INTRODUCTION TO SHIPHANDLING

I. Forces II. Terminology III. Standard Commands

FORCES
‡ To understand shiphandling, we must first look at all the forces that affect a ship.
Controllable: ‡Engines ‡Rudder ‡Lines ‡Anchor ‡Tugs ‡Auxiliary Propulsion Uncontrollable: ‡Wind ‡Current ‡Shallow water effects

ENGINES
‡ Power train: power source turns a shaft (through reduction gears), which turns a propeller ‡ Propellers may be fixed or controllable pitch:
± Fixed: Ship speed is controlled by shaft rpm only ± CPP: Ship speed is controlled by both shaft rpm and propeller blade pitch

aircraft carriers.ENGINES ‡ Almost all Navy ships have one of three propulsion plants: ± Gas turbine (requires CPP): most surface combatants ± Diesel: Large auxiliaries. submarines . minesweepers ± Steam (Conventional or Nuclear): Older ships.

. ± The direction of the force is the direction in which the propeller would ³walk´ along the bottom due to its rotation.SIDE FORCE ‡ In addition to fore and aft thrust. propeller rotation also causes what is known as ³side force´: ± Side force is a lateral force caused by propeller rotation.

SIDE FORCE Standard propeller rotation for single and twin screw ships (ahead operation) .

SIDE FORCE .

omni-directional propulsion unit ± Emergency propulsion for single-screw ships ± Can be used for pierside maneuvering .AUXILIARY PROPULSION ‡ Bow thruster ± Hull-mounted. transverse propeller used to develop lateral thrust when pierside ± Normally found on larger ships ‡ Auxiliary Propulsion Unit (APU) ± Retractable.

‡ Range of motion: 35° left or right of CL ± Hard rudder: 35° ± Full rudder: 30° ± Standard rudder: 15° .RUDDERS ‡ Configuration: normally one rudder for each propeller. mounted directly astern of the propeller.

RUDDERS ‡ Rudder effectiveness is dependent on flow velocity over the rudder surface. This is generally 2 to 3 knots for most ships. ± ³Bare steerageway´ is the minimum speed at which a rudder is still effective. ‡ Rudder angles must be reversed for astern operation .

indicating location. . and purpose ‡ Lines are numbered.MOORING LINES ‡ Lines are used next to a pier to control ship positioning. ‡ General terms: ± Breast line: limits lateral motion ± Spring line: limits fore/aft motion ‡ Each line has a specific name. direction. fore to aft. based on location on the ship.

Forward quarter spring line 6 .After quarter spring line 5 .Stern line .MOORING LINES 1 .Bow line 2 .Breast line 4 .Forward bow spring line (No number) .After bow spring line 3 .

effective for steady pushing/pulling in one direction ± Double headline:Allows tug to push the ship both ahead and astern ± Power: Best general purpose tie-up. allows tug to use engines and rudder in any direction without moving itself ‡ Pictures are shown on the next slide. .TUGS ‡ Used to assist ships in pierside maneuvers ‡ Three ship-to-tug tie-ups are used: ± Single headline: Simple.

TUGS .

‡ Squatting: The ship¶s bow wave is increased.SHALLOW WATER EFFECTS ‡ Increased resistance: In relatively shallow water at high speeds. resulting in a lifting of the bow and sinking of the stern. pressure drag on the hull is significantly increased. resulting in actual speed less than ordered speed. .

SHIP TERMINOLOGY Bow Stern Forecastle Hawsepipe Weather decks ‡ Draft ‡ Freeboard ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Superstructure Pilothouse Mast Yardarm Truck Stack Keel ‡Shaft ‡Propeller ‡Rudder ‡Stern ‡Transom ‡Waterline .

SHIPHANDLING TERMS
‡ Turning Circle - Path followed by the ship¶s pivot point in a constant turn ‡ Pivot point - The point on the CL about which the ship pivots in a turn
± Typically about 1/3 of length abaft the bow

‡ Advance ‡ Transfer

SHIPHANDLING TERMS
‡ Tactical Diameter - Perpendicular distance between the path of the ship on original course and final course after a 180° turn ‡ Standard Tactical Diameter - Tactical diameter prescribed by current tactical orders for formation maneuvers ‡ Reduced Tactical Diameter - Diameter obtained at full rudder using standard speed

Diameter of the ship¶s turning circle ‡ Kick . at the start of a turn.Distance gained/lost during a speed increase or decrease . of the ship¶s stern toward the side opposite the direction of the turn ‡ Surge .Momentary movement.SHIPHANDLING TERMS ‡ Final Diameter .

SHIPHANDLING CHARACTERISTICS .

‡ To avoid any possible confusion between the Conning Officer and the Helm or Lee Helm. all steering and engine orders are given using standard phraseology and format.STANDARD COMMANDS ‡ We have previously discussed the role and importance of the Conning Officer. .

