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Disccovery of the Reader in the Literary Work

Disccovery of the Reader in the Literary Work

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Published by: Ernest Giordani on May 02, 2011
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INTRODUCTION: INTERPRETATION AND THE LITERARY TEXT IN THE GERMAN FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE CLASSROOM The title of this project, The Discovery of the Reader in the Literary Work (Die Entdeckung des Lesers imliterarischen Werk), focuses on Bernd Kast's assertion in his Literatur im Unterricht. Metodische Vorschläge für den Lehrer,that a group of fairly recent developments has led to a decidedly new orientation in literary scholarship. He points out that this new direction is due in part to the impact of Jean-Paul Sartre¶streatise,What is Literature? (1949) in which he first addresses three seemingly less formidable questions: "What is Writing?" "Why Write?" and "For Whom Does One Write?" In so doing, he casts a different light on meaningand interpretation,for he introduces the perspective of social engagement. Kast, in addition, refers to Robert Escarpit, who in his publication, Das Buchund der Leser, offerssociological views 2

of the nature of literatureand the reader. Using the metaphors of business and technology, he employs the neutral methodology of his discipline to acquire and study data, as well as raise at times unasked questions that suggest answers about literature as a commodity. Kast also directs attention to Hans-Georg Gadamer's hermeneutical concerns expressed in Wahrheit und Methode,as they touch on understanding and interpreting art and literature: "Schrift und was an ihr teil hat, die Literatur, ist die ins Fremdeste entäußerte Verständlichkeit desGeistes"(156). In addition, Kast alludes to Roland Barthes' assessment of the relationship between society, the reader and the literary work. Bernd Kast and Paradigm shift in Foreign LanguageInstruction Gadamer's assertions about the use of literary textsare implicit in Bernd Kast's Literature in Instruction.Methodologicaldidactic Suggestions for the Instructor. (Literatur im Unterricht. Methodischdidaktische Vorschläge fürden Lehrer). He points out that in recentyears,numerous publications have appeared which,falling back upon olderpedagogical concepts, call for a student oriented, studentcentered "einenschülerorientierten, schülerzentierten³ (Instruction Kast 38)instruction.Such an instruction would free students from their consumerrole and allow them to make suggestions´ on their own (38). Then Kastschematizes the ensuing contrasts: (38) Discovery of the Reader²² Methodological research ± Paradigm shift 3

Old paradigm

New paradigm

Literary canon open textual offerings (only ³high´ literature) also trivial literature) ²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²² Student as object literLiterature is object ary education = of students = Literature centered reader centered Lesson is more important Learning is more important than the learning. than the lesson. Intention- and AuthorMethodological perspective ²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²² ²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²² Text is static, closed Text is dynamic, open Independent processable ²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²² Meaning is fixed Meaning is established by the (Monovalence) reader (Polyvalance) ²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²² Extra temporal Temporally ²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²

Entdeckung des Lesers Rezeptionsforschung - Paradigmawechsel ______________________________________________________________ altes Paradigma neues Paradigma ________________________________________________________________ Literaturkanon offenes Textangebot (nur "hohe" Literatur) (auch Trivialliteratur) _________________________________________________________________ Erziehung durch Dichtung Erfahrungen mit und durch Dichtung _____________________________________________________________________ Schüler als Objekt liteLiteratur ist Object rarischer Bildung =desSchlülers=literaturzentriert= leserzentriert 4

__________________________________________________________________ Intention- und AuthorRezeptionperspective perspektive Text ist statisch abgeschlossen, autonom Sinn liegt fest (Monovalenz) Überzeitlichkeit Text ist dynamisch, offen, prozesshaft Sinn wird vom Leser festgelegten(Polyvalenz) Zeitgebunden

__________________________________________________________________ Assessing the outcomes the student-oriented, discovery pedagogy, Kast asserts that acquired knowledge is better retained and reproduced through Self-discovery(Selbstentdeckung)than when conveyed by a teacher orinstruction (37). Through a series of new empirical inquiries this older understanding is viewed in another light (J. S. Bruner 1973,304). Students recognizetheir strategies of problem solving, which for them may be anindependent answer to new problems which may surface ("discovery learning") (37). CHAPTER I: FROM NIETZSCHE TO ESCARPIT: PERSPECTIVE AND MEANING Initially, however, this project looks at comments on perspective by Friedrich Nietzsche which are not only at the heart of literary interpretation but are important to literary interpretation by students in foreign language classrooms where literature is used to facilitate language acquisition. Within the reader-centered,Rezeptionsperspektive dynamic schema that Kast presents, one easily hears tones of Friedrich Nietzsche's comments on perspective, forNietzsche says, that "Der Perspektivismus ist nur eine komplexe Form der Spezifität" (705). He explains further that his notion is that each specific body strives to master its own space, expand its power (²²its will to power:) and repel 5

everything that resists its expansion. However it impacts continuously on similar efforts of otherbodies and arranges a (>>coalition<<) with them which is congenialenough to it²²thus they then conspire together toward power. And the process continues . . . . (705) Furthermore, Nietzsche remarks that perspective presents a quality of plausibility. As if the worldremained when one subtracted perspective! As if one had thereupon indeed subtracted relativity. (705). One might say then, as regards the use of literary texts forlanguage acquisition, that a student's particular, plausible interpretation of a literary text is a "complexe Form der Specifität" which the student through negotiation, conspiring, and coalition with other interpreting bodies (students), employs to expand his or her own interpretive prestige (will to power). Similarly, Wolfgang Iser's texts,Der Akt des Lesens (The Act of Reading) and Implizite Leser (The Implicit Reader), focus on readers' perspective and the meaning they derive through textual interpretation. He asserts that literary "Schemata" are a part of the elements of the text and are implicit in the established competence of readers. Their frames of reference lie in systems of perception as well as in literary tradition, which does not really have the character of logical reference, but still offers a stability of meaning. (Reading 154)(Lesens154) That is, the readerswork with an unformulated but intended text that presents them withAnweisungen und Suggestionen(Imp.Leser 59). In the text it is the Nicht-Gesagte and the Gemeinte which engage the Einbildungskraft of the reader (Lesens 59). Iser points out, that, in contrast, the aesthetic issue of the text has neither the quality of the element the ("Schemata") nor its stability, let alone a comparable system of 6

reference. Therefore the aesthetic issue in contrast to "Schema" (sic) cannot be lifted from the text and formulated separate from it (Lesens 154,5). Furthermore, Iser emphasizes that ultimately it is the readers that attribute meaning to the text, for while the organization of the primary code in a fictional text denotes certain comprehension requisites, their manifestation in the secondary code is never identical because the primary code prescribes in no sense definite readings of the text, since it is only a model of the comprehensionalact which contains more possible manifestations (Lesens 156). Gadamer: Literature and Hermeneutics. Considering the unique and incomparable qualities of literature, Gadamer remarks in Wahrheit und Methode, Literature presents the transformation of understanding a specific task. There is nothing as peculiar and taxing to understanding, as the written word. The encounter with people offoreign tongues cannot at all be compared to this peculiarity and amazement, because speech already contains the air and the tone of direct intelligibility. (156) Then inWas ist Literatur?Beiträge von Han-George Gadmer, Helmut Kuhn und Gerhard Funke,Gadamer goes on to comment on the controversy regarding the process of discovering literary textual meaning as he remarks that the concept of the text is itself a hermeneutic. We appeal to the text when we cannot follow a given translation. On the contrary, we never stop with the mere letters,

when we "understand": the opposite of spirit and letter rises up in understanding. In so far thatinthe widest senses, the literary art work is a text upon a text, it appears to him a text in the eminent sense and the translation is not only capable but wanted (31). 7

As accurate as Kast may be about "zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen" appearing "in den letzten Jahren" which fall back upon olderpedagogical concepts with regard to current literary instruction,perhaps he also alludes to the latter half of the nineteenth century and Friedrich Nietzsche's Perspektivenoptikso crucial to formation of meaning within social macro- and textual microcosms. Gadamer's following words from

Wahrheit und Methodeseem to suggest so, for in is chapter on "Wahrheit in den Geisteswissenschaften," Gadamer mentionsNietzsche and his contribution to modification of Horizont,in thatwhoever has no horizon is a person who does not see far enough and therefore overvalues what lies nearby. Horizon is justthe opposite: Not limited to the next, but beyond it able to see intothe distance (Gadamer 286).In fact, today Nietzsche's, Gadamer's and Iser's ideas areimplicit in the following observation with which Hans von Hunfeld begins his Literatur als Sprachlehre: Ansätze eines hermeneutischorientierten Fremdsprachenunterrichts: "Nirgendwo tritt im Fremdsprachenunterricht die Differenz zwischen reinem Sprachlehrtext und literarischem Text deutlicher hervor als in der Situation des Anfangsunterrichts" (18). For instance, Hunfeld asserts: "Denn wird der Lehrbuchsatz durch Wiederholung und Anwendung in der Unterrichtssituation zum persönlichen Satz des Lerners, so bleibt die Zeile eines Gedichts, und sei sie noch so oft wiederholt, immer Zitat" (18). The poem remains "Zitat" because the pedagogy of the Lehrbuch ascribes meaning to the poem, but for the poem to acquire meaning, it must become a literary text open to readers' interpretations. In sum, from Nietzsche through Gadamer to Iser, Kast and Hans 8

Hunfeld, the world, the person, and the literary text all reside in the realm of hermeneutics, i. e. , meaningless potentialities open to interpretation. Obviously, the perspectives of Gadamer, Kast, Huhnfeld et al offer the foreign language student greater challenge than the usual prescription of discrete point questions and drills or global questions so often an integral part of foreign language instruction of the not too distant past. Saussure and Language as Sign. If one can speak of the world as well as the literary text as interpretation, one can certainly speak of various perspectives to which the word itself, the very seed and fiber of the literary text, is subjected. Ferdinand de Saussure, the

founder of modern linguistics, differentiated between two important perspectives of linguistics: "linguistique synchronique" and "linguistique diachronique": "L'objet de la linguistique synchronique générale est d'établir les principes fondamentaux de tout système idiosynchronique, les facteurs constitutifs de tout état de langue (Saussure 141). However, whereas "la linguistique synchronique"

focuses on the study of language within a particular time period, "la linquistique diachronique" concerns itself more with language from an evolutionary perspective, as Saussure suggests: D'une façon générale, il est beaucoup plus difficile de faire de la linguistique statique que de l'histoire. Les faits d'évolution sont plus concrets, ils parlent davantage á l'magination ; les rapports qu'on y observe se nouent entre termes successifs qu'on saisit peine ; il est aisé, souvent même amusant, de suivre une serie de 9

transformations. Mais la linquistique qui se meut dans des valeurs et des rapport coexistants présente de bien plus grandes difficultés. (Cours 141,2) Within the realm of la linquistique syncronique one discovers two other perspectives: langue, "l'ensemble des habitudes des linguistiques qui permettent à un suject de comprendre et de se faire comprendre" (Cours 112), and parole, which is "individuelles et momentèes"(38). Possessing an understanding of the role of langue and parole, as well as of synchronic and diachronic language study, plays a part in ascertaining meaning of a literary text, for the mercuric nature of the word becomes evident, especially so in view of Saussure's principle of language as "un système de signes distincts correspondant à des idées distinctes" (26). Continuing, Saussure points to the crucial role the sign plays in language, since language emerges in his analysis as an arbitrary system of signs: Le principe de l'arbitraire du signe n'est conteste par personne ; mais il est souvent plus aisé de découvrir une vérité que de lui assigner la place qui lui revient. Le

principe énoncé plus haut domine toute la linguistique de la langue; ses conséquences sont innombrables. Il est vrai qu'elles n'apparaissent pas toutes du premier coup avec une égale évidence ; c'est aprés bien des détours qu'on les découver, et avec elles l'importance primordiale du principe. (Cours 100)

Terry Eagleton's claims inhis Literary Theory: An Introduction, that the "hallmark of the 'linguistic revolution' of the twentieth century, 10

from Saussure and Wittgenstein to contemporary literary theory, is the recognition that meaning is not simply something 'expressed or reflected' in language: it is actually produced byit" (60). However, Robert Magliola argues in his study on Derrida, Derrida on the Mend, that Derrida views "linguistic schools of the Saussurean kind and some philosophies of the 'correspondence theory'" (6), as "cryptic displacements of the classic principle of personal self-identity" (6). Derrida "assaults the principle ofidentity, that is, the theory of signified and signifier, as it functions in explanations of language and of how language composes the identity of things" (6). Or as Eagleton asks from the post-structuralism perspective, "How can there be any determinate truth or meaning at all ?´(143) It seems, then, from this perspective too, meaning in the literary text is established through the readers. Sartre, Literature, the Literature Text. Sartre, as reader, is discovered in the work of literature from two important views which demonstrate how a reader assigns meaning to the text.On the one hand, as philosopher/reader, Sartre stands back from the text, attempting to define it phenomenologically. On the other hand, Sartre, the political activist, views literature and the writer as agents of social change. Thus he approaches the literary text withpredispositions and expectations. For Instance, in posing and answering the same larger question, "What Is Literature?" addressed by Gadamer, Sartre suggests that the poet does not know how to use the word in Saussure's sense "as a sign of an aspect of the world, he sees in the word the image of one of these aspects . . . all language is for him the mirror of the world" (14). Sartre's 11

perspective does not separate the dance from the dancer: "prose is in essence, utilitarian. . . . . the prose writer . . of words" (19). . a man who makes use

