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Estimates

Rough Estimate (m3 / m2) (Based on plinth area basis)

1. Earth work:

300 Class loading 500 class loading


Single bay Two bay Single bay Two bay
0.1 + (22.2 nD/q) 0.1 +( 18.9 nD/q) 0.1 +( 24.8 nD/q) 0.1 +( 21.5 nD/q)
Where
n = No. of floors
D = Depth in meters
q = SBC in KN/m2
2. Brick work for foundation and basement :
Q = m3 / m2
Span Single bay Two bay
4.0 m 0.17 0.14
5.0 m 0.16 0.13
6.0 m 0.14 0.12
7.0 m 0.13 0.11

3. Brick wall for superstructure:

Load bearing = 0.40 to 0.45 m3 / m2

4. DPC :
Framed structure = 0.1 m2 / m2
Load bearing = 0.23 m2 / m2

5. Centering: m2/ m2
Grade beam= 0.35 < 0.40 < 0.45 m2 / m2
Slab, beam etc
Span Single bay Two bay
4.0 m 1.57 1.49
5.0 m 1.51 1.45
6.0 m 1.47 1.42
6. RCC for isolated footing
RCC / m2 = X for LL
Total quantity = X A0 where A0 = Cumulative ultimate floor area in m2
2 2
3.0 KN/m 5.0 KN/m
SBC in
KN/m2 Single bay Two bay Single bay Two bay
50 0.216 0.188 0.245 0.215
75 0.137 0.119 0.155 0.137
100 0.089 0.077 0.100 0.088
120 0.071 0.062 0.080 0.071
150 0.055 0.048 0.062 0.055
200 0.041 0.036 0.046 0.041
220 0.035 0.0305 0.040 0.0354
250 0.030 0.026 0.0335 0.030
300 0.026 0.023 0.029 0.026
400 0.016 0.014 0.0185 0.0165

7. RCC for grade beam:


2
Quantity / m = y
Single bay = 0.05
Two bay = 0.04
Total requirement = y Ag where Ag = area of G.F.

8. RCC for superstructure:


RCC quantity = z for LL
2
RCC/Floor = z Af where Af = Area of floor in m

Quantity = z for LL
2 2
Description 3.0 KN/m 5.0 KN/m
Single bay Two bay Single bay Two bay
3 2
RCC floor 0.21 m / m 0.19 m3 / m2 3
0.22 m per m 2
0.20 m3 per m2
Note:
1. This is inclusive of staircase and discontinuous sunshade but exclusive
of items (2) below.
2. Include the following, if present:
a. For slab thickness > 100 mm add extra quantity per m2 over 0.1m3
b. For floor systems with primary and secondary beams add + 0.02 m3 / m2
c. For canopy in G.F, add 0.01 m3 / m2
d. For drops up to 1.20 m, add 0.01 m3 / m2
e. For Continuous sunshade of 0.60 to 0.75 m alround the building, add 0.15 m3 / m2
f. For sun- breakers up to 0.6 m, add 0.01 m3 / m2

Steel for slab, beam & column (item wise)

Live load 3 KN/m2 5 KN/m2


Description
Single bay Two bay Single bay Two bay
i. Slab 0.100 0.100 0.10 0.10
ii. Beams 0.065 0.055 0.07 0.06
iii. Columns 0.045 0.035 0.05 0.04
iv. Staircase,sunshade etc. 0.010 0.010 0.01 0.01
a. Qty / m3 with primary
beams
b. Qty with primary and
secondary beams
Steel required for columns
reinforcement / m3
with primary beam
400 45 38 48 42
300 41 35 43 38
225 37 32 39 35
with secondary beam
400 50 43 53 47
300 46 40 48 43
200 42 37 44 40

9. Plastering in CM 1:5 – 12 mm thick:

2.3 to 2.6 m2 / m2 of plinth area

10. Finishing the RCC::

2.4 m2 / m2 (10mm thick)


11. White washing:

4.7 to 5.0 m2 / m2

12. Wood scantling:

Doors D = 0.018 m3 / m2 of shutter area


Windows W = 0.019 m3 to 0.025 / m2 of shutter area
Ventilators V = 0.02 m3 / m2 of shutter area
Based on thumb rule
Wood required for door = 1 {Door area in m2 }
10 2
Wood required for glazed
window with ventilator = 1 {window area in m2}
12 2

Steel requirement / m2 on Plinth area basis

S.No. Type of Building Load bearing Framed structure


1
Residential Buildings 25 to 30 Kg 35 to 40 Kg
2
Public Buildings 30 to 35 Kg 40 to 50 Kg

Foundation & Basement Framed Structure (GF+ 3 Floors)

