11\ -" ',.

,

.~ l .~

iO-~'~ Alrt:~":.; ", ,_"UWlUh 1

--;' 12i'U'1l1 'm V, II II 1',,','

.. lii! 6.& . 'iRr _I I',· _ 1!l1I I,' iJ

III,~

~.

P'IKUM~tJll. ',-'HI 'VIIJ\e6~_IO'"'"'Me'lO( ~1t1~1eCBIIM' Oib,gUnellllt£M ,nol JI __ I!lnt.I,~,,_,_ ' K, ..... IU, o 6111113 0 1,llunOI ,~"_'I_nIJClI~TB'a

1_. ~ ~r~

,06DtI'I'I'.' I n _c,8 ~£JIlI;O(1lI3JI]h.'UDro o5pa3!O~B,U~la Poccllit£ KO'D I" 'l1U:,1 IIlII.,'

AJUI' Htn0BL3011'3UIUI, I 'i y1f~efino,.,: RI,P,(lI:gKte

Ill;

..

!ln~HBa,WKMH,~ B,,"B~CJlo6:H.HXIOB'11 ,A",B'ICeJi.l~B,~ :1'KTHK,y,M D'IO'

ICTiUlMCTHKe, ,a,HT.nHjbC~1(o:--c·O £3IL~K,a" HHZHI H,lolrc,p;o,u:: H'rJIY HM,,,

,,'~;A,noI5,plo,mOI6oDa:'1 ]9~$t - , '1:8 c ..

"'·S' B·- )N--'I ~ IO,!lfO"3·,liil, '0" £':""1 ,~'

,1-'. : :,,~, ", ')"'IQ ,.)QI, -. 7-:: g\,'" .;)1

B• _I, 'u:l~l'~"ll"~'ilii: W- - '-IP:-M'~ np:I'" 'VT".r,'l 'ili"'!iiJ M-" -11ii! no jii"""'ll"Hfi!r.il!ilf'""riMi iIl!"'~ l'MI:;;1i'r'rrr:II~'!'Ic.'IiI'"~'r·'ol '~3 ~u~,a

in !E-~v [1Ij1 U.i1I. ~l j 1& II _ _ Al tl ~"IIiB J f_ '\wr .V ~ I!. "'j~":11 Xil!l\J _ g _ .~l ~iUI Jl _ AV _ n_

OCSCUlt.I.IOTCi: T81.::He: 'DOi~PIQ!Ch~,~ ll::aK ~lJ]ltCCHtIKKaM;a l~ ~Y,RHU.H.Hlltpi~~r,Y:p PCllIH" 'CTH1l·Ir.U~T1f:~:I~OK~Ul, laH:4it c:peaQllifU.tHIl neKCHlleCK'O!'I"O eoerasa, J!K:rCnpeCCHD],I~U)I:e ICH:H,T'I;K:ICM,.OCKHtl '~pe.Cl.I,:t 'fPY)IK,QBIQ!iI,U&H';n, 'CTWlH~,

·n·~'I .: ,i!!I;in~,'U".gi, ~"T"II'jj"iIfIfII'JI'CTR'~·~'j'i<'D':'I.¥ 1~".n.~rtj~'O_~_jK '~~'~I"'\'Eii: 'p··I~I~:lI.i'jL'II¥:,', '~agp-' .. '-D':B B

.¥~·"'1Il~ ~~.~,UI~Rl., __ ~_.~.~~~:~ W~UU~HD .Wlli~ 1~1~V.JlilUliU .~IJI:UUILA. l~ __ ~ r _

I_I _.

·ne,nel:OAC.. B, 'Oi.CHOIH' TeO!n.eTH'q'et'I:KI. 'PI,B3._ltW1.0B :n~!aK11lK,'W __ 3: n:ie;.aT.'

lr Ir! l.r iJ.

nlll.'ii: II! iiI'IIi"jtlft if'ili'QI !iiTi'A 'iW" piU 'I'..!I',O' 'n',mr~ if 'f'IIJ,,;i''I;l'UH'- 'i'c iii V ''!f'.Ii VP"';I'!i,,;i!"iii'B p"a' i!1'n t!!!IIll:. nT"liI if;.li iliiII'L 'Mj VI1!'IIA'!U: '0-""', n lJj,oI I~UI~'I~1 ~~~l :.: ~!IIIJ}o.l~l!l!iil~iltft~J JfI~)Vt~~r;llfl!..~n! l_g1lR !~fl'!:; ~~I'~;1l " _ .... l~_~lllr\A1U!U· g-IIi1lr~fg!ljA l~:u~ftll ~'. _I ,IUIIJ1t1

&'rfii'ifiI'A'IIj'Ii'I~lril'~'~If~I@;i"!'1'ii" U'X.··' 'U' '\$'lJ!!'. n- p; .0·-: i~Id!~,ji'io_Ap- -I~'ii".., ~I 'M.·: '''''~~«'H' 'P',[U;,_'1ii ll>il1 B

.1~ll.~ly.lI''''~''' [IrJlI·~!I!.ii~~Jr£_. , 1!&~I._ ll~' "I I I .. _; .. ~~~WU .. u,ml £U~ I _ I ~~JF~U I I~Ulg~m!! ,_,

:npaKT:M'~;e-C«H,X p,ooaenaJ( oeotiee :a:UH:Y,.'HHif! YAeJtA)eTCI; D!,np~1~n)QHHm' '''yl·U~,llH,i ItllUlHCTH,,!eCKH.I., Cpe,JJ;J:ltB,~ a ''[.Me 'OI1!OOO O;.,M ,BO'CnpOY::UJ,~eHHI 3m.X, '4J'YKl<.QItH :B DGp!ell,oa,I.,

:np,IKTHICY'M, np!etUi,OOH:a'lIe_:: ! AWl,

iU'ifiDO·'· "'ftlf_'Il'!i"O" B i.':Iilll.c1l ~'lIi'iH '0'

Q~ .. ·.IIt&g~.··.:.__:gL~~.~ u

I!ii;i!J

'"'pan-, .0:' :n~ID,;j]1 ;~.Jj!".oi'iI~~ ~iii',ji. - n. I' 'ir:JiiI',CTH'tI!" u ~ U'I!"'III'II'fdll'II!l'e:Trli"'ilitr'l:JiI~,ife-'IiW'I~1 - np·.11 U~'H

II.I ~_~" ~~UMln[!I~r~~:!t !Mii!I.I,!I~I~llllj" __ I ~ Allr'lW un.ii~II:lr.Ul!,_,AU 'U 1~..JIDlUl\g .. ill I l_ .. ~_AuW.l-lIilll_~iNi .l_

:n'e,U:BIQ,IlIB ,JnIHI"B:U:CT.lt lJ:,eC:KHX :YHIlB!ep CHTeTaXJ HI ,IK,y,n&,lln-ax, 'ItUtOC1pIII""&'[X 9:3:ljRO,!i, :~, PiA: ,D'OKrI()liOIK't :o:p,fQ1nO»:BITeDeA: ;a,RrJBI:icKO~O! :13. lea, n, nep'eBO:Jll.u:KOB,~

©

"

, ,

~n"j~~',*'~ ~~~'-Y'JI' .6J'9 i ~

3

STiVT ·f'iCirr:,.,,~, ... S·,· A' B~~i;nl Ai AICH· .. ·· .' ··-:-a-:-M:iE'IFr.:r:.f"'1'I"rr:OTJ:c .. ··· _ ~L ~'.J',..I\..o~'-,n, il .... -,~.c: .'~l-'Tt'li~-,_:.' ·~/zrj'-,.LdJ.y.~',UAa:,JI,;I,II:-)-

a,,· '. 1J'.I,l'""lf-- I

,L:JIIL~ .':J'~ II-.j ';-,

], ,', The 'oll!d. mlIl is dead,

2,~ The old bean 11&1 ki.cked 'the bucket.