"In short, actual literature can only realize its full

essence in a classless society" (156) "without dictators, without stability, [which] would produce a literature which would end by becoming conscious of itself" (160).Truly an activist's stance imbued with the Marxian perspective of social engagement but one that limits the text's potential meaning Barthes and Amodal Writing. In his Writing Degree Zero Roland Barthes presents a radical perspective from which to view literature and simultaneously another way to discover meaning within the literary text. Unlike Sartre, who views prose literature in its semiotic

profusion, as that particular language most effective to communicate, Barthes finds limitations. He points out that language "is a social

object by definition, . . ."the divided property of all men," and "a reflex response involving no choice" (9). It is "distant human horizon" (10) hovering between past unspoken languages and ones yet to be spoken. It was in the past or is on its way toward us in the future, or we toward it. However, Sartre, in alluding to the quality of sign implicit in prose

language, comments how a writer may say something: "One is not a writer for having chosen to say certain things, but for having chosen to say them in a certain way. And, to be sure, the style makes the value of the prose. Since words are transparent and since the

But it should pass unnoticed.

gaze looks through them, it would be absurd to slip in among them some panes of rough glass"(25). These are the words that alert Barthes to a flaw inSartre's emphasis on the language at the expense of the style of 12

language. Choice of mode, however, does not lie exclusively with the writer, for as Barthes maintains, "It is under the pressure of history and tradition that the possible modes of writing for a given writer are established . . ." (16). In effect, writing is a "compromise between

freedom and remembrance" (16), a compromise between "the unity of classical writing, which remained uniform for centuries," and the writer's freedom of choice, if only for a mere moment, which "reaches the deeper layers of History, much more palpably than does any other cross-section of literature" (17). Through time, contrasting modes of writing within

a school of writing break "when a new economic structure is joined on to an older one, thereby bringing about decisive changes in mentality and consciousness" (18). Barthes describes such breaks and resultant changes of consciousness in Marxism and Modern Poetry. Marxists incorporated into their language a "lexicon as specialized and as functional as a technical vocabulary,even metaphors are here severely codified" (22). Writers

speak withone political voice and one set of lexical terms meant to "maintain acohesion, appear as a language of knowing, and impose a stability in its explanations" (23). Its language demonstrates the "economy of a classicallanguage (Prose and Poetry) [which] is relational, whichmeans that in it, words are abstracted as much as possible in the interest of relationships. In it no word has a density by itself, it is hardly a sign of a thing, but rather a means of conveying a connection" (44). Linguistically, Barthes refers to the "zero element" (76), as a third 13

term between two terms of polar opposition, i. e., between subjunctive and imperative moods the indicative interposes as "amodal" (76). Thus in the prolonged "attempt towards disengaging literary language" (76), Barthes suggests a "colourless writing, freed all bondage to apreordained state of language"(76). Designating"colorless writing," a "transparent form of speech, initiated by Camus's 'Outsider'" (77), Barthes maintains that it "achieves a style of absence which is an ideal absence of style"(77). Finally "writing is then reduced to a sort of

a negative mood in which the social and mythical characters of a language are abolished in favour of a neutral or inert state of form" (77). The advantage for modern writers"writing at the zero degree" (76) is that "thought remains wholly responsible, without being a secondary commitment of form to a History not its own" (77). With Barthes, as with Sartre,

Gadamer, and Nietzsche, the reader is again discovered as the interpreter ofwriters' literary texts. Escarpit and the Sociology of Literature. Robert Escarpit may well embody the zero degree of literary criticism. In much the samemanner as Saussure considers language an object to be analyzed from a linguistic, scientific vantage point, or Sartre and Barthes view literature and its language as objects, Escarpit views literature as a sociological fact related to human general behavior. However, much of his inquiry seems to have extre-

literary concerns, i. e., Production, Distribution, Consumption, The Age Factor in Literary Production.Escarpit is not concerned with meaning to be found within the literary textual language among the myriad interrelationships of words as signs. He seeks a fuller understanding of literature as fact by examining it as a commodity: "We cannot forget,if 14

we wish tounderstand literature, that a book is a manufactured product, commercially distributed and thus subject to laws of supply and demand. We must see that literature is, among other things,incontestably, the production segment of the book industry, as readingis its consumption segment" (2). The Marxist tones are here, asEscarpit mentions Vladimir

Zhdanov and his "Some Recent Soviet Studies in Literature," Soviet Literature: "Literature must be considered in its inseparable relation to social life, the background of those historical and social factors which influence the writer: . . ." (4). Escarpit asserts, however, the "principal opposition to the Soviet sociological method . . . 'formalism'" and the combined "influences of Wilhelm Dilthey's neo-Hegelian philosophy, of philological criticism,and of Gestalt psychology Literaturwissenschaft" (4,5) have been ". . . one of the most serious obstacles to the appearance of a real sociology of literature" (5). Although the science of sociology "through Comte, Spencer, Le Play, Durkheim and others progressed towards complete autonomy . . . it bypassed literature . . . for literature had been protected by an attitude of deference" (5). By focusing on specific aspects of the literary "process," Escarpit attempts to bring a sociology of literature into the light of modernliterary criticism. In order to understand literary production more clearly from a sociological perspective, Escarpit first examines the writer in time. Production of the literary work, he affirms, ". . . a manifestation of a community of writers" which shares in the rise andfall of life of "all other demographic groups aging, rejuvenation,overpopulation and

decreasing population" (21). 15

CHAPTER II: SURVEY OF GERMAN FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE PEDAGOGIES WHICH USE STUDENTS' PERSPECTIVES OF THE LITERARY TEXT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION With both Escarpit and Barthes, as with Sartre, Gadamer, and Nietzsche, readers provide perspectives from which to interpret writers' literary texts, be they texts for general consumption or texts used for language acquisition in a foreign language classroom. In addition, Brigitte Helming and Gustav Wackwitz in their Literatur im Deutschunterricht am Beispiel von narrativen Texten explain the value of literary narrative texts to second language acquisition: . . . wenn erzählt wird, hört man mit Interesse, oft mit Spannung zu. Die Erwartung: 'Wie geht's weiter?' ist eine spontan gewährte Haltung gegenüber dem Erzählten. Man will auch wissen, worauf es hinausläuft, man möchte das Ende der Geschichte nicht versäumen" (14).

Furthermore, Littlewood says in his "Literary and informational texts in teaching." Praxis 1, 1976 that literary texts differ from external reality for they ". . . have a different relationship to external reality" (19). The literary text gleans its "raw material" as well as its "interpretability" from external reality (19), "but after selecting elements from it, aim to combine these elements into a new portion of reality which exists only within the text" (19). Thus the reader enjoys the opportunity to use contextual knowledge (extralinquistic information) of the external reality to acquire language in both the external reality and the literary text. In apparent agreement with Helming and Wackwitz regarding student creativity in interpreting the literary text used for foreign language, Littlewood explains that 16

readers continually attempt "to form and retain a coherent picture of the world of the text (19),as their ". . . creative (or rather, 'co-creative') role, and the imaginative involvement engendered by this role encourage a dynamicinteraction between reader, text and external worlds" (19). What is more, Brumfit and Carter remark in Literature and Language Teaching that the literary text is "authentic text" (15) and "real language in context," to which readers "can respond directly" . . . (15), offering as it does ". . . a context in which exploration and discussion of content (which if appropriately selected can be an important motivation for study) leads on naturally to examination of language . . ." (15) and the language resources provided by the literary text, which place ". . . the reader in an active interactional role in working with and making sense of language(15). Thus the reader, intimately in the text, simultaneously creates meaning for the text -Die Entdeckung des Lesers im Literarischen Werk. In the process of interpreting meaning, the foreign language student/ reader must communicate individually or within groups, and beyond Helming and Wackwitz' Literatur im Deutschunterricht many other sources such as Discourse Analysis and Second Language Teachingby Claire J. Kramsch, Managing Conversations in German: Reden,mitreden und dazwischen by Clair J. Kramsch and Ellen Crocker, Contexts of Competence by Margie Berns, Literature in the LanguageClassroom by Joanne Collie and Stephen Slater, Mitlesen Mitteilenby Larry D. Wells and articles in theUnter

richtspraxis, Foreign Language Annals, Schatzkammer, Modern Language Journal, Quarterly, and Applied Linquistics provide a rich variety of useful pedagogies to assist instructors in using literature for second 17

language acquisition of German at various levels of instruction. For instance, students in a beginning German course are notprepared linguistically to read a novel, a novella, most short stories and many poems in the target language. However, like Brumfit and Carter above, Collie and Slater remark in their Literature in the Language Classroom: A resource book of ideas and activities that appropriately selected extracts from literature "provide one type of solution. The advantages are obvious: reading a series of passages from different works+* produces variety in the classroom, so that the teacher has a greater chance of avoiding monotony, while still giving learners a taste of an author's special flavor" (11). A text whichlends itself to both this pedagogy of appropriate extraction of literary passages as well as Helmling and Wackwitz' views on the value of narrative texts for language acquisition is HörGutZu!: A Beginning German Audio-Lingual Reader by Gerard F. Schmidt. Schmidt's Hör Gut Zu!, first published in 1964 before pedagogies of the communicative competence movement had made significant impact in the United States, focuses on audio-lingual methods which have marginal value in the communicative foreign language classroom. However, the stories themselves were garnered under the author's cardinal rule that "they must hold the students' attention" (iii). In that respect, many of the stories readily comply with Helmling and Wackwitz'explanation that narrative texts are used in foreign language instruction because "sie in des Lesers Vorstellung Erfinden zulassen und anregen" (15) and indeed because the "Kreativität des Lesers ist 18

das Hauptargument einer rezeptionsästhetischen Didaktik. Man möchte dabei, dass im Unterricht das meiste, das vor allem inhaltlichen Geltende, von den Schülern komt. (15) Continuing with Helming and Wackwitz'views as regards using narrative texts in German language instruction, we encounter their comments on "Ein besonderer Typus narrative Texte -ein Urtypus von Narration . . . das Märchen" (117).

Märchen sind in sich geschlossene Erzähleinheiten mit formelhaften Anfängen und Schlüssen; ein Davor und Danach der Handlung gibt es nicht. Die Hauptfigur erscheint amAnfang in einer glücklichen Situation Rotkäppchen) oder in einer Notlage (Hänsel und Gretel). Sie macht sich auf den Weg, um einen Auftrag oder eine Aufgabe zu erfüllen und gerät dabei in Schwierigkeiten, die sie bewältigen muss. (117 In addition, the outcomes of the narrations are usually positive in that good prevails, the small, the weak, the misunderstood are rewarded; the evil are vanquished, the violent, the mighty, and the dishonorable are punished. Often the hero needs assistance from hunters, a miraculous circumstance or advice in order to succeed. Many figures in these narratives belong to other than the human world but have human qualities (117). Futhermore, "inhaltlich entsprechend

Märchen Wunschvorstellungen über einen gerechten Lauf des Lebens und befriedigen ein tiefes Bedürfnis nach Harmonie" (118). Then, too, Märchen often provide fantastic as well as didactic explanations for reality (118). ³Die Wette´is one such story from Schmidt's collection of ten short pieces of literature. In addition, this and the rest of the stories in the reader provide students with opportunities to use 19

natural discourse, to role play, and to explore other communicative strategies identified in the course of this discussion. Furthermore, the vocabulary and the social context of selected passages from Die Wette as well as from Thomas Mann's Tonio Kröger provide appropriate avenues for communicative discourse. Attempting to discuss literature communicatively raises issues about providing student readers with techniques to manage discourse successfully. A valuable study by Claire J. Kramsch, Discourse

Analysis and Second Language Teaching, presents pertinent insights and strategies. First she asks the question: "How are foreign language learners in the classroom given the opportunity to phrase (i.e., organize) their learning experience in terms of discourse management" (13)? Kramsch provides answers by explaining that students speaking in a classroom environment perform on three different structural levels: (1) the formal structure, composed of a set of message-

bearing elements (verbal, paralinguistic, nonverbal) and its grammatical and syntactical units of realization; (2) the illocutionary structure, composed of illocutionary forces or acts (inviting agreeing, etc.); 3) the interactivestructure, composed of interactional

tactics, and classified according to their relative distribution and privileges of occurrence. The first two levels constitute the communicative level of the interaction. The third is the discursive. (13) 20

In the section, Teaching Communicative Strategies in the Classroom, from their ManagingConverationsin German:Reden mitreden dazwischen, Kamsch and Crocker remark that teaching communicative strategies is teaching language as discourse, i.e., language as it is used in social contexts between speakers, hearers and bystanders. In the social context of the classroom, the teacher presents and transmits knowledge about the foreign language, thestudents display that knowledge for the evaluation by the teacher, and they use it for communication with the teacher and their peers (v). The authors comment briefly on the three forms of discourse used in language classes. Instructional discourse is usually teacher-centered and manages of the lesson using such "utterances as 'Please open your book'/'Repeat after me'/'We are having a test µtomorrow'/'Don't speak all at once . . .'" In this form of discourse students merely react to cues from the teacher and rarely initiate turnsat talk, or raise topics, generally just "reacting to questions and displaying information" (v). In Convivial discourse teacher and student work together as equal partners in managing the lesson. In his more student-centered form of discourse, instructional tasks arenegotiated betewen teacher and students, i. e., "What did you mean?"/"How do you say . . ."/"I couldn't hear, what is it you just said"/"Excuse me, it seems to me that . . ." Using Natural or simulated/discourse teacher and student interact as they would outside the classroom. Examples of natural discourse "are the exchanges between teacher and students at beginning of the lesson: 'I am sorry I am late, but I had to go to the dentist'; 'Do you know what? They havejust raised tuition again!'"; Examples of simulated natural discourseare personal 21

or service encounters, i. e.,"Could you show me the way to . . ." "Certainly"/"What did you do this summer?" "Well . . . him . . .

