like the content on a public radio station........... Satellite radio versus terrestrial radio seems to be an ongoing theme in the communications industry lately. they can stop paying......... The advent of satellite radio is simply clouding the issue......... “We Are Hiding from the Issue” Issues Digest..............” Proponents of uncensored free radio seem to think that regulating the airwaves is a free speech issue................... practice test SOURCE D McDonald... The battle between satellite and terrestrial radio has become a broad battle about supposedly “free speech. It should not even come up in censorship discussions...Practice Test 2 203 ..

...... Numbers are percentages of people who listen to terrestrial radio....................000 people responded to the poll................... Terrestrial Radio Listeners Satellite Radio Listeners Listeners to Both Satellite and Terrestrial www. 19...... ....204 PART V: Two Practice Tests ......com ............000 people polled........... Illinois: The Research Group..............................petersons. 2006 Satellite Radio vs. SOURCE E Adapted from Satellite Versus Terrestrial: Who Listens to What........ Terrestrial Radio: Numbers for all four quarters of 2005.............. or both................ 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0* Jan–Mar Apr–Jun Jul–Sep Oct–Dec *Numbers represent 0–35 percent of 19..... satellite radio.........

Angelo...... My son won a satellite radio receiver and subscription a few months ago... and I turned out to be right. And better yet.............com .. www........ “The Radio Renaissance” The Past Magazine. more family time has been added to our week due to the radio show.. But I trusted my son.... and the fact that the content is not regulated did give me pause. anymore? Sure........ Do not turn to any other section in the test.. Who listens to the radio for anything but music. and there is a lack of variety at that. television seemed to be replaced by video games..... The golden days of radio.... I often thought to myself..petersons...... STOP If you finish before time is called........ there are some successful talk stations.. TV and video games have not been replaced. somehow........ The best thing that could happen to radio happened: the advent of satellite radio... Now... And then. After playing with the radio for a few weeks.... something amazing happened. every Wednesday..... It is nice to know that my family is spending the kind of time together that my parents and grandparents did... our whole family gathers around the radio to listen to a radio show! Not the TV.. Who would think a 13-year-old would be interested in old radio shows? It turns out......... This is the direction family entertainment has taken........... you may check your work on this section only..... but. seemed to be over. Satellite radio has saved a dying medium... he discovered a wonderful station that replays old radio shows from the 1930s. completely replaced by television.......... practice test SOURCE F Lopez. .... my son is. the radio! It has been a wonderful experience. I have to admit I was at first worried about the kind of content he would find. where a family might gather around the living room to listen to a show.. October 1.......... but not too many........ But then.. he got his little sister interested as well........ 2004 The following passage is excerpted from an article about how satellite radio programming is bringing more people to radio......Practice Test 2 205 ...... excluding adults altogether..

... this means that they were beginning to lose their creativity. 29.. writing. 30... 24.. and (E) are not related to the question. 33.. 32.... therefore.. The sentence cited contains the statement. The writer is discussing the beginning of modern American writing.. That is what choice (C) is presenting. (D).. (D).. choice (D)... (D). D A D C C C C C D C D 34..... 6. a link is shown between the close of the Civil War and the decline of the New England group.. also known as the Brahmins.. The correct answer is (B). 54... 37.... “a reflection of actuality. There is no development of an existential subject... so the mode cannot be description.. were never shown to be an issue. Political nationalism....... choice (B)..... 36... The correct answer is (D).. 7. The correct answer is (B).. Choices (C). 3. none addresses the core problem of these poets in the manner that choice (B) does.. As poets. 5.. 22... 38... It does not attempt to argue or persuade.. 19. 16.. This makes choice (B) the correct answer.. and the author does not explore them.. The correct answer is (B). The correct answer is developed in the first paragraph with the observation that the Civil War marked the start of modern poetry.... so it cannot be persuasive.. All of these statements are true.petersons. and (E). 46. B D B C A B B A C B D 12. Choices (D) and (E) are similarly not discussed in the excerpt. Although choices (A). 40.. 2...... 15..... 49. and (E)...... In the second paragraph.. 51. 48. 31. Nor does it tell a story. 42... This selection is not descriptive... 8.... 41. The correct answer is (C).. 4........ choice (A). The other choices.’ ” Choice (B) closely matches that thought. 6. 4.. 17.. choice (B)... choice (E). The context is that the New England group was beginning to fall apart.. choices (C). ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS Section I 1. 26... B A C E B D A C E B 1. 21... 13. it is not a narrative. E A E E A A E E C B D 45.... 3... . 50.. (B). The trick here is to figure out which gives the author’s main idea. www. choice (A). 35. 5.... 39... 43. 52.. but incorrect because it is not relevant to the question. A B E B C D B C B A C 23.... The correct answer is (A). Modern poetry is not defined. ‘an extension of experience...... choice (C).” Divina Commedia is such a translation.. It simply presents the facts—exposition..com . 53. 27.. are facts that support and illuminate the writer’s thesis. Louis Untermeyer states that some of the Brahmins “occupied themselves with translations... 11... 14... or argumentative. 28.. In the second paragraph. (D). 2. Choice (A) is true..... (C). industrial growth...... choice (C). 10... 44. 18.206 PART V: Two Practice Tests ... Religious freedom and politics... 47..... 25. and philosophical creativity were also never developed as an influence on the Brahmins..... (A). and (E) may express some of the feelings and experiences of the New England group. 20. 9..

. The correct answer is (B)..... Choice (B). not the author......... he is saying that the Brahmins were satisfied with the sounds of old music..com .. 13. choice (A) is incorrect.... vigorously democratic...... The remaining three answers have some elements that may seem to be true..... and (D) are not consistent with the description or even mentioned by the author. If Untermeyer says that no poetry was produced. The descriptions of the poets in choices (A).. The same can be said of choice (B). In the third sentence of the final paragraph........ The context of this expression is another way that Untermeyer shows that the creativity of the Brahmins had been lost. This can be most readily seen by Untermeyer’s comment that “America developed a national consciousness... choice (E). (D).. that implies that no poets were produced.. The author develops the Civil War as the starting point of modern American poetry in the first two paragraphs.. The correct answer is (A).... The author proposes that the poets of transition resisted the change....... The correct answer is (B)..... making choice (D) incorrect.. but not condescending... and it relies on the reader to recognize that a democratic form of poetry is cutting edge....... The passage from the final paragraph is the identification by the author of the change from the Brahmin-influenced era to modern American poetry. In the third paragraph.. The author is not speaking of philosophical concepts..... Untermeyer does not suggest that the poets of transition were deliberate in the execution of their art as indicated in choice (A). (C). .. Choices (B) and (E) are neither true nor relevant. The correct answer is (A)... 14... In this case..Practice Test 2 207 .. jangling.” Choices (A) and (D) are true but do not reflect the writer’s thoughts in this passage. therefore.. so choice (A) is incorrect.. 8. therefore... they were aware of it.. The author says in the first sentence of the second paragraph “the conflict .” This passage is a direct response to the question and is represented by choice (A)....... Although the Brahmins might have been harsh and scathing in their commentary about modern American poets.... The sentence taken from the end of the concluding paragraph is a reference to the Brahmins’ attempt to keep their style of poetry the dominant form.... and (E) do not express the point of view of the New England poets. making choice (C) incorrect...... The correct answer is (B).. choice (D)... A reader may see the article as dry or even irritating.... . 10..... The author never made a judgment about which type of poetry was superior... The correct answer is (E)... 11.. 12. (D). This question is from the point of view of the Brahmins. Untermeyer identifies the new poetic expression as “crude.. There is no wit or humor contained in the excerpt.. choice (C).” Choice (A) mirrors Untermeyer’s commentary.... and (E) do not accurately reflect this passage..... correctly answers the question.. answers practice test 2 7... The author is not speaking of sounds per se—that eliminates choices (A)..... eliminating choice (E).. (B).. Untermeyer writes. The correct answer is (C).. “To them [the Brahmins].... and (D). (C)... the passage itself does not have that tone. ....... Only one of these three answer choices has both elements that are true... The author states neither of the meanings described in choices (D) and (E). scholarly and informative... so choice (B) cannot be correct. 9...petersons. www.. Choices (B). The correct answer is (D). The Brahmins were not identified as the creators of modern American poetry... (C). Choices (C)..” Choice (E) repeats the description as crude. choice (E).. the new men must have seemed like a regiment recruited from the ranks of vulgarity. an allusion to their focus on translations of old writings. or pretentious. The author specifically said that the Civil War produced little quality poetry. choice (C). produced a vast quantity of poems but practically no important poetry.. It probably does not reflect the thoughts of the author.

If you did not know what interposition means.... Untermeyer describes the Brahmins as educated.. the giving of human characteristics to nonhuman things. The correct answer is (C).. involvement.. She is indignant. There is no conciliation in her tone.. nor are her arguments superficial.. (B). you could try your knowledge of prefixes to determine that it means to be placed between........ This leaves (B) as the correct answer. all these choices seem correct because each is mentioned in the selection. choice (D). Allowing the disease to speak is personification.. choice (E)... Each of the choices has a small element of correctness. while choices (B). The correct answer is (A).. choices (C) and (D). choice (A).... interview...208 PART V: Two Practice Tests .....petersons. thus.. If Gout were disgusted... seem reasonable..... choice (E)..com . it is much stronger than choice (C). (C).. choice (B). The characters do make comments about health.......... The correct answer is (D). only choice (C) is correct.... choice (B).... A metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as though it were something else...... Gout is not dealing with trivial ideas in a narrow bookish manner... choice (C).. Based on the context—Gout has just recited a list of Franklin’s transgressions—choice (E)... An allegory is a literary work with two or more levels of meaning.. choice (D). so choice (D)...... However. The author leaves the reader with the impression that the Brahmins are anything but lighthearted or easygoing..... but he does not contend that they are mercurial. but not choice (D). Choices (A).. 23.. choice (E)... 19.. On the surface..... 20.... Choice (B) is the strongest word and seems to best match Gout’s tone. Gout is very much in evidence. this does not fit Gout’s role in the piece. because the question asks for the theme of the passage. she would not bother trying to reason with Franklin.. or feeling chastised. 22. They are portrayed as brilliant but not forgiving.. so choice (D) is the correct description.. choice (E) is incorrect. choice (C). and some discussion about exercise takes place. choice (A). A simile is a figure of speech that compares two unlike things by using words such as like or as. or righteously angry. choice (D). www... or contrite.. and (E) are not accurate restatements. 16..... choice (C). Gout certainly is not oblivious. However. is illogical.... and (E) are specific details of Franklin’s point that reasonable and responsible behavior cures the gout......... 18.... it’s the noun form of the verb interpose.. only choice (B) includes both elements of the tone—the humor and the reasoned presentation of the medical information given.... Untermeyer does give the impression that the Brahmins were stuffy and intransigent.. However... and is not pleased. The correct answer is (B).. The correct answer is (C)...... although not suited for a morality play.... choices (A). None of these applies to the selection. An alliteration is the repetition of initial consonant sound. Choice (A) restates part of the maxim. 15..... and (E).... (D)... choice (A)..) Gout states that she is very serious and she can justify every action (lines 2–3). choice (C). The challenge of determining the correct answer is between choices (D) and (E) because the other choices do not express the tone of Gout’s comments.. Dialogue occurs. one of which is literal and others symbolic. choice (A). (The character of Gout is female in the dialogue. The correct answer is (B).. . seems too mild a meaning.. Franklin does mention the pain of the gout attack... The correct answer is (D).. Franklin is lamenting the thought that people’s debts and sins are always greater than people imagine them to be.. Choice (A) means an intervention between parties with a view to reconciling differences...... choice (B). (D). but very concerned about Franklin’s health. absence.... choice (B)... The correct answer is (C). 17... 21. choice (A). The correct answer is (B). Choice (B) means the act of prohibiting or restraining someone from doing something.

Choice (E) is inaccurate because the motives are clearly developed.. Franklin agrees with Gout....... The passage is not objective. read the sentence.. (B).... Neither choice (D) nor choice (E) is true of the selection.. First... Choice (A) is irrelevant.. but the writer presents his arguments to convince the reader of his position. and (E) all deal with single concepts. it is used as a verb in this sentence. The correct answer is (C). so choices (A) and (E) are incorrect... choice (C)...... substitute each answer choice in the sentence to see which best fits the context.... wise statements/unwise actions). This makes the better choice (D) rather than choice (E)........ so choice (A) is incorrect.... The correct answer is (C).. First. (D)... choice (B)........ (D). Next. The correct answer is (C). Therefore... thus eliminating choice (D). Use of scientific reasoning..Practice Test 2 209 . The answer choices are either verbs or may be used as verbs (dispute and silence)...... Franklin has not shown himself to be forgetful. There is an infinitive (III)...com .. answers practice test 2 24. but that is only one interest. Choice (A) is the best answer in that the use of dialogue permits Franklin the writer to focus on Gout’s comments and easily refute Franklin the character’s defense...... Then determine which answer choice has only III—choice (C)..... and although choice (B) is true..... He says he likes walking in the gardens. the Franklin of the dialogue is serious.. The topic is serious— Franklin the character agrees with Gout—so Franklin the author’s purpose is more than to write some lighthearted prose... The key here is to notice that the word interests is plural. The passage is reasoned.. 31.. therefore... you need to determine which points are true about the sentence.. Only choice (C) fulfills the requirement (sages/fools... but does not act as if he does. choice (B). the statement that best characterizes what we do know about Franklin from the selection is that he enjoys those interests that do not require him to do anything more than sit. The sentence has neither a participial phrase (I) nor a compound verb in the past tense.. The correct answer is (C). ... it does not have that meaning in this passage..... 25...... 30.. so points I and II are incorrect. At this point in the dialogue... While the tone of the passage is amusing.. choice (A)... 27. The correct answer is (C)... rather than superstitions or religious beliefs....petersons..... choices (B) and (C) are incorrect. thus eliminating choice (D) as untrue. Franklin does enjoy being with friends.. Knowing Franklin as a historical figure would help you see that choice (E) is incorrect......... thus eliminating choice (B)... The theme is developed in such a way as to make Gout’s argument more persuasive.. The correct answer is (A). choice (D)..... 28.. Franklin will not answer because he knows he did not follow his own advice. If you realize the sentence means that Franklin cannot use the fatigue of the day as an excuse (argument) for needing a carriage. choice (C) is a better overall statement........ There is no information in the selection to support choice (C). so you can’t eliminate any choices immediately. While object may be a noun or a verb. While object can mean dispute... but strongly one-sided..... The statement in question contrasts two sets of circumstances... choice (C) is clearly the answer. www. The correct answer is (D)... 26...... Choices (A). Choice (B) is incorrect because Gout is not misinterpreting Franklin the character’s actions.. The correct answer must then have two sets of answers as well. and (E) make little or no sense in context. The correct answer is (D). The author is not attempting to teach you about his position...... Choices (A). 29. for medical conditions was a discovery of the eighteenth century.. he is not arguing with Gout nor is there any sign that he has tired of the conversation..

but hyperbole is not intended to be taken literally... choice (B).. so you must decide which most accurately applies to the entire essay. so choice (B) is incorrect. 39. or closing. The author is not relating a story. and (E) all apply to the passage.. direct address... The correct answer is (E). since only choice (E) allows for multiple answers. Although you may not recognize overstatement. . At first glance. choice (D). as is choice (D). or untrustworthy. 34... but not the same as.. deceitful. This question is similar to... choice (E). choice (C) is unlikely. but it is an analogy and there is none in the sentence... Choices (D) and (E) are distracters. You could determine the answer to this question even if you could not remember what all the grammatical terms mean.. The word invidious means “to create ill will or envy” or “to give offense.... he does not imply that they are entrapping... choice (A)....... choices (A).. is writing that attempts to prove a point with a well-reasoned discussion. The passage deals more with the effects of the colonial production than the effects of colonialism on the colonies. (B) and (C). Likewise....... The sentence certainly is not an oversimplification nor is there any imagery. While the author is obviously expressing the opinion that the restraints are negative.... The correct answer is (D).. Argument........ you could use the context to realize that choice (E) makes no sense. 32..210 PART V: Two Practice Tests . and (E) are incorrect.. so choices (B)... Choice (E) is a distracter. (D)...... The sentence does not mention expansionism (II) or economics (III).. Choice (B) has the right sentiment but is not strong enough..... and a prepositional phrase. so choice (A) is incorrect.. (B)... The writer of this passage is doing more than that...” choice (C).. Choices (B). Choice (C) is incorrect because the author is not simply explaining a topic. 36.. The correct answer is (E). (C). he is attempting to persuade the reader to accept his position. The correct answer is (A)........ and (D).. 37..... so choices (B) and (C) are not the best alternatives. The opening sentence of the first paragraph identifies what the writer believes to be the most important events in history (I)..petersons. The correct answer is (A)...... With no salutation..... choice (C). Once you recognized two of the grammatical elements. perhaps an infinitive.... 33. about commerce and expansionism. so choices (D) and (E) do not apply... Choice (A) is contrary to the tone of the selection.... The correct answer is (E).. all the choices may seem to pertain to the passage. The only answer that identifies only the element of history is choice (A).. (D)..... you could establish that it is the correct answer through the process of elimination. question 31... but the correct answer is the most precise... A review of the first sentence of the last paragraph of the passage contains the phrase “the whole show and splendour of this great commerce.. Choice (B) may seem to apply.. (C).. 40......... so choice (B) cannot be correct..com ...” If you did not know that... eliminating choice (A).. 38. respectively.. The passage does not recognize the exploitation involved in colonization (II)...... you know that the answer must be choice (E)..” The wording clearly indicates that the author is “very positive. 35... The essay’s purpose is to persuade you of the greatness of expansionism... a conceit may seem to be correct. The correct answer is (C). Since the selection discusses history...... as a rhetorical device.. the selection gives no evidence of correspondence.. so any answer that includes II should be eliminated—choices (A).. www.... thus making choice (C) incorrect.... choice (E).. The correct answer is (A).. He is not merely describing an event or place... The correct answer is (E)....