3~ The ,g,ent-eD1an. 'wen, advanced :in years, 'has a;tta-1flJed the tenll,:i.DI.'tjlt)\[J of hi.s: ·tlerrestiia'l existence,

Ew'e:ry:bod,y' u'Dld,e:[s:tlnds '(be .iin.,g,o'i:sli.ICl d:m,:sti ncf ODtS of

different, but syn,O(O;ym'D!.U.1 'wa~l's, olf' exp res sing, 'lb,e: simil~-,r idea,

The u'l:til,nlQ,lfe d'im of st~listics, is '~O eS;"ablts'b the IDlb:~ect~ .. ve

!I ~J." tJI

~ d .... al 'I 0:-, ,i, 'I i . iii.. ~ ,,w; ~,

18,WS, a_n: praetrea 'fU,~,les, D: u!un,,1 pre ,-:er J!I'R,a'u'[st~lc rorms ~n, p(liDlper

situations - to flnd, out which form am,om_g 'the, n1ulti;tude ef :sy,nl 0 n-YR10llJ,S, ~ lngui stic means 'OQI,n 'Oltm::US '01 the gJ v en. extra ,~,nl,tli:ti]

- - -- ~

ci reum st~ mees i ;

IOn the whole, stylisltic"J is, tn Q' broad sense; th',e iflV:&s,I,~~at,~\on of l.ynOI"JnnIO~JS l.i:~,p'istic' n eansfor tbe purp031e t~fflndii", out tlheir'

spheres "JftJPpli~ctll, _ ~~~',il}t.I., .

S'I_:l~,is:tlcs, r,esemblres '(h,e: so called dia]ectollol,gy~ This, branch of ~:w'ng'U1is, 'ics ,s:tud'i ea le'ITito',-,,'rlli variants of' " ~h,.:' 'nall,onad language,

S-'" listics stud ;,Di~' _if!O'~ C~iQ":~ ,-. " ,Iii "'JIlr' ::i~r'f~'~~ of ''''-)-,D, 'II an. ' g;:.~illl o~ . such '¥'!;jI'i!"jiQI'n-'t~ 'QIC

.J ,'_ .~_l _ ~ ,~_r",UL:_. ll,y~ iiil!t :.- l!! ,'''t- ~ 'j IWCi:£_~l'll~ ~'", III ,_,~ ~ , . I~ _ _J!IbW t~IUJW .~. ,gl tIi'~_1 .~_~I I~~

lli!il~~ used ni"llfJo~ ~,tJI.y-:.-. no" 'b-Lr-y .. ~~·i~D_:l'"l~TlI'~, people (as l:n" - the l"'I!'!Ii,![i!~c w·:· j . .-;,:-I.-

g Ir ~ I .• .:!il . ," . i I tI .. .:IiI, 'Il i.~" /' " . UJlli~,1¥. '~~..!W ILl .. wu ". I ~ U-iil .1:_-, I ~ I~IJ ~ ua~~ ~. ~i" J

_. l_, :.._ _ ','J

dialects), bu,'_ biY the same ,p1erSQiD in diftl~reD't social :si;u;:ati'olns,~

Since the sub ... , stems u in, d'i eren'~ types of speech m2J(Y

difiicr fr,omn IOO,le another ,~n &vety respect ",,' phenetlcall '1', b:xi"catly-", morpho ~ o,g:i Ica_11y'~, s,YD't-a.ct~,c~dly and !H~;man.t:ilc:al:ly ... ' styiis,tliCS is connected. wi h all cerrespending branches ef lingeisties ~ wl,th phonetics, morpholog 'i!~ mleXi,co;l,oi.I3I'~ S~YDtax snd :slem,as,bJ,1IDgy',. S;]'RCe s'l}'11 i sties is, interested ln all the aap eels of langu'age ]t should 'be subdivided in," 0 'the: same 'br,In,c:h.la, IS l,:iQgu'isti1cS ~n, general, to w,~.t:

s;ty 1 ru,stic, slem'as,lo:l,olgy'; :S~U8t'iIC lexieele ':;,

. s:ty.!~:i stie s,yn'tax~,

sty'~:i s -~ ~cp:- _,tllJ1IB't:i,cs ~

S't, llstlcs, ',\YUh all Its su,;bd:hi~s,iIDn's, reveals ,8, '-'fJCU'U:. approach towards language: it compares the sub "" systems for the purpose of fill"ing, out the so-ca led styll~s~

...

,€ .JI

A Manual of English Stylistics

What is style?

Every type of speech uses its own lingual sub-systems: not all the forms comprising the national language but only a certain number of forms.

Every sub-system consists of:

a) linguistic units common to all the sub-systems;

b) specific linguistic units, to be found only in the given subsystem.

It is self-evident that sub-systems differ from one another by their specific spberes alone, because their non-specific spheres coincide. Hence, specific spheres differentiating the sub-systems (and, ultimately, types oj speech) may be called their styles, or, style may be defined as the specific sphere of the given sub-system. Roughly speaking, style is a complex of lexical, grammatical, etc. peculiarities by which a certain type of speech is characterized.

Every linguistic unit, along with the meaning, has its stylistic value which may be characterized as connotation (i.e. additional meaning). The connotation of a linguistic unit is just what we think oj it as belonging either to the specific sphere oj a certain subsystem or to the non-specific sphere common to all the subsystems. Hence, stylistic value is actualized by means of associations, namely:

• linguistic units that are used everywhere cause no definite associations with any particular type of speech. Thus, they have no definite stylistic value and are called stylistically neutral;

• linguistic units belonging ~~ the specific sphere of a subsystem are mentally associated with that sphere. They are stylistically coloured.

6

t

A Manual of English Stylistics

~ '/ 1.t ~.~

STYLISTIC SEMASIOLOGY

Stylistic semasiology is a part of stylistics which investigates stylistic Phenom.e.na in. the s. phere of semantics, i.e. in the sphere of meanings, regardless

of the form of linguistic units. As distinct from . stylistic lexicology or stylistic syntax which deal

with words and sentences, stylistic semasiology;nakes meaning

V"'- JJ...tJ,-~

the object of its inves igation. .._),., l. .