let's see"/"I would like a pound of potatoes" "Anything else?" (v) ) Kramsch's term, natural discourse, of course, calls to mind Krashen and Terrell's concept of the natural approach from their book The Natural Approach. The methodologies associated with these two approaches to language acquisition are similar in that both the grammatical structures with which the Natural Approach concerns itself, and the socially appropriate discourse with which Natural Discourse concerns itself, are acquired, not learned in Krashen's sense of the word. Furthermore Kramsch points out that unlike native speakers who have acquired appropriate social linguistic skills, i.e., "when to use which form to express which meaning with whom for which purpose in which circumstance" (Reden iv), foreign language students must gain competency in discourse to communicate effectively. Classroom foreign language students do not know the "appropriately polite phrasing in the foreign language, and may not use that phrase with the right intonation, the right rhythm, and the right timing"(v). Kramsch's table of contents details strategies which assist foreign language students with the ability to control the conversation: Gespräche beginnen und beenden; Um Auskunft bitten und Auskunft geben;Gemeinsam planen und organisieren;Gefühle ausdrücken und darauf reagieren; Geschichten erzählen,Geschichten hören;Ratholen und Rat geben; Verlangen und sich beschweren;Meinungen äussern, auf Meinungen reagieren;Themen einführen, Gespräche steueren;Dafürund dagegen 22

argumentieren. Several of the above categories and associated strategies will be helpful in exemplifying the dynamics of this project. Similarly, Margie S. Berns mentions in Chapter One of her 1984 edition of Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching: It is the social context that determines which behavior options, both verbal and nonverbal, are available to the speaker for example, whether it is even appropriate in a given situation for the speaker to choose physical threat. It is the features of Firth's [J. R. Firth, founder of the British school which viewed language as "a way of behaving or making others behave"] context of situation that would guide in the selection of options in the particular situation. These features include those on the level of meaning associated with the context of culture. (8)Co-writer Sandra J. Savignon's interpretation of communicative competence, "expression, interpretation, and negotiation of meaning involving interpretation between two persons, or between one person and an oral or written text" also reflects Berns' comments (9). "Oral or written text," however, derives from Michael Halliday's work in systemic linguistics and function, i.e., ideational and interpersonal functions of language, which require a third function, textual. The third function "serves this purpose of language by providing means for the formation of coherent texts. Any linquistic unit is the simultaneous realization of these three functions" (7). More specifically, these three functions are used: (1) (2) to express 'content,' to give structure to experience and help to determine the speaker's way of looking at things (ideational); to establish and maintain social relations, to delimit social 23

) ituation in which it is used, to enable the speaker (or writer) to construct passages of discourse that are situationally relevant (textual). (7) Berns goes on to present important criteria based upon assumptions of systemic linguistics which can be used in the evaluation of

groups, to identify and reinforce the individual (interpersonal); and to providefor making links with itself and features of the

exercises which adequately represent a functional and/or communicative approach: 1. Utterances are presented with sufficient context for the interpretation of meaning.

2. The relevant contextual features are identifiable that is, persons, objects, verbal and nonverbal behavior, and effect. 3. The insight gained into an instance of language use is generalizable that is, the learner can make

predictions/interpretations of meaning in similar situation types. 4. All three macro-functions are taken into account that

is, the ideational (conceptual), interpersonal (behavioral) and extual (formal). 5. nglish. 6. eaning. 7. . More than formulaic functions of language are illustrated. Options are provided for the expression and interpretations of Texts are authentic that is, if not taken from of actual use of

The interdependency of formal and functional meaning in context 24

is explicit as opposed to simple equivalency of form and function. (12,13) The following example demonstrates an inadequate application of the "functional and/or communicative approach . . . based on assumptions of systemic linguistics:" (13) ACCEPTING________________________________________________________ 1 Kenji: 2 Fransesca: 3 Kenji: 4 Francesca: 5 Kenji: 6 Francesca: 7 Kenji: 8 Francesca: Do you think you'll be able to? Yes, It sounds fine. That's great. Thanks for asking me. Your're welcome. I'm glad you can make it. So am I. Okay. We'll see you then. Right. I'm looking forward to it.

CONTENT ANALYSIS Francesca might be accepting: a dinner invitation a babysitting job a substitute-teaching job a tennis date a ride in a car pool What else? a skiing invitation___ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Some of Berns criticisms, comments, and questions concerning the exercise are: Little is revealed about Kenji and Francesca other than their names. Are they peers? What are their ages? Since Francesca is female, role

Reversalmight reveal if "accepting" forms are the same for males. What 25

is Francescaaccepting? What is the cultural context?

How can the

students generalize and predict regarding communicativelanguage usage? (13,14) On the other hand, the following exercise "provides a richerview of language. Part iii, for example, allows for the openness and unpredictability involved in actual speaking. The notion of someone's refusing to honor a request is entertained and the learner is called upon to formulate appropriate responses" (15). i) a) Who says these things? In what situations? Hold . . .

It would help if you could hold the

torch for me a second and I¶llsee I'll see if I can find it. b) I wonder if you could move your head a little. I can"t see. c) I want you to run round and tell Run . . . ? Could you

John to come back home immediately. d) As it's raining, I thought you might collect him by car. e) f) What is the time? Mine's stopped. Could you . . Move . . . . ? You couldn't . . . ?

I like it better over there. Do me a

favour and move it for me, dear. g) I wonder if you could change it. I You couldn't . . .

like to have a clean table cloth. h) Let me borrow yours, George. I've Could I . . . .?

only got a pencil. 26

ii) iii)

Make a new sentence using the words on the right.

How do you think the other person replies? They don't say (16)

yes all the time. Maybe they can't help.

Berns points out here that even though the communicative nature of the exercise has improved, students are not easily able to generalize because the language is clearly British; but is the language upper or middle class? The language is polite, yet the students are asked to use

less formal forms in their answers. In addition, the context of situation is not clear, i. e., are the new sentences in (i) requests or commands? That is, the interdependency of form and function is not explicit. (16) In her Contexts of Competence Berns states that "communicative language teaching is founded on an understanding of the nature of communication and the variability of norm of communication from context to context (103). She then presents eight characteristics which assist in the production or modification of materials to assist in achieving communicative competence objectives: 1. Language teaching is based on a view of language as communication, that is, language as seen as a social tool which speakers use to make meaning; speakers communicate about something to someone for some purpose, either orally or in writing. 2. Diversity is recognized and accepted as part of language development and use in second language learners and users as it is with first language users. 3. A learner's competence is considered in relative, not 27

absolute, terms of correctness. 4. More than one variety of a language is recognized as a viable model for learning and teaching. 5. Culture is recognized as playing an instrumental role in shaping speakers' communicative competence, both in their first and subsequent languages. 6. No single methodology or fixed set of techniques is prescribed. 7. Language use is recognized as serving the ideational, the interpersonal, and the textual functions and is related to the development of learners' competence in each. 8. It is essential that learners be engaged in doing things with language, that is, that they use language for a variety of purposes in all phases of learning. (104) In Chapter Two, Interactive discourse in small and large groups, of Wilga M. Rivers' Interactive Language Teaching, Claire J. Kramsch contributes important observations about the dynamics of interactive discourse in the foreign-language classroom. For instance, Kramsch

introduces the concept of "instructional options: ". . . interaction among group members in a classroom moves between the two poles of a continuum of what Stern calls 'instructional options'in Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. These concern the roles of participants, the tasks they accomplish, and the type of knowledge that is exchanged. (18) Kramsch constructs an INTERACTION CONTINUUM table: ___________________________________________________________________ 28




discourse discourse discourse _____________________________________________________________________ Roles: Tasks: Fixed statuses Teacher-oriented Position-centered Types of knowledge: Focus on content, accuracy of facts Negotiated roles Group-oriented Person-centered Focus on process, fluency of interaction

Rivers explains the Continuum in the followilng manner: At the one end are the fixed, instructional statuses (Circourel) of teacher and student, with their expected and predictable behavior patterns, acquired through years of schooling. At the other end are a variety of roles and tasks negotiated by speakers and hears brought together by the common foreign language and engaged in natural conversation (17, 18). Referring to Sandra Savignon's interactional approach to language acquisition, Berns explains that Savignon's understanding of communicative competence is bound in four important sociolinguistic parameters: (1) the dynamic, interpersonal nature of communicative competence and its dependence on the negotiation of meaning between two or more persons who share to some degree the same symbolic system; (2) its application to both spoken and written language as well as to many other symbolic systems; (3) the role of context in determining a specific communicative competence, the infinite variety of 29

situations, in which communication takes place, and the dependence of success in a particular role of one's understanding of the context and on prior experience of a similar kind; (4) communicative competence as a relative, not absolute concept, one dependent upon the cooperation of all participants, a situation which makes it reasonable to speak of degrees of communicative competence. (Berns 89) Berns then presents Savignon's model of communicative competence based upon Canale and Swain in their 1980 article, "Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second langauge teaching and testing:" 1. Grammatical competence. structure of a language. 2. Sociolinguistic competence. Ability to use language appropriate to a given context, taking into account the roles of the participants, the setting, and the purpose of the interaction. 3. Discourse competence. Ability to recognize different patterns of discourse, to connect sentences or utterances to an overall theme or topic; the ability to infer the meaning of large units of spoken or written texts. 4. Strategic competence. Ability to compensate for imperfect Knowledge of the sentence

knowledge of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse rules of limiting factors in their application such as fatique, distraction, or inattention. Savignon explains in her 1983 Communicative competence: Theory 30

and classroom practice that the four competencies do not interact hierarchically. They are all equal and independent: ". . . a learner

does not proceed from one to another 'as one strings pearls on a necklace'" (45). Furthermore, in her 1991 article, "Communicative Language Teaching: State of the Art," appearing in volume two of four special issues of TESOL Quarterly celebrating its 25th anniversary, she briefly examines the origins of what now is known as communicative language teaching (CLT), discusses the then current issues and promising avenues of inquiry, and the international perspective (CLT). Savignon concludes that by building upon what is alreadyrecognized about "language use as social behavior, purposeful, and always in context," those engaged in (CLT) "offer a view of the language leaner as a partner in learning" as they "encourage learner participation in communicative events and self-assessment of progress . . . , including communicative risks and focus on development of learning strategies" (273). David Nunan reviews how the pedagogy of the communicative task through task based language teaching (TBLT) has become "an important component within cirriculum planning, implementation, and evaluation" over the past twenty-five years in his article,"Communicative Tasks and the Language Circulum"(279). In the same 1991, 25th anniversary issue of TESOL Quarterly, Nunan highlights five significant features of (TBLT): 1. An empasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning 31

situation. 3. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language, but also on the learning processitself. 4. An enhancement of the learner's own personal experience as important contributing elements to classroom learning. 5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom. Proceeding, Nunan presents Conceptual, Circular, and Empirical bases of the approach, providing examples of appropriate tasks. Moreover, he suggests the "conceptual and empirical basis needs to be extended both substantively and methodologically" (293). Using literature to encourage communicative competence provides students the opportunity to interpret the written word through personal and group, verbal and written discourse. In so doing,students integrate, draw upon, and improve grammatical, sociolinguistic discourse and strategic competences. For example, in his article, "Lesen als 'Gelenktes Schaffen,'" Lothar Bredella asserts in reading, " . . . gehen wir über das Gesagte auch insofern hinaus, als wir Erwartungen aufbauen und das Kommende immer schon im Lichte unserer Erwartungen aufnehmen, sei es, daß diese bestätigt, sei es, daß sie korrigiert werden" (176). He goes on to alert us, that as "engagierte" readers with anticipations derived from the literary text, we can only experience "Überraschungen und Irritationen" (176), for in Sartre's eyes the text itself is quite predictable to the reader, that is, in reading one sees in advance, anticipates. One sees the end of the sentence in advance, the following sentence, the next page; one 32

anticipates that these expectations are confirmed or refuted; reading is composed of many hypotheses, of dreams, which are followed by an awakening; of hopes and disappointments; the readers are just beyond the sentence which they are reading, in an apparent future, which becomes partially realized -to such an extent, as the readers progress ,

they turn from one page to another and form the shifting Horizon of the literary object. Without expectations, without future, without uncertainty there is no objectivity (176).Thus, viewing readers' Erwartungen as the catalysts that engendermeaning within the literary text, Bredella provides a rationale for an exercise, as he explains that when students read outside of school and university or view a film, they will not allow the event to slide by, but construct expectations, and with these expectations emotions build up. In this manner one goes along and engages oneself. Bredella goes on to say that we must see to it that the students become excited that within the structure of the literary text there be attractive anticipations to consider (176). In part Lousie M. Rosenblatt's distinction between "efferent" and "aesthetic" readings provides the basis for Bredella's rationale. "Efferent" reading Bredella explains as ". . . das auf Informationsentnahme ausgerichtete Lesen, das in unserer Gesellschaft vorherrscht" (166). He goes on to explain that in this kind of reading the reader suppresses how he as reader participates in the reading process and how he experiences as reader. This reading is necessary in many of life's practical contexts, but neither the only nor the original form (166). 33

Bredella continues to clarify the distinction as he asserts that "die umfassendere Form das Lesens ist 'aesthetic reading" (166). In this reading the reader pays attention to what is missing in the text and how he responds to it. We often forget Rosenblatt's perspective, that the aesthetic reading may be the original and comprehensive form of reading. We erroneously believe that reading directed toward information collection is the basic form of reading and that aesthetic reading is built upon it. Our procedure in instruction corresponds. We first seek to explain the content of the literary text and fail to notice that accordingly we treat the text as if it were a list of contents (166). Thus Bredella assigns students a part of a narrative to read, instructing them to think over how the narrative could continue. Students are to read the first part very carefully and not just in the sense that they remember details . . . , "sondern auch in dem, daß sie auf Zeichen, die auf Zukünftiges deuten, achten. Damit wird auch erreicht, daß der literarische Text nicht mehr in eine Reihe unverbundener Einzelheiten zerfällt" (177). After assigning "Neapel sehen," a short story by Kurt Marti, Bredella presents his students the opportunity to construct an Assoziogramm in which their individual relationships to the story begin to emerge through free association. Bredella then suggests that students can check the validity of their associations throughout the story, so that they learn the importance of referring back to their previous utterances when they interpret a literary text. Later in the first part of the story, Bredella provides a number of possible answers to the question how the story continues 34

and remarks that it is important that these versions be kept in mind in order to be able to come back to them later, be it that thestudents themselves "einen der Vorschläge zu einer Geschichte ausbauen, sei es, daß der unterschiedliche Ausgang der Geschichte im Kontrast zu einer dieser Versionen interpretiert wird" (178,9). In the second part of the story, Bredella focuses on the final words of the story, "Als er die Büros sah, die Kantine, und so das gesamte Fabrikareal, enspannte ein Lächeln die Züge des Kranken. Er starb nach einigen Tagen" (179). Then he asks the students a series

of questions which opens up "Spielräume für die Interpretation" (179), which the students develop, i. e., "Was bedeutet dieses entspannte Lächeln? Wie können wir das Dargestellte deuten? Hat der