S.No. Type of Building Steel Qty. in Kg / m2


Residential Flats
1 5 Kg / m2
(Multi storey )

Office Building
2
(a) Load Bearing 4 Kg / m2
(b) Framed 6..5 Kg / m2

Commercial Buildings such as


3
Bus Stand, Restaurants etc. 7.5 Kg / m2
Approximate Quantity of steel requirement (General)

S.No. Description Qty. of Steel in Kg / m3


1 Footings 50 to 65
30 to 50
2 Cast in situ Piles

70 to 100
3 Plinth Beam

100 to 130
4 Lintel
100 to 200
5 Column
150 to 200
6 Beam
60 to 75
7 Slab
90 to 120
8 Stairs

Estimation of Quantity of Reinforcement


For rough calculation of reinforcement steel in construction Projects following thumb rule
may be adopted:
(i) Slab 80 Kg / m3
(ii) Beam 110 Kg / m3
(iii) Column 160 Kg / m3
(iv) Footing slab 80 Kg / m3

Reinforcement Based on % of Steel

Reinforcement %( of c.s. of Quantity of Steel in Kg / m3


concrete)
0.5 % 39
1.0 % 78
1.50% 117
2.0 % 158
2.5 % 196
3.0 % 235
3.5 % 274
4.0 % 313
4.5 % 352
5.0 % 392

Note:
20 % should be added in these values to take in to account laps, bends, wastage etc.,
while computing Kg / m3.
Preliminary Estimation for reinforcement for Building Works

Sl.No. Member Qty. in Kg/m3 Size of steel required


1 Column footings 75 10mm or 12mm
12, 16mm 85%
2 Grade beams 100 Stirrups 6mm or 6mm 15%
8mm Dia 85%,
3 Plinth beams 125 Stirrups 6mm 15%
16,20, 25 mm 90%
4 Columns 225 Ties 6 mm or 8 mm 10%
12, 16mm Dia 85%
5 Lintel Beam 125 Stirrups 8mm or 6mm 15%
8mm Dia 75%
6 Sunshades 60 Distributor 6 mm 25%
10mm dia 80%
7 Canopy slab up to 2.0 m span 125 Distributor 8mm or 6 mm 20%
12 or 16mm dia 85%
8 Staircase waist slab 150 Distributor 8mm dia 15%
9 Roof slab
8mm dia 70%
(a) One way 80 Distributor 6mm 30%
(b) Two way 100 8mm dia 100%
(c) Square slab 4 to 6m size 150 10 - 12mm dia 100%
20, 16, 12 mm 80% to 85%,
10 Main beams above 6m 250 Stirrups 8mm 15 to 20%

Note : All rods mentioned above are RTS except 6mm Φ rods
CEMENT

Cement requirement / m2 on Plinth area basis


S.No. Type of Building Load bearing Framed Structure
1 Residential buildings 5 to 6 Bags 5 to 7 Bags
2 Public buildings 4 to 5 Bags 6 to 8 Bags
Residential Flats ( Multi
3 ---- 3.2 to 4.0 Bags
storey)
4 Office building 2.4 to 3.0 Bags 5 Bags
5 Commercial buildings such as ----- 4.5 Bags
Bus Stand, Restaurants etc.

For Foundation & Basement of Framed Structure (up to 4 Storeyed ) alone

S.No. Type of Building Load bearing Framed Structure


1 Residential Flats ---- 0.4 Bags / m2
2 Office building 0.36 Bags / m2 0.5 Bags / m2
3 Commercial building ---- 0.45 Bags / m2

Minimum Cement content required for various Grade of Concrete

S.No. Grade of Concrete Cement content in Kg / Max. W/c


m3 of concrete ratio
As per As per
TCE IS 456
1 M15 285 ---
2 M20 300 0.55
(i) M20 (below G.L) 360
M20 (above G.L) 315
3 M25 300 0.50
(i) M25 (for Piles) 400
M25 (for other structures) 365
4 M30 415 320 0.45
5 M35 340 0.45
(i) M35 (for Piles) 525
(ii) M35 (for other structures) 475
6 M40 535 360 0.40

Note:-
As per IS 456 – 2000 Maximum cement content should not exceed 450 Kg / m3
for the cement mortar to ensure that heat of hydration and shrinkage cracking
are prevented.
Mix Proportion (Approximate)

1 Litre = 1000 cm3


35 litre = 400 x 350 x 250 mm

Mix Proportion Cement (Kg) Sand (Litre) CA (Litre)


M25 (1:1:2) 50 35 70
M20 (1:1.5:3) 50 52.5 105
1:1⅔ : 3⅓ 50 58.4 116.8
1: 2: 3 50 70 105
M15 (1:2:4) 50 70 140
1: 2½ : 5 50 87.5 175
M10 (1:3:6) 50 105 210
M5 (1:5:10) 50
M7.5 (1:4:8) 50