FORMAT CONNING OFFICER HELM/LEE HELM Command Reply Report Acknowledgement .

HELM CONSOLE .

ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH .

MODERN HELM CONSOLE .

. . ." "Left. .steady on course one one five. . ." ". . . ." ".steady course two zero zero." .ten degrees rudder. standard rudder. . . . ." ". . .COMMANDS TO THE HELM Format -Direction -Amount -Course Example "Right." ".

). or one of the following: (nominal values given) ± Standard: 15° ± Full: 30° ± Hard: 35°(maximum rudder angle) .COMMANDS TO THE HELM ‡ Direction: Either left. 15. etc. right or ³Rudder amidships´ ‡ Amount: Expressed as a number of degrees of rudder (10.

± ³Right ten degrees rudder´ ± ³Left full rudder´ ± Two exceptions to the phraseology: ‡ ³Rudder amidships´ ‡ Hard rudder: ³Hard right rudder´ instead of ³Right hard rudder´ .COMMANDS TO THE HELM ‡ Direction and rudder angle together comprise the first portion of the command.

. If not given. ± ³Steady course ___´ ± This order tells the Helm to adjust the rudder and steady on a final course. the Helm maintains the rudder at the ordered angle until another order is given.COMMANDS TO THE HELM ‡ Course to steer: This portion of the command is not required.

COMMANDS TO THE HELM ‡ Exception: Course changes of 10° or less: ± For small course changes. ± The standard command is: ‡ Direction: ³Come right/left´ ‡ Course to steer: ³Steer course ___´ . a specific rudder angle is not given. This allows the Helm to use up to 10° of rudder to make the course change.

steady course 260´ ± ³Left 15° rudder´ ± ³Rudder amidships´ ± ³Come right. steer course 158´ ± ³Hard left rudder´ .COMMANDS TO THE HELM ‡ Examples: ± ³Right standard rudder.

.OTHER HELM COMMANDS ‡ Desired action: Increase or decrease rudder angle from a previously ordered angle ‡ Command: ± ³Increase your rudder to ________´ ± ³Ease your rudder to _______´ ‡ Note: Anytime a new rudder angle is ordered. a steering/steady course must be repeated if it is desired.

course to steer must be repeated. if desired. .OTHER HELM COMMANDS ‡ Desired action: Change rudder angle to an equal amount of rudder in the opposite direction ‡ Command: ³Shift your rudder´ ‡ Note: Again.

and steadies the ship on that course. ± This should normally be given only with the rudder at or near amidships.OTHER HELM COMMANDS ‡ Desired action: Steady the ship on the current heading ‡ Command: ³Steady as she goes´ ± When given. the Helm immediately determines ship¶s head at the instant of the command. .

OTHER HELM COMMANDS ‡ Desired action: Determine current ship¶s heading ‡ Command: ³Mark your head´ ± When given.and reports it to the Conn. the Helm immediately determines ship¶s head at the instant of the command. ‡ Desired action: Warn the Helm to steer more exactly ‡ Command: ³Mind your helm´ .

‡ This assures the conning officer that the order was heard and understood correctly. the Helm repeats the order back to the Conn verbatim. .HELM REPLY ‡ Whenever an order to the Helm is given.

´ ± The Helm replies: ³Right standard rudder. steady course 260. aye.´ .HELM REPLY ‡ Examples: ± The Conn orders: ³Right standard rudder. steady course 260.

283.´ . aye. aye.HELM REPLY ‡ Order: ³Mark your head´ ‡ Reply: ³Mark my head.´ ‡ Order: ³Mind your helm´ ‡ Reply: ³Mind my helm.

HELM REPLY ‡ If the helm does not understand an order from the Conn. . the helm will reply: ³Orders to the helm´ ‡ The Conn should immediately check his/her order and restate it clearly to the Helm.

. the Helm reports it to the Conn. ‡ The Conn acknowledges all reports with ³Very well¶ ‡ If the Conn does not acknowledge a report. the Helm should repeat the report until acknowledged.REPORT & ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ‡ Once a desired action is complete.

checking 309. steady course 298.´ .´ Reply: ³Right standard rudder.EXAMPLES Order: ³Right standard rudder. my rudder is right standard.´ Report: ³Sir. steady course 298. aye. steady on course 298. coming to new course 298.´ Report: ³Sir.

steady on course 345.´ Report: ³Sir. checking 352. aye. coming to new course 345.EXAMPLES Order: ³Come left. my rudder is left 5°.´ . steer course 345. steer course 345.´ Reply: ³Come left.´ Report: ³Sir.

´ Report: ³Sir.´ .EXAMPLES Order: ³Right full rudder. my rudder is right full.´ Reply: ³Right full rudder.´ Order: ³Belay your passing heads.´ Reply: ³Belay my passing heads. aye. aye. no new course given.´ Report: ³Passing 230 to the right.