Schriftsteller dem Leser etwas zu denken übrig gelassen" (179)? Bredella calls to the students' attention that "das Wort 'Neapel' nur im Titel erscheint. In der Geschichte selbst ist von Neapel keine Rede"(179). He suggests: "Auf diese Weise wird der Leser angeregt, das Geschehen der Geschichte auf dem Hintergrund seiner durch das Wort 'Neapel' wachgerufenen Assoziationen zu deuten" (179). For example, the first lines of three interpretations reveal how the reader imbues the text with meaning: 1. Wenn der Kranke die Bretterwand, die die Wirklichkeit ausschließt, niederreißt, zeigt dies, daß er bereit ist, die Wirklichkeit anzunehmen, wie sie ist. Er befreit sich von seiner illusionären Wunschvorstellung. . . . 2. Eine andere Interpretation deutet das entspannte Lächeln 35

dahingehend, daß der Arbeiter in der Fabrik die Erfühlung findet. . . . 3. Eine weitere Deutung lehnt die zuletzt angeführte als zu optimistisch ab und betont, daß erst der Kranke in der Lage ist, die Bretterwand, die seine private Welt von der Fabrik trennt, niederzureißen. (179) Essentially, the short interpretations demonstrate how the readers comprehend the text and that they find individual perspectives which give meaning to events within the text. Bredella now introduces another communicative pedagogy that involves reader and text: Eine weitere Möglichkeit, die Interaktion zwischen Text und Leser zu verstärken, kann darin bestehen, daß man Worte, Zeichen oder Abschnitte in einem Text streicht und den Studenten die Aufgabe stellt, diese "Leerstellen" zu füllen. Anschließend können die Studenten ihre verschiedenen Versionen mit denen des Originals vergleichen und die unterschiedlichen Sichtweisen herausarbeiten. (180) Wolfdietrich Schnurre: Lied Es ist wenig. was ich verlange zu wissen; weniger als die Obrigkeit will. Ich begehre zu wissen, . . . . 36 Lied Es ist wenig, was ich verlange zu wissen; weniger als die Obrigkeit will. Ich begehre zu wissen, wo es Blaubeeren gibt

und nicht: . . . . Ich begehre zu wissen, . . . . und nicht: . . . . Es is wenig was ich im Ernstfall begehre; weniger als die Obrigkeit will. Wenn der Feind kommt, . . . . Schmetterlingsnetz . . . . Aber ich kann auch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verwüstung: . . . . Es ist wenig, was ich vom Leben verlange: doch . . . . . . . .

und nicht: gibt es Krieg. Ich begehre zu wissen wann Regen fällt und nicht: in wieviel Teile zerfällt ein Gewehr. Es ist wenig, was ich im Ernstfall begehre

weniger als die Obrigkeit will. Wenn der Feind kommt, nehm ich mein

und zerschlags. Aber ich kann auch das Lied singen, und alle Panzer der Welt fahren über mich weg; und ich richte mich auf in den Spuren ihrer 35 eine Ammer, ein Halm. Es ist wenig, was ich vom Leben verlange; doch mehr, als die Obrigkeit will.

Bredella points out that experience has shown that many students 37

find this presentation irritating in that the Authority demands less knowledge from them than they as a rule possess. It is also irritating in that the lyrical Ich desires to know only a little information. A

number of students nevertheless surmise that "wenig . . . vielleicht garnichtso wenigist" (180) Thus in the thirteen Leerstellen students provide such answers: (1) ob es Krieg gibt und nicht: ob die Gewinne der Unternehmer steigen. (2) was mich glücklich macht und nicht: was mich unglücklich macht. The process continues as different perspectives emerge. comments upon the students' responses: Bredella

"Die vorgebene Struktur

verlangt einen Gegensatz zwischen dem Ich und der Obrigkeit, der auf verschiedne Weise konkretisiert werden kann" (181). literary text and the reader, Bredella affirms: Die Kreativität des Lesers und die Anerkennung der besonderen Gestalt des literarischen Textes sind keine Gegensätze, wie manchmal behauptet wird. Im Gegenteil: beide Aspekte bedingen sich gegenseitig. Nur wer genau hinsieht, fühlt sich heraus gefordert und wird darauf kreativ antworten(183). Clearly, one discovers the reader in the text in Bredella's communicative pedagogy as students interact with the text and then interact with each other verbally or in writing. Sound communicative methods in using literature for foreign language instruction are also 38 But as regards

apparent in reviewing Rosmarie T. Morewedge's following publication. In her 1987 Unterrichts Praxis article, "Literature in the Intermediate German Classroom: Wolfgang Hildesheimer's 'Eine größere Anschaffung,'" Morewedge states teachers of German can use literary texts "to build communicative competence through well-designed and properly distributed acquisition exercises" (217). In her exercise Morewedge, too, uses Krashen's Input Hypothesis (217,18), in addition to Littlewood's theory on language acquisition (217), and Rosenblatt's notion of efferent or das auf Informationsentnahme ausgerichteteLesen competence through reading the text and "properly distributed acquisition exercises"(217). Of course aesthetic reading is implied as an aspect of "the meaningful narrative Gestalt, i. e., the rhetorical structure and ideas informing the narrative as a whole, rather thanmerely parts" (218). On the First Level: Preview of her six-tiered schema designed "to provide instructors of second-year college and/or third- or fourthyear high school German with research-based, practical and imaginative procedures for presenting a high-caliber short story,´Eine größere Anschaffung´ by Wolfgang Hildesheimer" (217), Morewedge first asks students to scan a story rapidly to find answers to the W-questions: Wer? Was? Wo?Wohin? Wann? Wie? Warum? (218) which "provide a rudimantary understanding of the content and a first-stage familiarization with vocabulary" (218) or in Rosenblatt's terminology, an efferental reading. Morewedge employs this type "early intensive practice" (218) reading which "facilitates the transfer of comprehended input from the Short Term Memory (STM) into the Long Term Memory (LTM), which in turn become Permanent Memory (PM) through hearing the story from 39

different perspectives to minimize the "echoeffect that so often sets in when early massed rote repetition of the same material takes place," as also noted by Earl W. Stevick (219). On the Second Level: Reading Comprehension aspect of her communicative exercise, Morewedge directs students to read the text and listen to taped versions specially prepared outside of class to"build comprehension of authentic input through primarily receptive activities" in preparation for brainstorming and sequencing exercises (219). Brainstorming involves students drawing upon a "list of expressions and vocabulary items [created at home] by means of which they could, if asked to, retell the story" (219). Termed bunte Seiten, Stichwörter, or key terms, formulated at home, they "fit headings and questions announced previously" (219). Using their bunte Seiten, students mention expressions they recall from the story, while theinstructor writes them on the board. Students can express agreement ordisagreement as well as individual opinions and values through suchexpressions as: das war mir wichtig/nicht wichtig, weil . . . das halte ich für . . . meiner Meinung nach . . . da

bin ich andererMeinung . . .

das sehe ich anders/genauso . . .²²so das finde ich auch; aber damit stimme

ungefähr seh ich das auch, nur finde ich . . . trotzdem . . . . .

im Gegenteil, das finde ich gar nicht

ich auch überein; trotzdem . . .(220). This communicative exercise prompts students to review the vocabulary of the narrative by listening to the suggestions made by other students, then modify their own lists, and articulate their own choices. 40

Sequencing exercises as a part of level two "provide a vocabulary review and enhance the student's ability to produce correct word order"(221). For instance, upon identifying time expressions found in the narrative, students are urged to order in sequence the statements which theyproduced randomly in the previous exercise. Or the instructor may devise model sentences, e.g.: Examples of expressions of time to be used in this exercise: eines Tages/ abends/ nachts/ einige Minuten darauf/ als/ nachdem/bevor usw. (221) Als der Erzähler von dem Dieb die Lokomotive gekauft hatte, ging er ins Dorfwirtshaus ein Bier zu trinken. Kurz darauf besuchte ihn sein Vetter. (220) The third level deals with intensive vocabulary-building activities such as interactive communication exercises or Bedeutungsfelderin which students using free association, as well as prior knowledge of vocabulary, find expressions related semantically to designated topics as they fill the Bedeutungsfeld. This aspect of Level Three then incorporates partner work in organizing the vocabulary into appropriate rubrics, which lead to communication strategies that "stress the development of means of entering, controlling, modifying, and terminating interactions" (223), as three to six students develop an Erzählschema: Erzählschema erstes Angebot Kauf Lieferung 41 Parken Entdeckung der Lokomotive Lüge des Erzählers

Besuch Begrüßung Bewirtung Kommunikative Funktion Aussage Wiederholung Erklärung Widerspruch Bitte um Erklärung Bitte um Auskunft Kenntnisnahme Bestätigung Interpretation Frage Umformulierung

Abschied Meldung in der Zeitung zweites Angebot Wie oft benutzt

In this exercise one student in a group makes a statement about a list of topics, the other students asking him or her ". . . for explanations, information, repetition, by offering a restatement, commentary, acknowledgement, confirmation, interpretation, exclamation, et cetera" (223). Another member of the group records

the various communicative functions employed by the group: Example. Thema: Kauf Aussage: Da ist also ein komischer Mann, der eine Lokomotive kauft. Frage: Ist das der Erzähler, der schon einen Fesselballon hatte? 42

Bestätigung mit Umformulierung: Eine Privatperson also und keine Firma. Frage mit Bestätigung: Es geht doch um den Erzähler in der Geschichte, nicht wahr? Interpretation, Kommentar: Der ist aber komisch; warum kauft der denn als Privatperson eine Lokomotive? Bitte um Auskunft: Kauft er eine Dampflokomotive oder eine elektrische? Frage: Wo kauft er denn die Lokomotive? Erklärung: Vielleicht wohnt der Erzähler neben alten Gleisen, die man nicht mehr gebraucht. Interpretation-Widerspruch: Wer eine Lokmotive kauft, ist doch deswegen nicht komisch! Students can also use the Erzählschema to create other similar interactional exercises, changing designated sentences "with different functions of speech"(224). The class can be split into two vying groups, each recording ". . . how often the indicated functions of speech have been used:" Example. 1. Angebot 1. Da ist ein Mann, der eine Lokomotive

verkaufen will. Kauf Lieferung Besuch Begrüßung komische Weise. 43 2. Wo wird die Lokomotive verkauft? 3. Die Lokomotive wird sofort gebraucht. 4. Ein Vetter besucht den Erzähler. 5. Die beiden grüßen einander auf

Bewirtung Vetter mitgebracht hat. Entdeckung

6. Sie trinken von dem Kognak, den der

7. Hat der Vetter die Lokomotive in der

Garage oder neben dem Haus gefunden? Abschied seinem Verwandten bleiben. Meldung 9. Der Erzähler liest in der Zeitung, daß eine Lokomotive gestohlen ist. 2. Angebot dem Dieb zu tun haben. 10. Der Erzähler will also nichts mehr mit (224) 8. Der Vetter will nicht länger bei

Finally Level Three concludes with Synonymübung: Wie kann man das anders sagen? in which "students focus on important expressions used in the story, substituting simpler or different expressions they have begun to understand contextually" (224). Level Four contains communication/simulation activities using free-association questions like: "Was stimmt hier nicht?" oder "Was finden Sie in dieser Erzählung komisch?" If appropriate, a True/false exercise regarding the text's humorous elements may attune them (225). Another aspect of the fourth level is role-building, i.e., students as partners "play opposing roles, such as Gefühlsmensch orPragmatiker, composing appropriate scripts, and use as many means of controlling, changing, and entering the dialogue as possible" (226). Accordingly, role playing not only "encourages interactional communication"(225), it also "elicits new vocabulary and selected grammatical structures in active production"(225), permitting "students to discover interpretive 44

insights"(225), while "they act out transactionsmodeled on narrative structures, such as various games of one-upmanship,dream fulfillment, etc." (225). Such role-playing and accrued insights assist later in interpretation on level six.(225) Level Five treats vocabulary review with special focus. Here Morewedge explains that "as student production becomes more diffuse, the instructor will want to refocus it on central ideas of the narrative and on the fictional situation"(227). In her classroom she "reviews the vocabulary regularly through expansions of the topical or thematic hubs used earlier" (227). The instructor usually provides

the axis (Stichwort) of the thematic hub, with studentsproviding as many spokes to the thematic hub (Stichwöter) as possible. The sixth and final level turns to interpretation, for as Morewedge remarks: "Classroom experience has shown that most students arecontent with an approach to texts that focuses on building vocabulary comprehension and communicative competence"(228-9). Some students, Morewedge notes, wish to go beyond the linguistic dimensions of the text and into interpretation. These students need special guidance. Thus on level six Morewedge provides nine examples of interpretive tasks for students that can be addressed "in group discussion, as individual or partner projects to be presented to the class, or even as written assignments" (229). is provided here: Jeder hat einen Traum, durch den er/sie manipuliert werden kann. Hat der Vetter auch einmal einen großen Traum gehabt? Was mag aus diesem Traum geworden sein? Warum ist der Vetter 45 One example, number 9,

so schockiert bei der Begegnung mit der Lokomotive? (230) In all, Morewedge's exercises are effective examples of communicative foreign language instruction which ensure die Entdeckung des Lesers im literarischen Text. What is more, since the students are reading literary texts which require interpretation, subliminal "aesthetic" or experiential readings probably occur simultaneously during the efferental reading. In fact, these may be the kind of aesthetic readings (in Rosenblatt's terminology) that Bredella refers to as "gelenktes Schaffen," the ones that engage the students emotionally. Thus, in certain instances, instructors may use efferentally oriented exercises to induce students to read selected passages or parts of stories more aesthetically. For example, the first sixteen lines of Thomas Mann's Tonio Kröger, p. 1, represent an authentic

literary passage that fits Kramsch's i + 1 Input Hypothesis for second semester German students. A few words, i. e., gepflastert (paved), Giebel (gabel), Gütterpforte (iron gate), rudern (to row, to steer), Siebensachen (odds and ends), Seehundsränzeln (sealskin knapsack), may be new to students, so following Morewedge's cue a list and the meanings is provided to assist in efferental retention. From an aesthetically oriented perspective, however, the reader soon realizesthat in answering the (W) questions to obtain more information for STM,the question"wer?" will require the whole framework of the novel to provide suitable answers. For instance, the change of geography from north to south back to north, from Lübeck to München to Dänemark, reflects changes in Tonio's inner landscape and may even suggest acompromise of sorts between the artist 46

and the burgher. Wer?