. because it substitutes the chapter title that appears in the reference with the title of the book.... Choice (A) is incorrect. The sentence speaks about the aggressive tendencies of fish regardless of feeding habits...... colonies’....... You can immediately eliminate choice (A)........ There is no comparison or story.... Choice (B) simply does not make sense.. in 1999. that is.. Choice (E) is incorrect because the footnote indicates that the publisher.. Choice (E) is incorrect because the article presents almost no statistical information....... not the editor. Choice (E) is a lengthy but incomplete sentence..... but that is an organizational technique.. so choice (D) is incorrect.. The correct answer is (C)... it would be indicated with “ed... To answer this question.. The correct answer is (D).com .. This leaves choice (D).. 47. which is the best answer among the choices given.. This sentence is an example of rhetorical question.... is located in Philadelphia and that the book was published.. but there is no indication that page 311 is the first page of Chapter 11.” written by Stanley Almira.petersons...... carefully read footnote 2.... The other possibilities........ You might have thought that the writer employs causal relation by arguing that expansionism results in economic wealth for noncolonial nations. but otherwise is identical to the convoluted original.. Choice (A) corrects the possessive..” Use context clues to help you determine the answer. This should tip you off that the aggressive tendencies may not be affected by outside stimuli and also rules out choice (C). Choice (C) is incorrect because the article is about South American Cichlids.” Choice (C) is correct. The author does include warnings about the aggressive nature of Managuenses and Red Devils..... 46...... so choice (A) is incorrect. not saltwater fish... and (E)... (D). choices (B). regardless of feeding habits. If he were the editor... To answer this question correctly. The correct answer is (E).. which would eliminate choice (A).. Choice (D) is incorrect because the footnote indicates that the quote can be found on page 311 in Chapter 11. because a parody is a humorous imitation. The footnote references a book titled “Feeding and Caring for Your South American Cichlids... but does not make a passionate plea to increase ownership. The writer uses the example of linen production to support his point.. Creatures of the Sea.. The use of examples to support his argument makes the piece specific.. Choice (D) is grammatically incorrect..... answers practice test 2 41.. Choice (C) is also incorrect. .. natural.. the aquarist must be aware of the innate aggressive (or nonaggressive) tendencies of these fish. making choice (E) correct.. The word “innate” is found in the sentence “In fact...Practice Test 2 211 . Choice (B) is incorrect... The correct answer is (C)...... 45. There is no indication from the context that the aggressive tendencies are extraordinary. not written.. so you can eliminate choice (E).. An anecdote is a story told to illustrate a point.. The correct answer is (A)... The sentence does not contain emotive language. An antecedent is the noun or noun phrase to which a pronoun refers. Tendencies are by definition ordinary... a question that does not require an answer but is asked to make a point. Only choices (A) and (C) make sense in the context of the clause. Choice (A) is incorrect. 44..... not a method of support. is correct.. are distracters..... the title is correct and Creatures of the Sea Publishing is the publisher of the book.. The correct answer is (B).. The sentence does not use exaggeration to make a point..... but this is not the central focus of the passage. The correct answer is (B)... eliminating choices (C) and (D). 42... choice (D). you must select the answer choice that provides the best summary or description of the contents of the passage... the author states that people should consider owning South American Cichlids.. 43... www. choice (B). choice (B)..... Choice (A).. because Stanley Almira is the author. You need to pick the alternative that exactly reflects the words of the sentence..... Choice (C) moves one clause but does little else to clarify the sentence’s meaning......

52. fits and is the correct answer. www. in order to show a similar relationship between two or more things.. so choice (B) is incorrect.. However.... To answer this question correctly........ so eliminate choice (B).... is to understand .. Choice (A) is incorrect. ... An analogy. which he refers to in the first paragraph as “breathtaking creatures.... There is no evidence the fish are unmanageable..com .. so choice (B) is correct. Even if you are not sure of the markings of a jaguar. and this is untrue....... The author recommends owning South American Cichlids.. choice (A).. so choice (C) is incorrect.. The correct answer is (E). it is reasonable to assume that a big cat is not blue and red.. so eliminate choice (B)..... Finally. so you can eliminate choice (B)... The correct answer is (A). “great” is used to mean huge or large. 49.. not placid. Choice (E) is a chapter title. Choice (B) is the book written by Stanley Almira.... The author does not express fear. There is nothing in the passage to suggest that the Managuense is the smallest cichlid. A jaguar is gold with black spots.” Condescending implies that the author looks down on the fish.. parallel construction is the repetition of verb phrases using “to:” “to love . The correct answer is (D)..petersons... so choice (A) is not correct............212 PART V: Two Practice Tests . choice (D). 54. occurs when a word is used to represent a sound. locate the footnote references in the passage.. In this sentence.. so eliminate choice (C). That is not evident. choice (C).. The fish is aggressive.. Choice (E).. but not necessary........ Parallel construction is when similar words or phrases are kept in the same form........ ... . Personification... The correct answer is (E).. so look for a synonym for evil among the answer choices. it is helpful to know what a jaguar looks like..... Choice (A) is the title of the book written by Gregori Anessi.... Incorrigible. ... Anessi describes Managuenses and Red Devils as evil. Remarkable.. has a positive connotation and is incorrect. the footnotes are not included to show research but as sources for quotes...” Remember that you are looking for the most likely answer... To answer this question. 48.. malevolent. The author clearly has strong feelings about South American Cichlids... The words in the other answer choices are all synonyms for “great.......... Choice (D) is the name of one of the publishing companies mentioned in the footnotes. choice (D) is incorrect... In this case.. .... such as All Around An Alligator... because the author does not disapprove of the fish. 53. Morality is not a characteristic that is applied to fish. The correct answer is (C)... so choice (D) is incorrect. The correct answer is (B).” Onomatopoeia....” but none fits in the context of the sentence.. The fish are aggressive.... and jaguars may be aggressive.. It is reasonable to assume that the author used the books for research because the author quotes the books. is the attribution of human characteristics to animals or inanimate objects...... You can determine this from the context of the sentence. 50. so discard that answer. draws a comparison. not many teeth. so choice (D) is correct.. because the passage states that Managuense have two teeth. 51.... choice (E)... is incorrect... but this is a general description and would not be the best answer among the choices. and does not make sense as an answer to this question.. choice (B). Alliteration is a literary device in which words in a phrase all begin with the same letter. Choice (E) is simply untrue.. The footnotes that are included in the article all relate directly to quotes used in the article.. The correct answer is (B)...... which mentions that the fish can grow to be up to two feet long and smaller fish are in danger of being “dinner” for the Managuense... choice (C)..... The paragraph states that the fish is “gold with black markings. not a book title.

com ...........................petersons....... readers of the novel practice test 2 Conflict/Issue/Challenge • • Challenge from without: to write a horror story equal to those previously written Challenge from within: to think of a story Content/Important Points • • • • • Challenge among friends Inspired by conversations with Byron and Shelley Vivid dreams Gothic tradition Dangers of technology/science in the wrong hands Development • • Chronological Slowly builds pace www......Practice Test 2 213 ...... the speaker Percy Bysshe Shelley Lord Byron Audience........................ Consider them as you complete your self-evaluation.................................... answers Section II SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 1 You might have chosen the following points to include in your essay on Mary Shelley’s Introduction to Frankenstein................. an introduction to the third edition of Frankenstein Narrative Theme • • Origins of the horror novel Aspects of writing a horror novel Characters/Individuals • • • • Mary Shelley.... ... Revise your essay using points from the list to strengthen it............................. Form or Mode • • Prose.....

............... musical Word choice: sophisticated but comprehensible SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 2 You might have chosen the following points to include in your essay analyzing Emerson’s speech on books...... personal................ Revise your essay using points from the list to strengthen it....................... confined to the house Tone: emotional................. Consider them as you complete your self-evaluation...........petersons......................214 PART V: Two Practice Tests ................... somewhat dark Diction/Syntax/Style • • • • • • • Use of both internal and external dialogue Vivid language Specific details Figurative language Complex sentence structure Chronological development.. Form or Mode • • Speech Persuasive/argument Theme • Books can be the best of things or the worst of things Conflict/Issue/Challenge • • To overcome rigid reverence of great books To prevent transferring of respect for acts of creation (thought) to an imperfect outcome of that thought Content/Important Points • • • • Indictment of bookworms Greatest thinkers were once students Should not worship profound works to the extent that their creators are forgotten Respect books in moderation www................... ......com ...... Literary Conventions • • • Point of view: first person Setting: Switzerland during a rainy summer...

........... Thesis statement/introduction • • Clear definition of the issue—in this case......... Consider the following as you complete your self-evaluation..... Books are written on it .............. and spelling are correct...............com ..” “sluggish........... “tyrant.........” practice test 2 SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 3 This question asks for a synthesis essay that supports.........” “Meek men grow up in libraries” Use of active and passive voice Sentence variety Some parallel structure: “Colleges are built on it............ .. qualifies..... or disputes the argument that satellite radio will replace terrestrial radio because of government censorship.....” “perverted...............Practice Test 2 215 ........ It does not matter which position you take as long as you provide adequate support for your argument using your own opinions along with information from the sources..... Revise your essay using points from the list to strengthen it if necessary.. argumentative Diction/Syntax/Style • • • • • Sentences fairly short and not extremely complex. answers • • • • Individual thought paramount (an argument misused to deny the importance of the past) Write books of own truths Undertake own acts of creation Implies ideas are not great in and of themselves Literary Conventions • • • • Point of view: first person Audience: students Setting: university campus Tone: strident.. terrestrial radio being made obsolete by satellite radio Clear statement of your position on the issue: statement of the reason you agree or disagree with the statement that satellite radio will replace terrestrial radio because satellite radio does not have to conform to government regulations www.. ......... syntax... straightforward Language overstated. ...............petersons.. Remember to proofread your response and make sure your grammar....

...........................com .....................................petersons.. (ex: In sum......... there can be no other conclusion drawn from the evidence except to say that people will always accept a bit of censorship in exchange for free entertainment.......216 PART V: Two Practice Tests ..................... ............... • www..........................) Conclusion neatly sums up your argument.... Supporting details • Support is based on your own opinions about the position you take but information in the sources should also be used Show a clear connection among the sources you choose to cite Sources are seamlessly integrated with appropriate transitions At least three of the six sources are used Explain the logic of how you arrived at the conclusion you did based on the information provided in the sources Acknowledge opposing arguments and refute them Attribute both direct and indirect citations • • • • • • Conclusion • Includes a restatement of your thesis tied into the supporting evidence you used..............

includes specific references 5 Reveals simplistic thinking and/or immature writing..... a few errors Adequately varied.com Use of Sentences Effectively varied and engaging.... incoherent Practice Test 2 Organization and Development Well organized and developed. 6–7 Demonstrates good control of the literature and good writing competence.... some errors Somewhat varied and marginally interesting..... numerous errors Severely flawed. may paraphrase rather than analyze Misreadings and lack of persuasive evidence from the text. elements of literature vague. adequate skills 3–4 Incomplete thinking. exhibits perception and clarity....... meager and unconvincing treatment of literary elements Somewhat organized and developed...SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE FREE RESPONSE ESSAYS 8–9 Demonstrates excellent control of the literature and outstanding writing competence... incoherent and void of unity A response with no more than a reference to the literature. some incoherence and lack of unity 1–2 Unacceptably brief... fails to respond adequately to part or parts of the question. virtually error free Virtually error free Generally interesting and effective... thorough and effective.. frequent major errors Numerous major errors Interesting and effective....... dull and uninteresting. extremely immature Extremely flawed 217 ..petersons. a few errors Occasional minor errors Occasionally interesting and effective. virtually error free Varied and interesting. incisive Excellent understanding of the text. exhibits perception and clarity.. less thorough and incisive than the highest papers Good understanding of the text. fails to respond to the question... overgeneralized Serious misreadings and little supporting evidence from the text... original or unique approach..... mechanical. some major errors Mostly dull and conventional.... one or more major errors Somewhat dull and ordinary...... mostly coherent and unified Word Choice Grammar and Usage www.. several errors Several minor errors Numerous major errors. coherent and unified Reasonably organized and developed. erroneous treatment of literary elements Little or no organization and development.... some errors in diction Some major errors Little or no variation. little clarity 0 Lacking skill and competence Understanding of the Text Superficial understanding of the text... coherent and unified Overall Impression . includes apt and specific references Meticulously organized and thoroughly developed.. blank response... or one completely off the topic No apparent organization or development...

.... challenges. or qualifies the question accurately Clearly states a position. some errors 3–4 Demonstrates some skill but lacks understanding of question and sources 1–2 Demonstrates little skill in taking a coherent position and defending it or in using sources 0 Lacks skill and competence 218 Use of Organization Understanding Sentences and Development of the Text Word Choice Grammar and Usage www.... one or more major errors Somewhat dull and ordinary... some errors in diction.. incoherent. extremely immature Extremely flawed .. uses at least three sources to support that position. or lacks an argument.. or summarizes the sources rather than using them to support a position Lacks coherent development or organization... and well integrated synthesis of source information. dull and uninteresting. no attempt to integrate vocabulary from the sources Severely flawed.. uses citations appropriately 5 Demonstrates general competence in stating and defending a position... cites no sources Effectively varied and engaging... close to error free Somewhat varied and marginally interesting. uses at least three sources to support that position convincingly and effectively.. coherent and unified Overall Impression .. adequate development of ideas but less convincing. cites one or no sources Position does not accurately reflect the sources.... no more than a listing of the sources PART V: Two Practice Tests Clearly states a position.. may present overly simple argument Creates weak connections between argument and cited sources..SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE SYNTHESIS ESSAYS 8–9 Demonstrates excellent control of effective writing techniques.com Demonstrates a somewhat superficial understanding of the sources Takes a position that may misread or simplify the sources. uses citations convincingly Takes a clear position that defends...... coherent and unified Varied and interesting... no attempt to integrate vocabulary from the sources Some major errors Little or no variation. some weaknesses in logic. frequent major errors Numerous major errors Uses the vocabulary of the topic as evident in the sources........ cites only two sources Misreads sources.. 6–7 Demonstrates good control of effective writing techniques.. virtually error free Virtually error free Demonstrates ease in using vocabulary from the sources Occasional minor errors Occasional use of vocabulary from the sources........ occasionally interesting and effective Several minor errors Numerous major errors. interesting and effective..petersons. some inconsistencies and weaknesses in argumentation Displays some misreading of the sources or some stretching of information to support the chosen position Generally clearly stated position and links between position and cited sources. cites three sources Adequately varied. a few errors No apparent organization or development....... sophisticated argumentation. somewhat thorough and incisive... some major errors Mostly dull and conventional.......

rate yourself in each of the categories below for each essay on the test...Practice Test 2 219 ................. with 9 being the highest............... It is difficult to score yourself objectively......... Then calculate the average of the six numbers to determine your final score. a reader will rate your essay on a scale of 0 to 9... Question 1 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Question 2 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Question 3 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score www....................... Rate each category from 9 (high) to 0 (low). Using the rubrics on the previous pages.com ............................ ........................... Enter on the lines below the number from the rubric that most accurately reflects your performance in each category................ so you may wish to ask a respected friend or teacher to assess your writing for a more accurate reflection of its strengths and weaknesses..........petersons.. On the AP test itself............

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.............. O O O O O A B C D E 12.. O O O O O A B C D E 22. O O O O O A B C D E 27.......... O O O O O A B C D E 34. O O O O O A B C D E 49........ O O O O O A B C D E 40... O O O O O www. O O O O O A B C D E 37.....com . O O O O O A B C D E 21....... O O O O O A B C D E 4. O O O O O A B C D E 31.. O O O O O A B C D E 19......... O O O O O A B C D E 47... O O O O O A B C D E 26.. O O O O O A B C D E 44..... O O O O O A B C D E 48. O O O O O A B C D E 42.. O O O O O A B C D E 43.... O O O O O A B C D E 11... O O O O O A B C D E 41. O O O O O A B C D E 16.... O O O O O A B C D E 30... O O O O O A B C D E 17. O O O O O A B C D E 46.. O O O O O A B C D E 9.... O O O O O A B C D E 32..... O O O O O A B C D E 29.. O O O O O A B C D E 15. O O O O O A B C D E 8. O O O O O A B C D E 23. ...... O O O O O A B C D E 13. O O O O O A B C D E 33... O O O O O A B C D E 5. O O O O O A B C D E 10. O O O O O A B C D E 6..........petersons........ O O O O O A B C D E 7. O O O O O A B C D E 38.. answer sheet ANSWER SHEET PRACTICE TEST 3 SECTION I A B C D E 1.... O O O O O A B C D E 14.... A O B O C O D O E O 20........... O O O O O A B C D E 24...... O O O O O 2. O O O O O A B C D E 28......... O O O O O A B C D E 45..... O O O O O A B C D E 25. O O O O O A B C D E 35. O O O O O A B C D E 18... A O B O C O D O E O A B C D E 3......------------------------------------------------------------------- ✁ Practice Test 3 221 . O O O O O A B C D E 50..... O O O O O A B C D E 36. O O O O O A B C D E 39.......

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....................................................................... www............. ..............................com answer sheet ------------------------------------------------------------------- ✁ Practice Test 3 227 ...................petersons.........................

