Commodity

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1 MANGO

2. INTRODUCTION
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) belonging to Family Anacardiaceae is the most important commercially grown fruit crop of the country. It is called the king of fruits. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars.

3. BACKGROUND
3.1 Origin Cultivation of mango is believed to have originated in S.E. Asia. Mango is being cultivated in southern Asia for nearly six thousand years. 3.2 Area & Production India ranks first among world’s mango producing countries accounting for about 50% of the world’s mango production. Other major mango producing countries include China, Thailand, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Nigeria and Egypt. India’s share is around 52% of world production. An increasing trend has been observed in world mango production averaging 22 million metric tonnes per year. Worldwide production is mostly concentrated in Asia, accounting for 75% followed by South and Northern America with about 10% share.

Production mangoes in India during 2006-2007 were shown in below table. Producing States are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Other States where mangoes are grown include Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Haryana, Punjab etc. (Ref. Table-1) The state-wise area and production of mangoes are given in Table 1 below: Table 1 : State-wise Area, Production & Productivity of Mangoes during 2006-2007 State
ANDHRA PRADESH \UTTAR PRADESH KARNATAKA BIHAR OTHERS GUJARAT MAHARASHTRA TAMIL NADU WEST BENGAL KERALA ORRISA

Production In Tonnes
3194300.00 2673300.00 1236800.00 1222700.00 809100.00 772100.00 638600.00 537800.00 513300.00 511100.00 428800.00

Percentage Share in Total
25.48 21.32 9.86 9.75 6.45 6.16 5.09 4.29 4.09 4.08 3.42

Total

12,537,900

Source : Database of National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture , Govt. of India.

3.3 Economic Importance The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability, high nutritive value, richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. Good mango varieties contain 20% of total soluble sugars. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0.2 to 0.5 % and protein content is about 1 %. Raw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various traditional products like raw slices in brine, amchur, pickle, murabba, chutney, panhe (sharabat) etc. Presently, the raw fruit of local varieties of mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine on commercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western zone. The wood is used as timber, and dried twigs are used for religious purposes. The mango kernel also contains about 8-10% good quality fat which can be used for saponification. Its starch is used in confectionery industry. Mango also has medicinal uses. The ripe fruit has fattening, diuretic and laxative properties. It helps to increase digestive capacity.

4. MARKET ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY
4.1 Demand and Supply patterns 4.1.1 World Trade Among internationally traded tropical fruits, mango ranks only second to pineapple in quantity and value. Major markets for fresh and dried mangoes were: Malaysia, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong and the Netherlands, while for canned mango were: Netherlands, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, France and USA. Southeast Asian buyers consume mangoes all year round. Their supplies come mainly from India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Australia and most recently South Africa.

Each exporting country has its own varieties, which differ in shape, colour and flavour. Prices are very low for Indonesian and Thailand fruit and are on the higher side for Indian fruit. In the United States of America, the prices vary with the season, higher prices found during February and March, when mango availability is lowest. Most international trade in fresh mangoes takes place within short distances. Mexico, Haiti and Brazil account for the majority of North America’s imports. India and Pakistan are the predominant suppliers to the West Asian market. Southeast Asian countries get most of their supplies from

the Philippines and Thailand. European Union buyers source mangoes from South America and Asia. Although Asia accounts for 75 percent of world production, its dominance does not translate into international trade. 4.1.2 International Markets for Indian Mango Asian producers find it easier to expand sales to the European Union. Europe’s acceptance of different varieties is greater, because of a large demand from Asian immigrant groups. Phytosanitary restrictions are less stringent. Transportation costs are not as big a factor in exporting mangoes to the European Union as in exporting to the United States market: for example, India and Pakistan are able to compete with non-Asian suppliers to the European Union, whereas proximity gives Mexico and Haiti a clear advantage in supplying to the United States market. Fifty-four percent of European Union imports enter during the periods May to July and November to December, with peak imports in June. French imports reach peak in April and May, whereas United Kingdom imports are concentrated during the May to July. German imports are spread more evenly throughout the year. Of the top suppliers, Brazil provided chiefly during the period November to December, the United States during June to October, South Africa during January to April and Venezuela during April to July. Pakistan supplies the majority of its exports to the European Union during June and July;

Indian exports take place mainly during the month of May.