Which Tonio?

The question of "wo?" itself demands involvement of senses and imagination. Since the first page of Tonio Kröger offers sketchy information regarding the geographic location of the city in which Tonio lives, the reader uses textual detail to formulate a Gestalt that suggests a plausible geographic location, but Lübeck need not be the only choice. Weather and other environmental conditions could fit several other northern German or Danish cities. In other words, each of the W-questions can easily involve readers in efferental as well as aesthetic readings. Claire Kramsch and Thomas Nolden argue in their 1994 Unterrichts article,"Refining Literacy in a Foreign Language": The difference made by Rosenblatt between efferent reading, that focuses on the information gathered as a result of reading, and aesthetic reading, that orients the reader towards his/her personal reaction to the text during the act of reading itself, captures the dialogic nature of reading and meaning-making. (29) In their article they call for inclusion of literature as an integral part of foreign language instruction as well as an end to "the institutionalized dichotomy between literature and language training . . . " (29). Beyond that, they assert readers of foreign

language texts have a right to assume their own equal stance with regard to their perspective "by the virtue of the very linguistic and conceptual power that the text has given them" (29). In short, they call for an oppositional practice in foreign 47

language instruction, a term coined by de Certeau and which ". . . consists of transforming imposed structures, languages, codes, rules, etc., in ways that serve individual purpose other than those 'intended'" (29). Or as Ross Chambers remarks: Oppositional behavior does not seek to change, although it may produce it, because it does not perceive the power it is opposing to be illegitimate (even though it is experienced as alienating). Rather than challenging the power that is in place, oppositional practices seek to solve an immediate problem [. . .] 30 They point out that post-structuralism and post-modernism "have opened up the cannon of interpretation to include such notions as intertextuality or transtextuality, that should leave space for multiple relationships between what Genette calls original texts (or'hypotexts') and their variants (or 'hypertexts')" (29). However,

what has in effect happened in the foreign language classroom is that the "native speaker norm of language classes has been replaced by the literary critical norm currently in vogue in academia" (29). However, "the literate activities of reading and writing in a foreign language should be considered a paradigmatic example for what social theorists and literary critics call oppositional practice"(29). Oppositional practices provide students with an "authorial voice"(30), as they manage their foreign language, becoming "other in their own language and . . . themselves in someone else's language" (30). In addition, like Bredella's Spielräume in his "Gelenktes Schaffen," it 48

"demarcates the space of a dialogic literacy that is not only the source of cognitive growth and understanding, but that can also elicit a 'flood of aesthetic delight, . . .'" (30). Kramsch's following comments about "authenticating" texts sheds light on the dynamics involved in arriving at meaning in reading a text: Recent developments in second language reading theory have made it clear that reading is not a passive skill of recognition, but an active bottom-up and top-down process: by matching the words on the page with the global meaning emerging from the text, and in turn by matching their global hypotheses with the individual words on the page, readers build for themselves structures of expectations called "schemata" that allow them to anticipate the meaning of words according to the context. These schemata, or mental representations, are triggered both by ideational content and by the linguistic and discursive structures of the text.(28) Kramsch reminds us that the "meaning or the authenticity of a text is not in the text itself, but, rather, it emerges from 'negotiation' between the reader and the text" (28). In her Reden Mitreden Dazwischenreden, Kramsch explains that her ". . . workbook introduces the student to some of the most important communicative strategies needed by speakers and hearers engaged in face-to-face interaction. They are systematically presented in increasing degrees of interactional difficulty" (vii). She goes on to 49

explain how the organization of the chapters reflects the studentcentered approach. Two examples will suffice: Das Konversationsspiel: Students reflect on the basics of conversational management and learn key phrases that allow them to be active participants in any conversation. Reden: Students practice conversational strategies in simple, guided situations, to focus on learning effective rhythm, timing, and pronunciation of useful phrases. (vii) Thus Kramsch's communicative notion of interaction focuses on students interacting with texts and each other interpersonally, whereas Patricia L. Carrell, for instance, in her chapter, Forstering Interactive Second Language Reading, Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching II: A Book of Readings suggests that interactive second language reading with top-down and bottom-up strategies is an intrapersonal reading process which precedes interpersonal discourse. Returning to Kramsch and Nolden's discussion of the value of oppositional practice in foreign language instructions, we are presented with a prose narrative in a third-semester German course, "Deutsch Kastanien" by Yüksel Pazarkaya, focusing on discrimination against Ausländer in Germany. Born in Germany of Turkish parents, the young son, Ender, considers himself and his native tongue to be German. However, one day his favorite playmate, Stefan, refuses to

play with Ender because, as he claims, "Du bist kein Deutscher" (30). This incident in turn recalls a previous scene when some German children refused to let Ender gather chestnuts with them because: 50

"Du bist Ausländer. Das sind deutsche Kastanien. Wenn du sie anfaßt, kannst du etwas erleben" (30). Perplexed, Enders seeks guidance from his parents, but receives no satisfactory explanation from his mother, while his father states: "Du bist Türke, mein Sohn, aber du bist in Deutschland geboren," telling Enders that he will speak with Stefan (30). Kramsch and Nolden's assignment for their students is "Fassen Sie die Geschichte in 4-5 Sätzen zusammen" (30). Kramsch and Nolden then remark that "each student, despite his or her limited linguistic resources, recast the story within a unique discourse perspective" (30). They identify "three major ways in which the students transformed Pazarkaya's original hypotext into their own (hyper)texts: re-evaluation of the events, re-structuring and reweighing of the information, re-location of the story's meaning" (30). Under the first category, Re-evaluation of the events, "students' summaries fell roughly into four categories according to the type of evaluation they added to the factual rendition of events" (31). 1. Implicit evaluation. Here students' summaries adhered

closely to the original story line as they avoided adding definite personal evaluation. (31) 2. Intradiegetic evaluation. Here some students clearly mentioned characters' motivations or feelings, ". . . either by quoting from the original ('[Die Eltern] kamen aus Türkei, um Geld zu verdienen'), by paraphrasing the original ('Enger war sehr traurig,' 'Er fühlt beleidigt,' 'An diese Frage sind die Eltern überrascht') or by supplying an explanation that was 51

not in the text ('Der Sohn dachte, wenn man Deutsch spräche, wäre er deuts*+ch')." (31)

3. Extradiegetic evaluation. Other students provided "an authorial evaluation of the theme of the story." (31) In other words, according to Kramsch and Nolden, these students, through their authorial voices, try "to bridge the world of experience and the world in which the story was written." (31) 4. Global interpretation. Yet another smaller group of students chose to synthesize rather than summarize, perhaps reflecting "their own American puzzelment at the current discrimination against foreigners in Germany." (31-2) The second category, Re-structuring the Information, reveals that students not only used their authorial evaluative voices, they restructured the sequence and value of the information implicit in the story, i.e., they "used grammar and syntax to restructure the text's informational content so it fitted their own understanding of the story"(32). Whereas some students remained close to the original text, e.g., "Enders Freund Stephan sagte ihm 'Du bist kein Deutscher!'" (32) others wrote topic sentences reflecting what they thought the main point of the story to be: "Ein Junge, der Ender hieß, hatte einen guten Freund, der Stefan hieß."(32) And still others addressed the political issue, e.g., "Ender ist Türkischer Jung, er in Deutschland wohnt." (32) 52

Thus each of the previous, altered beginnings creates new anticipations for the reader, since students' re-structuring alters the value of the given events. Kramsch goes on to point out: By inserting their own valuation and evaluation of the original textual events into their hypertexts, and by refocusing the information structure in the very syntax used, the student authors relocated the meaning of the story into a new discursive structure. (32) Furthermore, the third-semester foreign authors are able to transcendtheir linguistic limitations through discourse ability. Kramsch presents two examples and comments on them: Diese Geschichte ist über einer jugend. Er heißt Ender. Und er hat eine Probleme weil, sein Freund ihm sagte daß er kein Deutscher ist. Und alles wo Ender geht die Menschen sagt zu ihm daß, er kein Deutscher ist. Er ist ein Ausländer von Türkei. (33) Although there are grammatical and punctuation errors in the student's summary, it nevertheless expresses through its "rhythm"(33) and its "simple powerful structure the tragic human situation of foreigners in Germany"(33). The effective use of parallel and complex sentences is hampered only by linquistic limitations. The second example of "successful" discourse ability follows: Es gibt ein Türke Kind, das Ender heißt, das in Deutschland wohnt. Er ist im Deutschland geboren, und er spricht Deutsch am besten. Er geht zu eine Deutsche Schule, und seine 53

Freunden sind Deutsche. Aber, die Deutsche Kinder sind ihm böse und sie sagen das Ender keine Deutsche ist, weil seine Eltern Türke sind. Das wird schwer, wenn er älter wird. (33) In analyzing the second short summary, Kramsch remarks that the framing of the student's version of the story by the word "Türke," at the beginning and end may well be a metaphor for the "Türkish boy whose world is now Germany, but who lives at the periphery of the world" (33). Furthermore, repeating the word "deutsch" so often may reflect discourse awkwardness of third-semester German students, but it may also reflect the author's conscious intent. However, Kramsch 51 points out that these sentences were formed ". . . from a set of available options and from decisions as to what to say and how to say it in so few words" (33) Thus it is ". . . possible to read these texts as authors' texts in their own right and to assess their effect on the reader" (33). In short, the students' oppositional hypertexts re-valued, re-structured, and re-located the center of meaning of the original hypotext. In that sense, foreign language students find themselves interpreting the hypotext in order to create a hypertext, which is a technique that enables students to realize thata summary is ". . . already an interpretation and a way of inserting oneself into someone else's story " (33). Indeed, their oppositionaltexts provide students ". . . the opportunity to discover the potential meanings of their own texts" (34). Oppositional texts make literary texts accessible to different kinds of reading which do not espouse a specific literary theory. This story, "Deutsche Kastanien" by Yüksel Pazarkays, seems to 54

echo a concern for the travails of the social outsider as evidenced years earlier in Thomas Mann's TonioKröger. For example, in a conversation between Hans Hansen, a stereotypical northern German who ". . . war außerordentlich hübsch und wohlgestaltet, breit in den Schultern und schmal in den Hüften, mit freiliegenden und scharf blickenden stahlblauen Augen,"(3) and Tonio, under whose . . . Pelzmütze blickten aus einem brünetten und ganz südlich scharf geschnittenen Gesicht dunkle und zart umschattete Augen mit zu schweren Lidern träumerisch und ein wenig zaghaft hervor . . . Mund und Kinn waren ihm ungewöhnlich weich gebildet" (3), Hans says about Tonio's name: Ich nenne dich Kröger, weil dein Vorname so verrückt ist, du, entschuldige, aber ich mag ihn nicht leiden. Tonio . . . Das

ist doch überhaupt kein Name. Übrigens kannst du ja nichts dafür, bewahre! (10) At this point, Jimmerthal, another stereotypical northern German, contributes: "Nein, du heißt wohl hauptsächlich so, weil es so ausländisch klingt und etwas Besonderes ist"(10). Following the lead of Kramsch and Nolden, a German foreign language instructor using literature to foster written and spoken communicative discourse in the foreign language classroom, may use exercise #14 on p. 61 this thesis. Of course, at times the language and content of Tonio Krögermayexceed the lingustic capabilities of second and third semester German students; however, in view of Beverly Moser, Dolly J. Young and Darlene F. Wolf's Schemata: Lesestrategien, Claire Kramsch and ThomasNolden's "Redefining Literacy in a Foreign Language," and Joanne Collie and Stephen Slater's 55

Literature in the Language Classroom and their particular concern for variety in the language classroom,many parts of the novel afford authentic and appropriate literary selections for the language classroom. Another German foreign language instructional text which uses literature to provide ample interactive discourse and reading activities in both small and large groups is Larry D. Wells' Mitlesen Mitteilen: Literary texts for Reading, Speaking, and Writing. The book's twenty-four stories, exercises, reviews, glosses for individual stories, listing of Strong and Irregular verbs, and a German-English Vocabulary are "designed for students in third- and fourth-semester college German"(v). For example, using a story from Clemens Hausmann's "Sonntagvormittag," students are asked for first impressions: ERSTES LESEN ERSTE EINDRÜCKE

Lesen Sie diese Geschichte schnell durch. Drücken (express) Sie den Inhalt (content) des Textes in zwei Sätzen aus, ohne noch einmal in den Text zu schauen. (14)