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practice test 3 SECTION I 50 QUESTIONS • 60 MINUTES Directions: This section consists of selections of literature and questions on their content. and Mr. I never was so much inticed with the glorious name of a King. and to defend this kingdom from dishonor. Thus Mr.... by which they are made more acceptable or less offensive.. and for my own part... I commend me to your loyal loves..... and to maintain His glory and keep you in safety... Controller. and yours to my best care and your further councels. you bring them all to kiss my hand... And though you have had and may have many mightier and wiser Princes sitting in this Seat. or the royal authority of a Queen.. but to God only and wholly all is given and ascribed. and form...... damage... as delighted that God hath made me His Instrument to maintain His Truth and Glory. or to bitter pills gilded over.. is a thing more glorious to them that see it. which indeed are bitter and unpleasant to take. in mine own disposition I should be willing to resign the place I hold to any other.. But should I ascribe any of these things unto my self. were it not for conscience sake to discharge the duty that God hath laid upon me.. The cares and troubles of a Crown I cannot more fitly resemble than to the drugs of a learned physician.. and glad to be freed of the glory with the labors..... Line 5 10 15 20 To be a King.......... for it is not my desire to live nor to reign longer than my life and reign shall be for your good.. select the response that best answers the question and mark the corresponding space on the answer sheet... or my sexly weakness. that before these Gentlemen depart unto their countries. yet you never had nor shall have any that will love you better. After you have read each passage.......Practice Test 3 .... and oppression... perfumed with some aromatical savour.... and I pray you Mr. QUESTIONS 1–13 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION—A SPEECH BY QUEEN ELIZABETH I TO PARLIAMENT... Secretary... I were not worthy to live. than it is pleasant to them that bear it: for my self. 229 ... tyranny.. and of all most unworthy of the mercies I have received at God’s hands....... and wear a Crown... and you of my Councell..... Speaker. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.. style.

.. and wear a Crown....... give credence to the idea that she rules because of Divine Will confide that she is tired of the responsibilities of the monarchy suggest that she is willing to resign and let another ruler take over I only II only III only I and II only II and III only (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 3..petersons.... .. Elizabeth says “.. The passage as a whole can best be described as which of the following modes of discourse? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Narrative Argument Exposition Description Persuasion 5........ ..... (E) The Crown brings with it both good things and bad.................... in mine own disposition I should be willing to resign the place I hold to any other” (lines 16–17) in order to I.. Elizabeth’s use of the phrase “pills . Which of the following definitions best suits the words “fitly resemble” (line 10) in the context? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Closely approximate Aptly describe Accurately compare Perfectly mirror Closely relate to 4....... than it is pleasant to them that bear it” (lines 1–2)? (A) The monarchy is a glorious thing to behold.... (B) The responsibilities of a ruler are a heavy burden....... II............. 7..................230 PART V: Two Practice Tests ........... What does Elizabeth imply when she says “To be a King. .. It can be inferred from her use of the words “my sexly weakness” (line 7) that Elizabeth believes (A) she herself is weak (B) she is unworthy of God’s mercies (C) she is too emotional (D) women are the weaker sex (E) kings make better monarchs 2... Which of the following best describes the tone of this passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Religious Regal Persuasive Powerful Benevolent www.. III.... which indeed are bitter and unpleasant to take” (lines 12–14) is an example of which of the following figures of speech? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Simile Metaphor Imagery Personification Hyperbole 6.................... (D) Do not challenge my royal authority........ 1......... .. In the second paragraph. is a thing more glorious to them that see it.. (C) It is sometimes pleasant to be queen........ ..com ....

. I commend me to your loyal loves” (line 22)? (A) I want you to remember me to your families. practice test 8..... (E) I will love those of you who are loyal to me......... ........... the last sentence in the second paragraph (lines 19–21) is best described as (A) an extended metaphor supporting the antecedent metaphor (B) reductio ad absurdem (C) a promise to care for her subjects (D) argumentum ad hominem (E) an attempt to balance possible weakness with a greater virtue 11....com ➡ ... In this address...... The metaphor that Elizabeth develops in the second paragraph is an attempt to inform Parliament that (A) the burdens of being queen have made her ill (B) she is no longer willing to accept the yoke of power (C) monarchs who rule irresponsibly are an offense to God (D) the privileges of power do not compensate for its burdens (E) she rules only from her conscience and her duty to God GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www.............Practice Test 3 231 ............ Given the speaker’s rhetoric..... (B) I continue to be devoted to you.................. what does Elizabeth mean when she says “Thus ...... In the first paragraph. In the context of her speech............... what can one infer is the primary purpose of Elizabeth’s address? (A) To curry favor with her subjects by expressing her affection (B) To elicit compassion for herself as a woman (C) To explain that she rules by divine will (D) To convince parliament that her motives are purely altruistic (E) To dispel any ill will that may exist 13... what does Elizabeth say are her duties as monarch? (A) To reign with truth and glory (B) To overcome her sexly weakness (C) To love her subjects better than her predecessors did (D) To take her medicine dutifully (E) To defend England from tyranny and oppression 10..... by choosing the word “Instrument” Elizabeth wishes to emphasize specifically (A) the nature of her political power (B) an almost musical delight with being the Queen (C) her promise to God that she will rule fairly (D) her obedience to God’s will (E) that her authority comes from the line of succession 9...........petersons. ...... (C) I demand your continued allegiance............ 12.. (D) I ask for your continued affection........... Rhetorically............... .

. until we have stripped it of all its false pretenses to credit and reputation amongst men.” An honest country gentleman had the misfortune to fall into company with two or three modern men of honor. I shall talk very freely on a custom which all men wish exploded.. but as I am pretty well acquainted by great opportunities with the nature of man.... being conscious of his offense. But I must confess... it is not to do handsome actions that denominates a man of honor.. which may serve to embellish the dissertation with proper cuts.. And as it has been proposed to treat of subjects of gallantry in the article from hence..petersons. Thus you often see a common sharper in competition with a gentleman of the first rank.... who was lately wounded in a duel.... and tells him he was ready to give him satisfaction.. June 6 Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 A letter from a young lady.. and show.. But there is one unintelligible word. and preserve himself from the ingenuity of owning a mistake.... For this reason. which occasions very frequently that a brave man falls by a hand below that of a common hangman. methinks........ from their practice... written in the most passionate terms. which puts me in mind of Peter’s order to the keeper........ though no man has courage enough to resist it...... “This is fine doing... where he happened to be very ill treated. and one of the company.. the danger vanishes.. rather than a private gentleman with a single rapier. By this means it is called “giving a man satisfaction” to urge your offense against him with your sword...... which I fear will extremely perplex my dissertation..... though all mankind is convinced that a fighting gamester is only a pickpocket with the courage of an highwayman. a good history of quarrels would be very edifying to the public.. White’s Chocolate House...” If the contradiction in the very terms of one of our challenges were as well explained and turned into downright English...... and I apply myself to the town for particulars and circumstances within their knowledge.. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS 14–26 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. when I consider what I am going about and run over in my imagination all the endless crowd of men of honor who will be offended at such a discourse...... made of cowardice..... and resolution rises upon this subject. For this work......... her lover. it is worth our consideration to examine into this chimerical groundless humor. and to lay every other thought aside....” says the plain fellow....... “If you neglect to do all this. sends a note to him in the morning. “last night he sent me away cursedly out of humor.... and know of a truth that all men fight against their will..... that this resentment neither has its foundation from true reason nor solid fame: but is an imposture..... would it not run after this manner? www... wherein she laments the misfortune of a gentleman... it is enough if he dares to defend ill ones......232 PART V: Two Practice Tests . I am undertaking....... Most of the quarrels I have ever known have proceeded from some valiant coxcomb’s persisting in the wrong. ... One cannot with any patience reflect on the unaccountable jumble of persons and things in this town and nation.. to defend some prevailing folly.. which is the term “satisfaction.........” As the matter at present stands. in The Tale of a Tub... and no one point in nature is more proper to be considered by the company who frequent this place than that of duels.. and this morning he fancies it would be a satisfaction to be run through the body..... and I confess to you I find very hard to explain.. and yet his executioner escapes the clutches of the hangman for doing it. and want of understanding........ a work worthy an invulnerable hero in romance.. damn you and your generation forever: and so we bid you heartily farewell. I shall therefore hereafter consider how the bravest men in other ages and nations have behaved themselves upon such incidents as we decide by combat.. has turned my thoughts to that subject and inclined me to examine into the causes which precipitate men into so fatal a folly.com . falsehood........

.. . sir... What is meant by the phrase “giving a man satisfaction” (line 43)? (A) To kill or wound another man (B) To repay a debt (C) To offer the opportunity to restore one’s honor (D) To challenge a man with swords (E) To discredit an enemy 19.... In the second sentence of the first paragraph.... According to this passage.. and endeavor to shoot me through the head to teach you more manners.............. etc..... on horseback......... (D) Men of honor must defend their reputation... III. I only II only III only I and II only II and III only 14........ I desire you would come with a pistol in your hand... to tell you.. and because you want both breeding and humanity.. I will meet you in Hyde Park an hour hence. ....... 50 55 Your extraordinary behavior last night and the liberty you were pleased to take with me makes me this morning give you this.petersons.... .... sir....... on every post in town: and so. what does the author mean when he says “a brave man falls by a hand below that of a common hangman” (lines 31–32)? I............... (C) Men of honor have no alternative.... what is the best meaning for the word “chimerical”? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Meritless Imaginary Monstrous Unjustified Musical 15.......... If you fail of doing me this pleasure.com ➡ ............. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www.. The passage as a whole is an example of which of the following modes of discourse? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Description Exposition Narration Argument Persuasion 16..Practice Test 3 233 . I shall never forgive what you have done already.. because you are an ill-bred puppy.............. sir. do not fail of getting everything ready.. your most obedient humble servant. .... Pray.. What literary device does the writer employ in the third paragraph to attack the practice of dueling? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Anecdote Satire Imagery Allegory Parable 20... (E) It is understandable in certain circumstances..... A gentleman could be killed by a person of a lower class. In the fourth paragraph... if you will not injure me more...... and you will infinitely oblige. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Dueling is a crime punishable by hanging.. Gentlemen and commoners alike die by dueling... (B) It is against the nature of man. practice test Sir.. I shall say you are a rascal.. What does the writer say is the purpose of his essay? (A) To educate his readers about dueling (B) To offer alternatives to dueling (C) To write amusing essays for his readers (D) To discredit the practice of dueling (E) To change a barbaric custom 17... 18... what does the writer believe about the practice of dueling? (A) It is a time-honored custom.... II...

........................... What is the rhetorical function of the last paragraph? I..... sentence fragments (C) Colloquial diction...com ... Which of the following best describes the writer’s style? (A) Formal diction.... ardent Educated. ....petersons... reasonable Serious...... Which of the following best characterizes the tone of this selection? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Persuasive.. II. What is the rhetorical function of the first paragraph? I...... II.. idiomatic punctuation 22.. I only II only III only I and II only I..... scholarly 25.. written in the most passionate terms” (line 1) contains all of the following elements EXCEPT a(n) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) adjectival phrase gerund phrase adverbial phrase prepositional phrase participial phrase www.... 21..... the phrase “you are an ill-bred puppy” (lines 51–52) is an example of a(n) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) simile metaphor personification analogy overstatement 26............. II.... simple declarative sentences (D) Colloquial diction. It pokes fun at the custom of dueling.... In the first sentence of the last paragraph. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) To present the main purpose of the article To tell readers the genesis of the article To explain why the author has chosen this subject I only II only III only I and II only I. compoundcomplex sentences (B) Idiomatic vocabulary. II.. III............................ introspective Satirical.......... witty Impassioned... (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) It illustrates the contradictory nature of giving “satisfaction. The first sentence of the first paragraph beginning “A letter from a young lady.............234 PART V: Two Practice Tests .... III.... rambling sentences (E) Idiomatic vocabulary..... and III 23..” It paraphrases a challenge to a duel..... and III 24..

... 55 Connecticut Reports.L....... both as a legislature and a judicial tribunal.. Connecticut continued to insist on this view. in the main. citations by D.. 2 1 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www...4 This mingling of judicial with legislative functions is a thing to be tolerated only while the foundations of a government are being laid. They sat as a court of review..... as neere as conveniently may be......... the colonists were... so far as might be practicable.. on which it was built up.. quoting a text from it as an authority. II. 115........ Davenport... So far as they granted legislative power.. lawes...... They passed acts of attainder.... Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 The colonial charters. with general consistency. 569... Poore. however... These. statutes. . At first they kept in their own hands a large share of judicial power... practice test QUESTIONS 27–37.. Colonial Records of Conn...”1 In the Southern New England colonies...1381.... in the days before the Twelve Tables. 324... but there they built on a written law—the Bible.. 4 Wheeler’s Appeal.. in the State archives.... and sessions of the inferior ones were frequent..... and as cases which this might not provide for arose.. just as citations now might be made in a lawyer’s brief from a legal treatise or reported case.. I.. 45 Connecticut Reports. were all equally charters for Englishmen.. ed... The assemblies. 132–134..” II... Much of this work came to be done by their legislative assemblies... to grant new trials or review judgments.. or pollicie of England. of 1769.petersons.. 5 New Haven Colony Records.. where they were more anxious to avoid conflict with the common law. until the days of the Stamp Act.. Conn..... Baldwin. left free to make at their pleasure.. 261. 1... more by their courts. were themselves courts... “Charters and Constitutions. from MSS. In several colonies they long kept to themselves the right of deciding private controversies on equitable principles.. it was found from the first and everywhere that if the common law was to be applied to the rough conditions of colonial life some modifications were necessary.. the problem was a serious one.... They settled insolvent estates. 314... 306.... arguendo. whether of the proprietary. This passage is an excerpt about the history of the American judiciary by Simeon E. it was generally declared that it should be exercised in conformity..... Stat.... when it became the interest of her people to claim the benefit of the principles of the English constitution and of the common law.. 570.. They made the little law which they needed for themselves... and ordinances may be. Cf...com ➡ . they were to be decided by such rules as the magistrates might think right and warranted by the precepts found in the Bible.. In the colony of New Haven a code was early framed. 116. 12... when first settled..... government... They acted as the early parliaments of England had acted.. 3 Publications of the Colonial Society of Mass. in Flynn v....Practice Test 3 235 .2 In early Massachusetts the written pleadings often referred to the Bible... L. clamored for a known and certain law. III.... agreeable to the forme of the lawes...3 As was anticipated in the Raleigh patent.... based on the common law of the English people. Morgan. 1689–1706...5 In Massachusetts... The assemblies sat but for a few days in the year: the courts were always open to suitors... with the laws of England. the common law of England was disowned.. As the Roman plebeian. The proviso to this effect in the roving patent given by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Walter Raleigh may be taken as a type: “so always as the said statutes...D..... so the common people of the early colonies insisted that from a similar want they held their rights too much at the will of their rulers. READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE CAREFULLY BEFORE YOU CHOOSE YOUR ANSWERS. provincial or republican type..

...... (D) The Southern New England colonies originally based their law on an equal combination of English common law and the Bible............................... left free to make at their pleasure. In the following sentence from the fourth paragraph. What is the purpose of footnote 3? (A) To credit a direct quotation (B) To show the reader the basis for the information in the third paragraph (C) To provide the reader with sources for further reading (D) None of the above (E) All of the above 32............. (E) The Stamp Act caused the Southern New England colonies to become disillusioned with law based on English common law. (B) The Southern New England colonies originally based their laws on the Bible but saw the benefit of using English common law around the time of the Stamp Act... .....com ........ 28....... It is reasonable to conclude from the footnotes as a whole that (A) the author gives little credence to original documents (B) the author used as many primary sources as possible to research the information in the passage (C) the passage is based on little fact (D) the passage is simply a compilation of facts from the cited sources (E) the author was an important government official 34...236 PART V: Two Practice Tests ............ The second paragraph can best be summarized by which of the following statements? (A) The Southern New England colonies always based their law on English common law................. 27.petersons.............. The language used in lines 30–31 is an example of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Simile Foreshadowing Sarcasm Parallel construction Imagery www...... This excerpt is most likely taken from (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a historical novel a scientific journal a biography an encyclopedia a history book 33. what word does “these” refer to? “These......... Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “disowned” as used in the first sentence of the second paragraph? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Ignored Sold Adhered to Presented Revised 31. in the main....... the colonists were.... (C) The Southern New England colonies always based their law on the Bible... The number 1381 in footnote 1 most likely represents (A) the year “Charters and Constitutions” was published (B) the total number of pages in “Charters and Constitutions” (C) the page number in “Charters and Constitutions” where the citation can be found (D) the number of charters mentioned in the book (E) the year that the first charter was published 29....................” (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Modifications Conditions Laws Colonists Patents 30..

full of mirth and play. (C) Government works best when the judiciary and legislature are kept separate.. indeed.... I bought this addition to my library... gleesome boy. a rich treasure... This knowledge opened my eyes to the horrible pit and revealed the teeth of the frightful dragon that was ready to pounce upon me. behold! The very discontent so graphically predicted by Master Hugh had already come upon me... 36.. every increase of knowledge............. and every opportunity afforded me.... on Thames street Fell’s Point.... or a bird—anything...... Knowledge had come. This volume was........ Fortunately....... by hearing some little boys say they were going to learn some little pieces out of it for the Exhibition. All GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www... . The author’s tone can best be described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) strident pleading emotional cold scholarly QUESTIONS 38–50 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. and yet there was no getting rid of the subject of my thoughts... or unfortunately. . I was wretched and gloomy... and paid him fifty cents for it... Knight.. for a time.. but it opened no way for my escape..... I was first led to buy this book.... (B) The judiciary is more important than the legislature as a part of government... ... IN THIS EXCERPT FROM MY BONDAGE AND MY FREEDOM BY FREDERICK DOUGLASS. Baltimore..... practice test 35... was spent in diligently perusing it. I was too thoughtful to be happy...... As I read. rather than a slave. especially respecting the free states.... about this time in my life.... The dialogue and the speeches were all redolent of the principles of liberty and poured floods of light on the nature and character of slavery..... THE AUTHOR SPEAKS ABOUT HIS YOUTH AS A SLAVE. as when I landed first at Baltimore....... ..” To my bondage I saw no end. With which statement would the author of the passage most likely agree? (A) The judiciary and legislature should always be mingled....... ...petersons.. The word “type” as used in line 6 of the first paragraph most likely means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) kind font category example manner 37.... I had made enough money to buy what was then a very popular schoolbook..... (E) The colonies should not have protested the Stamp Act..... It was this everlasting thinking which distressed and tormented me.... the Columbian Orator....... (D) English common law is the best way to govern all societies........... I have often wished myself a beast. added something to the almost intolerable burden of the thought—“I am a slave for life..... of Mr. ...com ➡ .. and I shall never be able to tell how sadly that thought chafed my young spirit.. I was no longer the lighthearted.. Beyond my ability to describe. it was a terrible reality..... .... READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.. Line 5 10 15 20 When I was about thirteen years old and had succeeded in learning to read..Practice Test 3 237 .