EXAMPLES Order: ³Ease your rudder to right 15°. coming to new course 143. aye.´ Order: ³Steady course 143. no new course given. aye. my rudder is right 15°.´ Reply: ³Ease my rudder to right 15°.´ Report: ³Ma¶am.´ Report: ³Ma¶am.´ Reply: ³Steady course 143. my rudder is right 15°.´ .

´ Order: ³Shift your rudder. no new course given.´ Reply: ³Hard left rudder.´ Report: ³Sir. my rudder is right 35°.´ . aye. my rudder is left 35°.EXAMPLES Order: ³Hard left rudder.´ Reply: ³Shift my rudder. no new course given.´ Report: ³Sir. aye.

´ Report: ³Steady on course 098.´ Order: ³Steady as you go.´ Reply: ³Steady as you go.´ Reply: ³Right full rudder. aye.´ Report: ³Sir.EXAMPLES Order: ³Right full rudder. aye. checking . aye. no new course given.´ Report: ³Sir. Course 098. my rudder is right 30°.´ Order: ³Rudder amidships´ Reply: ³Rudder amidships. no new course given. my rudder is amidships.

the shaft is always spinning when the engine is on line. below about 12 knots. ± For gas turbines.ENGINE ORDERS ‡ For fixed pitch propellers. . ship speed is dependent on shaft rpm and. ³All engines stop´ is achieved by a blade pitch of 0°. propeller blade pitch. ‡ For controllable pitch propellers. ship speed is dependent on shaft rpm only.

one third of standard speed ± ³2/3´ .ENGINE ORDERS ‡ Prescribed standard speeds are predetermined ship¶s speeds: ± ³Standard speed´ .maximum speed .speed higher than standard speed ± ³Flank´ .normally 15 knots ± ³1/3´ .two thirds of standard speed ± ³Full´ .

ENGINE ORDERS Typical Prescribed Standard Speeds ‡ Ahead Bell Speed 1/3 5 2/3 10 Std 15 Full 20 Flank Max speed ‡ Astern Bell Speed 1/3 5 2/3 10 Full Max speed .

indicate 072 revolutions and 20% pitch for 3 knots. . ." . . . . ahead full. . . ." ". . . ." ". .ENGINE ORDERS Format -Engines -Direction -Speed Example ´All engines. indicate 108 revolutions for 15 knots.back 2/3." "." ".

ENGINE ORDERS ‡ Engines: Port. Unnecessary for single screw ships. ‡ Direction: Ahead. and nearest standard speed (except for stop) . starboard. back or stop. or all engines.

indicate turns for __ knots.ENGINE ORDERS ‡ Speed: ³.´ .indicate ____ turns for __ knots.. OR ³.indicate ___ turns and __% pitch for __ knots..indicate pitch and turns for __ knots.´ ± For controllable pitch propellers below 12 knots: ³.´ OR.´. ³...

the Lee Helm answers all bells at the prescribed standard speed increment.MANEUVERING COMBINATIONS ‡ In maneuvering situations. . this is indicated by an RPM setting of ³999´. ‡ On ships with an EOT. the Conning Officer may set ³maneuvering combinations´. ‡ When set. where frequent engine changes are expected.

even if only one was changed. ± Note: Every report must include the complete status of all engines. ‡ Reports: Lee Helm reports when action is completed. ‡ Acknowledgement: Conn will acknowledge all reports with ³Very well´ .REPLIES AND REPORTS ‡ Reply: Verbatim repeatback is required.

indicate 115 revolutions for 16 knots. indicating 115 revolutions for 16 knots. engine room answers all engines ahead standard. indicate 115 revolutions for 16 knots.´ .´ Report: ³Ma¶am.EXAMPLES Order: ³All engines ahead standard. aye.´ Reply: ³All engines ahead standard.

EXAMPLES (Continued from previous slide) Order: ³Indicate 122 revolutions for 17 knots. engine room answers all engines ahead standard.´ . indicating 122 revolutions for 17 knots.´ Report: ³Ma¶am. aye.´ Reply: ³Indicate 122 revolutions for 17 knots.

starboard engine back 2/3. starboard engine back 2/3. starboard engine back 2/3.EXAMPLES Order: ³Port engine ahead 1/3.´ Reply: ³Port engine ahead 1/3.´ Report: ³Ma¶am. aye. engine room answers port engine ahead 1/3.´ .

port engine ahead 1/3. engine room answers starboard engine stop.´ . aye.´ Reply: ³Starboard engine stop.´ Report: ³Ma¶am.EXAMPLES (Continued from previous slide) Order: ³Starboard engine stop.

aye.´ Reply: ³All engines ahead 1/3. indicate pitch and turns for 5 knots. indicate pitch and turns for 5 knots. engine room answers all engines ahead 1/3. indicating 075 turns and 34% pitch for 5 knots.´ Report: ³Sir.EXAMPLES Order: ³All engines ahead 1/3.´ .

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