Then the students move to GRÜNDLICHES LESEN, where they are directed: Lesen Sie diesen Text jetzt genau durch (15). Next students' comprehension of the text is addressed: Zum Textverstädnis (schriftlich) Erzählen Sie kurz, was die folgenden Personen an diesem Sonntagvormittag taten und warum sie das taten. In addition, the students are told that although they will find what the characters did by reading the text, in order to decide why the characters did what they did, the students will have to speculate. 56

Afterwards in Zum Schreiben (Wählen Sie eine Aufgabe.) students are asked to write in short sentences, what each person would have done if the title of the story had been Montagvormittag, or write in a sentence of their own ,,Als . . da" story (in at least 100 word, or write a short essay with the title ,,DieAtombombe: meinbester Freund" (12 bis 15 Sätze)". Finally in Zur Diskussion students are given several discussion questions related to the story they have read: 1 Diskutieren Sie, wie der Autor seine Geschichte aufbaut, so daß das Ende ganz plötzlich und unerwartet kommt. Warum z.B. Sonntag statt Montag oder Freitag? 2. Was meinen Sie? a. Ich finde diese Geschichte glaubhaft (nicht glaubhaft), weil . . . b. Ich bin für (gegen) Atomwaffen, denn . . . 3. Gruppenarbeit: "Kettenreaktion" (chain reaction) von einer Person zur nächsten durch die Reihen der Gruppe: "Bei diesem Thema denke ich automatisch an . . ." Beispiele: an kaputte Städte und Länder an den Tod der Menschheit an die Außenpolitik einiger Staaten Thus the lesson first provides students with individual skimming and thorough reading exercises followed by writing activities, group discussion and negotiation of textual meaning. All of these techniques address the communicative aim of the text, clearly announced in the title of the text: Mitlesen Mitteilen: Literary Texts for

Reading, Speaking, and Writing, which is so attuned to Savignon's as 57

well as Kramsch's ideas regarding communicative competence.


lesson, as with the others, reflects Wells' implementation of Savignon's understanding regarding integration of the four language acquisition competencies: Grammatical competence, Sociolinguistic competence, Discourse competence, and Strategic competence. That is to say, ". . . a learner does not proceed from one to another' as one strings pearls on a necklace" (45). Each of Well's lessons, like Morewedge's, Kramsh and Nolden's is a paradigm which reflects Kast's Paradigmawechsel and which easily requires students to use of all four competencies. In fact, its various previewing, brainstorming, and paraphrasing pedagogies allow implementation at even first and second semester levels with the appropriate texts. In addition, students are asked to conceptualize In order

and speculate regarding meaning and outcomes of the story.

to do so, they will use both bottom-up and top-down processing as described in Kramsch's comments concerning interactive reading. CHAPTER III: ARBEITSBLÄTTER FOR THE GERMAN FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE CLASSROOM _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 1 Die Studenten arbeiten in Kleingruppen und beantworten die folgenden Fragen. Was lernt der Leser über die Verwandschaft Tonios und Hans durch ihre kurze Unterhaltung (S. 1)? _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 2 Nachdem die Studenten die Beschreibungen von Tonio Kröger und Hans Hansen (S. 2-3) und die Unterhaltung zwischen Tonio, Hans und Jimmerthal (S. 10) gelesen und in der Klasse diskutiert haben, 58

fassen sie die Unterhaltung in 4-5 Sätzen zusammen. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 3 Am nächsten Tag sitzen die Studenten in Kleingruppen zu zweit oder zu dritt. Die Studenten hören die Zusammenfassungen der Mitglieder jeder Gruppe und reagieren mündlich dazu. Dann verfaßt jede Gruppe ihre eigene Gruppenzusammenfassung. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 4 Als Hausaufgabe beschreiben die Studenten kurz fünf Dinge, die die Leser entdecken von der Schule und von den Studenten (S.1 ). Schule Studenten 1. ______________________ ________________________________________ 2. ______________________ ________________________________________ 3. ______________________ ________________________________________ 4. ______________________ ________________________________________ 5. ______________________ ________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 5 In der Klasse erklärt die Lehrin, wer Wotan und Jupiter waren. Dann schlagen die Studenten nach, was Wotanshut und Jupiterbart bedeuten und wer diese Hüte und Bärte trägt (S. 1). _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 6 In der Klasse erklären die Studenten weiter, warum ihrer Meinung nach große Schüler mit Würde ihr Bücherpäckchen hoch gegen die linke Schulter gedrückt hielten (S. 1). 59

_____________________________________________________________________ _ _____________________________________________________________________ _ Studenten können längere Antworten schreiben, daher sollen die Lehrin mehr Zeilen schaffen. Am nächsten Arbeitsblatt sollen Studenten Textstellen identifizieren, um weiterere Auseinandersetzung mit dem Text zu fördern. Die Studenten sollen in Kleingruppen diskutieren (4-5 Gruppen zu je 4 Studenten, aber Arbeitsblatt 4 sollte zuvor individuell ausgefüllt werden. ____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 7 Warum fühlt sich Tonio erregt nach seinem Spaziergang mit Hans? (S. 12) Für Arbeitsblatt 7 teilt die Lehrin die Klasse in Männer und Frauen. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 8 Unten ist die Beschreibung der Szene gerade vor der Quadrille beginnt. In Kleingruppen zu zweit oder zu dritt schaffen die Studenten einen Dialog von wenigstens 5 mündlichen Wechsel. (S. 16) O doch, das kam vor. Da war Magdalena Vermehrem, Rechtsanwalt Vermehrens Tochter, mit dem sanften Mund und den großen, dunklen, blanken Augen voll Ernst und Schämerei. Sie fiel oft hin beim Tanzen; aber sie kam zu ihm bei der Damenwahl, sie wußte, daß er Verse dichtete, sie hatte ihn zweimal gebeten, sie ihr zu zeigen, und oftmals schaute sie ihn von weitem mit gesenktem Kopfe an. Aber was sollte ihm das? Er, er liebt Inge Holm, die blonde lustige Inge, . . Tonio oder Magdalena: 1. 60

Magdalena oder Tonio: M/T: 2. T/M _____________________________________________________________________ _ T/M: 3. M/T _____________________________________________________________________ _ M/T: 4. T/M _____________________________________________________________________ _ M/T: 5. T/M: _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 9 In zehn bis fünfzehn Worten ergänzen die Studenten als Hausarbeit die folgenden Darstellungen. Am nächsten Tag in der Klasse vergleichen

die Studenten ihre Versionen mündlich. 1. Sie bewegte sich vor ihm hin und her, vorwärts und rückwärts, streitend und drehend, ein Duft, der von ihrem Haar oder dem zartem, weißem Stoff ihres Kleides ausging, berührte ihn manchmal, . . . 58 2. (S. 17)

Jedermann ward erdrückt durch das Übermaß seiner Sicherheit und Wohlanständigkeit. Er schritt und niemand schritt wie er, elastisch, wogend, wiegend, königlich auf die Herrin des Hauses zu, . . . (S. 14)


Und er umkreiste behutsam den Opferalter, auf dem die lautere und keusche Flamme seiner Liebe loderte, kniete davor und schürte und 61

nährte sie auf alle Weise, . . . (S. 20) 4. Aber obgleich er einsam, ausgeschlossen und ohne Hoffnung vor einer geschlossen Jalousie stand und in seinem Kummer tat, als könne er hindurchblicken , . . . (19) 5. Er verstand es so gut, daß Inge, die blonde, süße Inge, auf Herrn Knaak blickte, wie sie es tat. Aber würde denn niemals ein Mädchen . . . (16) Er ging über den Mühlenwall und den Holstenwall und hielt seinen


Hut fest . . . (47) _____________________________________________________________________ _ Arbeitsblatt 10 In Teil Eins und Teil Zwei Tonio Krögers sehen die Leser Phrasen, die oft wiederholt sind. Unten sind drei Beispiele. Die Studenten arbeiten in Kleingruppen zu dritt. Erst sollen die Studenten diese Phrasen im Text finden. Zweitens entscheiden die Studenten, wie diese Frasen Tonio wichtig sind. Drittens sollen die Studenten zwei andere Frasen finden, die wenigstens dreimal wiederholt sind. Viertens erklären die Studenten schriftlich in fünzig Worten wie ihre Frasen Tonio oder noch jemandem im Teil Eins oder Teil Zwei wichtig sind. Frasen 1. Wir sind doch keine Zigeuner im grünen Wagen. 2. Konsul Kröger, die Familie der Kröger 3. der langesinnende sorgfältig gekleidete Herr mit der Felderblume im Knopfloch _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 11 62

Während ihrer Unterhaltung (S.9 - 11) benehmen sich Tonio, Hans und Jimmerthal auf verschieden Weisen. In Kleingruppen zu viert identifizieren die Studenten zwei Art Benehmen jeder Gestalten oben. Studenten dürfen ein Wörterbuch gebrauchen um Arten Benehmen zu finden. Tonio Hans ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Jimmerthal ______________________________________________________ Nachdem Studenten ihre Wahlen gemacht haben, vergleichen sie sie mit den Wahlen zwei anderer Grupen. Änderen Studenten oder Gruppen ihre Entscheidigungen? Erklären welche und warum. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 12e folgenden Worten (S. 5) beschreiben Tonios Mutter und Vater. Da er daheim seine Zeit vertat, beim Unterricht langsam und abgewandten Geistes war und bei den Lehrern schlecht abgeschrieben stand, so brachte er beständig die erbärmlichsten Zensuren nach Hause, worüber sein Vater, ein sorgfältig gekleideter Herr mit sinnenden blauen Augen, der immer eine Feldblume im Knopfloch trug, sich sehr erzürnt und bekümmert zeigte. Die Mutter Tonios jedoch, seiner schönen, schwarz60 haarigen Mutter, die Consuelo mit Vornamen hieß und überhaupt so anders war als die übrigen Damen der Stadt, weil der Vater sie sich einstmals von ganz untern auf der Landkarte heraufgeholt hatte, seiner Mutter waren Zeugnisse grundeinerlei.

_________________________________________________________________ 63

Die Studenten arbeiten in Kleingruppen zu drit oder viert. 1. Vergleichen die Beschreibung Tonios Vaters mit derjenigen Tonios Mutter. Wie viele Ähnlichkeiten und Verschiedenheiten

entdecken der Leser? ÄhnlichkeitenVerschiedenheiten _______________________ _______________________ ________________________ _________________________

2. In fünfzig Worten schaffen die Studenten eine kleine Unterhaltung, in der Tonios Eltern diskutieren die Zukunft ihres Sohnes. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Nun spielen die Studenten die Rollen Tonios Muter und Vater als sie Tonios Zukunft diskutieren. Stimmen die Eltern überein mit? 4. Nun schreibt jede Gruppe einen Abschnitt der die Stellen der Eltern erklärt. ________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 13 Die Studenten sitzen in Kleingruppen zu zweit und benützen die gleichen Unstände als gestern, aber diesmal nimmt Tonio in der Unterhaltung teil. 1. 2. 3. Stimmt Tonio mit seiner Eltern ein? Welche neue Dimension stellt Tonio vor? In zweiundzwanzig Worten erklärt jede Gruppe schriftlich

Tonios Stelle. ___________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 14 64

Han Hansens folgende Erklärung über Tonios Name entdeckt Hansens Einstellung über Tonio (10). In Kleingruppen zu dritt oder viert in der Klasse diskutieren den Grund Hans Hansens Erklärung. Vergleichen die Meinungen jeder Gruppe mündlich. ,,Ich nenne dich Kröger, weil dein Vorname so verrückt ist, du,

entschuldige, aber ich mag ilhn nicht leiden. Tonio . . . Das ist doch überhaupt kein Name." _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 15 In Approaches to Teaching Mann's Death in Venice and Other Short StoriesRodney Symington in his chapter, Tonio Krögers Conversation with Lisaweta Iwanowna: Difficulties and Solutions, remarks: . . . most teachers probably first present biographical background on Thomas Mann to show that the story is rooted in Mann's personal life and deals with concerns that were close to him as a writer. His parentage, his childhood and youth, his relation to his home town, Lübeck, his lifelong doubts about the writer's calling -these and other autobiographical elements have left their indelible mark on the story. (128)

Nachdem die Studenten die obene kleine einführende Vorstellung gelesen haben, die Leherin zeigt den Studenten eine Aufnahme von Thomas Mann. In Kleingruppen zu viert reagieren die Studenten auf sein

Gesicht. Was halten sie von ihm? In der Klasse schreibt jede Gruppe drei Fragen, die sie an Thomas Mann stellen würden, wenn er noch lebt. 1. ______________________________________________________________ 65

______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________

Dann spielt ein Mitglied jeder Gruppe die Rolle Thomas Manns als er die Fragen beantwortet. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 16 Wie ist Hans Ansicht über Pferde anders als Tonios den Studenten Ansicht nach? Erst arbeiten die Studenten in Kleingruppen zu zweit. Dann vergleichen die Kleingruppen ihre Ansichten und diskutieren die Verschiedenheiten. Jede Gruppe verteidigt mündlich ihre Ansichten, wenn sie mit der Klasse nicht übereinstimmen. ,,Ach nein," sagt Hans Hansen, ,,das laß nur. Tonio, das paßt nicht für mich. Ich bleibe bei meinen Pferdebüchern, weißt du. Famose Abbildungen sind darin, darin, sage ich dir. Wenn du bei mir bist, zeige ich sie dir. Es sind Augenblicksphotographien, und man sieht die Gäule in Trap und in Galopp und in Sprunge, in allen Stellungen, die man in Wirklichkeit gar nich zu sehen bekommt, weil es schnell geht . . ." (S. 8) Was Tonio sieht 1. 2. ________________________ ________________________ Was Hans sieht ________________________ ________________________