Although a lion’s share of Indian mango goes to the Gulf countries, efforts are being made to exploit European, American and Asian markets. About 13,000 MT of Alphonso variety is exported to Middle East, UK and Netherlands every year. The different products of mango which are exported include mango chutney, pickles, jam, squash, pulp, juice, nectar and slices. These are being exported to U.K., U.S.A., Kuwait and Russia. Besides these, the fresh mangoes are being exported to Bangladesh, Bahrain, France, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore and U.K. The varieties in demand at the international market include Kent, Tomy Atkin, Alphonso and Kesar. Varieties such as Alphonso, Dashehari, Kesar, Banganapalli and several other varieties that are currently in demand in the international markets are produced and exported from India. ‘Mahamango’, a co-operative society was established in 1991 with the support of Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune). This was mainly formed to boost the export of Alphonso mangoes as well as for domestic marketing. Facilities like pre-cooling, cold storages, pack house, grading packing line etc. have been made available at the facility centre of Mahamango for which the financial assistance was given by APEDA, New Delhi and Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune). A similar type of association named ‘MANGROW’ has been formed for the export of Kesar mangoes from Aurangabad district of Maharashtra.

4.2 Import/Export trends India's mango exports were 79,060.88 MT worth Rs 14,193.99 lakh in 2006-2007. The trend in export of mangoes during (Value in Rs. Lakh, Quantity in MT)

Country U.A.E. BANGLADESH U.K. NEPAL SAUDI ARABIA KUWAIT BAHRAIN SINGAPORE OMAN SWITZERLAND MALAYSIA NETHERLANDS JAPAN QATAR CANADA GERMANY HONG KONG BELGIUM FRANCE YAMEN ARAB REPU UKRAINE AUSTRALIA BRUNEI KOREA REPUBLIC BARBODOS RUSSIA MALTA CONGO NORWAY OTHER COUNTRY VIETNAM BHUTAN ITALY SPAIN MALDIVES PAKISTAN SWAJILAND CAYMAN ISLANDS AUSTRIA NEWZEALAND THAILAND POLAND BAHAMAS BOSNIAHRZGOVIN SWEDEN CHINA EGYPT TURKEY U.S.A. DENMARK SOUTH AFRICA PORTUGAL SRI LANKA ALGERIA INDONESIA GEORGIA

QTY (2004-2005) 10,338.61 32,503.22 1,308.56 3,400.94 2,300.53 267.96 848.69 159.63 143.4 39.7 185 532 237.24 160.29 28.19 82.55 38.5 31.45 41.79 228.75 18.52 1.5 9.88 0.3 0 68.03 0 1 117.88 0 0 0 0.7 0.55 4.4 0 2.16 0 0.07 4.88 5.44 0 0 1.17 0.25 1.09 0 23.36 34.86 0.02 0.4 41.15 10 0 0 0.01

Value (2004-2005) 2,903.54 2,971.66 745.77 269.64 747.78 150.45 214.06 84.46 42.74 23.72 49.8 212.68 123.36 48.49 13.69 43.33 23.78 32.79 13.38 44.49 8.68 0.64 4.09 0.42 0 20.34 0 0.15 28.31 0 0 0 0.97 0.27 1.2 0 2.25 0 0.05 1.85 7.58 0 0 0.17 0.14 0.5 0 13.03 18.24 0.02 0.36 22.6 1.29 0 0 0

QTY (2005-2006) 26,533.76 32,770.90 839.97 4,116.01 1,564.15 104.59 620.81 242.24 226.69 9.01 243.66 260.86 70.16 40.45 323.77 4.25 29.88 20 158.84 680 0 5.97 6.3 27.39 0 0 54 0 0.9 0 61 0 2 0 20.82 34.18 0.4 0 0 18.5 0 0 0 0.5 0.56 0.55 0 0 83.21 0 21 0 0 34 0 0