But some limitations to the object are to be borne to mind,

Non-stylistic semasiology studies meanings. As concerns stylistic semasiology it is not so much the meaning itself that is investigated but the rules and laws of shifts of meanings; the pii8.grtir~ccording to which meanings are shifted or either various combinations thus producing a certain stylistic effect. Stylistic semasioiogy al~o studies stylistic functions of shifts of meanings and of certain combinations of meanings.

Stylistic phenomena effected by various shifts of meanings

are usually termed «figures o/speech».

How shall we classify figures oj speech?

Shifts of meanings can be divided into two large groupS, namely:

1) there are cases when the isparity of the actual

d~bti1ihition of the refe-rbnt \vith the usual, traditional denomination of it can be understood as m::<Mhtitive, i.e .

'" ~","' d \-.0. .... , ...,t\.

the referent is simply e a gerate or underestimated;

2) in some cases the disparity between the traditional and actual denominations is qualitative.

Hence, the corresponding figures of speech may be subdivided accordingly into figures of quantity (hyperbole, lolnderstatiment, litotes) and figures of quality (metony~y, metaphor, irony). Both figures of quantity and figures of quality

7

.'

A Manual of English Stylistics

A Manual of English Stylistics

. may be called figures 0/ replacement since they are based on replacement of the habitual name of a- thing by its situational substitute.

We can give the name of figures of co-occurence to those stylistic phenomena which are based on combination of meanings in speech. The difference between the figures of replacement and those of co-occurence is as follows. In the former, it is one meaning that produces stylistic effect; in the latter, it is a combination of at least two meanings that produces stylistic effect.

Thus, figures of replacement break down to figures of quantity and figures of quality.

Figures of quantity: hyperbole, understatement, litotes. Figures of quality are subdivided into metonymical group (transfer by contiguity) consisting of metonymy, synecdoche, periphrasis; metaphorical group (transfer by similarity): metaphor, personification, epithet; and irony (transfer by contrast).

Figures of co-occurence are subdivided into three groups: figures of identity (simile, synonymic repetition);

. figures of inequality (gradation, anti-climax);

figures of contrast (antithesis, oxymoron).

Understatement consists in lessening, reducing the real quantity of the object of speech. The psychological essence of understatement is more complicated than that of hyperbole, The hear~r is expected to understand the intentional discrepancy between what the speaker says about the object and what he really thinks about it. E.g.:

«l was half afraid you had forgotten me».

Litotes is a specific variety of understatement consisting in expressing the lessened degree of quantity of a thing by means of negation of the antonym. The negation of the antonym expresses the positive idea but in a somewhat lessened degree. 'E.g., «not bad» in the meaning of «good», or «little harm will be done by

that». f

Figures o/Quality

Figures of Quantity

Figures of quality, called «tropes» in traditional stylistics, are

based on transfer of names.

We must distinguish three types of transfer: .

1) transfer by contiguity,

2) transfer by similarity;

3) transfer by contrast.

Transfer by contiguity is based upon some real connection between the two notions: that which is named and the one the name of which is taken for the purpose.

Transfer by similarity is based on similarity, likeness of the two objects, real connection lacking completely.

Transfer by contrast is the use of words and expressions with the opposite meanings - opposite to those meant,

The transfer by contiguity forms the metonymic group of tropes; the transfer by similarity forms the metaphorical group; the transfer by contrast is irony.

FIGURES OF REPLACEMENT .

Hyperbole is the use of a word, a word-group or a sentence which exaggerates the real degree of a quantity of the thing spoken about. It is a distortion of reality for the purpose of visualization or strengthening the emotional effect. It is also' an important expressive literary device, often employed for humouristic purposes. E.g.:

(lOne after another those people lay down on the grass to laugh • and two 0/ them died» (Twain).

8

9

- ''''Iell~. 'In'y-~'m,i,c, 'g' _ '. _ ,I!' " ' _'ItO, _- : _~ 'p- 'r _ ~ I :-r., MetuQID:"'"~ " ''Y' ,~ S

. ' , ',~l _ ' '- tJ'

a 'plying, the flam: of an. olllject to ano'-tr object in some way

co,nnected wi. ~'_-_c ._~ l"e, 'firs .,

he mete ynU!c oonneeions bctw"eeI! the two objlects are

manlfol~~:- :

'~;)~.... '~o-: iU' rc e ,n' -' QI ""!ti')Ii'IO": ,0- :; 'n-' s· ... .'-. a [d'· ,- In.-f'" I .aoik ~ '~'Ic:ti 0: n: ,«" (J' -'-I~ fn' everv m·· 'a'~

'D. [i}, .. - __ .,_ .... u' ~~,,,,,,_, IJ "_'._ .,.U'" UiL,'v !~ .. _". ",0; .<_, .. """,~ - _.iII,'" . l_.iJiI;

thin,' .'Iar tln/d,/t.- ',' ',hy VO[i,C6»~;

b) effec ins:ead 0 the cause: «Be (fish) deaperately taMa the

deat'hL»"~

c) el aracteristic featu . instea' of the object itself: «He OWM

10 ll:ow',f£'" by a pai: of heOl!}JI boots» j~

d) symbol c. stead a . rle object symbolized: «COWD»-O[

[~<k:ing») li'

Sy ee oehe Synecdocce is III v~riety of metonymy."

consists in using the nan. e of a part to a note the whoe • .0 vice versa. ~.g,.: «to btl a corrade' vith a wolf and owl ... s, in tins example (<VIO V) ,_nd «o~h)td J:I': wild beasts and birds :0

ge eral.

-'. ipl rasls, Perip 'lm\sis is ~_ a way related to. etonymy. It

is a, descri ·:tU);O, 01[- an obj,c't instead of its name", "-~~,g,.,~:

,1.J'V·'·,t'Ji'l-:-lo.!'!'ll ".' #.'1"" 'l'l!'t"jdr'1.jlltMlg. '" nder R~·:o- ~.e." A'~'-'O··-C·L 'vn'u' ·~O·"\iU ~f~1 ·=e'·i'n'ufl .... ,

'N,'!Ii . _ ... PI .,W] " 'W~ ~" ,1o'1!i, '-',gr' ,1Il1lif'~, .'. ~_;~. ,,;U'~ .. .. ~ '- .. ,f II] ,I, " _:_, n" ,./' u _,_, M'; '"" rt. ~ " ,l"" - ',I !_"

as p distJJr_"er 0 the:j HO -"s» (inste . of «I. p·aois,t»).