. What effect does reading the Columbian Orator have upon young Douglass? (A) He decides to buy the book for fifty cents......238 PART V: Two Practice Tests ... According to the author.. It was ever present.... The more beautiful and charming were the smiles of nature....... forceful.. —Frederick Douglass * trumpet 25 38.. 40.. (C) Slaves learn about the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.... (B) Education makes slaves dissatisfied with their position.. I do not exaggerate. my spirit was roused to eternal wakefulness... converted every object into an asserter of this great right.... and beheld in every object.... This passage is primarily concerned with (A) the importance of reading for Frederick Douglass (B) Douglass’s conclusion that slavery is intolerable (C) the author’s experiences at the hands of white boys (D) the writer’s knowledge of the constitution of the United States (E) reasons why he was no longer a happy youngster 39..... It was heard in every sound... that it looked from every star.com .. (D) Education makes slaves dangerous to their masters... smiled in every calm...... and moved in every storm............. The style of this excerpt can best be described as (A) elaborate.. breathed in every wind...petersons...... Liberty! The inestimable birthright of every man........ I saw nothing without seeing it........... This passage is an example of a (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) slave narrative picaresque novel biography historical text secondary source 41. 43. (C) The book increases his longing for freedom............ Which of the following describes the tone of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Light and humorous Ironic Academic Sincere and powerful Angry and violent 42... (E) Owners do not want slaves wasting work time by reading and learning... and circumspect (B) poetic (C) plain....... why is education incompatible with slavery? (A) The system keeps slaves from living in harmony with their souls. ........ Once awakened by the silver trump* of knowledge. to torment me with a sense of my wretched condition....... the more horrible and desolate was my condition.. had...... (B) Douglass decides to enter the Exhibition and compete against white boys........... nature was redolent of it.... when I say.... and direct (D) obscure and difficult (E) Elizabethan www.. for me......... (E) He develops a plan to escape north... complex. (D) He discovers that he is a victim of an oppressive system...

.... the word “thinking” is which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Participle Verb Infinitive Adverbial phrase Gerund 48... In the sentence “It was this everlasting thinking which distressed and tormented me. Which of the following is not an accurate analysis of this passage? (A) Douglass’s descriptions are straightforward....... (E) Douglass allows readers to draw their own conclusions... Douglass uses the word “redolent” twice (line 12 and line 22)...............com .What does the word mean? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Filled with Sweet-smelling Evocative Excessive Exuding 46......... (C) The passage is factual.... behold! The very discontent so graphically predicted by Master Hugh had already come upon me” (lines 13–14)? (A) The young Douglass came to the conclusion that slavery was wrong....... and yet there was no getting rid of the subject of my thoughts” (lines 20–21)............... (D) The author employs many literary allusions.. his owner the effects of education the Columbian Orator the institution of slavery events that had happened to him 47....Practice Test 3 239 ...... (E) Douglass found his soul.. When Douglass writes “This knowledge opened my eyes to the horrible pit and revealed the teeth of the frightful dragon that was ready to pounce upon me... Hugh.... (B) Douglass decided he would pursue a higher education........ (B) The author offers little interpretation of the significance of events.......... (D) His spirit awakened.. What significant change does Douglass describe in the lines “As I read..... 49.. the more horrible and desolate was my condition.......... Do not turn to any other section in the test.” (lines 26–27)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Metaphors Parallelism Exaggeration Eloquence Cacophony 50..petersons...... 45....... practice test 44.................. www....... (C) The writer decided he would act light-hearted and mirthful while planning his escape......” (lines 16–17) he was referring to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Mr.. What structure does Douglass employ in the sentence “The more beautiful and charming were the smiles of nature.... ..... you may check your work on this section only. Which of the following best describes the mode of discourse of this article? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Exposition Narrative Argument Description Persuasion STOP If you finish before time is called.

the governed are most let alone by it.. but most governments are usually.. I ask for... and not partly by their intentions... .. but at once a better government.... The objections which have been brought against a standing army. may also at last be brought against a standing government....... But it is not the less necessary for this... Let every man make known what kind of government would command his respect.. and. to speak practically and as a citizen.. and they are many and weighty. It does not settle the West.... but by the alacrity with which it got out of its way. and.. which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will.. Write a well-organized essay in which you explain how Thoreau developed and supported his core theme... Governments show thus how successfully men can be imposed on. if the government had not sometimes got in its way.. tone.......com ... to satisfy that idea of government which they have. yet this government never of itself furthered any enterprise.. even impose on themselves... endeavoring to transmit itself unimpaired to posterity....... the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool. for in the outset. for the people must have some complicated machinery or other... and that will be one step toward obtaining it.... It does not educate... But....... the people would not have consented to this measure....... “That government is best which governs least”. for a single man can bend it to his will..... when it is most expedient....240 PART V: Two Practice Tests .. For government is an expedient by which men would fain succeed in letting one another alone.. and hear its din.. and..... It is a sort of wooden gun to the people themselves... we must all allow. theme....... This American government—what is it but a tradition. which also I believe: “That government is best which governs not at all”.. not at once no government. .. and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidly and systematically... if they were not made of India rubber. The character inherent in the American people has done all that has been accomplished..... or argument. The government itself...... as has been said. and mode of discourse..... www. imagery..... and when men are prepared for it. and all governments are sometimes..... if ever they should use it in earnest as a real one against each other. that will be the kind of government which they will have. if one were to judge these men wholly by the effects of their actions. but each instant losing some of its integrity? It has not the vitality and force of a single living man........ Trade and commerce.. it finally amounts to this. Be sure to consider rhetorical and stylistic devices such as diction.petersons..... It does not keep the country free. ..... and deserve to prevail.. Question 1 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES From Civil Disobedience Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 I heartily accept the motto. Carried out.. The standing army is only an arm of the standing government... .. It is excellent.. Witness the present Mexican war.. inexpedient... SECTION II 3 QUESTIONS • 2 HOURS 15 MINUTES Directions: Read the following passage carefully.... it will surely split. unlike those who call themselves nogovernment men. Government is at best but an expedient.. is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it..... for their own advantage.... would never manage to bounce over the obstacles which legislators are continually putting in their way... though a recent one.. they would deserve to be classed and punished with those mischievous persons who put obstructions on the railroads... and it would have done somewhat more..

..S.... not as a partisan. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy and desire among them with regard to the issues and circumstances of the conflict... practice test Directions: Read the passage below carefully........... but as a friend.. whose love of their country and whose loyalty to its Government should unite them as Americans all.. experience... Include evidence from your own observation...........Practice Test 3 241 .... and chiefly from the nations now at war.......... ...... responsibility for no less a thing than that the people of the United States.......... or reading to support your position........ may be divided in camps of hostile opinion.......... Such divisions amongst us would be fatal to our peace of mind and might seriously stand in the way of the proper performance of our duty as the one great nation at peace..........petersons...... Those responsible for exciting it will assume a heavy responsibility. bound in honor and affection to think first of her and her interests.... to succeed in the momentous struggle........... involvement in foreign conflict. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www...... hot against each other........... others another. Write a well-organized essay presenting a logical argument for or against Woodrow Wilson’s Appeal for Neutrality.......... Some will wish one nation... involved in the war itself in impulse and opinion if not in action........ It will be easy to excite passion and difficult to allay it.......com ➡ ............. Question 2 SUGGESTED TIME—40 MINUTES Line 5 10 15 The people of the United States are drawn from many nations. the one people holding itself ready to play a part of impartial mediation and speak the counsels of peace and accommodation.. Address your personal position regarding U..

... Question 3 SUGGESTED TIME—15 MINUTES FOR READING AND 40 MINUTES FOR WRITING Introduction: Advertising on television used to consist of commercials only...... You may refer to the sources by their titles (Source A...... Synthesize at least three of the sources to support your position..... write an essay that supports. Then.............. The assignment requires that you synthesize a number of the sources into a coherent... qualifies......... That changed with the advent of product placement..... Directions: The following prompt is based on the following six sources... Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations... ... Some feel that this form of advertising is sneaky............. Source B............. in which advertisers pay television shows to prominently display their products...com ..... Source A (Jennworth) Source B (Allison) Source C (chart) Source D (Wilson and Marino) Source E (Ad Advertising) Source F (Zuckerman) www..... Some feel that it is the most effective form of advertising...) or by the descriptions in parentheses.. well-written essay that takes a position. Is one form of advertising on television more effective than another? Assignment: Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully..........petersons...................... Use at least three of the sources to support your position. Your argument should be the focus of your essay and the sources should support this argument........ etc.......... or disputes the argument that product placement is the most effective form of television advertising...................242 PART V: Two Practice Tests . Do not simply paraphrase or summarize the sources...

... This display of products is effective in two ways... the viewer may have already changed the channel... viewers will.............. having a popular character on a show use a product even more overtly exposes viewers to it.... GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www. Many people do not like to watch commercials.................... and this presented a problem for advertisers... even if a commercial is compelling. The following passage is excerpted from an article about product placement as an effective form of advertising... By no means has it replaced traditional television commercials.......... and even more effective (and expensive). Product placement has created a revolution in television advertising.. Enter product placement.. too... practice test SOURCE A Jennworth..com ➡ .....Practice Test 3 243 .........petersons........... The problem with commercials has always been the ability of a viewer to change the channel during commercials and watch something else....... “The New Generation of Advertising” Advertising Yearly.... if not more... David. if it is not the first commercial of the break. 2006... simply showing the product exposes viewers to it........................ Second.. how else could advertisers reach viewers? After all.... This effect is intensified if the product is used by a character on a reality television show............... Advertisers reason that if a popular character uses a product.. The concept is simple: display products prominently on popular television shows.. . Aside from producing compelling commercials that people want to watch.. People may be more likely to buy a product if a “real” character is using it......... but recent studies show it has as much effect as commercials....... First.

....... or eat a certain food... The following passage is excerpted from an article that discusses the effects of product placement on the viewing public...... James. I will. You can’t fool my friends. If I want to watch commercials... or wear a certain outfit that viewers will be compelled to use those products? Please! A note to advertisers: we know what you are up to....... we are always selling to you....... April 2004......... Product placement may be beginning to have the an effect opposite what was originally intended......... It seems that advertisers think that viewers are too stupid to realize they are being sold to........... but product placement is downright insulting! Do advertisers think that by simply having a character drink a certain drink.. Surely..petersons. frankly. But don’t force me to. You can’t fool me with product placement advertising......... That’s it.... ........... It is as if advertisers are saying “you can’t avoid us by changing the channel anymore...... tricking viewers into subconsciously wanting products was the original motivation behind product placement..... SOURCE B Allison.. Regular commercials were bad enough. We know all about advertising and.......... Instead of a successful “soft sell....... we are tired of being sold to. who watches TV to be sold to? People just want to be entertained.....244 PART V: Two Practice Tests ............ “You Can’t Fool Me—Or My Friends” Advertising Watch.... either...................... www.com .” Well... We’ve been watching TV for too long....... and we won’t let it work.....” advertisers have actually created animosity among viewers.

...Practice Test 3 245 ....................................................com ➡ ....... Traditional Advertising Versus Product Placement.... practice test SOURCE C Adapted from the Advertising on TV Council Annual Effectiveness Survey..... Yummy Soft Drink Advertising Effectiveness for 2005 GoFast Auto Company Advertising Effectiveness for 2005 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www.............................................................. ....petersons.......................

especially to targeted audiences.. www.. In addition..... How effective is product placement? How fair is product placement? How cost-effective is product placement? These are all questions advertisers and agencies must ask themselves when formulating an advertising campaign.. as most companies do not share their internal advertising effectiveness numbers. but there is a fear in the industry that its effectiveness is overblown.. and Joanne Marino.... “Product Placement in Advertising” Discussion Magazine............246 PART V: Two Practice Tests ... Why then..... they feel that if their competitors use it... It is much easier to gauge the effectiveness of traditional commercial advertising........... This investment in a still-unproven form of advertising could end up hurting companies in the long run. In fact.. has product placement become so popular with so little proof of its effectiveness? The answer is that product placement is popular right now.. The numbers that are available show that commercials are very effective means of advertising....... they must......... In this way........ even if a company has doubts as to the effectiveness. Product placement is an intriguing way to advertise.” In addition..................... product placement seems to be selling itself! More research is needed into the effect of product placement before it can be officially crowned the “best way to advertise.. it must be working.. 2005.......com ............... Amy.. . There is a trend in many companies to forego a large amount of traditional commercial advertising in favor of product placement....... The following passage is excerpted from an article that discusses product placement as an effective form of advertising............ the phenomenon is so new that it would behoove companies to wait and see how it develops...... SOURCE D Wilson............ Companies reason that if other companies are using so much product placement.........petersons.... These numbers can be hard to determine. too... it seems that the idea that product placement is the wave of the future has been created by product placement itself..

Ad Advertising has secured a commitment from the producers of The Stress House to feature only Tasty Potato Chips on their show.............. you can save almost 30 percent of your television advertising dollars.... the producers promise to feature Tasty Potato Chips in one of the show’s challenges... Informal discussions with other advertisers have revealed that product placement on The Stress House has increased their profits in the target age group by 25 percent.......... We strongly urge you to take advantage of this deal.. practice test SOURCE E The Ad Advertising Agency memo to Tasty Potato Chips..... Inc.................. to use product placement on a popular TV show......... We are sure that placing Tasty Potato Chips on The Stress House will increase your sales from television advertising...... If we place Tasty Potato Chips on The Stress House.. by using product placement rather than purchasing your traditional 30-second advertising spot from the network....... It consistently ranks tops in ratings for its time slot on both days that it airs: Mondays and Fridays.......petersons.......Practice Test 3 247 .............com ➡ ...... GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE www................ In addition....... The following passage is excerpted from a memo from an advertising agency to try to convince the client. 2006........ To: The Board of Tasty Potato Chips From: Ad Advertising Re: Product Placement on The Stress House The Stress House is one of the most popular reality series on television today................ as well. Tasty Potato Chips.. we believe that we can increase your revenue by at least that percentage.. it is most popular with our targeted age group of 18 to 25...... For an additional fee. In addition.. ......

though.. It seems that for every person who supports product placement............ You could get to see a whole 30 minutes of your favorite sit-com instead of the 20 minutes of show and 10 minutes of breaks that you seem to see now..... It’s just not fair.. 2004...... Why does this issue contribute to such intense feelings in people? Those who support product placement tend to be the advertisers themselves...... the product placement revolution continues. Not everyone who supports product placement is an advertiser... Deena..com ... Not since the “invention” of television commercials has a form of advertising taken the world by storm the way product placement has.. SOURCE F Zuckerman........... The following passage is excerpted from an article about the prominence of product placement...........” says Beck Borenstein. “now I have to see commercials inside my favorite shows...petersons..... one person I spoke to expressed the hope that product placement would completely replace commercials....... It seems advertisers are willing to bet (or are simply holding out hope) that more people out there agree with Chris than Beck. and some seem to resent additional intrusion by advertisers...... Chris Rose.. For less money and less time than they would spend on traditional 30-second commercials...... .. STOP If you finish before time is called.... www............ there would be more time for the actual show.248 PART V: Two Practice Tests ..... “The Product Placement Revolution” College Magazine.” Opponents of product placement take a dim view of the motives of advertisers.. In fact.........” Beck’s comments notwithstanding.. “Wouldn’t it be great if there weren’t any commercial breaks?” asked one student.......... “It’s bad enough I have to suffer through commercials........... companies can often see the same results from product placement advertising.. there is one who is vehemently opposed..... The 18-to-24 generation has been sold to by television since their childhood... And no topic in advertising has been more polarizing...... you may check your work on this section only.... He continued. “That way.. Do not turn to any other section in the test. There are a surprising number of viewers who prefer product placement to regular commercials..... It makes me not want to buy a product..........