Value (2005-2006) 7,304.40 2,766.36 537.93 322.98 442.2 107.32 243.56 91.83 75.79 14.72 60.21 131.52 47.3 21.8 136.49 3.66 17.83 8.53 74.01 116.49 0 1.31 1.89 11.72 0 0 23.31 0 0.26 0 17.65 0 0.29 0 5.14 6.32 0.27 0 0 5.97 0 0 0 0.68 0.09 0.18 0 0 42.29 0 2.47 0 0 19.25 0 0

QTY (2006-2007) 22,045.51 42,887.52 1,883.19 8,055.73 1,323.56 428.04 489.32 230.86 170.08 167.71 332.22 242.79 74.54 90.99 75.11 58.84 49.92 57.03 63.44 63.8 25.84 4.44 14.6 21.69 19 4.94 18 58.8 10.67 5.77 20.5 40 3.9 1.09 6.52 3 0.8 1.8 1.29 3 0.98 0.31 0.6 2.5 0.2 0.1 0.07 0.03 0.06 0.05 0 0.01 0.1 0 0.01 0

Value (2006-2007) 6,581.02 3,994.83 1,141.28 707.26 422.32 244.89 171.76 131.8 118.65 105.41 86.72 84.87 54.05 45.88 44.84 40.3 33.47 29.53 28.99 21.39 14.15 9.66 9.33 9.19 9.08 8.12 7.83 6.83 4.88 4.79 3.74 3.2 3.18 1.95 1.68 1.57 1.17 0.85 0.83 0.74 0.62 0.46 0.3 0.27 0.14 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0 0 0

4.3 Analysis and Future Strategy Mango has an established export market and poses bright opportunities for export in the international market whether in fresh or processed forms. Similarly, the mango industry has provided livelihood opportunities to its growers and those involved in its marketing channel.

Creation of essential infra-structure for preservation, cold storage, refrigerated transportation, rapid transit, grading, processing, packaging and quality control are the important aspects which needs more attention. There is need for developing processing industries in the southern region of the country where post harvest losses in handling and marketing are higher. There is scope to establish mango preservation factories in cooperative sector. Mango growers cooperatives on the lines of Mahamango need to encouraged to come up in major mango producing States. This will add to their income through processing and create additional employment opportunities for the rural people. Considerable amount of waste material, e.g, mango stones, peels remain unutilized which can be used properly by the processors to earn more profit. This will also help to improve sanitary conditions around factory premises.

5. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY:
5.1 Agro-climatic requirements Mango is well adapted to tropical and sub-tropical climates. It thrives well in almost all the regions of the country but cannot be grown commercially in areas above 600 m. It cannot stand severe frost, especially when the tree is young. High temperature by itself is not so injurious to mango, but in combination with low humidity and high winds, it affects the tree adversely. Mango varieties usually thrive well in places with rainfall in the range of 75375 cm. /annum and dry season. The distribution of rainfall is more important than its amount. Dry weather before blossoming is conducive to profuse flowering. Rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination. However, rain during fruit development is good but heavy rains cause damage to ripening fruits. Strong winds and cyclones during fruiting season can play havoc as they cause excessive fruit drop. Loamy, alluvial, well drained, aerated and deep soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 5.5 to 7.5 are ideal for mango cultivation. 5.2 Growing and Potential Belts Mango is cultivated in almost all the states of India. The state-wise growing belts are given in the following :

State Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

Growing belts Krishna, East and West Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Chittoor, Adilabad, Khamman, Vijaynagar Jabalpur, Raipur, Bastar Bhavnagar, Surat, Valsad, Junagarh, Mehsana, Khera Karnal, Kurushetra Jammu, Kathwa, Udhampur Ranchi, Sindega, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Dumka, Sahibganj, Godda. Kolar, Bangalore, Tumkur, Kagu Kannur, Palakkad, Trissur, Malappuram Rewa, Satna, Durg, Bilaspur, Bastar, Ramnandgaon, Rajgari, Jabalpur, Katni, Balagha Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Raigarh Sonepur, Bolangir, Gajapati, Koraput, Rayagada, Gunpur, Malkanpuri, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Puri Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Ropar Dharmapuri, Vellore, Tiruvallur, Theni, Madurai Almora, Nainital, Dehradun, Bageshwar, UdhamSingh Nagar, Haridwar Saharanpur, Bulandshahar, Lucknow, Faizabad, Varanasi Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia

5.3 Varieties Cultivated In India, about 1,500 varieties of mango are grown including 1,000 commercial varieties. Each of the main varieties of mango has an unique taste and flavour. Based on time of ripening , varieties may be classified as under : Early Mid-season Bombai, Bombay Green , Himsagar, Kesar, Suvernarekha Alphonso, Mankurad, Bangalora, Vanraj,

Banganapalli, Dashehari, Langra, Kishen Bhog,

Late

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Zardalu, Mankurad Fazli, Fernandin, Mulgoa, Neelum, Chausa

Hybrids: Amrapalli (Dashehari x Neelum), Mallika (Neelum x Dashehari), Arka Aruna (Banganapalli x Alphonso), Arka Puneet (Alphonso x Janardhan Pasand), Arka Neelkiran (Alpohonso x Neelum), Ratna (Neelum x Alphonso), Sindhu (Ratna x Alphonso), Au Rumani (Rumani x Mulgoa), Manjeera (Rumani x Neelum), PKM 1 (Chinnasuvernarekha x Neelum), Alfazli, Sunder Langra, Sabri, Jawahar, Neelphonso, Neeleshan, Neeleshwari, PKM 2 (very few of these hybrid varieties are grown commercially in the country). The important mango varieties cultivated in different states of India are given below :
State Andhra Pradesh Bihar Goa Gujarat Varieties grown Allumpur Baneshan, Banganapalli, Bangalora, Cherukurasam, Himayuddin, Suvernarekha, Neelum, Totapuri Bathua, Bombai, Himsagar, Kishen Bhog, Sukul, Gulab Khas, Zardalu, Langra, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli Fernandin, Mankurad Alphonso, Kesar, Rajapuri, Vanraj, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari, Langra Dashehari, Langra, Sarauli, Chausa, Fazli Chausa, Dashehari, Langra Jardalu, Amrapalli, Mallika, Bombai, Langra, Himsagar, Chausa, Gulabkhas Alphonso, Bangalora, Mulgoa, Neelum, Pairi, Baganapalli, Totapuri Mundappa, Olour, Pairi Alphonso, Bombay Green, Langra, Sunderja, Dashehari, Fazli, Neelum, Amrapalli, Mallika Alphonso, Mankurad, Mulgoa, Pairi, Rajapuri, Kesar, Gulabi, Vanraj

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Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra -

Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

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Baneshan, Langra, Neelum, Suvarnarekha, Amrapalli, Mallika Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Malda Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Langra Banganapalli, Bangalora, Neelum, Rumani, Mulgoa, Alphonso, Totapuri Bombay Green, Dashehari, Langra, Safeda Lucknow, Chausa, Fazli Bombai, Himsagar, Kishen Bhog, Langra, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Amrapalli, Mallika

5.4 Planting 5.4.1 Planting Material Mango can be propagated from seed or propagated vegetatively. Plants are generally propagated vegetatively by using several techniques like veneer grafting, inarching and epicotyl grafting etc. 5.4.2 Planting Season Planting is usually done in the month of July-August in rainfed areas and during February-March in irrigated areas. In case of heavy rainfall zones, planting is taken up at the end of rainy season. 5.4.3 Spacing The planting distance is 10m. x 10m. and 12m. x 12m. in dry and moist zones respectively. In the model scheme, a spacing of 8m. x 8m. with a

population of 63 plants per acre has been considered which was observed to be common in areas covered during a field study. 5.5 Training of Plants Training of plants in the initial stages of growth is very important to give them a proper shape specially in cases where the graft has branched too low.