;I~'t··- 1001'P- ''''"lilf11f'-'_ M,i~' .. ·p··.'h- o· F ;,~ i13 _f;j,ft'C!i.c~'1!" 0, r '

_!!W',g _ Bu, ~ . ~_ ,[ ~ ".,.. J1;~1 U. - ~~IJLW.lll '-

__ :~ I

the name of an object to another object 0-. the basis of Slmilarity,

likeness, affioity 0 th. tw objets. A. the same time there is no ',eaJ] cenneenon b:'-e,D mem, as mtne case .', .ithetonymy.he stylistiC function of:' n etapho - Is not a mere nominatio, of the thong in question butrath.r is expressive dUll'acterizatiOR ... '.g.:

«The machme_ si ting at th desk - .(13 no longer a man; it. 'CIS

a busy Ne» York broker.:» (0 Henry).

' •... etanhor has no formal ritations: it em be a word a

phrase, ally par ' of a sentence or a sentence asa wbo~e. Meta:hors ar either simple or . om,' e (pJolonged.- sim le, e~ementary m tapho - IS tha which has no bearing on the context: it is a ···OL,

I' I I

I !

/

'"

~ ]

One should blear: n mind. 'that somet O::m'el the capital letter has nothing in CQIDlDl,lOn 'Ylith piersQniflc8tio~" 'mcr;ely performi -g an emphasi , ':g;, func "'.OD,~,

,,-, II,Uli,on" AI'I,-llO'_c-. Is a brief refe ~e~.-!ce to &:0': - ,'~: 'F' -e;,rary or

(" .. ~'~

historlea event CO-I:~ -~ "only' known, The spea - f'·wrifl_l[.i rs not

explici about ',:,,.,h'at he mleaDS':, be me,~·ly m,eo,DOns. some detail ~f W:1I,.·. hie' ·.r-_: ," analogous in Diction 01"' h'i,story 0 the topic

, ::'~JC'-:'U'I~'~e, d,' 'C-:Q"'I'D'~~,d' Air ;IOLI~' ~D-:IIIO"i' ,'Il'IliD lexa:mp,'le'·

'_, Q.._:__ . ~l~ .····01.] .:- .. _~I~l' _ flflJ llUJ-lw 111il ... _·ll._. I '!DI ,_!_ _ .. f .~

,trlf the In'tsJ'nlati:o'na'l'pa,id w'(J,II'~ A:t.t.ken' took good carle' be go',t: ~-I'fs' pound ,of fl.fl8l1t~~, ". 'J' rCh'tue), ..

Hen the ,a.'uth( 'if alludes to Shak 'spear'c s 8h,y] ock, a us:ur ,r in «The Merchant of Venice» " ho lends Antonio three thousand ducats 10:r th I--'~,,~' months on co, dition that on e siration ofthe ter -J~ ~ , the m,o:~,f~y :s not ,p;ai,~- back, ,S'h,ylck Is ,'ntlt],t,d to «an equal pcunds o~:- '- "'n'tIO'~IO~ s «fa flesh»,

I· . v u . '4 • I, U 1 • _ ._ _ _ [!!!III_ , _ !I!

,A-t'O~-IO' nasia, 'Meta, _ihori,'cal ,anto:no"masi: is the ise 0, ,: t111c

- ,

name of a, his:toric:al; ]i'~·,eir:'~ -:,:: m'yihID"I'Q,gi"cal, or bibl ical persor a, ~'e

a:plpl,:"leJ t'CI :1 person whose chlIacte~],sti,c :features resem ole those of 'rill~ well-known original, Thus, a, traitor may be referred tc as , 'n_4'tU3, B t'e dies" man deserves the; na ne of'Do'lI: lruarl1'fi

"[10111,"'" ~",10:-r,Y is, a '_~;' :-,sfer based 'UpO'D the opposition iO r ~he two nOI~ " '~' '~,s: = th '.~' - n,o'tio!'n D~_2,_: d IID,I," the D,O .'"',on n J'e' ' r '" Here 'we obs • rve t -,- e ,[i;= eatest qualitati've s '~Oj f 'oompared ',:" ~3 tb-'~etlolly:my' (- ,.:~';,Isfe: by con,c:"\gui-i.I) and meta-~;hlor (u,ansfer bly sin1i],ari,ty),~

, I'fony is us ed 'wi:tb the aim, 'of c- i:tical e :lalu,ati',,2 .~, ('If the 'tbi .,g

spoken ,8 bout, 'E,~ g.:

« Wh'Q II ,0 ?1I(J'IJ,111 i ll.'us,tr:at,ioru 'of tiltl 'e'lItJ'e',~ I aw.:s of t ,Its !alIOlU ad country! ... thq lei the: paupers ,gal to sleepl» (D'tc,ke'na).,

, I~ 101 . al spee '_ ,- :lm'DY is made prominent by.-,:, '~'~ phatic

in ","or' -',m'f:,ii"'iIili'iil_, imic and ',e,,'s .. itl~IC·:IrI'!I~gl·:;IO·~, " In 'writing"" 'the ,m:ost ity, pical

11 I I ~ ", _' ,,:UU'IJl1JJ [' [I lJI'" ~-I .. _ .... _ . i - )lylwU __ ". . . _ " .. .

, :;; , , ,'" .:r~, :m - v'e' :-,'I,:d Clf» C'" I. as 01"';' - :CS,_,

I I: _J _ ~ ~ ~ II ,_ _ .. ( I • • _ _ _ _ _ _

12

The figures of CO~OCClilfelce arc fonned by Ole co~cbiDatio . in speech of at least wo Independen i . meaning.: The ... are·ivided into figures on' entity., figures on 'equality andi res of contrast.

Tc tbisgrou. of figuc es Simile and synonymic repetition are referred,

S'~-liii3'm- '13, 'I ,.. 'm'" .,

,-~, :, '" le'i' ' IS a -, ex :, Jl.U:'1 t :. t:lte - ~, ent concerning the 9~;; milari" ,

the . atfm'ty 0" two diffient notions. The P~~s .• · ~f thi~ confrontatlon . 0'> the names of Co'ere, t objects. is to characteriz·c v. v'dly one 0' e wo. 0- e of the two eo-occurring denornintions ish nam •• of the~bj~t re~1. ~SPok ~ a;t-; .. ~;

ath f denemlnatl o • s t.81I of an objeC_ not conne~red wi.f .1~lC first in ob'cctive . ality but ha ing c~ain feanires In common with Ute first ,o!llJect 'E,,,g,~:

«Thot ffillow (fus.~ object) is LIKE an old fox (second

o'bjlectl»~ _ .

'-be existeno of comrmoneatures is always expIic"l1y exoress ' :in, ,8, simile, mostly - 'Iy' means of the wo{ rds «as),,-' ~dike:,)

an,,' ,- A'''jL .. ", '

I __ .~l wILl-I(V&I~l.

I,"ere: are two typ~c of simlle, ~~~-~ one of the'-~ the CO,_(,~CC_IO'~ fea,ture aftha two ,objects, is, m=nt~.oned.:'

«He is IQS bee ,IIi .,.'.1 as a' wetl,t:her;c:tJlc/C,,",,,

. In the second type the com.mc'Dfeature is not men,·.oosd; tbt hearer IS supposed to gu 5S what .'.atures the two objects. have in ciomm,on:

i(t.~ be« rt is .l,ilce Q' lin,gin;g' birds.