. which eliminates choice (A). that have nothing to do with comparison. and choice (D) can be eliminated because Elizabeth is not describing something to her audience.... (B). answers ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS Section I 1...” so that rules out choices (C).. using the process of elimination would tell you.. 10... check to see if the generalization may be the best response.. Choice (D). 43. D 17.... D 14..... She would consider herself unworthy of God’s mercies only if she believed that she ruled based on her own right rather than through God’s will.. 25. 50. a metaphor.... given the speaker’s rhetoric and purpose.... 33... 48... and (C) can be eliminated.... 28. Elizabeth is attempting to persuade her audience of something. in the context of the paragraph.... because Elizabeth is not telling a story..... This question asks you to identify a figure of speech... B 21.... Because she does not believe this.. 30. 49. 4. 24. Choice (E) is the best answer because judging from her tone... 27.. 39.... and content.. 46.... 5.... persuasive. but that is not stated or implied here. The correct answer is (C). Elizabeth is comparing “pills” to the “cares and troubles of a Crown. If you did not know immediately that this is a persuasive speech. Elizabeth’s purpose in this paragraph is to reinforce the premise that she rules by virtue of divine will (I).. choice (B) is incorrect.. choices (D) and (E) refer to concepts rather than to specific instances. is the best answer...... Only item I is correct.. 35.. A 12... the notion of women as the weaker sex. 42. In this case.. Choice (D) relates directly to the phrase Elizabeth uses in her speech. 34. C 18. She is saying that she cannot resign because God has given this burden to her. 4.. Although the passage has a bit of each of the choices.... 2. A 20.... and only choice (A) has item I.. will tell you that choices (A)..... 29. 7.. 8. overall.. A simile must use like or as... Whenever a series of answer choices includes broad statements or generalizations.... practice test 3 www.. whereas choice (E) does not relate to the content of the paragraph. 3.. You could rule out choice (A). 22.. 47... 44....... to convince them of her position or point of view.. B 15. 9.. That leaves choice (B).. Elizabeth may indeed be tired of the burden of ruling (II)...... nor too emotional..... . 38.. 3... 40. and (E). choice (A). the best answer is choice (C). 23. E 16. 5.. so cross off choice (B)..Practice Test 3 249 ..... Eliminate choice (E). 36. so item III is incorrect.. C B C D D B E A C B 1.. choice (C). A A E B B E B C A A 31... 26.com ... B E B D C D E B D A 41..... The correct answer is (A). diction.... The correct answer is (E). The correct answer is (B).... C 19. The correct answer is (D). Elizabeth is not presenting a well-reasoned argument. 37.. not by her own will.. Choice (C) is not correct because Elizabeth is not explaining something. Elizabeth does not say she is weak.. 45. D 13.. 6... D E B C A B C D E E 11..... (D)... 2.. a belief widely held at the time.petersons. 32. A careful rereading of the sentence....

. choice (C). whereas choice (D) restates God’s action and is a truer statement of the clause. choice (B).. and (C) are not stated or implied in this paragraph.. is a proposition that proves to be absurd when carried to its logical conclusion. Once in a while you may get a seemingly easy question. fits within the construction and makes sense.. Choice (B) has nothing to do with the passage. and don’t read too much into it..... Reductio ad absurdem... 6......... 14......com .... you know that they are incorrect and do not apply here. only choice (E) is contained there. That leaves choices (A) and (E).. the answer is stated directly in the first paragraph of the passage...... The correct answer is (B). Choice (C) is one piece of support for her thesis.. If you do know the Latin terms.. Elizabeth wants to be remembered to her hearers’ loved ones. 9..... leaving choice (D) as the answer. There is no comparison in the sentence... accurately compare..... Choices (A).. This is a recall question.. Choice (E) is the direct opposite of the clause... This is one such question.. but choices (A) and (D) don’t make sense. Choice (E) does not represent a comparison.. Choices (B).. Choice (B) is the best inference from the sentence.. The correct answer is (B)............. If you don’t know the Latin terms. A clue is in the next phrase when she commends “yours to my best care..... Argumentum ad hominem.. It is just what you think it is at first glance.” Because of the words than to. In fact. The correct answer is (D)... The correct answer is (E)... Of the answer choices. Choice (E) asks you to make an assumption without any basis in the passage and can be eliminated.. (D)... but it’s not the point. 13. If you don’t know the answer right away. This is an inference question..petersons.” The yours refers to the loved ones again...... is an argument that appeals to the emotions rather than the intellect (a secondary meaning of ad hominem is the manner in which one attacks an opponent’s character rather than addresses the person’s contentions).. and (E) are distracters... ... Choice (A) does not reflect the tone accurately... The other choices are not..... Choices (A) and (C) relate to Elizabeth’s actions. This is a straightforward vocabulary question. The correct answer is (D). skip them and try to find the answer in another way. Elizabeth can neither approximate nor mirror “the cares and burdens of a Crown ... Choices (A).. .. that is. Choice (D) contains the word convince.... and (E) seem likely possibilities.. Remember that you are dealing with definition and context. You may remember that the chimera was a mythical www.. choice (B) is the opposite of what Elizabeth is saying. based on her speech.. Remember also that Elizabeth is making a comparison. It is easy to rule out choices (D) and (E)... 7.” Choice (D) states the general idea that being God’s instrument is synonymous with being obedient to God.... The correct answer is (D). Choice (B) is a misreading of Elizabeth’s character.. because they are obviously wrong. 10. 8... Do not be distracted by choices (A) and (C) simply because they contain words that you see in the sentence.... Love is mentioned.... 11. (B)........ If you answered question number 4 correctly. The clue is in the clause “that God hath made me His Instrument to maintain His Truth and Glory..250 PART V: Two Practice Tests .... so there can be no metaphor.. thus eliminating choice (A). Don’t be fooled by choice (C). choice (D). you know that the tone of the passage is persuasive.. Go back to the passage and read the entire sentence.. Remember that tone and style are clues to purpose..... . The correct answer is (C)... Always substitute the answer choices in the sentence to see which one makes the most sense... than to the drugs of a learned physician.. Elizabeth’s expression of affection is secondary to her main point... which is part of the purpose of persuasion.. then try educated guessing.. The correct answer is (E)... Don’t be distracted by the other choices..... 12. The correct answer is (A). Choice (E) is the best answer.... (C).

.com ... The correct answer is (B). which is not the case here.. 20.. therefore. which he isn’t... the connotation is on the word mythical..... Choice (D) can be eliminated because an argument implies a premise/conclusion relationship. The correct answer is (D).. this is a professional piece with formal diction..... (C)... ........ The correct answer is (A).. the author reinforces this idea by talking about the “false pretenses” that go with dueling....... (This piece is by Richard Steele of Tatler and Spectator fame.... The process of elimination then leaves choices (A) and (D). explaining.. the stated purpose is to discredit the practice of dueling.. is a short tale that teaches a moral. The writer seeks to persuade the reader to think as he does.......... and the tone of the piece is not amusing. www... Item I is not stated or implied in the passage. and (E). which should give you a clue.. quickly and easily eliminating choices (B)...) Therefore... 21.. Choices (A)... satire. choice (B) would be correct only if the writer were speaking metaphorically about a debt of honor.. In the second paragraph... Imaginary then. In addition.. The correct answer is (A).. In the third paragraph... choice (E).. item III only... or telling a story.. 15. answers practice test 3 monster... which rules out choices (A) and (D). and a “hand below that of a common hangman” means a person of a lower social class than a hangman.. (D).” Choice (A) can be eliminated because the question asks only about what the writer believes.. but in the context of the selection. Item II is true. because the writer is not simply describing... which is not true of the country gentleman. so choice (C).. Choice (C) is incorrect because the author is offering an alternative—not to duel. eliminating choices (B).. is a literary work that uses sarcasm and ridicule to expose vices and follies... This is one of those questions in which each of the answer choices seems a little bit true. Choice (B). and (E) are incorrect..... and choice (E) is not stated in the text... until we have stripped it of all its false pretenses ....... they do not answer the question.. (C)... ....petersons.... The purpose of the tale of the country gentleman is not to teach a moral but to illustrate the author’s point.... In line 5. The correct answer is (C). meaning that the answer is stated directly in the text.. The correct answer is (C). leaving choice (C) as the correct answer.. That leaves choices (A). this work is too serious in tone to be satire.. and (E)... the author implies that he is writing an article...” This statement indicates that choices (B)... choice (B). the writer states “that all men fight against their will.... A “brave man” is a gentleman. 18. The writer makes repeated use of the word honor. (C). This is a recall question.. characters and events represent abstract qualities.. choice (A)...Practice Test 3 251 . . 19.. While the article may indeed educate the reader.. 16....... 17... There is little imagery. choice (C).. the writer gives us an anecdote of “a country gentleman” to strengthen his position. A bit later on. Only point III relates to the statement...... and (D).. and to lay every other thought aside. The writer states in the first paragraph that “it is worth our consideration to examine into this chimerical groundless humor [dueling]... While both choices (A) and (D) are true statements about duels.... (B).. is a better answer than choice (C)... and (C) are easily ruled out. A parable. Choice (E) is incorrect because the last sentence in paragraph 4 indicates that the real purpose of the duel is to allow some foolhardy coxcomb to avoid having to admit he was wrong.. choice (E) is the correct answer. The correct answer is (E).. The author says nothing about alternatives or changes in dueling.. so he must be writing for a newspaper or magazine.. but it does not relate to the statement from the passage.. The author skewers choice (D) in his essay. In an allegory.. choice (D)... Go back to the passage... (D).. is correct. in the third paragraph.

.... The number 1381 follows the Roman numeral II.. choice (D). you might remember that a simile.... at the time of the Stamp Act......252 PART V: Two Practice Tests .. and 1381 is a page number.. the citations look different from those you may be used to seeing. is a comparison to a directly parallel case. The piece is written to be persuasive using a reasonable tone. I. The piece is serious but not introspective. 22.. It is reasonable to assume that the II is a part number.. Neither is the piece impassioned or ardent.. an overstatement..... A metaphor is a comparison of two things.. None of them can be eliminated... The correct answer is (A). so choice (B) is not true and the right answer. making choice (C) true and incorrect... choice (A).. II. you can see that all three are true about the rhetorical function of the first paragraph... and there is none in the sentence.. and III..... is true.. Choice (C) makes the most sense.. The correct answer is (C). II...... “Into so fatal a folly” is an adverbial phrase... choice (A) is correct..... and although the writer uses humor... which contains all three items.... Remember.... “Written in the most passionate terms” is a participial phrase. Choice (B)...... thus eliminating choice (E).... that is. Choice (C) is incorrect.... 29.. The correct answer is (A). While the author is obviously educated.. the colonist made up their own laws as www.. is the only one that fits.” It is the modifications that the colonists were free to make at their pleasure. The correct answer is (B). requires the words like or as. An analogy.. In checking points I. is the giving of human qualities to a nonhuman thing. Recalling the figures of speech... 25.. Therefore. Choice (C). so choice (E) is incorrect.... told from the deep feelings of the author.com .. Because this is an older work..... Based on this. Choice (B) is correct. choice (B).petersons. choice (D) is also incorrect. The phrase “from a young lady” is an adjectival phrase. the piece is not particularly witty.. 23.. Only answer choice (E) has all three items. is the correct answer. 24. is an exaggeration. because we already eliminated satire in question 19. choice (D). the paragraph states that the original laws ignored English common law in favor of the Bible or the judgment of magistrates.. .. There is no support in the paragraph for choices (D) and (E).. the purpose of a footnote of this type is to refer the reader to the original source of the information cited. 28..... The correct answer is (A). the piece is not filled with allusions or factual references.. A gerund is a word ending in -ing. Choice (A) is incorrect...... The sentence that precedes the one in the question reads “As was anticipated in the Raleigh patent.... This not/except question tests your knowledge of English grammar.... personification. choice (A). and does not employ like or as.......... so choice (D) is true and incorrect.. and III against the first paragraph... 26.. In the context of the paragraph.... often related..... Choice (B) is incorrect because it would make no sense to include the total number of pages in a book in a citation......... 27.. based on the information in the second paragraph. Choice (E). Both are examples of prepositional phrases.... 30.. therefore.... it is a good idea to read over that paragraph with the answer choices in mind. The correct answer is (E). The correct answer is (B).. choice (E). The paragraph explains that at first. Each item. Looking for consistency among answers will help you rule out choice (C)... the colonies saw the benefit of English common law.... so choice (A) is true about the sentence and an incorrect answer to the question... The correct answer is (E). a metaphor. The correct answer is (B). so they could not be referenced in a book published in the 1300s. Choice (A) is incorrect.. Queen Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh were not born until the sixteenth century.. it was found from the first and everywhere that if the common law was to be applied to the rough conditions of colonial life some modifications were necessary.... “ignored” makes the most sense. When you are asked to find the best summary of a paragraph..

. Choice (C) is incorrect.. Foreshadowing is when an author hints at later events in story and is incorrect.. the footnotes provide the sources of the facts in the passage...” Therefore... all of the other footnotes cite original publications and reports for the states of Connecticut and Massachusetts... so you can eliminate choice (A). To correctly answer this question... With the exception of footnote 1.. The correct answer is (B).. which is the best description of the tone of the article... The repetition of the word “They” followed by a past-tense verb is an example of parallel construction...... the sentences are put together in a similar manner....Practice Test 3 253 . Support for the assertion made in choice (C) can be found in the last paragraph........ There is no indication the passage is about the history of a specific person.. so you can conclude that choice (E) is correct.. However... There is no support for choice (E). so choice (B) is incorrect. The author is not pleading... 31. The correct answer is (D). . The correct answer is (B)..com .... The sentences do not provide visual or other sensory descriptions.. The passage is too long and detailed to be an encyclopedia entry. 32... As the footnotes cite original documents. Choice (D) also does not make sense... This leaves you with choice (E).. The author used the sources for support and draws conclusions.. so choice (C) is not correct. Choice (B) does not make sense....... Choice (C) is incorrect..... as well. There is no support in the passage for choice (B).. so simile is incorrect. The tone is not emotional.... This leaves choice (E)... Choice (A)...... The proviso of Queen Elizabeth is an example used to illustrate why colonial laws should conform as much as possible to English common law..... The correct answer is (D). the colonists ignored English common law.. There is no comparison made. choice (C) is correct and you can eliminate choice (A)...... 36....petersons. so choice (D) cannot be true.. The correct answer is (E). In this case. 33. although it is scholarly.... but neither is it cold... does not fit—there is no sense of urgency in the author’s tone.. so rule out choice (E).... They did not revise common law..... people do not sell laws... choice (A) is incorrect. Here. it may be helpful to substitute the word “type” with each of the answer choices. The correct answer is (E)... think about your general impressions of the passage. The passage discusses the history of law in the colonies... The passage presents facts and does not include any characters... the colonists created their own laws.. The passage talks about the history of colonial government... The tone is academic. so you can eliminate choice (D).. There is no evidence of sarcasm in the sentences. and presents historical facts. 35. Choice (E) is incorrect........ scholarly. which cites a book written by another author. so choice (C) is incorrect...... “This mingling of judicial with legislative functions is a thing to be tolerated only while the foundations of a government are being laid.. 34... the passage does not involve science... answers practice test 3 needed. that is.. 37... so choice (C) is incorrect. the word type is used to mean example. The correct answer is (C)..... for emphasis. There is no direct quotation in the third paragraph... strident. you can infer from the footnote that the third paragraph shows the source the author used to come to the conclusion expressed in the third paragraph...... There is no evidence to support the claim made in choice (E). Choice (B) does not work. they did not adhere to (stick to) it.... www.. so you can eliminate choice (A). not emotional... The other choices are all synonyms of type but do not fit in the context of the paragraph..... The footnote is not included to provide suggestions for further reading. Choice (D) is also not supported in the passage—the author makes references to the use (or disuse) of English common law in colonial government but makes no statement to support the idea that it is the best way to govern all societies......

. but that hardly qualifies as many allusions.. While the writer does use some figurative language. however... you will know that his autobiographies are considered classic examples of the slave narrative genre. The question asks about something that happened after Douglass bought the book. the writer is using figurative language to emphasize the horror of slavery...... Choice (C) is wrong because Douglass does not discuss the Constitution or the Bill of Rights.. they only support the main idea—that slavery is intolerable—they do not restate it... www.....petersons.. The correct answer is (C)... he does not express that emotion in this passage. Choice (D) is wrong because there is no mention of the Constitution. 42... choice (C).. The issues in choice (E) do not appear in the selection... this one should have been easy.. and it is not a literary but a political allusion in any case.... so then is choice (E). choice (E)... If you correctly answered the question about tone. only the debilitating effects on those enslaved. The correct answer is (B). The correct answer is (D). or academic in this passage. choice (D). the passage is both powerful and sincere... The same logic eliminates choice (E).... The correct answer is (B).. Here. At first glance. .. 45.. thus.... 38. evidenced by the use of the first-person pronouns. choice (C).. nor can it be a textbook. While the writer has every right to be angry. choice (D) has possibilities.. The style is plain. eliminating choice (E).. He likens slavery to a dragon’s lair.. there is little mention of spiritual aspects in the passage.. If you got question 41 right.. The question is easily answered by working through the choices and eliminating the wrong ones... so choice (C) is incorrect.. This is a comprehension question.... Thus choice (B) is incorrect. then you will have to work your way through the choices......... and eloquent in its simplicity. ironic... but the writer does not talk about dangers to owners.. To answer this question.com ...... so choice (A) is incorrect since it states how much he paid for the book. recounting what Douglass did and felt. eliminating choice (A). There are no literary allusions in the passage.. or Shakespearean phrases. An allusion is a passing reference to people..... The correct answer is (A). 40...... choice (A) seems as if it might have some validity. The correct answer is (D).. choice (B)...... If you do not know who he is..... places.. and (C) are eliminated. If you know who Frederick Douglass was. This is another good question on which to use the process of elimination. Neither choice (B) nor choice (E) is mentioned in the selection.. or events that readers will recognize. The correct answer is (C)... but not the volume itself.... 43. You might feel that choice (D) is correct... Likewise.... The writer does refer obliquely to the Declaration of Independence once. It would be unlikely that Douglass was referring to a person with this phrase. but be aware that the writer already knew that he was a slave. choices (A) and (D).... it cannot be a biography... since a secondary source is a work written about another person or another time. is a fictional account of the adventures of a vagabond or rogue... Since Douglass wrote this.. While white children are mentioned in the passage...... (B). choices (A)..... There are no tortured sentences. easy to understand.... While choices (A) and (E) are mentioned in the selection. The closest reference is to the contents of the volume he was reading... choice (B). Certainly... you need to figure out to what the “this knowledge” refers.......... you will know that Douglass’s descriptions are straightforward... The passage is also factual in nature. 44. choice (A). 39..... 41. A picaresque novel.. which does not fit the life described here... Douglass does not describe experiences with them. There is nothing amusing...... The correct answer is (D).. Douglass states that the book created in him a discontent with his status as a slave. Because choice (B) is an accurate description of the selection. the effect is not poetic.....254 PART V: Two Practice Tests .