5.6 Nutrition Fertilizers may be applied in two split doses , one half immediately after the harvesting of fruits in June/July and the other half in October, in both young and old orchards followed by irrigation if there are no rains. Foliar application of 3 % urea in sandy soils is recommended before flowering. The following table gives the details of fertilizer applied (depending upon the age of the plants) :
Age of the plant (in years) 1* 10 11 Fertilizer applied 100g. N, 50g. P2O5, 100g. K2O 1kg. N, 500g. P2O5, 1kg. K2O -do-

*The doses applied in the subsequent years should be increased every year upto 10 years in the multiple of the first year’s dose.

Well decomposed farm-yard manure may be applied every year. For trench application of fertilizers, 400g. each of N and K2O and 200g. of P2O5 per

plant should be provided. Micro-nutrients may be applied as per the requirement in the form of foliar sprays. 5.7 Irrigation The frequency and amount of irrigation to be provided depends on the type of soil, prevailing climatic conditions, rainfall and its distribution and lastly the age of the trees. No irrigation is required during the monsoon months unless there are long spells of drought.
Age of the plant (in Irrigation schedule years)/Growth stage 1 Irrigated at an interval of 2-3 days during dry season. 2-5 Irrigation interval- 4-5 days . 5-8/ fruit set to maturity Irrigated after every 10-15 days Full bearing stage 2-3 irrigations after fruit set.

Frequent irrigation during 2-3 months prior to the flowering season is not advisable as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the expense of flowering. Irrigation should be given at 50% field capacity. Generally intercrops are grown during the early years of plantation and hence frequency and method of irrigation has to be adjusted accordingly. The method usually followed for irrigating mango plants is basin irrigation. However, use of Drip Irrigation will not only reduce the water requirements but will also help in fertigation in root zones of the plants. 5.8 Intercultural Operations The frequency and the time of inter-culture operations vary with age of the orchards and existence of inter-crops. The weed problem may not exist immediately after planting the mango crop but it is advisable to break the crust with hand hoe each time after 10-15 irrigations are applied. In case of

mono-cropping, the area between the basins should be ploughed at least three times in a year i.e. during the pre-monsoon, post-monsoon period and in the last week of November. 5.9 Inter-cropping Intercropping can be taken up till the mango trees attain suitable height and develop canopy (at 5-6 years of age).Leguminous crops like green gram, black gram, gram etc., cereals like wheat, oilseeds like mustard, sesame and groundnut, vegetable crops such as cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, potato, brinjal, cucumber, pumpkin, bitter gourd, tinda, lady’s finger etc. and spices like chillies can be grown as intercrops. The partial shade loving crops like pineapple, ginger, turmeric etc. can be cultivated in fully grown orchards. In addition to field crops, some short duration , less exhaustive and dwarf type inter- fillers like papaya, guava, peach, plum etc. can be grown till these do not interfere with the main mango crop .It is advisable to take vegetable crops as inter crops for better returns. The average cost of inter cropping would be Rs.10,000 / Acre and it would yield on an average of 6 tonnes / Acres. 5.10 Crop Management 5.10.1 Regulation of Bearing Proper cultural practices like addition of fertilizers and control of diseases and insect pests may be adopted to regulate growth and bearing. Regular

bearing varieties viz. Dashehari and Amrapalli may be grown. Deblossoming of the panicles with NAA @ 200 ppm. (20 g./100 l. water) during ‘on’ year may help to regulate the bearing. 5.10.2 Regulation of Fruit Drop Embryo abortion, climatic factors , disturbed water relation, lack of nutrition, attack of disease and pest, hormonal imbalances are the major factors that lead to fruit drop. A spray of Alar (B-Nine) @ 100 ppm. or 20 ppm. 2,4-D (2g. in 100 l. water) in the last week of April or in the last week of May will control to some extent the summer fruit drop in Langra & Dashehari.