3. ________________________ _________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 17 Als Hausarbeit ergänzen die Studenten die folgende Übung. . . . Dinge, deren Namen mit guter Wirkung in Versen zu verwenden 66

sind und auch wirklich in den Versen, die Tonio Kröger zuweilen verfertigte, immer wieder erklangen. (S. 4) Im Text finden die Studenten drei Beispiele solcher Wörter, und morgen erklären die Studenten der Klasse, warum wenigsten eines paßt als Beispiel. Gerard F. Schmidt's "Die Wette" from his Hör Gut Zu! is a lively and entertaining Märchen involving a hedgehog with short crooked legs and a hare who taunts the hedgehog until he is forced into a seemingly impossible race with the long-legged, much faster hare. In addition, the racers wager twenty dollars and a bottle of wine. Relying on the hare's cocksureness that he will win the race because of his long legs and speed, the hedgehog explains to the hare that he must first go home and get permission from his wife, Olga. The hare agrees, for the possibility of the hedgehog winning is remote. Once home, the hedgehog reveals to his wife that he has plan to win the bet. He

hides his wife behind the bush to which he and the hare will race and then returns to the hare, saying that they should race from a bush where they stand to a bush visible in the distance, but the bush behind which Olga secretly hiding. When the hare and the hedgehog start their race, it is not long before the hedgehog falls far behind and goes back to the bush where he and the hare were standing. The hare continues with blazing

speed to the bush to which he and the hedgehog were to run. However, when the hare arrives at the bush, Olga jumps out and exclaims, "Hahaha! Ich bin schon da!" Assuming that the hedgehog behind the bush 67

is the original hedgehog, the hare thinks he has lost and demands another race. Olga agrees and they start. Just as before, the hedgehog

falls back and hides behind the bush while the hare continues fast as possibile to the original bush behind which the first hedgehog is hiding. When the hare arrives, the hedgehog jumps out and says "Hahaha! Ich bin schon da." Once again the hare cannot believe his eyes and demands another

race. Ultimately the hare loses twelve races and two hundred and forty Marks. (Videotaped by students of German 102class 1993. Broome Community College, Binghamton.) Schmidt's version of the approximately four-page tale is suitable for a second semester German class meeting four academic hours a week for fifteen weeks or two hundred and forty academic hours instruction per semester. "Die Wette" and the other stories aredivided into four major parts which in turn can be further subdivided to accommodate several daily communicative instructional goals. Planning to use one of the four major divisions of the story as a 15 minute portion of classroom instruction each day for four weeks,enables students to complete "Die Wette" in about a month. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 18 Wie sieht ein Igel aus? Was für ein Tier ist der Igel? Wo die Fragezeichen unten stehen, schreiben Sie ein Wort, das den Igel beschreibt ihrer Meinung nach . _____________________________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? Igel _____________________________________________________________________ Nun lesen die Studenten ihre eigenen Beschreibungen eines Igels vor, 68

und dann zeigt die Lehrin den Studenten eine Definition eines Igels Zum Beispiel: Der Brockhaus beschreibt den Igel so: Insektfreser, bis 30

cm langer plumper Körper, mit kurzen Beinen, kurzem Schwanz und aufrichtbaren Stacheln auf dem Rücken. Der I. kann sich bei Gefahr zusammenrollen. Er nährt sich von Schlangen, Insekten, Mäusen und ist dadurch nützlich. (381) _____________________________________________________________________ Nachdem die Studenten Teil Eins "Die Wette" in drei bis fünf Minuten in der Klasse gelesen haben, einige Studenten lesen der Klasse den Text mündlich vor. Danach sollen Studenten eine kurze Aussage (15 Worten) über den Text schreiben. Dann reichen die Studenten ihre Aussagen nach links bis alle Studenten eine neue Aussage haben. Nun lesen die Studenten ihre neuen Aussagen und reagieren darauf mit den folgenden Beispielen: _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 19 Ich stimme mit der Aussage überein, weil............................ _____________________________________________________________________ _ _____________________________________________________________________ ODER Ich stimme mit der Aussage nicht überein, weil ................. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 20 Die Studenten sitzen in Kleingruppen zu dritt oder zu viert. Jede Kleingruppe schreibt Teil Eins bis zur 100 Worten um und reicht ihre Umschreibungen nach links. _____________________________________________________________________ _ 69

_____________________________________________________________________ _ Dann schreibt jede Kleingruppe die Umschreibungen der ersten Umschreibung bis 50 Worten um. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 21 "Die Wette" Umschreibung bis 50 Worten 1. _____________________________________________________________________ _ 2 _____________________________________________________________________ _ 3 _____________________________________________________________________ _ 4 _____________________________________________________________________ _ 5 _____________________________________________________________________ _ Danach reicht jede Kleingruppe die Umschreibungen der zweiten Umschreibungen nach links und schreibt eine neue Umschreibungen 25 Worten um. _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 22 "Die Wette" Umschreibung bis 25 Worten Am Ende liest jede Kleingruppe ihre letzte Umschreibung der ganzen Klasse vor, um Diskussion und weitere Umschreibung zu fördern. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 23 In her "A Workshop Approach to German Literature: Reliving 70

Schiller," Claire Kramsch suggests some fruitful avenues to generate interpretations of literary texts. Using techniques described by Robert C. Hawley in Human Values in the Classroom: Teaching for Personal and Social Growth, which he employed as an English teacher, Kramsch applies the method to her teaching of Schiller's Kabale und Liebe. Under the category of "Information Seeking, Gathering, and Sharing," Kramsch lists several methodologies in the following order: Brainstorming, Blackboard Press Conference, Role Playing. She then suggests the ensuing procedure: After a problem is posed, students attempt to answer it as fast as possible in the following manner: a. Write down each idea on the board as it is expressed. b. Do not judge any idea during the brainstorming period. The students, inhibited by the language and their low esteem in matters of German literature, should realize that the teacher is open to differing opinions. c. Make clear that anyone has the right to pass. d. Work for quantity, not for quality. This is not a way of testing the individual student, but a group collecting effort. e. Encourage far-out ideas. f. Encourage association of ideas. Students learn to listen to one another and use others' ideas as a springboard. g. Set a time limit for the brainstorming period (no more than five to ten minutes) and adhere to it. (89)

The following are some e questions that students can answerwith regard toTonio Kröger using Kramsch's above method to incorporate 71

literature in improving students' German language skills. 1. Warum hat der lange sinnende sorgfältig gekleidete Herr immer eine Feldblume im Knopfloch? 2. Warum liebt Tonio Hans? 3. Was für Ähnlichkeiten haben Hans und Inge der Classe Meinungen nach? 4. Tonios meinung nach wie unterscheiden sich Hans und Inge ? Another pedagogical device Kramsch employs is Role-Play. Here she points out the distinction between Role-Play and "acting out" a scene. Instead of dramatizing the parts of a scene they have read (acting out), the students "spontaneously develop a given situation in order to have living material to examine for discussion" (89). The guidelines for this technique are: a. Avoid overdeveloping the background to the situation. This helps keep the focus on the here and now; it frees the students from the need to follow a script to make the situation come out the way it did in the original story. b. Don't worry about inconsistencies between the unfolding action and the initial situation. They will provide valuable discussion. c. Nothing is irrelevant. All behavior, even total avoidance of the issue, provides useful and productive material for exploration. d. Set and keep a strict time limit (no more than four or five minutes). Don't wait for an appropriate moment to 72

break in; there is likely never to be one. (89) Kramsch concludes by providing several kinds of Role-Play, i.e., Open-Chair Role-Play, Multiple Role-Play, Parts of Self Role-Play. These involve students in the same manner as the foregoing paradigm, particularly regarding students' exploration and clarification of characters' decisions within the text, which in turn leads to interaction of personal and collective judgement of the students. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 24 (Acting out) Am Anfang der Klasse zeigt die Lehrin den Studenten die Kassette "Die Wette," die lange vorher schon von anderen Studenten gefilmt wurde (Beilage). Die Studenten arbeiten zu dritt und bekommen Rollen, z.B. der Hase, der Igel oder seine Frau Olga. Zu Hause lernen die Studenten ihre Rollen. Am nächsten Tag stellen zwei Gruppen fünf bis zehn Minuten ihre Aufstellungen vor. Diese Übung dauert ungfähr eine Woche bis alle Gruppen ihre Aufstellungen vorgestellt haben. Die beste Aufstellung wird in der Klasse gefilmt, und die Studenten der Gruppe mit der gefilmten Aufstellung werden eine gute Flasche ? gewinnen. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 25 Wenn Sie der Igel wären, wie würden Sie auf die Worte des Hases reagieren? S.9 (25 Worten) ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________² Arbeitsblatt 26 Was erfahren wir? Über (25 Worten) 73

den Hase?


________________________________________________ __________ ________________________________________________ __________ den Igel _________________________________________________ __________

_________________________________________________ __________ Olga ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 27 "Ich bin ein guter Mensch und wette nie um Alkohol. Warum nicht zwanzig Mark anstelle zehn." So hat der Igel vorgeschlagen. Was würde Olga vorschlagen, wenn sie da wäre? (Beispiel) Der Hase: Ich wette um zwanzig frische Karotten. Der Igel: Ich wette um eine neue Pfeife. Olga: I wette um . . . _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Warum? (Verwenden Sie die folgenden Frasen so oft wie möglich in der Unterhaltung zwischen Olga, ihrem Mann und dem Hase): Meiner Meinung nach ist . . . Ich bin der Meinung, daß . . . Ich finde . . . Ich meine . . . 74

Ich sehe die Sache so: Ich bin der Auffassung, daß . . . S. 11.. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 28 Lesen Sie das Ende "Der Wette" und wählen Sie der Geschichte eine passende Moral. Wenn Sie keine Moral finden, schaffen Sie eine. Seien Sie bereit, Ihre Wahl in der Klasse mündlich zu erklären und zu verteidigen. 1. 2. 3. 4. Beispiele:

Das Gute hat das Böse besiegt. Das Böse bekommt seine verdiente Strafe. Der gute Arme wird reich. Im Lauf des Lebens findet der Schwache keine Harmonie.

_____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 29 Olga muß jeden Tag zu Hause bleiben, um das Haus aufzuräumen und für die Kinder sorgen. Die Tage werden langweilig und Olga wird müde. Darum hat sie sich entschieden, Arbeit in der Stadt zu finden. In Kleingruppen zu dritt oder viert beschreiben die Studenten den jetztigen Wohnort Olgas (ein Loch, ein Busch, ein Garten ?) und auch den Wohnort den sie sucht nachdem die neue unabhängige Olga ihre Arbeit in der Stadt bekommen hat. In der Klasse erwähnen die Studenten verschiedenheiten der vorigen und jetzigen Wohnorten und erklären die Gründe dafür. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 30 Studenten sollen zu Hause die folgenden zwei Fragen beantworten und am nächsten Tag in der Klasse die Antworten diskutieren. Was kann die arme Frau eines Igels tun? 75

Was für Arbeit soll Olga suchen? Die Studenten sollen als Hausaufgabe die folgenden zwei Formulare fertigen. Dann sollen die Studenten in der Klasse die Formulare vergleichen und diskutieren. _____________________________________________________________________ _ Arbeitsblätter 31 und 32 Jedoch ehe Olga Arbeit findet, muß sie eine Biographie und einen Tagesablauf ausfüllen. Name Geburtsdatum Geburtsort Eltern Schulbildung Familienstand Adresse Wie heissen die Kinder? Wie alt sind die Kinder? Interessen _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 33 Wählen Sie eine passende Arbeit für Olga. Erklären Sie Ihre Wahl. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Ergänzen Olgas Tagesablauf 8:00 Uhr morgen bis 24 Uhr Nachts. _____________________________________________________________________ _ _____________________________________________________________________ _ 76

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _ Arbeitsblatt 34 (Role-Play) Die Studenten dürfen die zwei Formulare oben benutzen, um eine Arbeitssituation zu bauen. In der Arbeitssituation findet man Olga als Chefin oder als zwei andere Möglichkeiten. In der Klasse diskutieren die Studenten den Grund ihrer Wählen. ____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 35 Die Studenten arbeiten in Kleingruppen zu dritt oder zu viert. Jede Gruppe bekommt eine Karte mit den folgenden zwölf Wörten: Bär, Baum, Bienen, Honig, Süßigkeit, genießen, Erlaubnis, steigen, stechen, fallen, weinen, lernen. Dann lesen die Studenten das Folgende: Eines Tages nach ihrer Arbeit saß Olga zu Hause im Garten als sie eine erfrischende Karotte fraß. Plötzlich sah sie eine Aktivität im Garten. Was sah Olga? 1. Zuerst muß jede Gruppe die zwölf Wörte oben in ihrer eigenen Geschichte benutzen. Aber die Reihenfolge der Wörter auf der Karte hilft beim Erzählen jeder Geschichte. 2. Dann erzählen die Kleingruppen ihre Geschichten. Um viele langweilige Wiederholungen ähnlicher Gesichten zu vermeiden, fragt die Lehrin, wer andere Variationen hat. 3. Zuletzt versucht die Klasse gemeinsam, Titel den Geschichten zu geben. 4. Die Studenten hören die Titel zu und entscheiden welcher am interesantesten ist. Dann lesen die Studenten den Text und stellen Fragen darüber. _____________________________________________________________________ 77