.. and description.. The correct answer is (E)... choice (B)......... The correct answer is (B)... 49. choice (D). None of these applies to the word thinking. The writer can no longer be happy in his state of bondage. Thinking. or noun......... 46.. Structure refers to the design or arrangement of parts in a work of literature..... neither of which is the case in this passage........ choice (C) is the correct answer..... is the predicate in a sentence. Choice (B) does not relate to anything in the selection.... choice (D). the action word. is a sound device... his tone is neither argumentative nor persuasive.... is almost always made up of to plus a verb. the mode of discourse is choice (B). Choices (D) and (E) are distracters. modifies a verb or adjective.... A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that functions as a noun. choice (C). While the selection is eloquent. Choices (D) and (E) would require a metaphysical interpretation that you are not asked to make..... choice (D)....... but there is no mention of escape.. in this sentence. An infinitive. 48.. Cacophony.... answers practice test 3 Columbian Orator. As a slave narrative... and choice (B) is not relevant to the context...petersons..... functions as a predicate nominative. may also end in -ing (or -ed) but functions as an adjective....... the selection is more than exposition. eloquence is not a recognized structure.. Choice (A) might seem to fit with the speeches. The words gleesome and mirth are used in the selection.. choice (A)...Practice Test 3 255 . A verb...... choice (D).. usually for the purpose of creating humor or horror... choice (E). Choice (C).. is overstatement... The contents relate to the value of liberty to illustrate the ills of slavery. choice (C). An adverbial phrase... . exaggeration....... 47.com ... The correct answer is (B).. narrative. so choice (A) does not apply..... If you got question 40 right.. choice (C). Metaphors are figures of speech that compare two unlike things. choice (C). not a noun........ Redolent does mean sweet-smelling... The correct answer is (C).. choice (A).... as well as evocative.. Because slavery is described from the point of view of a personal story..... 50.. this answer was easy......... A participle.. www. Choice (E) is too broad....... Although Douglass may wish to persuade the reader of the dehumanizing effects of slavery... This question tests your comprehension. not a structure. but nature is not filled with liberty... The correct answer is (A)... The lines you are asked about record Douglass’s recognition that slavery is intolerable.. choice (B). but in context...

...petersons....... ................................. punishment of obstructive legislators Order of importance organization www.................... Form • Excerpt from an essay Mode • Persuasion Subject • • • Government The type of government Thoreau considers the best What’s wrong with the government of his day Author • Henry David Thoreau........................ Transcendentalist Theme • Government should do as little as possible Tone • • • Sincere Persuasive Light and humorous Diction/Syntax/Style • • • • • Sophisticated diction Complex sentence structure Use of first-person plural pronoun: “us against them” relationship Humor through use of images such as wooden gun.com ..... Section II SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 1 The following are points that you might have chosen to include in your essay on Civil Disobedience................256 PART V: Two Practice Tests ........... Consider them as you complete your self-evaluation. Revise your essay using points from the list to strengthen it..........................................

.com ........ Revise your essay using points from the list to strengthen it.............S........... ........................................ Form • • Speech A formal proclamation of neutrality Mode • Argument Tone • • Persuasive Paternal practice test 3 Speaker • President Woodrow Wilson Subject • Maintain U............ answers Literary Devices • • Metaphor of wooden gun for the government Comparison of commerce and trade to rubber..............petersons.......... able to bounce over obstructions that the government puts in their path • Simile for government legislators SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 2 The following are points that you might have chosen to include in your essay on Woodrow Wilson’s Appeal for Neutrality.................. neutrality in World War I Theme • • • • Neutrality Unity America first Division fatal to peace www................................ Consider them as you complete your self-evaluation..Practice Test 3 257 ...

...... involvement in world conflicts should reflect a thoughtful review of the pros and cons of Wilson’s argument in light of current world politics and the role of the United States.. syntax..S.petersons.. Diction/Structure/Style • • • • Formal diction Educated vocabulary Varied sentence structure Easily understood by all citizens Purpose • • • Formal declaration of U................ It does not matter which position you take as long as you provide adequate support for your argument using your own opinions along with information from the sources.............................. or disputes the argument that product placement is the most effective form of television advertising....S............258 PART V: Two Practice Tests .. and spelling are correct..... neutrality Appeal to citizens for impartiality in spirit as well as in actions Appeal for unity Note: The discussion of your own attitude toward U......................... the effectiveness of product placement as a form of advertising Clear statement of your position on the issue: statement of the reason you agree or disagree with the statement that product placement is the most effective form of advertising Supporting details • Support is based on your own opinions about the position you take but the information in the sources is also used Show a clear connection between the sources you choose to cite Sources are seamlessly integrated with appropriate transitions At least three of the six sources are used • • • www............com ................. ..... Consider the following as you complete your self-evaluation..... qualifies......... Thesis statement/introduction • • Clear definition of the issue—in this case. Remember to proofread your response and make sure your grammar............. SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 3 This question asks for a synthesis essay that supports.. Revise your essay using points from the list to strengthen it if necessary..

....... based on the information provided in the sources Acknowledge opposing arguments and refute them Attribute both direct and indirect citations Conclusion • Include a restatement of your thesis tied into the supporting evidence you used......................................................Practice Test 3 259 ...........) Conclusion neatly sums up your argument. .....................petersons..... there can be no other conclusion drawn from the evidence except that there is no more effective form of advertising than product placement............................... (ex: In sum..com ..... practice test 3 www....................... answers • • • Explain the logic of how you arrived at the conclusion you did...

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virtually error free Varied and interesting. thorough and effective. exhibits perception and clarity.. one or more major errors Somewhat dull and ordinary... dull and uninteresting. extremely immature Extremely flawed .. adequate skills 3–4 Incomplete thinking..... includes apt and specific references Meticulously organized and thoroughly developed... incoherent and void of unity A response with no more than a reference to the literature. blank response... a few errors Occasional minor errors Occasionally interesting and effective. may paraphrase rather than analyze Misreadings and lack of persuasive evidence from the text. frequent major errors Numerous major errors Interesting and effective.. fails to respond to the question.. original or unique approach.... or one completely off the topic No apparent organization or development.... mechanical. mostly coherent and unified Effectively varied and engaging. coherent and unified Reasonably organized and developed.. 260 6–7 Demonstrates good control of the literature and good writing competence..petersons..SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE FREE RESPONSE ESSAYS 8–9 Demonstrates excellent control of the literature and outstanding writing competence.... a few errors Adequately varied.. some errors in diction Some major errors Little or no variation..... some errors Somewhat varied and marginally interesting. several errors Several minor errors Numerous major errors.. overgeneralized Serious misreadings and little supporting evidence from the text. erroneous treatment of literary elements Little or no organization and development.... includes specific references 5 Reveals simplistic thinking and/or immature writing.......... incisive Excellent understanding of the text. some incoherence and lack of unity 1–2 Unacceptably brief. elements of literature vague.... exhibits perception and clarity.. some major errors Mostly dull and conventional........ coherent and unified Overall Impression . meager and unconvincing treatment of literary elements Somewhat organized and developed.... virtually error free Virtually error free Generally interesting and effective. numerous errors Severely flawed.... little clarity 0 Lacking skill and competence Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice Grammar and Usage www. incoherent PART V: Two Practice Tests Well organized and developed...com Superficial understanding of the text.. fails to respond adequately to part or parts of the question. less thorough and incisive than the highest papers Good understanding of the text.

... some inconsistencies and weaknesses in argumentation Displays some misreading of the sources or some stretching of information to support the chosen position Generally clearly stated position and links between position and cited sources.... coherent and unified Overall Impression .... virtually error free Virtually error free Demonstrates ease in using vocabulary from the sources Occasional minor errors Occasional use of vocabulary from the sources... challenges. sophisticated argumentation.... uses at least three sources to support that position.. no more than a listing of the sources Practice Test 3 Clearly states a position. incoherent.. somewhat thorough and incisive...... or qualifies the question accurately Clearly states a position. or lacks an argument.. close to error free Somewhat varied and marginally interesting...SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE SYNTHESIS ESSAYS 8–9 Demonstrates excellent control of effective writing techniques....... one or more major errors Somewhat dull and ordinary. some errors in diction.. uses at least three sources to support that position convincingly and effectively. uses citations convincingly Takes a clear position that defends. and well integrated synthesis of source information...... coherent and unified Varied and interesting. may present overly simple argument Creates weak connections between argument and cited sources.. a few errors No apparent organization or development. or summarizes the sources rather than using them to support a position Lacks coherent development or organization.. interesting and effective..petersons. some major errors Mostly dull and conventional. no attempt to integrate vocabulary from the sources Severely flawed.. extremely immature Extremely flawed 261 .. some errors 3–4 Demonstrates some skill but lacks understanding of question and sources 1–2 Demonstrates little skill in taking a coherent position and defending it or in using sources 0 Lacks skill and competence Use of Organization Understanding Sentences and Development of the Text Demonstrates a somewhat superficial understanding of the sources Takes a position that may misread or simplify the sources..com Uses the vocabulary of the topic as evident in the sources.. cites one or no sources Position does not accurately reflect the sources.. frequent major errors Numerous major errors Word Choice Grammar and Usage www. cites only two sources Misreads sources. occasionally interesting and effective Several minor errors Numerous major errors. dull and uninteresting. uses citations appropriately 5 Demonstrates general competence in stating and defending a position. cites no sources Effectively varied and engaging... cites three sources Adequately varied..... adequate development of ideas but less convincing...... no attempt to integrate vocabulary from the sources Some major errors Little or no variation.. 6–7 Demonstrates good control of effective writing techniques..... some weaknesses in logic.....

................. Rate each category from 9 (high) to 0 (low). On the AP test itself... so you may wish to ask a respected friend or teacher to assess your writing for a more accurate reflection of its strengths and weaknesses.. Using the rubrics on the previous pages........................petersons..................... It is difficult to score yourself objectively...... rate yourself in each of the categories below for each essay on the test............................... a reader will rate your essay on a scale of 0 to 9...262 PART V: Two Practice Tests .. ....... with 9 being the highest.........com ..................... Then calculate the average of the six numbers to determine your final score.............. Enter on the lines below the number from the rubric that most accurately reflects your performance in each category. Question 1 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Question 2 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score Question 3 SELF-EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score OBJECTIVE EVALUATION Overall Impression Understanding of the Text Organization and Development Use of Sentences Word Choice (Diction) Grammar and Usage TOTAL Divide by 6 for final score www......

............................................................................................ APPENDIXES APPENDIX A College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement APPENDIX B A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms ............................. ...

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.. what courses are waived based on those credits.. 4. or 5.............College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement ....... depending on the test taken.. appendix a For the past two decades........................... Colleges and universities routinely award credit for AP test scores of 3. Use this chart to discover just how valuable a good score on the AP English Language & Composition Test can be! 265 .. and other policy stipulations at more than 400 selective colleges and universities........... how many credits are granted...... national and international participation in the AP Program has grown steadily........ The following chart indicates the score required for AP credit......

........266 APPENDIXES ......... student receives 9 units of credit ... Credit will be granted once a student matriculates to Beloit College and provides official score reports to the Registrar’s Office...... ENGL111................ or SAT Verbal/Critical Reading 670+..... 4–5 4 Albany College of Pharmacy of Union University (NY) Albertson College of Idaho (ID) Albion College (MI) Albright College (PA) Allegheny College (PA) Alma College (MI) Asbury College (KY) 4–5 3–5 4 4–5 4–5 3 3 4 3 3 ENG 100(4) ENG 110 ENG 251 School only listed this category as English....... ................... It was not divided into sub categories........... 3 units non-GS elective..ENGL110.......... Lit & Comp............................. ENGL 101 & WCE Auburn University (AL) Augustana College (IL) Augustana College (SD) Austin College (TX) Azusa Pacific University (CA) 4–5 4 4–5 4–5 3–4 3 3 ENGL 1100 None English Elective English Elective and 1/2 Writing Credit............com ... plus ACT English 29+.. 3 Freshman Writing Seminar Freshman Writing Seminar/3 units non-GS elective ENG 111 English was only AP Test they had. 5 6 Babson College (MA) Baldwin-Wallace College (OH) Bard College (NY) Barnard College (NY) 4–5 3–5 5 4–5 3 3 Bates College (ME) Baylor University (TX) 4–5 4 Belmont University (TN) Beloit College (WI) 4–5 4–5 4 ENG 1010 Benedictine University (IL) 3 3 www..... There was no split between Lang & Comp...... Required Score Credits Granted School Name Agnes Scott College (GA) Course Waived ENG 110 Stipulations Students who score 4–5 on both English exams get 8 hours and fulfill the literature distribution in addition to the Specific 1 standard.......... RHET 101 If score is a 5 in both English Language and English Literature..... 1 Unspecified ENGL 1302 For the minimum score: 4...petersons..

............. EN 102 ENGL 101 ENGL 101 & ENGL 201 Free elective ENG 101 and 1 Free elective If Honors student.............. Required Score Credits Granted School Name Bentley College (MA) Course Waived Stipulations High school graduates who have taken the AP exams may be awarded credit for scores of 4 or 5.....com ..............petersons............... Canisius College (NY) 3 4–5 3 6 Carleton College (MN) Carnegie Mellon University (PA) Carroll College (MT) Carson-Newman College (TN) Case Western Reserve University (OH) Cedarville University (OH) Central College (IA) Centre College (KY) Chapman University (CA) Christian Brothers University (TN) Clarkson University (NY) Clark University (MA) Clemson University (SC) 4–5 4–5 3–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 3–5 4–5 4 4–5 4–5 4–5 3–4 6 3 0 ENGL 150 None 3 ENG 103 COMM 210 3 ENGL 101 www....................................... 2 Free electives..................Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 267 ........ Score of 5: Part I of Writing Requirement fulfilled... Baruch College of the City University of New York (NY) Birmingham-Southern College (AL) Boston College (MA) Boston University (MA) Bradley University (IL) Brandeis University (MA) Brigham Young University (UT) Bryan College (TN) Bryn Mawr College (PA) Bucknell University (PA) Butler University (IN) Calvin College (MI) 3–5 4–5 5 4–5 4–5 3–5 4–5 3–5 3–5 5 4–5 4–5 4 5 3 3 6 6 3 EH 102 WR 099 ENG 101 ENGL 115 Credit is awarded for only 1 English AP exam.................... 4–5 Berea College (KY) Bernard M... ............ on any subject test.

..................... . 4 or 5 = ENGL 101 & 102 Student with a minimum score of 4 in any AP History or English receives waiver of WRI 102 Academic Writing.......petersons.... Connecticut College (CT) Converse College (SC) 4–5 3 4–5 Cornell College (IA) Cornerstone University (MI) 4–5 4–5 6 4 ENG 113 Credit will not be granted for both English Lang & Comp and English Lit & Comp...... Covenant College (GA) Creighton University (NE) 4 5 3 3 ENG 111 ENG 150 www.............. The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (NY) Concordia College (MN) 5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 5 4–5 4–5 5 5 4 4 ENGL 211 ENG 1110 Writing 101 3 3 3 3 Free elective COCC 150 No exemption No exemption 3 4 Disc 101 Disc 101 & 102 3 Students who score 3 in English will be placed in English 290 (Advanced Composition) and will receive the AP credit only upon successful completion of English 290................. College of Saint Benedict (MN) The College of St..... Required Score Credits Granted School Name Clemson University—continued Course Waived ENGL 101 & ENGL 103 Stipulations 5 6 Coe College (IA) Colby College (ME) Colgate University (NY) College of Charleston (SC) The College of New Jersey (NJ) 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 4–5 3 or 6 ENGl 101 & ENGL 102 Elective 3 = ENGL 101............................268 APPENDIXES .....com .................................. Scholastica (MN) College of the Atlantic (ME) College of the Holy Cross (MA) The College of William and Mary (VA) The College of Wooster (OH) Colorado Christian University (CO) The Colorado College (CO) Colorado School of Mines (CO) Colorado State University (CO) Columbia College (NY) Columbia University......................

......... ..........petersons.. Dominican University (IL) Drew University (NJ) Drexel University (PA) Drury University (MO) Duke University (NC) Earlham College (IN) Elizabethtown College (PA) Elmira College (NY) 3–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 4–5 5 3–5 3 4 5 6 4 3 6 3 3 6 9 4 ENGL 101 ENGL 1 ENGL 150 ENGL 29 EN 100 3 elective credits 6 elective credits Registrar and Writing Faculty will determine placement....... ENG 110 Elon University (NC) Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (AZ) Emerson College (MA) Emory University (GA) 4–5 3–5 4–5 4–5 WP 101 4 In the case of two AP results for individual language examinations (i... 5 4–5 Denison University (OH) DePauw University (IN) Dickinson College (PA) 4–5 4–5 4–5 4 FYS 101 ENG 130 ENG 211 Although students receive credit for ENGL 211................................ Required Score Credits Granted School Name Dartmouth College (NH) Davidson College (NC) Course Waived ENG 199 Stipulations AP credit does not satisfy the composition requirement...................................... credit may be awarded for either examination but not for both........ English Comp only......... ENG 110 satisfies the literature requirement..com . English Literature and English Language).. Erskine College (SC) Eugene Lang College The New School for Liberal Arts (NY) Fairfield University (CT) Florida Institute of Technology (FL) Florida International University (FL) 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 4–5 3 3 3 6 3 EN 11 Composition and Rhetoric ENC 1101 ENC 1101 & ENC 1102 ENC 1101 Florida State University (FL) 3 www....Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 269 ..e.. this credit does NOT fulfill the Writing Intensive requirement........................... which must be met by a W-course at Davidson............