5.11 Plant Protection Measures 5.11.1 Insect Pests Insect pests mostly observed are mealy bug, hopper, inflorescence midge, fruit fly and scale insects. For controlling these insects, spraying with carbaryl, monocrotophos, phosphamidon & methyl parathion are recommended. 5.11.2 Diseases and Disorders

The crop is suspect to diseases like powdery mildew, anthracnose, die back, blight, red rust, sooty mould, etc. In order to control these diseases spraying of appropriate chemicals/fungicides have to be undertaken preferably on preventive basis. Disorders can also affect the crop if proper case and control measures are not taken. The major among these are malformation, biennial bearing, fruit drop, black tip, clustering etc. The grower needs to seek advice and professional assistance to prevent/control diseases and disorders in the crop.

5.12 Harvesting and Yield The orchard starts bearing from sixth year onwards and the economic life of a mango tree exceeds 35 years. Yield of fruits varies considerably according to the variety, climatic conditions, plant population etc. On an average, the yield ranges from 5 to 9 t/acre. Grafted plants start bearing early.

6. POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
6.1 Grading

Grading is mainly based on the size, colour and maturity of the fruits. While grading, smaller fruits are separated from the larger ones in order to achieve uniform ripening. Immature, overripe, damaged and diseased fruits are discarded in the process of grading. The fruits are generally harvested early in the season at a pre-mature stage to capture early market. Such fruits are ripened by uniformly dipping in 750 ppm. ethrel (1.8ml./l.) in hot water at 52±20 C for 5 minutes. within 4-8 days under ambient conditions. Mature fruits are ripened with lower doses of ethrel for uniform colour development. 6.2 Storage The mature green fruits can be stored at room temperature for about 4-10 days depending upon the variety. The harvested fruits are pre-cooled to 10120 C and then stored at an appropriate temperature. The fruits of Dashehari, Mallika and Amrapalli should be stored at 120 C, Langra at 140 C and Chausa at 80 C with 85-90 % relative humidity. 6.3 Packing Wooden or cardboard boxes, rectangular in shape and bamboo baskets having capacity to accommodate 5 to 8kg. of fruit is used for packaging and transportation of mango fruits. The most commonly used containers are ventilated card board boxes of corrugated fibre board (CFB) cartons. Size of the box varies to accommodate 5 to 10 kg. of fruit.

6.4 Transportation Road transport by trucks is the most popular mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to the market. 6.5 Marketing Marketing of the produce is mainly controlled by intermediaries like wholesalers and commission agents.

7. TECHNOLOGY SOURCES
The major sources for technology, as well as quality planting material are: • Central Institute for Sub-tropical Horticulture, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-226002, Uttar Pradesh, Tel (0522)-2841022/1023. • Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessarghatta, Bangalore-560089, Karnataka, Tel (080)-28466471/6353. • Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012. • Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229, Uttar Pradesh, Tel (05270)2262097/2161. • Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad-500030, Andhra Pradesh, Tel (040)-24015078. • University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, Tel (0836)-2447783.

• Mahatma

Phule

Krishi

Vidyapeeth,

Rahuri-413722,

Maharashtra, Tel (02426) 2243208. • Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli District, Ratnagiri-415712, Maharashtra, Tel (02358)2282064. • Directorate of Horticulture, Shivajinagar, Pune,

Maharashtra-560003 • Directorate of Horticulture, Lalbagh, Bangalore, Karnataka. • Directorate of Horticulture, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. • Directorate of Horticulture, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

8. ECONOMICS OF A ONE ACRE MODEL
8.1 High quality commercial cultivation of crop by using improved planting material and drip irrigation leads to multiple benefits viz.  Synchronized growth, flowering and harvesting;  Reduction in variation of off-type and non-fruit plants;  Improved fruit quality;  Early maturity;  Increase in average productivity;  High efficiency in water application and water use efficiency;  High fertilizer use efficiency; Minimum incidence of pests and diseases.