Note:
1. Proportion of fine aggregate to coarse aggregate by volume generally 1:2 subject
to an upper limit to 1:1½ and a lower limit of 1: 2½.
2. As a general guidance it may be noted that an average grading of fine aggregate,
the proportions shall be 1:1½ , 1:2 and 1:2½ for maximum size of coarse
aggregate 10 mm, 20 mm and 40 mm respectively.
3. Water proofing compound at the rate of 2% by weight of cement is used. The
approximate quantity of water proofing compound to be mixed for various
concretes, mortars is as follows:
1 m3 of cement concrete 1:1:2 =10.5 Kg
1 m3 of cement concrete 1:1½ :3 = 8 Kg
1 m3 of cement concrete 1::2 :4 = 6.2 Kg
100 m2 of 12 mm thick plastering in CM 1:3 = 15 Kg
plastering in CM 1:4 = 12 Kg
Brick Masonry Wall (IS 1905 – 1987)

Brick’s strength Type of bricks Mix Type

Country bricks
Below 5 N / mm2 1:6 M2
(Third Class)
2
Above 5 N / mm Chamber bricks
1:5 M1
Below 7.5 N / mm2 (Second Class)
Above 7.5 N / mm2 Wire cut bricks
1:5 M1
Below 15 N / mm2 (First Class)
First Class (Metric /
1:3
Wire cut bricks)

Panel walls, Partition walls & Compound walls

Brick Panels / Partition wall (11.5 cm Thick) CM 1 : 6 (Country bricks)


CM 1 : 5 (Second class /
First class)

Load bearing walls :


Maximum slenderness ratio 27

Tests for Bricks

Water absortion

> 20% for First Class bricks


> 22% for Second Class bricks
>25% for Third Class bricks

Crushing Strength

105 Kg / cm2 - First Class bricks


70 Kg / cm2 - Second Class bricks
35 Kg / cm2 - Third Class bricks
More than 140 Kg / cm2 - Class AA brick
450 – 500 Kg / cm2 - Heavy Duty machine bricks.
Slopes in Floor finish

Type of floor slope


Toilet, cattle shed, Pavement 1 in 60
Bath room, Verandah, Kitchen, 1 in 100
Dry yard
Dining halls 1 in 200
Mosaic floor general halls 1 in 350
Pressed tiles over roof 1 in 50
COST OF BUILDING (GENERAL)

1. Cost of foundation & Plinth 18%


(Up to G.L. 13%
From G.L. to Plinth & DPC 5%)
2. Cost of Brick work from Plinth to Roof 23%
3. Cost of RCC works except roofing 6%
4. Cost of flooring 20%
( RCC roof 15%
Lime terracing 5%)

5. Cost of Flooring 6%
6. Cost of Doors & Windows 20%
7. Cost of Plastering & finishing 7%

Note: The cost excludes Water supply, Sanitary &


Electrification.

COST OF MATERIALS & LABOUR FOR BUILDING WORK

Materials % Labour %
Brick 16 Mason 8
Sand 4 Carpenter 3.5
C.A. 4.5 Mazdoor 12
Cement 19
Timber in scantling 9.5
Steel 23.5
Total 76.5 23.5
Overall 100%

SINGLE STOREY COST

Component %
Plinth 18
Superstructure 27
Flooring 8
Roofing (Flat) 20
Wood work 17
Miscellaneous 10
Total 100
ORDINARY BUILDINGS

Materials % Labour %
Cement 13 Excavation 1
Steel 10 Masons 25
Timber 12 Carpenter 12
Other Materials 25 Black smith 2
Total 60 Total 40
MANPOWER & MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Material Single Storey Double Storey Four Storey (R.C.C.


Framed)
Bricks (100 Nos.) 2.26 A+66.8 2.15A+63 2.56A-0.0096A2-26.2
Cement (Tonnes) 0.153A+0.57 0.145A+0.54 0.2024A-0.364
Steel (Kg) 21.3A-314 21.97A305 102.46A-0.401A2-1662
Sand (m3) 0.47A-7 0.376A-5.6 0.361A-0.38

Coarse aggregate 0.178A-0.21


(m3)
(i) 20 mm & 0.176A-0.21 0.295A-0.75
down
(ii) 40 mm &
down 0.145A+1.5 0.075A+0.78 0.45+0.002A+0.0001A2

Timber (m3)
(i) Frames &
shutters
(ii) Shuttering
Lime (quintal) 0.145A-0.35 0.073A-0.17 0.063A-0.08
Surkhi (m3)
Bitumen (Kg)
Glass (m2)
Primar (litre)
Paint (litre)