.. Required Score Credits Granted School Name Florida State University— continued Fordham University (NY) Course Waived ENC 1101 & ENC 1102 Stipulations 4–5 3–5 6 Currently............ Franciscan University of Steubenville (OH) Franklin and Marshall College (PA) Furman University (SC) George Fox University (OR) Georgetown College (KY) Georgetown University (DC) 4–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 3–5 4–5 3 3–6 3 If a student takes both tests.................... No credit for a score of 3...... However...... but may not be used to fulfill core curriculum or major requirements........ must take Engl 110 or 204 for Gen Ed Engl 110/Gen Ed 4–5 Goucher College (MD) Grinnell College (IA) Grove City College (PA) Gustavus Adolphus College (MN) 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 4 www.petersons.... 5 Gordon College (MA) Goshen College (IN) 4–5 3 3 3 ENGL 101 elective............com ............. ....................... ENGL 99 ENGL 99 ENGL 1101 General elective ENGL 12 WRIT 110 The George Washington University (DC) Georgia Institute of Technology (GA) Georgia State University (GA) Gettysburg College (PA) Gonzaga University (WA) 4 5 4–5 3–5 4–5 4 3 6 3 4 3 Elective Credits will be awarded which may be used to fulfill the overall credit requirements for graduation...........................................270 APPENDIXES .... then the higher score is used because credit is awarded only once for both tests.......... a grade of 3 will be accepted as elective credit.. grades of 4 or 5 may be applied towards the core curriculum..

James Madison University (VA) John Brown University (AR) John Carroll University (OH) Juniata College (PA) Kalamazoo College (MI) 4–5 3–5 4–5 3 4–5 www.............. Illinois College (IL) Illinois Institute of Technology (IL) Illinois Wesleyan University (IL) 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 COM 101 a student can earn a Writing Intensive Flag if his or her score is a 4 or 5 on the English Language and Composition Exam and a grade of B or higher was received in the Gateway Colloquium course.....................................petersons............... No credit is awarded for scores under 4.................... Iowa State University of Science and Technology (IA) Ithaca College (NY) 3–5 4–5 6 ENG 377–1 & ENG 307–1 GWRIT 103 EGL 1013 6 EN 111 & EN 112 Adv... 4–5 Hamline University (MN) Hampshire College (MA) Hanover College (IN) Harding University (AR) Harvard University (MA) Haverford College (PA) 4–5 3–5 3–5 3 5 4–5 3 Elective Credit ENG 111 No equivalent Placement in Expository Writing (required of all freshmen) The registrar will award one course credit for an AP score of 5 and one-half course credit for a score of 4.............. Required Score Credits Granted School Name Hamilton College (NY) Course Waived Stipulations Recipients of scores of 4 or 5 on either or both of the AP examinations in English may place directly into one of several 200-level courses.... Placement is granted for only one English exam........ ..................Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 271 ............................ ENGL 110 Hendrix College (AR) Hillsdale College (MI) Hiram College (OH) Hobart and William Smith Colleges (NY) Hope College (MI) Houghton College (NY) 4–5 3 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 3 6 Principles of Writing Should a student take both AP English exams..com . he/she would receive credit for both POW and Lit of West World..

... typically ENGL 11........................... Enroll in LLT 1213. 5 Lawrence University (WI) Lebanon Valley College (PA) Lehigh University (PA) 4–5 4–5 4 3 6 3 COM 1103 ENG 111 & ENG 112 Freshman English These students will complete the six-hour requirement by taking an English course suggested by the department.......................... Placement into English 205 or 206..272 APPENDIXES ...petersons..... he/she should contact the Student Service Center to request credit for COM 1103.. 2029 or 2123 5 9 www... Lewis & Clark College (OR) Linfield College (OR) Lipscomb University (TN) 4–5 4–5 3 4–5 6 6 3 EN 1113 EN 1113 & EN 1123 ENG 1001 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College (LA) 3 4 6 ENG 1001 & ENG 1002 ENG 1001..........com . ..... 4–5 Knox College (IL) 3 4–5 Lafayette College (PA) Lake Forest College (IL) Lawrence Technological University (MI) 4–5 4–5 4 3 Can only receive credit for English 110 once... Required Score Credits Granted School Name Kenyon College (OH) Course Waived ENGL 111Y-112Y or ENGL 103 & 104 ENG 101 ENG 101 & ENG 102 ENG 110 Stipulations Placement in any 200-level course.. If the student earns a “C” or better in the first attempt................. 5 LeTourneau University (TX) 4–5 6 3 Freshman English ENGL 1013 A student with scores of 4–5 on both the English Language and the English Literature tests will receive 3 hours in ENGL 1013 and 3 hours in a Literature Elective for a total of 6 hours of credit..................................................... 1002 & 2025 or ENG 2027......

None English elective ENG 111 ENG 111 & ENG 112 WRA 150 WRA 150 UN 1001 Or 3 credits for UN 2001 if student is already receiving credit UN 1001.....................................Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 273 ..... Required Score Credits Granted School Name Loyola College in Maryland (MD) Loyola Marymount University (CA) Loyola University Chicago (IL) Luther College (IA) Lycoming College (PA) Course Waived Stipulations 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 3 4 8 ENGL 106 & ENGL 215 ENGL 101 AP Credit in English may not be included in the minimum number of courses for a major or minor in English.. this cannot be used toward the English major. Then enroll in English 113... ENG 110 ENGL 105 Lyon College (AR) Macalester College (MN) 4–5 4–5 Marist College (NY) 3–4 5 3 6 ENG 116L ENG 116L & ENG 117L ENGL 1 ENGL 1 & ENGL 2 Marlboro College (VT) Marquette University (WI) 4–5 4 5 8 3 6 Maryville College (TN) Maryville University of Saint Louis (MO) The Master’s College and Seminary (CA) McDaniel College (MD) 3–5 3–5 3–5 4–5 Students may receive advanced placement plus up to 8 hours credit......... Only one English exam will receive credit..........................................................petersons....................... ..... McGill University (QC) 4–5 McKendree College (IL) Mercer University (GA) Messiah College (PA) Miami University (OH) 3–5 3–5 3–5 4 5 3 3 3 6 0 4 3 Michigan State University (MI) Michigan Technological University (MI) Middlebury College (VT) 3 4–5 4–5 4–5 www........... 6 May not take Effective Communication or English for Academic Purposes.........com ..

...........com ...................................... if you get a score of 4 take ENG 104........... Required Score Credits Granted School Name Milligan College (TN) Course Waived HUMN 101W & General elective General elective credit only ENG 101 ENG electives Stipulations 4–5 6 Millsaps College (MS) 4–5 6 Mills College (CA) Mississippi College (MS) Missouri State University (MO) Moravian College (PA) Morehouse College (GA) Mount Holyoke College (MA) Mount Saint Vincent University (NS) Muhlenberg College (PA) Murray State University (KY) 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 3–4 3 ENG 101 If you get a score of 3 take ENG 102...............petersons................ .......... Proceed directly into ENGL 112..................................274 APPENDIXES ......... 4 3 3 5 New College of Florida (FL) New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJ) New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM) New York University (NY) North Carolina State University (NC) North Central College (IL) Northwestern College (IA) Northwestern College (MN) Northwestern University (IL) Occidental College (CA) Oglethorpe University (GA) 4–5 4–5 4–5 0 4 5 4–5 4–5 3–5 5 4–5 3 4–5 Ohio Northern University (OH) 3 4 6 ENG 101 & ENG 102 HSS 101 ENGL 111 No course equivalent Eligible to submit portfolio to apply for ENG 101 credit........ 3 3 0 4 4 4 ENG 101 ENG 115 Elective ENG 1105 2 English electives 4 4 4 8 Elective credit ENGL 110 ENGL 110 & ENGL 111 Essay will be evaluated by English faculty www..........

.... four. a student is invited by the English Department to schedule English 030—Honors Freshman Composition. Required Score Credits Granted School Name Ohio Northern University— continued The Ohio State University (OH) Course Waived ENGL 110..................01 ENG 105 ENGL 1113 ENGL 1113 ENGL 1113 & ENGL 1213 Elective Stipulations 5 4 5 12 5 5 Ohio Wesleyan University (OH) Oklahoma City University (OK) Oklahoma State University (OK) 4–5 4–5 3 4–5 3 3 6 Pacific Lutheran University (WA) Pacific University (OR) Peabody Conservatory of Music of The Johns Hopkins University (MD) The Pennsylvania State University University Park Campus (PA) 4–5 4–5 4–5 4 3 0 0 None For a grade of three........................ With a grade of four or five. Pepperdine University (CA) Pitzer College (CA) Point Loma Nazarene University (CA) Polytechnic University....... .......... Presbyterian College (SC) Princeton University (NJ) 0 5 Providence College (RI) Purdue University (IN) Queen’s University at Kingston (ON) Quincy University (IL) Quinnipiac University (CT) Randolph-Macon Woman’s College (VA) Reed College (OR) 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 EN 101 4 ENGL 106 TBA www................ no credit is awarded.01 ENG H110.01 EN 1014 When both have been taken......... & 204 ENG 110.petersons.......... credit will be given for the Literature exam............. 111...... or five..com ................................. 0 No credit No course equivalent AP credit is not awarded for the International English Language AP exam.Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 275 .......... Brooklyn Campus (NY) Pomona College (CA) 4–5 4–5 3 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 3 6 ENG 101....

..................com ... Louis College of Pharmacy (MO) Saint Louis University (MO) Saint Mary’s College (IN) Saint Mary’s College of California (CA) St...... Newark (NJ) Rutgers.... The State University of New Jersey........ Norbert College (WI) St........................ The State University of New Jersey.............. Olaf College (MN) 4–5 3–5 4–5 4–5 3 4–5 4–5 3–5 5 0 3 6 ENGA 190 ENWR 100 level ENGL 00E ENGL 4 Credit awarded for only one English AP exam not both Lang/Comp and Lit/Comp English course credit 4 UCCA 101 1 English course credit plus placement in English 103......petersons.. Mary’s College of Maryland (MD) St...........276 APPENDIXES ........... Lawrence University (NY) St......... Required Score Credits Granted School Name Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (NY) Rhodes College (TN) Course Waived Stipulations 4–5 4–5 4 8 ENG 151 & one unspecified course ENGL 121 Rice University (TX) Rochester Institute of Technology (NY) Rollins College (FL) Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (IN) Rutgers............... .................. Salem College (NC) Samford University (AL) 4–5 4–5 www. New Brunswick/ Piscataway (NJ) Saint Francis University (PA) 4–5 3–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 4 4 Writing Gen Ed RH 131 3 4–5 ENG 104 English writing elective & ENG 104 4 3 ENGL 211 ENG 1011 or ENG 1021 None Saint John’s University (MN) Saint Joseph’s University (PA) 5 4–5 St..................

............. Maximum of 9 credits awarded if both exams taken......................... extra hours are given............... Southwest Baptist University (MO) Southwestern University (TX) State University of New York at Binghamton (NY) State University of New York at Buffalo (NY) State University of New York College at Geneseo (NY) 3–5 4–5 3–5 3–5 3–4 3 3–4 4 6 ENGL 1TR Not for Major credit............Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 277 .......................... 3–4 6 5 6 Rhetoric and Writing Studies 100 and 200 ENG 1 Exempts from CSU English Placement Test and satisfies Writing Competency.... 5 6 ENGL 142(for major)..........com ... Required Score Credits Granted School Name San Diego State University (CA) Course Waived Stipulations San Diego State University course equivalent is Rhetoric and Writing Studies 100 and 3 units of Rhetoric and Writing Studies 299....... Sewanee: The University of the South (TN) Siena College (NY) Simpson College (IA) Skidmore College (NY) Smith College (MA) Southern Methodist University (TX) 4–5 4–5 3–5 4–5 4–5 4 5 4 3 6 ENGL 1301 ENGL 1301 & ENGL 1302 ENG 1113 ENG 10-013 Elective credit If both............. Santa Clara University (CA) Sarah Lawrence College (NY) Scripps College (CA) Seattle Pacific University (WA) Seattle University (WA) 4–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 4–5 4 5 5 Elective course ENGL 110 A maximum of 10 credits will be granted for English even if two exams are completed... Maximum of 9 credits awarded if both exams taken...... ENGL 1TR(Not for Major credit State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (NY) Stetson University (FL) 3–5 4–5 3 EH 121 www... .............petersons..............

.. Tabor College (KS) 3–5 6 EN 101 3 hrs.. State University of New York (NY) Susquehanna University (PA) 4–5 3–5 4–5 6 3 Two General electives None In exceptional cases.... the department may also recommend credit for scores of 3...... electives ENG 110 ENGL 1010 ENGL 1010 & ENGL 1020 ENGL 104 ENGL 104 & ENGL 241 10803 10803.. There must be an essay included with a score of 4......278 APPENDIXES .................. 4–5 3 Stonehill College (MA) Stony Brook University......................................petersons....or sophomore-level humanities course in Group A: Literature/ Philosophy as a result of a successful AP exam in English..... 20803 ENGL 1301 ENGL 1301 & ENGL 1302 Neither can be counted toward the English major.... Required Score Credits Granted School Name Stevens Institute of Technology (NJ) Course Waived Humanities course Stipulations You may receive credit for a spring semester freshman......................... Taylor University (IN) Tennessee Technological University (TN) 4–5 4 5 3 3 6 Texas A&M University (TX) 3 4–5 3 6 Texas Christian University (TX) 3 4–5 3 6 3 6 Texas Tech University (TX) 3 4–5 Transylvania University (KY) Trinity College (CT) Trinity University (TX) Truman State University (MO) 4–5 4–5 5 3–5 3 3 ENGL 1302 ENG 190 www............. ....... Does not count toward English major.............com ............... Swarthmore College (PA) Sweet Briar College (VA) Syracuse University (NY) 4–5 4–5 3–5 6 WRT 105 & WRT 205 Management credit accepted as Humanities elective Education (inclusive) will accept a score of 3 only after a grade of B+ or higher is earned in an SU writing course.....

.... only one acceleration credit is awarded to the student........ one acceleration credit. 4–5 8 www.......... A score of 3... student will have 3 units from 109H... The University of Arizona (AZ) 4–5 University of Arkansas (AR) 3–4 5 University of California.... 4 or 5 on the English AP examination satisfies the University of California Entry Level Writing Requirement (formerly known as the Subject A requirement)......... 4 5 Tulane University (LA) Union College (NE) Union College (NY) Union University (TN) The University of Alabama in Huntsville (AL) 4–5 3–5 4–5 3–5 3 4–5 4 ENGL 101 3 3 6 0-3 ENG 111 EH 101 EH 101 & EH 102 If student completes ENGL 109H with a grade of C or better......................... only one acceleration credit is awarded to the student... 3 Maximum credit allowed: 8 units for all English exams........ Davis (CA) 3 8 Maximum credit allowed: 8 units for all English exams........... Exemption from the College Writing Requirement. English 1.... 4 or 5 on the English AP examination satisfies the University of California Entry Level Writing Requirement (formerly known as the Subject A requirement)...... one acceleration credit. ..... Without a grade of C in 109H..Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 279 .... A score of 3.........com . Berkeley (CA) 3–5 University of California....... plus 3 ENGL department elective credits from AP.. A score of 4 or 5 satisfies Entry Level Writing and the first half of R&C............ student will not receive AP credit...petersons. If both tests are taken..... Exemption from the first semester of the College Writing Requirement (placement in English 2 or an equivalent course)............. Required Score Credits Granted School Name Tufts University (MA) Course Waived Stipulations If both tests are taken.. ENGL 1013 ENGL 1013 & ENGL 1023 A score of 3 satisfies Entry Level Writing...............

.......... AP score of 4 or 5 satisfies “C-1”.... 1E.com ..... or School of Humanities requirements.....petersons... 50LK Satisfies one IH and Entry Level Writing Requirement.. 1LK........ 50...... 2E......... minor...... may not replace English major. WRTG 1310 WRTG 1310 & WRTG 1320 ENC 1101 ENC 1101 & ENC 1102 3 6 WRTG 1150 WRTG 1150 & WRTG 1250 ENGL 104 The AP Examination in English Language or English Literature does not fulfill the University of Connecticut Writing Competency requirement... Santa Cruz (CA) 3–5 8 University of Central Arkansas (AR) 3 4–5 University of Central Florida (FL) 3 4–5 University of Colorado at Boulder (CO) 4 5 University of Connecticut (CT) 4–5 4 University of Dallas (TX) 3–5 6 ENG credit University of Dayton (OH) 4 3 www...280 APPENDIXES . 2LK Writing 1. Or 8 elective units if the student enrolls in ENGL 001A.... Riverside (CA) 3–5 3 4–5 8 8 ENGL 001A & elective ENGL 001A & ENGL 001B Writing 1.... One English Exam only.. Los Angeles (CA) University of California... 2... 1LK.... Maximum of 8 credits granted.................. 2E.......................... 3 4–5 8 8 University of California........ 2LK.. Required Score Credits Granted School Name University of California.. 1LK Writing 1...... University of California............ 2.. One course toward category IV of the UCI breadth requirement from the English 28 series plus 4 units of elective credit...... Irvine (CA) Course Waived Elective credit only Stipulations Fulfills UC Entry Level Writing requirement....... ... 50E.. Santa Barbara (CA) 3 4 8 8 5 8 University of California... 1E. 1E... Only 6 total credits of English awarded for either or both exams.