Costs & Returns: 8.2 A one acre plantation of the crop is a highly viable proposition. The cost components of such a model along with the basis for costing are exhibited in Annexures I & II. A summary is given in the figure below. The project cost works out to around Rs.1.50 lakhs per acre.

COST OF PROJECT

Sl. No. 1.

Component Cultivation Expenses (i) Cost of planting material (ii) Manures & fertilizers (iii) Insecticides & pesticides (iv) Cost of Labour (v) Others, if any, (Power) Subtotal Irrigation (i) Tube-well/submersible pump (ii) Cost of Pipeline (iii) Others, if any, please specify Subtotal Cost of Drip/Sprinkler Infrastructure (i) Store & pump house (ii) Labour room (iii) Agriculture Equipments Subtotal Land Development (i) Soil Leveling (ii) Fencing Subtotal Land, if newly purchased (Please indicate the year)* Grand Total

(Amount in Rs.) Proposed Expenditure 2,000 5,000 2,000 8,400 3,600 21,000 45,000 45,000 25,000 15,000 5,000 5,4000 25,400 4,000 29,600 33,600 1,50,000

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

*Cost of newly purchased land will be limited to one-tenth of the total project cost

8.3 The major components of the model are: Land Development: (Rs.4.0 thousand): This is the labour cost of shaping and dressing the land site and developing a layout.

Fencing (Rs.29.60 thousand): It is necessary to guard the orchard by barbed wire fencing to safeguard the valuable produce from poaching. Irrigation Infra-structure (Rs.45 thousand): For effective working with drip irrigation system, it is necessary to install a bore well with diesel/electric pumpset and motor. This is part cost of tube-well. Drip Irrigation & Fertigation System (Rs.25.0 thousand): This is average cost of one acre drip system for mango inclusive of the cost of fertigation equipment. The actual cost will vary depending on location, plant population and plot geometry. Equipment/Implements (Rs.5.4 thousand): of another Rs.10 thousand is included. Building and Storage (Rs.20.0 thousand): A one acre orchard would require minimally a labour shed and a store-cum pump house. Cultivation (Rs.21.0 thousand): This is to cover costs of land preparation and planting operations, planting material, inputs and power. 8.4 Labour cost has been put at an average of Rs.70 per man-day. The actual cost will vary from location to location depending upon For investment on

improved manually operated essential implements a provision

minimum wage levels or prevailing wage levels for skilled and unskilled labour.

8.5 Returns from the Project: In the development stage returns from inter-cropping are estimated at Rs.25,000 annually. The yield from the plantation is estimated at 5 tonnes in the first year of bearing rising to 7 tonnes. The produce has been valued at Rs. 10,000 per tonne in this exercise. Project Financing: 8.6 Balance Sheet: The projected balance sheet of the model is given at AnnexureIII. There would be three sources of financing the project as below: Source Farmr’s 75.00 Capital subsidy Term loan Total 30.00 45.00 150.00 share Rs. Thousand

8.7 Profit & Loss Account: The cash flow statement may be seen in Annexure IV. Annexure V. projects the profit and loss account of the model. Gross profit increases from Rs.25.5 thousand per annum

to Rs.43.3 thousand per annum in the first three years of bearing and thereafter more or less stabilize.

Annexure-I
ESTIMATED PROJECT COST
(Rs. in thousand)

Sr. Particulars No. 1 LAND & SITE DEVELOPMENT LAND Cost of Development Land Development Levelling & Dressing Fencing & Gates 2 BUILDING Store / Pump House Labour Shed PLANT & MACHINERY Irrigation system Borewell SIP sets & Electrical Installation Drip Irrigation inc. Fertigation system Farm Equipment Machinery COST OF CULTIVATION Land Preparation / Planting Planting Material Input Cost Power Cost Other Farm Operations

Scale Acre

Unit Cost

Total Qty 1 Cost

Acre Per Rft.

4000 35

1 846 Sub Total 100 50 Sub Total

4.00 29.60 33.60 15.00 5.00 20.00

Sq Ft. Sq Ft.