. Care sho r d be taken not to oonfusetbe simile and any S,O,· •. 0··

elementary' ogfcal c cJnt:anson, .... simile presu'posesco c;·ontation of 'M'O D,'~jejcts belo gj'D,g '0 -8;' jcally ."lffe~.~ .'t' :slem,anf1,c :S' ~",h,eres,~ a com ~,: I, ,:js,oo deals e 1'1. h 't\YiOI objects ~"I'- the same sicmantic ,S' -hire:'

13

~ .. ,' J'

«s am so,.",. . am so \Ie1'II sorr». 1 am so ~elu S":I"J'V r '\~'

~~;L'Q,pt, ena I:MVI .. J II ,T" • -. " .~ " -._, ", - -J - I!!,;,o!!"i!!' ,~ J ,""

~frl~'__jjjJ] I~- III . ...:. "111 :!II

.

, ,,",'

A ti 'Jli -ii, "'(b .",', t' I )- , -

.' ~-. , . - --. , . , --:-' ," -. -:-.... "'1.---: , .. ,,-'I!' .... I,l!! _" .. _, _ ..... ,' __ '~' _ _ ._ '.', "

. '.' C!lID,c I. a .. , OSI.Y anb.,cb .• ax. any devlatlon uftbe

order of ideas, found in climax is u sually . ElIOt" BUI It should be

d 'P d .-L, - ~'I'"' - .L

UnerlInEVlult anti· C Dnax co sis~s in weakeni the G· .:0 .ional

-, L - - - _

'ect u)' add~!lg unexpectedly: ;eaker elem.entso the stm ones

which wel1e manti-oDed a.bove. Usually anj.·clnnax is emp!.oyed for

IL. m-···,··u,,-:.:"'r-:.--,i!!I·J· -'--, . ,.' '_ 1- 'I!!

nu . ,0· ·nS.1 e pILI .011.8,- ,.ID

-- -- J. -- .'-... _,Ill rl - [lir~· [iii!

«Tl!! woman who couid face the ~ deY'l himself 01' a mouse loses her '~i" and' eoes Qll tal pteces in fr ~-\i'ili'iM':ii'1 nlia--fl/"n'ifi',-", o tJf

I ~, ,:~ ~ . ,.. . 171'-. '"'il J~'~' I r -. . . 6"- - - -' . -~I,I;,;!"I;;i;IJI' IU,,' ~,~,,~, '-fJ '_',.' 'IWIiJ"n: -':.I

~_ tHl.,J1BJ) I~,J W,QI~"

- " ~:-C-·, I

~'O' ... ' - .'l!!liJ'il.'!! 1ft ' ',' n"o ".:."",,0"'"

lltil I ~Il tGtJ. U~ .... '. u;I~.I-f"· 1I":ilJl_

Thl. e' !i!:I'e '--'gu-' -:-;rtl . - &-0' d b !! .. aI b<!j"

I.",,~. gnres are rormec .y mtention com:ma.:ton in

speech (I ideas. ,'ncompat"ble wil .'. ODe mO.er. Th'-'Igu.es 'c

qUi stion s .~. Qnti.'hfUbJ ,'. ..d oxymoron. ..

....... fth>i' is a COnfrontation of·~. 0 notions which D'derIin(s th radical difference betwee'. ',' .. e ~ .

Two word, or expressions of ~ e '.' ,'osL m ~. ings mil)' be

use: to em aracteCli>e'e same object. E.g.: . ..

(rit was the best of times, it was fire worM' of times,'t . ;' as the age of wisdom. it was the age of fO(Jli~lmes8 ... » (Diehns),

. ····ntithesis I!¥lY be used to depict hvo objeors with OpP,oSl.te

chi ara cte -l"'~' 'I'";C' Ie! E g' ". 'iii'

l_ ~ .:.:'~luIL I . 'igI! ,-.!li:Jlfl I!!"!~. -I, "_. ,I

«His/ees Wliifi high. his le&sons JWJre light ... » (O'Henry).

Two obiects may be opposed as incompatible by themseles and each (I' hem obtain a characteristic opP'osite to that of the

o(h,l= r~ : .. ' ~g .. <0 '

«For 'he old stro mere stagnation, and in place oj

dllngel and de.-th the dull monotony of security and the horror oj

, unendingdeay!» (LeaCfJcij. .

.: - ,ra: • l'x~lo'ron consists in ascribing a prO}lerty to an object moom,tible" j, censistent with that~mL~ .. It is a logical

15

A Manual of English StylLstics

collision of words syntactically connected but incongruent in their meaning. E.g.:

«0 brawling love! 0 loving hate!» (Shakespeare)

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Slate the type of each figure of speech in the following cases:

1. They swarmed up in front of Sherburn's palings as thi~~ as they could jam together, and you couldn 't hear yourself think for the

noise (Twain).

2. The face wasn 't a bad one; it had what they called charm

(Galsworthy). .

3. It (the book) has a - a - power, so to speak, a .ver;: =r=" power; in fact, one may say, without exaggeration It IS the most

powerful book of the month ... (Leacock).

4. Large houses are still occupied while weavers' cottages stand

empty ... (Gaskell). .' .

5. 1 looked at the First of the Barons. He was eating salad - takl~g a whole lettuce leaf on his fork and absorbing it slowly, rabbitwise - afascinating process to watch (Mansfield).

6. He had an egg-like headJrog-like jaws ... (Chesterton).

7. Slowly, silently, now the moon

Walks the night in her silvery shoon, This way and that she peers and sees Silver fruit upon silver trees ...

(De La Mare)

8. Wherever the kettledrums were heard, the peasant threw his bag of rice on his shoulder, tied his small savings in his girdle, and fled with his wife and children to the mountains or the jungles,

16

A Manual of English Stylistics

and the milder neighbor- "" "f the hvena and the tiger (Macauley).

9. He is the Napoleon of crime (Conan Doyle).

10. We have all read a statement ... we have all, I say, been . favoured by perusing a remark ... (Thackeray).

11. The Major again pressed to his blue eyes the tips of the fingers that were disposed on the ledge of the wheeled chair with careful carelessness, after the Cleopatra model: and Mr. Dombey bowed (Dickens).

12. Then flashed the living lightning from her eyes, And streams of horror rent the affrighted skies. Not louder shrieks to pitying heaven are cast,

When husbands or when lap-dogs breathe their last. (Pope)

13. Every man has somewhere in the back of his head the wreck of a thing which he calls his education. My book is intended to embody in concise form these remnants of early instruction (Leacock).

14. I met Mac down in Mexico-Chihuahua City - on New Years's Eve. He was a breath from home ... (Reed).

15. She looked out of her window one day and gave her heart to the grocer's young man (O'Henry).

16, Love, free as air, at sight of human ties, Spreads his light wings, and in a moment flies.