......... University of Georgia (GA) 3–4 5 University of Illinois at Chicago (IL) University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (IL) 4–5 4–5 3 4 The University of Iowa (IA) University of Kansas (KS) University of Kentucky (KY) 4–5 3 4–5 3 4 0 3 3 Placement in ENGL 105 Placement in ENGL 205 3 credit hours for ENG 101 with a grade of CR.....petersons.......... Required Score Credits Granted School Name University of Dayton—continued University of Delaware (DE) Course Waived ENGL 166 ENGL 266 ENGL 166 & ENGL 266 4 First Year Writing 8 First Year Writing 8 First Year Writing/ 4 elective ENC 1101 ENC 1101 & ENC 1102 ENGL 1101 ENGL 1101 & ENGL 1102 ENGL 160 Rhetoric 105 & Composition I requirement 010:003 ENGL 101 ENGL 105 ENG 101 Stipulations One English Exam only.....................com .......................... Choose either ENG 102 or ENG 104 (recommended)..... 4–5 University of Maryland..................................Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 281 ............... College Park (MD) 4–5 3 4–5 4 3 3 3 ENG 104 ENGL 100 LL elective ENGL 101 Students with score of 4 or 5 on Lang and Comp exam satisfy CORE-Fundamental Studies Freshman Writing requirement (*ENGL 101).. Baltimore County (MD) University of Maryland.............. 5 3 4 5 6 3 3 6 University of Denver (CO) 3 4 5 4 8 12 University of Evansville (IN) University of Florida (FL) 4–5 3 4–5 3 6 3 6 Writing Requirement (6000 words).............. ........ University of Mary Washington (VA) 3–5 3 ENGL 0101 www..

........................................ COMP 105 COMP 105 & ENGL 231 University of Michigan–Dearborn (MI) 3–4 5 University of Minnesota................com .... 5 4–5 3 4–5 3 4–5 4 3 3 3 3 6 3 University of Notre Dame (IN) 4–5 University of Oklahoma (OK) 3–4 5 University of Pennsylvania (PA) 5 University of Pittsburgh (PA) 4–5 5 3 6 ENGLIT 0000 ENGCMP 0200 & ENGLIT 0000 with 500 on verbal SAT www.......282 APPENDIXES ...............................................petersons............ ........... Required Score Credits Granted School Name University of Miami (FL) University of Michigan (MI) Course Waived ENG 105 & ENG 106 Stipulations 5 4–5 6 3 Does not satisfy the English Composition or distribution requirements in English.................. Morris (MN) University of Minnesota...... Twin Cities Campus (MN) University of Missouri–Columbia (MO) University of Missouri–Kansas City (MO) University of Missouri–Rolla (MO) University of Nebraska– Lincoln (NE) The University of North Carolina at Asheville (NC) The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (NC) The University of North Carolina Wilmington (NC) University of North Florida (FL) 3–5 3–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 4–5 4 4 3 3 3 3 ENGL 1011 COMP 1011 ENG 1000 ENGL 110 ENGL 20 English Composition 150 LANG 120 ENGL 101 ENG 101 ENG 103 ENC 1101 ENC 1101 & ENC 1102 First Year Composition 13100 ENGL 1113 ENGL 1113 & ENGL 1123 English Freshman Free Fulfills freshman writing requirement.

. Counts toward Visual..... B RHE 306............ CR RHE 306.. Thomas (MN) University of San Diego (CA) The University of Scranton (PA) University of South Carolina (SC) Course Waived Elective Stipulations Credit is not allowed for both exams.............................Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 283 ...... 4–5 3–5 3–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 3–5 3–5 3–4 5 3–6 3 3 Writing 104 ENGL 103 No credit ENG 100 Does not fulfill the Literature and Writing requirement..... .. ENGL 101 ENGL 101 & ENGL 102 4 3 6 ENGL 121 ENGL 121 & ENGL 122 RHE 306.com .................. University of Wisconsin–La Crosse (WI) 3 4–5 3 3 ENGL 110 ENGL 110 & 300 level writing course English Composition Electives University of Wisconsin– Madison (WI) 3 3 www................ and Performing Arts general education requirement for graduation.........................petersons. Literary............. A 3 SCH free electives RHET 1300 University of Southern California (CA) The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (TN) 3–5 3 4–5 The University of Texas at Austin (TX) 3 4 5 The University of Texas at Dallas (TX) University of the Sciences in Philadelphia (PA) University of Tulsa (OK) University of Utah (UT) University of Virginia (VA) University of Washington (WA) 3 4–5 4–5 4–5 3–5 5 4–5 3 8 3 5 ENGL 1033 Writing 2010 ENWR 110 ENGL 109 AP English...................... Required Score Credits Granted School Name University of Puget Sound (WA) University of Redlands (CA) University of Rhode Island (RI) University of Richmond (VA) University of Rochester (NY) University of St..........

.. Wellesley College (MA) Wells College (NY) Wesleyan College (GA) Wesleyan University (CT) 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 No more than one credit will be awarded even if students take both exams......... Required Score Credits Granted School Name University of Wisconsin– Madison—continued University of Wisconsin–River Falls (WI) Ursinus College (PA) Valparaiso University (IN) Vanderbilt University (TN) Course Waived English Composition Electives English Elective ENGL 100 ENGL 100 ENGL 104W & ENGL 105W Stipulations Exempt from GER Communication A....... Possibly receive credit for ENGL 100... ....................... but not both Western Washington University (WA) 3 www............. Please note........ 4 Humanities GUR Student may receive credits for either English exam..........................................................284 APPENDIXES ......com ... no credit is given for wiriting or literature courses............petersons....... Louis (MO) 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 4–5 4–5 5 4–5 5 3 8 3 ENG 11N ENG 201 & ENG 202 3 credits of elective credit (L13–0001) contingent upon completing L13–100 with a grade of B or better.. 4–5 3 3 4–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 3 3 3 6 Vassar College (NY) Villanova University (PA) Virginia Military Institute (VA) Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VA) 4–5 4–5 3–5 3 4–5 6 3 6 EN 101 & EN 102 ENGL 1105 ENGL 1105 & ENGL 1106 Wabash College (IN) Wagner College (NY) Wake Forest University (NC) Wartburg College (IA) Washington & Jefferson College (PA) Washington and Lee University (VA) Washington College (MD) Washington University in St...... No exact equivalent 4 ENG 111 EN 111 EN 112 Only 4 total hours of ENG 111 credit will be awarded........

........................... 2 4 William Jewell College (MO) Winona State University (MN) Wittenberg University (OH) Wofford College (SC) Xavier University (OH) Yale University (CT) 4–5 3–5 4–5 4–5 4–5 5 4 GEN 102 3 3 ENG 101 ENGL 101 www...... but not both 4–5 8 Westminster College (UT) 4–5 8 Westmont College (CA) Wheaton College (IL) Wheaton College (MA) Whitman College (WA) Whitworth College (WA) Willamette University (OR) 4–5 3 4–5 4–5 5 3–4 5 4–5 4 3 6 ENGL 110 ENGL 110 ENGL 110 ENGL 100 Non-major credit in these departments............ Required Score Credits Granted School Name Western Washington University—continued Course Waived ENGL 101 & Humanities GUR ENGL 110 & ELEC 100T Stipulations Student may receive credits for either English exam...... French................... Contact Art................. or Spanish departments regarding possible assignment of specific course equivalencies in these areas.....................Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and Placement 285 .............com ..petersons........ Environmental Science............... ............. Music......

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review the terms in the following list..... social............ “beautiful blossoms blooming between the bushes” allusion: a reference to another work or famous figure that is assumed to be well-known enough to be recognized by the reader anachronism: an event......... phrase... for example..... some anachronisms are unintentional... As you read your assignments in English class.. political. usually to clarify an action or a relationship. custom. but you may find questions that give you an example and ask you to identify what it is an example of... As you study for your AP test. often used for humorous effect or to make a point 287 .. religious.. or satiric alliteration: the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another. simple narrative of an incident. person. When you write your critical essays for class.. and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface story. A allegory: an extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters..... word........ the underlying meaning may be moral. where appropriate. events... object.. or clause repeated at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row anecdote: a short. to make your essays more precise. such as comparing the work of a heart to that of a pump anaphora: specific type of repetition... appendix b You will not find any questions on the test that ask you to define a literary or rhetorical term. find examples of the concepts that underlie these literary and rhetorical terms.. others are deliberately used to achieve a humorous or satiric effect.....A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms ............ such as the sustained anachronism of Mark Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court analogy: a comparison of two similar but different things...... or thing that is out of order in time.. incorporate terms and concepts from the list.. such as when an actor performing Shakespeare forgets to take off his watch.

whereas a parody will imitate and exaggerate a specific work..... such as in neigh/fade authority: support for an argument that is based on recognized experts in the field B burlesque: broad parody.............. awkward....... often witty statement of a principle or a truth about life apostrophe: usually in poetry but sometimes in prose... persuasive writing is a form of argumentation assonance: the repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants. or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose.......... restraint. the opposite of euphony caricature: descriptive writing that greatly exaggerates a specific feature of a person’s appearance or a facet of personality classicism: the principles and styles admired in the classics of Greek and Roman literature... it may also be a paradox or difficult problem www.. such as Romeo and Juliet..... such as fulfill and Ping-Pong conundrum: a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun.....petersons...... and formality coherence: quality of a piece of writing in which all the parts contribute to the development of the central idea. or personified abstraction argumentation: writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments.. theme............ such as myths.. dead.. and exaggerate it into ridiculousness C cacophony: harsh. the device of calling out to an imaginary..............288 APPENDIXES ...... a burlesque will take an entire style or form....... or absent person or to a place................... such as objectivity. as in boost/best.......................... thing.com .. ...... or organizing principle colloquialism: a word or phrase used in everyday conversation and informal writing but that is often inappropriate in formal writing conceit: an elaborate figure of speech in which two seemingly dissimilar things or situations are compared connotation: implied or suggested meaning of a word because of its association in the reader’s mind consonance: the repetition of identical consonant sounds before and after different vowel sounds. it can also be seen within several compound words.... aphorism: a short.. sensibility.............

.. narration... dances............................... one of the four modes of discourse F figurative language: language that contains figures of speech... exposition.. also.. rather than literal.com ...... witty saying in poetry or prose that either stands alone or is part of a larger work. within the larger genres www...... such as a novel or poem. comparisons or associations folklore: traditional stories. and customs that are preserved among a people.... and touch...... in order to create associations that are imaginative rather than literal figures of speech: expressions....... songs.. such as similes and metaphors.... being passed down orally from generation to generation until recorded by scholars foreshadowing: the use of a hint or clue to suggest a larger event that occurs later in the work G genre: a type of literary work...... the four traditionally classified modes of discourse are description. smell. such as science fiction or sonnet... there are also subgenres....... also called syntax discourse: spoken or written language... explanation...........Appendix B: A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms 289 ...... that make imaginative... and personifications........ such as similes.. metaphors........... sound... motion........ it may also refer to a short poem of this type euphony: a succession of harmonious sounds used in poetry or prose......... including literary works.. folklore usually precedes literature.....petersons. taste.. the opposite of cacophony exemplum: a brief tale used in medieval times to illustrate a sermon or to teach a lesson exposition: the immediate revelation to the audience of the setting and other background information necessary for understanding the plot.. D denotation: literal meaning of a word as defined description: the picturing in words of something or someone through detailed observation of color.......... one of the four modes of discourse diction: word choice. and persuasion dissonance: harsh or grating sounds that do not go together E epigram: a concise.. .... an element of style.

...... “my love is a fragile flower” metonymy: a figure of speech that uses the name of an object.............. mood is the primary emotional attitude of a work www........ usually a poem........ humor meant a person’s temperament hyperbole: deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis I idyll: a short descriptive narrative. person.. eventually causing his or her downfall humor: anything that causes laughter or amusement. or idea to represent something with which it is associated. it is used effectively in many cases.....290 APPENDIXES .... the sentence is grammatically complete after the word violin M metaphor: a figure of speech in which one thing is referred to as another.....petersons... the manner in which a work of literature is written mood: similar to tone......... about an idealized country life...... H hubris: the excessive pride or ambition that leads a tragic hero to disregard warnings of impending doom.... also called a pastoral imagery: words or phrases that use a collection of images to appeal to one or more of the five senses in order to create a mental picture interior monologue: writing that records the conversation that occurs inside a character’s head inversion: reversing the customary order of elements in a sentence or phrase....................com ............... for example......... up until the end of the Renaissance.............. such as posing a question: “Are you going to the store?”... often..... with her flags behind her streaming” irony: a situation or statement in which the actual outcome or meaning is opposite to what was expected L loose sentence: a sentence that is grammatically complete before its end................ such as “Thalia played the violin with an intensity never before seen in a high school music class”.... . making it sound artificial and stilted: “To the hounds she rode.... such as using “the crown” to refer to a monarch mode: the method or form of a literary work........ it is used ineffectively in poetry...

motif: main theme or subject of a work that is elaborated on in the development of the piece.. phrases. or drama............ determined by subject matter and audience.... a repeated pattern or idea myth: one story in a system of narratives set in a complete imaginary world that once served to explain the origin of life.........” persona: a fictional voice that a writer adopts to tell a story...... clauses.petersons................. e... and animalistic urges over which they have no control O objectivity: an impersonal presentation of events and characters onomatopoeia: the use of words that sound like what they mean.. as in this quotation from Henry David Thoreau: “I never found the companion that was so companionable as solitude.. religious beliefs... he still cared for her...” parallelism: the technique of arranging words....Appendix B: A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms 291 ........ being driven by the natural forces of heredity.g. such as hiss and boom oxymoron: a figure of speech composed of contradictory words or phrases........ one of the four modes of discourse naturalism: a literary movement that grew out of realism in France...... nonfiction....................... it portrays humans as having no free will.... and the forces of nature as supernatural occurrences N narration: the telling of a story in fiction....................... environment... Mark Twain personification: the attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or an inanimate object www.. similar to but shorter than an allegory paradox: a statement that seems to contradict itself but that turns out to have a rational meaning... or larger structures by placing them side by side and making them similar in form parody: a work that ridicules the style of another work by imitating and exaggerating its elements periodic sentence: a sentence that is not grammatically complete until its last phrase....... .. and England in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries... poetry. such as “wise fool” P parable: a short tale that teaches a moral....com ....... “Despite Glenn’s hatred of his sister’s laziness and noisy eating habits..... the United States....... such as.

.. using the locale and its influences as a major part of the plot rhetoric: the art of using language effectively.. stressing subjectivity.... language intended to convince through appeals to reason or emotion point of view: the perspective from which a story is presented...... common points of view include the following: • first-person narrator: a narrator. narration....... description...... the love and worship of nature.. one of the four modes of discourse.... half-formed thoughts and impressions in the character’s mind • omniscient narrator: a third-person narrator. but instead placing the reader inside the character’s head. making the reader privy to the continuous.. focusing on characters with whom middle-class readers could easily identify.. caustic personal remarks to or about someone.. . referred to as “he.... (3) the exploration of the subject........... (5) style and tone of expression................... and (6) form.....com ........... less subtle than irony www.... it is in direct contrast with romanticism regionalism: an element in literature that conveys a realistic portrayal of a specific geographical locale...” “she........ artistic. and philosophical movement that began in the eighteenth century as a reaction to neoclassicism.. referred to as “I.292 APPENDIXES . (2) his or her consideration of the audience... (4) arrangement and organization of the ideas......... involves (1) writer’s purpose..” or “they... chaotic flow of disconnected....” who is a character in the story and relates the actions through his or her own perspective........ and freedom. the focal points of the movement are imagination.... rhetorical modes: exposition..... also revealing his or her own thoughts • stream of consciousness narrator: like a first-person narrator..... thoughts and feelings are only revealed if a character speaks of them protagonist: the main character of a literary work R realism: a nineteenth-century literary movement in Europe and the United States that stressed accuracy in the portrayal of life..petersons......... persuasion: a form of argumentation... and a fascination with the past S sarcasm: harsh.. emotion................ individuality. argumentation romanticism: a literary..” who is able to see into each character’s mind and understands all the action • limited omniscient narrator: a third-person narrator who reports the thoughts of only one character and generally only what that one character sees • objective narrator: a third-person narrator who only reports what would be visible to a camera.....

.....petersons........... or qualities... and audience U unity: quality of a piece of writing.......................... subject.. or as if to make a direct comparison between two essentially different objects............. influenced by the author’s feelings and opinions suspension of disbelief: the demand made that the reader accept the incidents recounted in the literary work symbolism: the use of symbols or anything that is meant to be taken both literally and as representative of a higher and more complex significance synecdoche: a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent a whole.. as.... such as using “boards” to mean a stage or “wheels” to mean a car syntax: word choice or diction T theme: the central idea or “message” of a literary work tone: the characteristic emotion or attitude of an author toward the characters... ................. “the sky looked like an artist’s canvas” speaker: the voice of a work... an author may speak as himself or herself or as a fictitious persona stereotype: a character who represents a trait that is usually attributed to a particular social or racial group and who lacks individuality style: an author’s characteristic manner of expression subjectivity: a personal presentation of events and characters.......................... see also coherence V voice: the way a written work conveys an author’s attitude www..................... actions....................com .Appendix B: A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms 293 .. for example........ simile: a figure of speech that uses like...

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