150 100

3

Nos. LS LS LS

25000 20000 25000 5400

1 1 1 1 Sub Total

25.00 20.00 25.00 5.40 75.40 4.20 2.00 7.00 3.60 7.20 21.00 150.00

4

Sub Total TOTAL

Annexure-II
COST OF PRODUCTION & PROFITABILITY
(Rs. in thousand) Particulars Income Sales Cost Fixed Manure/fertilizers/chemicals Direct Labour cost Other cost Harvesting & transportation cost General expenses Gross profit Depreciation Interest -term loan Pre-operative Exp. W/O Profit before tax Taxes Profit After Taxes Retained Profit Net cash Accrual Year-I 50.00 50.00 24.50 24.50 10.00 4.20 3.60 6.20 0.50 25.50 6.80 5.40 13.30 13.30 13.30 20.10 Year-II 60.00 60.00 25.60 25.60 10.00 4.20 3.60 7.30 0.50 34.40 6.80 5.40 22.20 22.20 22.20 29.00 Year-III 70.00 70.00 26.70 26.70 10.00 4.20 3.60 8.40 0.50 43.30 6.80 5.20 31.30 31.30 31.30 38.10 Year-IV 70.00 70.00 26.70 26.70 10.00 4.20 3.60 8.40 0.50 43.30 6.80 4.20 32.30 32.30 32.30 39.10 Year-V to XV 70.00 70.00 26.70 26.70 10.00 4.20 3.60 8.40 0.50 43.30 6.80 3.20 33.30 33.30 33.30 40.10

Annexure-III
PROJECTED BALANCE SHEET
(Rs. in thousands)

Particulars LIABILITIES Farmer's Share Capital Subsidy Reserves & Surpluses Term Loan Total ASSETS Fixed Assets Less Depreciation Net Block Cash & Bank Balance Total

Year 0 75.00 30.00 45.00 150.00

Year I 75.00 30.00 13.30 45.00 163.30

Year II 75.00 30.00 35.50 36.80 177.30

Year III 75.00 30.00 66.80 28.60 200.40

Year IV 75.00 30.00 99.10 20.50 224.50

150.00 150.00 150.00

150.00 6.80 143.20 20.10 163.30

143.20 6.80 136.40 40.90 177.30

136.40 6.80 129.60 70.90 200.40

129.60 6.80 122.70 101.80 224.50

Annexure-IV
CASH FLOW STATEMENT
(Rs. in thousand)

PARTICULARS SOURCES OF FUNDS Increase in Farmer's Share Net Profit Increase in Subsidy Depreciation Increase in Term Loan Total DEPLOYMENT Increase in Fixed Assets Decrease in Term Loan Total Opening Balance Surplus/Deficit Closing Balance

Year 0 75.00 30.00 45.00 150.00

Year I 13.28 6.82 20.10

Year II 22.18 6.82 29.00

Year III 31.32 6.82 38.15

Year IV 32.31 6.82 39.13

150.00 150.00 -

20.10 20.10

8.18 8.19 20.10 20.81 40.90

8.18 8.19 40.90 29.95 70.85

8.18 8.19 70.85 30.94 101.79

Annexure-V
PROJECTED PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT
(Rs. in thousands)

Particulars Sales Realisation Total Costs Gross Profit Depreciation Pre-Operative Expenses W/O Interest on Term Loan Profit before Tax Taxes Profit after Tax Retained Profit Net Cash Accruals PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT Opening Balance Closing Balance

Year I 50.00 24.50 25.50 6.80 5.40 13.30 13.30 13.30 20.10

Year II Year III Year IV 60.00 70.00 70.00 25.60 34.40 6.80 5.40 22.20 22.20 22.20 29.00 26.70 43.30 6.80 5.20 31.30 31.30 31.30 38.10 26.70 43.30 6.80 4.20 32.30 32.30 32.30 39.10

Year V 70.00 26.70 43.30 6.80 3.20 33.30 33.30 33.30 40.10

0.00 13.30

13.30 35.50

35.50 66.80

66.80 99.10

99.10 132.40

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