Arbeitsblatt 36 Die Studenten arbeiten zu Hause und schreiben den folgenden Satz um. Sie müssen die Leerstellen füllen, um einen neuen Satz mit neun neuen Wörter zu bauen. Morgen lesen die Studenten ihre Sätze vor und diskutieren ihre verschiedene Darstellungen. Wenn möglich könnten die Lehrin oder die Studenten ein Vorführgerät gebrauchen oder einige Sätze an die Tafel schreiben. Er ________nicht wie _________, der_________, um zu _______, sondern wie _______, der ______, als _________, weil er sich als __________ _________ für nichts_______, nur als___________ im ________ zu________ _________ und im _______ _______ und auffällig ________, wie ein abgeschminkter ___________, der nichts______________ hat. Er arbeitete nicht wie jemand, der arbeitet, um zu leben, sondern wie einer, der nichts will, als arbeiten, weil er sich als lebendigen Menschen für nichts achtet, nur als Schaffender in Betracht zu kommen wünscht und im übrigen grau und auffällig umhergeht, wie ein abgeschminkter Schauspieler, der nichts darzustellen hat. (S. 24) ____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 37 Die Studenten arbeiten fünfzehn bis zwanzig Minuten in Kleingruppen zu zweit. Jeder Student jeder Gruppe spielt die Rolle eines Charakters des Romans (Krögers), der fragt über das Leben des zweiten Charakters. Zum Beispiel, Hans Hansen fragt Tonio: "Tonio, kannst du deiner Meinung nach einen guten Freund beschreiben?" oder "Inge, was für Musik hast du am liebsten?" Man darf Fragen über Bücher, Kleider, Tiere, Lieblings Pferde, Arbeit, Träume, idealistischen Mann oder 78

idealistische Frau, Familien, Schul, Geschenke, und so weiter stellen In anderen Worten beantworten die Studenten die Fragen, als ob sie der Charakter im Roman wären. _____________________________________________________________________ _ Arbeitsblatt 38 Die Studenten arbieten zu viert und vergleichen die folgenden Sätze: Ich stehe zwischen zwei Welten, bin in keiner daheim und habe es infolge dessen ein wenig schwer (Kröger 79). Zwei Seelen wohnen, ach, in meiner Brust, Die eine will sich von der anderen trennen (Faust (Z. 112,3). Jede Gruppe erklärt, wie die zwei Sätze ähnlich sind und wie sie für Tonios Leben wichtig sind. Dann teilen die Gruppen in der Klasse ihre Erklärungen. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 39 Jeder Student der Klasse steht auf, beschreibt sich kurz und fragt, "Wer bin ich nicht?,, Beispiel: Erster Student - "Ich trinke heißes Wasser. Zweiter Student - "Tonios Vater." Erster Student - "Falsch." Dritter Student - "Hans Hansen." Erster Student - "Falsch." Und so weiter bis fünf Studenten falsch antworten oder bis ein richtig antwortet. Am Ende dürfen Studenten Fragen stellen, zB. "Warum trinken die Amerikaner auf Seite 67 heißes Wasser?" Nun versucht der erste Student die Frage zu beantworten. Wenn er die Frage nicht Wenn die Wer bin ich ?,,

beantworten kann, muß der zweite Student die Antwort geben.

Mitglieder der Klasse nicht übereinstimmen, können sie Vorschläge 79

machen. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 40 Auf Seite 78 schreibt Tonio Lisaweta an. Nach einer Monate schickte sie Tonio ihre Antwort. Was hat sie geshrieben? Zu Hause muß alle

Studenten die Rolle Lisaweta spielen und einen Brief ungefähr 100 Worten an Tonio schreiben. In der Klasse lesen die Studenten freiwillig ihre Briefe vor, um extra Kredit zu bekommen. In Lisawetas Antwort müß die Studenten fünf der folgenden Frasen gebrauchen: Das Problen liegt darin, daß . . . / Es besteht ein Konflikt zwischen (Dat.) und (Dat.) / Mit anderen Worten / Ich bin fest davon überzeigt, daß . . . / Im algemein . . . / Im großen und ganzen . . . / Im Gegensatz zu (Dat.) / Im Vergleich zu / In dieser Hinsicht. . . / Abschließend kann man sagen, daß . . .____________________________________________________________________ _ Arbeitsblatt 41 Am folgenden Tag erläuchtern die Frauen und Männer, wie ihre Briefe einenander passen. Die Unterhaltung soll immer Höflich bleiben. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 42 Im folgenden Abschnitt "ging [Tonio] den Weg, . . . . . überhaupt nicht gibt." (S. 21) Ist Tonio krank oder verloren oder vielliecht nur hungig? Jeder

Student soll zu Hause in 200 Worten eine Theorie bereiten. Morgen in der Klasse arbeiten die Studenten in Kleingruppen zu dritt. Sie lesen ihre Theorien vor, reagieren und am nächsten Tag formulieren eine Gruppe Theorie. _____________________________________________________________________ 80

Arbeitsblatt 43 Am nächsten Tag tauschen die selben Gruppen ihre Theorien um. Dann lesen sie sie fort, reagieren und in der Klasse schreiben sie in fünfundzwanzig Worten um. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 44 Auf Seite 80 schreibt Tonio Lisaweta an, . . "Schelten Sie diese Liebe nicht, Lisaweta; sie ist gut und fruchtbar. Sehnsucht ist darin und schermütiger Neid und ein klein Verachtung und eine ganze keusche Seligkeit." Wie würden Sie Ihre Liebe beschreiben? Benutzen Sie Tonios

Beschreibung als Beispiel und in fünfzig Worten schaffen Sie Ihr eigenes Beispiel. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeiltsblatt 45 Am Ende Kapital I ". . . ging [Tonio] durch das alte, untersetzte Tor, ging am Hafen entlang und die steile, zugige und nasse am Haus seiner Eltern. Damals lebte sein Herz: . . ." (S.12) Dann lesen die Leser

die genauen Worten, die Tonio an Lisaweta am Ende des Romans schrieb. Warum? Findet Tonio Ähnlichkeiten zwischen Lisaweta und seiner Eltern, oder gibt es andere Möglichten, warum diese Worten Tonio so wichtig sind? Zu Hause schreiben die Studenten in ungefähr 100 Worten ihre Erklärungen. Morgen am Anfang der Klassse lesen die Studenten ihre Vorschläge 10-15 Minuten vor. Warum lebte Tonios Herz "damals"? Lebte Tonios Herz nun nicht. Warum?

Am nächsten Tag in der Klasse diskutieren die Studenten, wie Tonio am Ende des Romans sich ändern hat. _____________________________________________________________________ _ Arbeitsblatt 46 81

Erst lesen die Studenten Seite 78, wo Tonio saß im Norden und beschreibt seine Mutter und seinen Vater. Danach lesen die Studenten Seiten 78-9, wo Tonio schreibt,"Ich stehe zwischen zwei Welten." Tonio erklärt, daß er ist "eine Mischung, die außerordentliche Möglichkeiten außerordentliche Gefahren in sich schloß." Nun denken

die Studenten an was für Mishungen sie selbst sind. Sie gestehen, wie Tonio, Meine Mutter war . . . . . Mein Vater war . . . . . . Ich bin eine __________ Mischung die oder der. . .

Nun lesen die Studenten freiwillig ihre Mischungen vor, oder schreiben sie ihre Antworten, die die Lehrin korregieren wird. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 47 Nachdem die Studenten Tonios Brief und Lisawetas Brief, die schon von Studenten der Klasse geschrieben wurden, gelesen haben, formulieren die Klasse drei Gründe warum Tonio und Lisaweta zusammenbleiben sollen und drei Gründe warum Tonio und Lisaweta nicht zusammen bleiben sollen. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 48 In der Zeitung liest Tonio unter Heitratswünsche/Bekantschaften die folgende Anzeige: "Junge schöne kluge enttäuschte Künstlerin sucht amerikanischen Freundkreis. Zuschrift unter W 506." Tonio ahnt, daß das Lisawetas Anzeige ist, und er will, daß seine Anzeige in der selben Zeitung erscheint. Lisaweta liest die Zeitung jeden Tag, und Tonio weißt, daß Lisaweta die Anzeige sehen wird. 82 Was soll er

schreiben und wie beschreibt er sich? Unten ist eine Liste von Adjektive, die menschliche Eigenschaften und Stimmungen beschreiben. Anzeigen sind teuer und Tonio kann nur fünfundzwanzig Worten leisten. bekümmert höflich traumhaft wütend gütig amüsant böse trostlos begabt köstlich munter witzig

In Kleingruppen zu viert diskutieren die Studenten was für eine Strategie Tonio entwickelt und dann jede Gruppe schreibt eine Anzeige. Am nächsten Tag lesen jede Gruppe ihre Anzeige der Klasse vor und reagiert. _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 49 Welche Frasen von der Unterhaltung Tonios und Lisawetas auf Seiten 4142 sind entweder Aussage, Grund oder Beispiel? 1. Ja, ich verreise nun, Lisaweta 2. Sammetblauer Himmel, heißer Wein und süße Sinnlichkeit . . . Kurzem ich mag das nicht. 3. Die ganze bellezza macht mich nervös. 4. Ich muß wohl diese nördliche Neigung von meinem Vater haben. 5. Mit einem Worte, ich fahre hinauf, Lisaweta. 6. Ich will die Ostsee wiedersehen, will diese Vornamen wieder hören, will diese Bücher an Ort und Stelle lesen; . . . 7. "Die übliche," sagte er achsekzuckend . . . 8. "Versäumen Sie auch nicht, mir zu schreiben, 83 _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ ____________________

hören Sie? ____________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 50 Wie interpretieren Sie die folgenden Textteile? Wählen Sie zwei der folgenden Textteile, und besprechen Sie sie in Kleingruppen zu zweiern. _____________________________________________________________________ _ 1. Die Wintersonne stand nur als armer Schein, milchig und matt hinter Wolkenschichten über der engen Stadt. Naß und zugig war's in den giebeligen Gassen, und manchmal fiel eine Art von weichem Hagel, nichtr Eis, nicht Schnee. (S. 1) _____________________________________________________________________ _ 2. Ja, wir gehen nun also über die Wälle! sagte er mit bewegter Stimme. ,,Über den Mühlenwall und den Holstenwall, und so bringe ich dich nach Hause, Hans . . . Bewahre, das schadet gar nichts, daß ich dann meinen Heimweg allein mache; das nächste Mal begleitest du mich. (S.3) _____________________________________________________________________ _ 3. Tonio Kröger stand im Wind und Brausen eingehüllt, versunken in dies ewige, schwere, betäbende Getöse, das er sehr liebte. Wandte er sich und ging fort, so schien es plötzlich ganz ruhig und warm um ihn her.Aber im Rücken wußte er sich das Meer, er rief, lockte und grüßte. Und er lächelte. (64) _____________________________________________________________________ _ 4. Was ich getan habe, ist nichts, nicht viel, so gut wie nichts. Ich werde Bessers machen, Lisaweta, dies ist ein versprechen. Während ich

schreibe, rauscht das Meer zu mir herauf, und ich schließe die Augen. Ich schaue in eine ungeborene und schmenhafte Welt hinein, die geordnet und gebildet sein will . . . 84 (80-81)

_____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblat 51 Auf S. 40 sagte Lisaweta Tonio, daß er "ganz einfach ein Bürger" ist. Dann sagte sie ihm nach einen Moment, daß er "ein Bürger auf Irrwegen, Tonio Kröger, ein verirrter Bürger" ist. Zu Hause erklären die

Studenten in ungefähr 100 Worten, was der unterschied zwischen "Bürger" und "Bürger auf Irrwegen" ist. Am nächsten Tag in der Klasse lesen die Studenten ihre Vorschläge vor und diskutieren die Meinungen des Wortes "Irrwegen." _____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 52 Als Hausarbeit beantworten die Student die folgenden Fragen: (1) Was hat "Irrwegen" in Tonio Kröger mit der Bibel zu tun? (2) Was für religiösische Aspekte finden man in dem Roman? In der Klasse sollen Studenten kurz notieren und am Abend zu Hause längere Absätze für die Klasse preparieren. Diese Brainstorming Übung gibt den Roman größere Tiefe durch die Einbildungskraft der Studenten als Leser im literarischen Werk (Iser, Bredella, Morewedge, Kramsch et al). ²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²²² Arbeitsblatt 53 In der Klasse identifizieren die Studenten mündlich in Kleingruppen zu dritt oder viert wenigstens drei Gründe, warum Tonio eine Christus Gestalt ist.? ____________________________________________________________________ Arbeitsblatt 54 Haben Tonio oder andere Figuren im Roman religiösischen/mythologishen Bedeutungen? Wer? Wie? Die selben Gruppen als gestern bietet der Klasse ein akzeptabelisches Beispiel an. 85


I. Introduction A. Bernd Kast and the new paradigm for teaching foreign

language. II. Perspective and its Influence upon Texts. A. Nietzsche and Meaning. B. Wolfgang Iser and the readers within the texts. C. Gadamer: Literature and Hermeneutics. D. Bernd Kast and Paradigm Shift in Foreign Language Instruction. E. Saussure and Language as Sign F. Sartre, Literature, and the Literary Text. G. Barthes and Amodal Writing. H. Escarpit 1. Sociology of Literature. 2. Production. 3. Kinds of Consumers. III. Survey of German Foreign Language Communicative Pedagogies for the Classroom IV. Arbeitsblätter for the Foreign Language Communicative Classroom. Texts: Mann, Thomas. Tonio Kröger. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.,1950. ---.Tonio Kröger. Ed. Elizabeth M. Wilkinson. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1961. Schmidt, Gerard F. Hör Gut Zu! New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964.e



B.A. State University of New York at Binghamton, 1964 M.A. State University of New York at Binghamton, 1968 M.A. State University of New York at Binghamton, 1974

Doctoral Thesis

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Arts in Foreign Language and Literatures in the Graduate School at Syracuse University March 1997

Approved _________________________________ Date _____________________________________

CONTENTS OUTLINE ..................................................... Introduction ................................................ 88 i 1

Chapter I.

From Nietzsche to Escarpit: Perspective and Meaning ............................................. 3


Survey of German Foreign Language Communicative Pedagogies .......................................... 13 Arbeitsblätter for the German Foreign Language Communicative Classroom ............................. 55


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