. (pope)

17.Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested (Bacon).

18.Della's beautiful hair fell about her rippling and shining like a cascade of brown waters (O'Henry),

19.The magi were wise men - wonderfully wise men (O'Henry). 20.And the fear of death, of God, of the universe, comes over him (London).

21.«Are you patriotic to the West enough to help me put this thing through the White-washed Wigwam of the Great Father of the

17

A Manual of English Stylistics .

most eastern flag station of the Pennsylvania Railroad?» says Bill.

Exercise 2. Compare hype.rbole and understatement:

I. «It must have peen that caviar,» he was thinking. «!hat beastly caviar.» He violently hated caviar. Every sturgeon In the Black

Sea was his personal enemy (Hu~ey)..

2. Calpumia was ,.11 angles and bones; her hand was as WIde as a

bed slat and twice as hard (Lee). . .. ot

3 This boy headstrong, willful, and dIsorderly ,as he IS, should n

. have on: penny of my money, or one crust o~ m~ bread, 0: one gr~sp of my hand, to save him from the lothest gallows In all

Europe (Dickens). .

4. They were under a great shadowy train s~ed ... WIth .passenger

cars all about and the train moving at a snail pace (Dre~s:r)., ,

5. Her eyes were open, but only just. «Don't move the tlfllest part

of an inch» (Salinger).

6. The little woman, for she was of pocket size, crossed her hands

solemnly on her middle (Galsworthy).

,

Exercise -3. State the type of relations between the object named and the object implied in the following examples of metonymy:

1. She saw around her, Clustered about the white tables, multitude of violently red lips, powdereq cheeks, cold, hard eyes, selfpossessed arrogant faces, and insolent bosoms ~e~ett).

2. It must not be supposed that stout women of ~ c~rtam age never seek to seduce the eye and trouble the medItatIOns of man by

other than moral cliWns (Bennett). . .

3. For several days he took an hour after his wor~ to make. mquiry taking with him some examples of his pen and inks (~relser).

4. The praise ... was enthusiastic enough ~o have delighted any common writer who earns his living by his pen.; (Maugham).

18

A Manual of English Stylistics

5. He was interested in everybody. His mind was alert, and people asked him to dinner not for old times' sake, but because he was worth his salt (Maugham).

Exercise 4. Specify the type of transfer of meaning used to create the following figures of quality. State the type of each figure:

1. It being his habit not to jump or leap, or make an upward 'spring, at anything in life, butto crawl at every thing (Dickens).

2. The Face of London was now strangely altered ... the voice of

Mourning was heard in every street (Defoe). .

3. Then would come six or seven good years when there might be 20 to 25 inches of rain, and the land would shout with grass (Steinbeck).

4., Stoney smiled the sweet smile of an alligator (Steinbeck).

s. I have only one good quality ~ overwhelming belief in the brains and hearts of our nation, our state, our town (Lewis).

6. At the great doors of the church, throughthe shady paths of the Plaza, visible and vanishing again at the mouths of dark streets the silent, sinister figures of black-robed women gathered to wash away their sins (Reed).

7. He made his way through the perfume and conversation

(1. Shaw). .

8. England has two eyes, Oxford and Cambridge. They are the two

eyes of England, and twq int llectual eyes (Taylor).

9. Mother N~ture always MJ~fie~ b~fore disrobing (Esar). 1O.The pennies were saved by bulldozing the grocer (O.Henry).

1 i .Forty years he had wielded the brush without. getting near enough to touch the hem of his Mistress's robe (O'Henry). 12.The cold breath of autumn had stricken its leaves from the vine until its skeleton branches clung, almost bare, to the crumbling bricks (O'Henry).

19

Bxercise 5~, ,St.'s' ,tl,' tn'I' lot ea',eh fir,,,,,e ,qf sp,eeic,ll: ,iD 1111' /()lltJ'w'ing'la.HI' -5 1I'.d s#"er:,Uy tJI,e,/u.M'ctlfJIDI,'i,rjormeld' ,6;1 !t",e,.~~

...

I. Mr .. nombey's cup ·sltisfacti~ '~,as. so full at ~is mmne~t. however, 'that he, '~t ble 'co'uld :afibrd a Idro!p Q,r '}WiQ' air ~,t:s

centents.eventc ,sprinkle onthe dU:st. in the by-path. of his littLe

daughter '(D',iek"ens,),.!

2~ And 'the first ,cab n:aving been, fetch"ed fro'm, th,e. ,pu,b'lic, h,'QUSC"

where he r d, 'been, Is,mloking 11:i,Sj pipe~ Mr, Pickwick :rmd his portmanteau. were thrown into the "abide (Dickens).

3 10- ,n° I~,Q! upon ,I, :mic&d,p'b't dr,e~ij~J', ~

.. - ,U''-'' -c_ v_ - .. ,br -_.iI ~ ~

'Wb,il,e I 'p,o,D,dered, wesk :and, W'6BTY

Over 'marly a qU'lJint 'and·,cur:nous volume 'offorg,ottten lore.;

: .. ,- ': " .. - ,. ',_' "c: -~, ."--- 1_- .. ,-,- I ,"" '_ " --'_- - - - -- _., I(E".' -,i,A"',iPoe'

I- •. , l - . - ~.J

4~ 1. have but 10 ne :tdmile~, and that'si a 'blu'nd,ler,~ For wordless woman, 'w'hleb, is ~~,116nt. tbUlH.d.le,r~,

" -, ~D.BI!roD)

5;- Those three words (D,olmbey SlD,d, SOl Cio:Dv~'ed the one idea of _. Mr. Do~bey·~life. The It»lfthWas m· e: for DGmb~ and S,on to

trade in, and, the SlID ,fDld moon w'~rle, made to give '~lem light, Rivers 'and, seas 'wlere formed to :flol:t 'their' ships,; rai:OJDO'W,S I,ll ve them n,:r,o:nnsc of' fair 'weather:: Winds b W' for or' :I,gains" I i~~~i'r.'

- r _ ..... II"

'i~nterprisllis:; stU,I, anid, ~p'I'anets circled in their or:b,its'J' 't,QI ,:p[les~rvc

invi.ola,t,a :1 ~~stem, 'of' 'whicb 'dI,ey' were, a centre. Common ~I,'b·-. 'b·- r A,., JI i; ~fil -'1"'0:-'0' ~ '- took U- ~:W'" 'm---~:gr'nj';i'n"O';s in his e,yJ8s- and had sole

,~ .... II.~ I~'Y IJID-IL-~.<~ J'.~ ~u _'\& , 1'!..LI11_ I -.~UI&~!Df- - I • 1

refnn.,ce to 'tb,em'i A'iDI,~ bad, no, eencem with J.\nn:OI Domini" 'but

stood fer Anno :Dombe;y ,~ :an,d SIOD, (DickeD!J~

16., :811: b!IJd taken three -'weeks, o!ff and :8 ti,c:k.1:'t 'to MentolD.,e

(G,8lswortby).. J _'_ 14

7 ~ ,.,.,,'Th'ey 'were sim:ply' 'mdecent" i ~,ifYing~ h~umiiiating ~c~eanl~"

8'ucllBS women ,ei~it~'wh,en they' see gh,Qlsts or 'c:ateqd]laIB

(O.Henry)., _ __

8.,. «How cl'azyb) said Joslepbine.a:nd she added v'ebemently. «How

utter ly insanel. ,,» (F.ltzg'eraEd),.

