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Quality Tools2

Quality Tools2

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The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality

A PowerPoint Training Presentation
By Keith H. Cooper
"As much as 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with seven fundamental quantitative tools." - Kaoru Ishikawa

What are the Basic Seven Tools of Quality?
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Fishbone Diagrams Histograms Pareto Analysis Flowcharts Scatter Plots Run Charts Control Charts

Where did the Basic Seven come from?
Kaoru Ishikawa
‡ Known for ´Democratizing Statisticsµ ‡ The Basic Seven Tools made statistical analysis less complicated for the average person ‡ Good Visual Aids make statistical and quality control more comprehendible.

The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Fishbone Diagrams ‡ No statistics involved ‡ Maps out a process/problem ‡ Makes improvement easier ‡ Looks like a ´Fish Skeletonµ .

Draw ´spineµ and ´bonesµ Example: High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage .Identify the Problem ‡ Step 2 .Constructing a Fishbone Diagram ‡ Step 1 .

Constructing a Fishbone Diagram ‡ Step 3 .Identify different areas where problems may arise from Ex. : High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store employees Shrinkage shoplifters .

Constructing a Fishbone Diagram ‡ Step 4 . : High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage Expensive merchandise out in the open No security/ surveillance Anti-theft tags poorly designed shoplifters .Identify what these specific causes could be Ex.

: High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store employees attitude training new trainee benefits practices Shrinkage Expensive merchandise out in the open Anti-theft tags poorly designed No security/ surveillance shoplifters .Constructing a Fishbone Diagram ‡ Ex.

.Constructing a Fishbone Diagram ‡ Step 5 ² Use the finished diagram to brainstorm solutions to the main problems.

The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Histograms ‡ Bar chart ‡ Used to graphically represent groups of data .

Constructing a Histogram From a set of data compute ‡ sum ‡ mean (x) ‡ Max ‡ Min ‡ Range (max-min) (max- .

Constructing a Histogram ‡ Use range to estimate beginning and end ‡ Calculate the width of each column by dividing the range by the number of columns Range # of Columns = Width .

Acme Pizza Example ‡ Let·s say the owner wants a distribution of Acme·s Thursday Night Sales Data Set from last Thursday(slices) 02122413121224341432232122122142 21212212121212121222121211222314 22322212322422441222322122421242 1721223121121222122121222424 .

Acme Pizza Example Mean = 2.032258 Max = 7 Min = 0 Range = 7 Question For 7 columns what would the width be? Range/Columns=7/7=1 slice .

Acme Pizza Example Histogram 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 1 12 33 65 Slices of Pizza .

Constructing a Histogram How is this helpful to Acme? ‡ 2 slices of pizza most common order placed ‡ Distribution of sales useful for forecasting next Thursday·s late night demand If you were an Acme manager how could you apply this information? .

The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Pareto Analysis ‡ Very similar to Histograms ‡ Use of the 80/20 rule ‡ Use of percentages to show importance .

17 4.3 .09 25.3 13.79 3.Acme Pizza (part 2) Slices 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frequency 1 33 65 8 12 0 0 1 % .76 0 0 .

Acme Pizza (part 2) ‡ The completed Pareto Analysis results in the following graph: 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 2 1 3 4 4 3 5 7 6 5 7 6 Slices of Pizza .

Acme Pizza (part 2) Critical Thinking ‡ How does the Pareto Analysis differ from the Histogram? ‡ How can this be a useful tool to the Acme boss? .

The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Flowcharts ‡ A graphical picture of a PROCESS Process Decision The process flow .

Flowcharts Don·t Forget to: ‡ Define symbols before beginning ‡ Stay consistent ‡ Check that process is accurate .

Acme Pizza Example (Flowchart) Window (start) Take Customer Order Money? yes no Get Pizza Lockup Put More in Oven no yes no Time to close? 2 Pies Available? yes Take to Customer .

How can we use the flowchart to analyze improvement ideas from the Histogram? Window (start) Take Customer Order Money? yes no Lockup Put More in Oven Get Pizza no yes Time to close? 2 Pies Available? no yes Take to Customer .

Want some practice? Make a flowchart for: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Taking a shower Cooking dinner Driving a car Having a party Creating a Flowchart Any other processes you can think of? .

The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Scatter Plots ‡ 2 Dimensional X/Y plots ‡ Used to show relationship between independent(x) and dependent(y) variables .

Acme Pizza (Scatter Diagram) Minutes Cooking 10 45 30 75 60 20 25 Defective Pies 1 8 5 20 14 4 6 In this simple example. you can find the existing relationship without much difficulty but« .

Scatter Diagrams ‡Easier to see direct relationship 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time Cooking (minutes) .

Scatter Diagrams As a quality tool ‡ What does this tell Acme management about their processes? ‡ Improvements? 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time Cooking (minutes) .

The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Run charts ‡ Time-based (x-axis) Time(x‡ Cyclical ‡ Look for patterns .

AM Thursday Week 2 PM.Run Charts Slices/hour 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 Time PM.AM Thursday Week 3 .AM Thursday Week 1 PM.

The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Control Charts ‡ Deviation from Mean ‡ Upper and Lower Spec·s ‡ Range .

Control Charts Upper Limit X Lower Limit Unacceptable deviation .

Control Charts Acme Pizza Management wants to get in on the control chart action ‡Average Diameter = 16 inches ‡Upper Limit = 17 inches ‡Lower Limit = 15 inches .

Acme example Control Charts Upper Limit 17 inches 16 inches= X Lower Limit 15 Inches Small Pie .

Acme example #50 Control Charts ‡Pies within specifications were acceptable ‡One abnormally small pie is ³uncommon´ ‡Should be examined for quality control .

Summary ‡ Basic Seven Tools of Quality ‡ Measuring data ‡ Quality Analysis ‡ ´Democratized statisticsµ .

Managing Quality.uk/ming/spc/spc8. Thomas. William. ‡ Stevenson.ncl. ‡ ´Dr Kaoru Ishikawa.htm.µ 17 February 2001. An Integrative Approach. 2001.dti.µ 16 February 2001.µ Internet.html. Approach.Bibliography ‡ Foster.µ Internet ´http://www. ´Supercharging Your Pareto Analysis. Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall.uk/mbp/bpgt/m9ja00001/m9j a0000110.µ Quality Progress October 2000: 5151-55. .ac. ‡ ´Chemical and Process Engineering.gov. ´http://lorien.

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