-- .

.

,

91", I understand 'y'!OIU IrB, peer, and wish 'tOI eam money 'by,!-' '--1IJ.r'S'~' .:-!

l,II,lr,::__, ,I'li. , .... 'b-~'-'-i_CC-- ._,_.' __ :--Ji = "_, ~' . '--l""·'rl.I,~, .I,~:J: l.:~. '~"'':__:__ "_

~~ &).ttJle -~Dy~, ~y ISO~, who bas been sc prem,;;fUt'ely' ," epJrlved ef

wb,a:t lean ,08,V'fCr . ~'e repl,]ziced, (D~lckeBs)

1 O. ~~ ,po cau~~ ·bYthe Mla! the b~se bad chan d the asped

of the street as the liO~SS (3; ~~ ,I tlooth chal"iIiO'les, tbB'~ Iftf.' . ~ l'"_I'j!'!iI;~

_ ':'! \ " ., :1;,'''-\0'-- ._'_ y, IA. ,m,,"",~ ...

1 ~, ~ ,~ ,S, I,S!le wnere ,avery man must pl,,,"y' a part, (,'S,b:akesp!eare),i

12, .. B'y that 'time the occupant of' the: 'monogIBdst~c haiem ~;oUi~d be

in··dremn~~~,the. bul.bui-sU~n)~cd,~dtbe-h~~· ;r,~p.ititl~~:'i;

slum,ber I(O~IHeJ!l1')~ J

U. It is alwiIlY,s a &mendcus task. - a mammoth task (O'Helln)'" 14. For two years no,", the biiter c()ntest~badgilDe ~~(O~H;~).

1 ,S ~ The wo 8 ~lB') lswonh ,S'p--:': .. - erch g'~I,.,,1I:: ,~Pt'!li:" m Q' ved I ,CIt-I' ~w;" 'I'y' '

_ - -, I _ I " "II ~ , We Iii!LlJliW!Ii3wt,'I' , " '\oi!' iJil lUi, ' '

.. .. d~wnwlfd, like a cannon manenverirrg into' poshi~n (O·H~). ,161~ Jim stepped inside 'th,e; d,IQO',r;, ,15 immID!V'I~b],le at a B,eUer at 'dJH~: scent of 'CJju an, (O'Henry),

J 1',~ Sometimes his ears moved w- - he filii 'tiL.'D 1iI'!i.j.'''Q~'1i''IiI'11 3W'O'" k- -- and

,_,_,,:_,!I,"iI, Ui~ ,~lly,,'l!.;iw,U ' __ "I~' "Ie ~,II;

whispered (,Lon.doD)~,

18. wen, gentlemen, ~kj YOIll knOIW what that dewl of II girl did.?

(Re.ed,)~ -

:19,~ _It was, a 'bid fight He was lout to, kill, me, I tried 't'CI kIn, him, 'to '1)1

(Reed),.! ~ ,

201._~e~1S so w~i~e around bis gills tb:at I bardly knew him - eyes :lbJD'otnlg ti:re like a, v,ollcano (Reed),

,i " f' "h -,' - ," ,,- -,-',-:- " restau rant of 'n[Qi lare 1[,

2,~ On 'the oppesrte side or [~e stn e ~~s ,8 ,cc:~'[u~._'''i.,~.[~~I~ "'~ _~ ',' _~',~ '., ,

pretensions, It catered to I,arge ap~ettt:s and modest,pulses.~ts

, d at - -,", -, he ,-, W,D'r"G!> ·th,-c iii,ii"'"k',' ~ 'ti't'~ S"O'-' 'P' '8!I1d Dlpe.ry' thin,

crockery ID~ atmospnere ,:,,~~,~,~_ .~' ,ll","" 'J ,"I~:"" '" "' ~" ',: ,_ ~:"" ,~. _'-, ,,', i I':

- - 1 ' , -, f." 'k his n,,,,,,",c" £Ii 'III "!llIf Ie shoes and t-llt,ah:

-, 'I' _", t h; 'iI$' m ~c-' ",:' • .'~~'OiV !Woo', .JI,~ a'v ':: ' ~- ~,IIi, ll' "" Iiil", .,;i;t '- ---' " , -

n 10, - I ;11;" ,.t"'" "g," , "~F'J'" d

:':0"" -1)-- ~ e,' I~~' W," ";i"'I~'L.1 ~ 0" .'-U'- ,-. ch .... , ~]- en', ',g'le~ ,A,t :8, tab I,e he sst and, eonsnmec

111.1 ~i' 11., "', '.II U, ,_ , ',,"", . IW ,- - -

b~~ - ~~ flapi:~ks-, doughnuts an pie And then t? tbeYiaiter

he betrayed~1 _ fact that the m:"nutst coin. and huru;elf wer

strao,gers (O'Henry, T re COPI and. the Anthem),

'1!"1 ~~

"

23"

-'=--:".

'1 '" :SIly'~~ltic scmu,10llQIY deals vridl

a,)1 sh1fts ef ntG,anJilJIS: 1fJ;d. Ibeif' ,sty'~,isti,c :fUifU~tiOIU:; 'b) S1J(.U:stie 'functions, o(f sbUb; g,:! meaninp and mesnl ng5:;,

e), sbifts IDf m,eaI11n,gs, and cc(m'bina'tiIDlls; lof m,eMi~S5 i,

2; ~ F.i:gUlIe8 c]J:f .repi:~ace;w,eld faU lDto '(h,re :foU.oiwinll grftu:ps: m,) ':n, -'f85 of qu;mn:tl'ty 'and, ,ilg,Qres, 01:£ 'Ira ality::,

'b) figmes 10; "'qumti1y':~, fip;ra, Qf'q,ua'~~ty' and, R'ooy:;

c) :figmesl ,Q;f similarity ~ ,flgut\eI ,oif :ineq'liaiUty land, fi,guoos 10 f IClODtras:t ]"" PI,cripmu,,h;, is, blued upon

I)' ,ttansfer' 'b;y' similarity;

'b) transfer by COD'Up:~.~;

. 0) 'tr,IDsfer 'by eO,I]:b:ut

14, ~ Elpi"thet:, be~cHl,11 '10

tI) dlem,e,toDymie ,groUpi;; b) 'tm,em,ezt~pboriIC9:" pou:P;; 'c) the ,momie, ,groUPI"

,,5 ~ Synonyms of 'VMia'j~i)on are used

a) to cll;l.flc'bera,e the o'b, eot s'~oten abou ' p,(f,teis~l ~'~!

, ~ r u ~

b) 'to' 'p'roduce: numol'oUl; effect:;

c) '~O make '~he ,s"eec'b ~,.S' 'm,o:n,o:tOOQIUlEli

,

6~, In t~~u: senil nee ({The ,penrHes, were, sayed 'by biuUdozmg du~; .0ceOl) we

Iii ~ - --

comJc, across

a) m,I~'tOD:ymy:;

b) :m"et,l,pn.1or:,

c) [[-on:y,.

7., The senteaee (cTh.ie magi, were wise :mle~n, '''' wQ~uSlerfuU:y wisJc m,en) contains

;8) an e:p:ru rhet;

b) an, :aJfdithe~ i 5,; Ie') I, grad ation,

"1·4- '~J .

1

·

.~

·

~

..

I~

I

,

I ~

,",

i,

2,)

STYLIS' 1C LEXJ' OLOG ;::,

t '·'D ~.' ..... - .' own '-'.' tha :t·· words are '1I"1i10.·· ·t' used in speech tOI tho .' same

I~ .Mllv)· .. · rU-1 ". J (. ," : ~~ ~l:' .11 .. ]. __

.t.Shtcec~rtai~ words occur less lequ~y than

-t":h" -. ""t .. 1:1'8'" natu JBl-"~ tl-' 10": p.· ... ,A,~' me that, 'the difference

n e.~ 'II r, I..,.. . ... , ''''''~I ., ". ..

lUll _'".,,,," ;!I; I .. , J •• __ • '._

b··~ ~.~-~~:m1, ~~L,~·m ., reflected upon 'the. character of the

1~ILW~w.l.ll, U.!l~ , !I;'!i:1I! , . - J

-' - - - . d" th' I.. . OJ . ~, ',.- - •. :- •• ; . .... ,

-, - . -'1 -:-c "~'--'.' " " I, ensab ,8

w,ard! themselves. T.hos,e wo,r~ s, ,I "at, are In lSp. __ . __ . _

•... P!MJ.- act of comm _ unication have no 'i:np':, particular albo.·ut th,~m.·,··, ....

In e'V"~,1 . 'u . I I!V . 1"'11" ·~Q;Ii.:&u _ . 101 .. , - - C . _

.. :., .. ' - ·'"'_d"·'e·-·ti·'~ID~.~!I·t··e-··~llllaD~· oeiatio 1.- ~' 10,·!!-. the COIDt["N'lii wor. ds u's,:.d only ... ' in

cau:sl6. D'ul '-,l., ',: ..III, '. ". ~~i '.,W.IElI;,'LJ, .. ,"""'"'_ , . . . -- -"'J.. .• _ _ . .._

.'. -- !~',.,~ ~p-·'L·~Ir~i~1 0(- j- lineuistlc in, ereourse h,ave. something attaehedte

spec!';l! Iii:'-. JL~'WiOI l.c"__~1 _, .II.J.. _ _

- - '. . , OJ • '!' - . hl,ll ~ . ,to "-'1 ce 'lo"Uf1I'O- 10'

tb'Blf 'melD;mg~, I, certam S'-:idS,~IC, .·-0,1 ... ' _. '~" t::ii'"' _ _._

'- - -: '; '. _ "-l·'~~~~~'aLI]~ ''J."rO:·.·.'I'''d:i. :ar. ·'-.'C s~,.Us,ticall. Y' neutral. Words of

' . ii}'I""I~,w:iOlIi ·!U ,l!!!.;ii 'J'IJ I .. :Ii,. gI Ii.J . _ ii 10; 'II

peeial sph~~s' ~ styHstic~ly oo~(n ,ed. TIis is the mai' cbYJSlOn

ofwords from the stylis:i,c v·ewP0in., . . . .

. _ .' . T" -h-I .. .. - d' - . - ari~::rn~'n'D 'to special spheres rOr :hngulst1,c

'us, worr ,S pert am _. I:i " "c. .' "~ '" .' , ,',' ,.

n-xa;d' stylistic ';t'II/'tlilg"e of their own., intereoutse possess some, .. i , " " I "L ."""1' "". ."

'" .'. 1 ". rdless of the context thev revea] their attachment to ODie

' · gm; ........ "I, ,,", "'.. • J d

~I' "-'!~'I' "'s1:,!,'- '- - 'h-e' re o .. r-· an" noth e ,iii., - En gl ;~h"1 spe akin, g':,' p ers on. 'o,lee s no

I 10" if" "IIIC' S' p' '. . I I - rurl: . JI.;,l, _ ~ . _

'lI'n'd-!lI~"~" .':-/1:.:.1, ,.::.' .... '.' '." .,!I!'-," I." • . ••• _'j, ' •.. '. '._

. . ' :....- ~L·· ..... ,,,,,,,I,. Imy~n'O",nly'ms '. s chan - man ... u.1-ldlvI,du'al or

context tiD state u~~al SUIWI ~1".u.1 ~. , ".' . '-':r - _.' . Ii ~

c'., -d fl-- t~'~ .... · I - tttilP.D are ~'h"I:"'s,·+';c~lly·." different Slut this d~,fJer.·~en,J.],lti,o:n

~IQ' a 'neT - IIJ;!I~ Go m' - 'WII~J" .c.ILJI,_~. _ II ..

I : -. '.',,' '~ ... ,~-~_ - tabl .. , . h- e stu- istic value ,-. ·nder."goes changes :-n

c es not remam SI 11.. '. II e,.. _. '_ . , .. _' . ..:.·''"'.1.· .. ' . _ .... 'I' _ _ . . ._ _ ,.,' '. 'C·. '. _ ::-, _~ ,~'I:~ ,It'. " ~

f bj- II '. - ith th ..... lapse of ,t m e Ther e IOI,e s~,r-.,l,SI. c

'I -. o· "s" o· "ry' W· I· 1'1' I' e I' I I I. . ' .. ' ...• , '"..,.. -!Ii "<J'

' -. 1"0"0'11 ~'II"':il'i iSI I' , I!' . . ...,. . . '_. ~_

I 1!Iir;;;!I. ~,~Iw' . --,c' , .', _ _ . .

. ':,~jfiCiltionll must be confined to synchronic aspect. "

So. all the words are di\'J. ed into neutral and ~on~neu~l.

rh' general st:Ylistic classification, mus! s~cw _~ecre:at!0ll.S~f~O~ fl, utral wordste neutral 'ODes. It is evident that ce~mln grou~~o ", tis.ticaUy coloured words mest be placed, fi~tively. sp~g, - .'L· ~ -.'. h ... ~ words 'T·h .. ,5.'-:-:S1& 'fn"O·.··U'P·I~1 ~.~e. fbnn,ed by.'- wordsl W.I.th a

. ve 'U:le neUULii'U WOf I· I. ,I,'W. !I;o! Q~' _'. o;J ~'_ . ,. _

': ' ·f:-'··.':·-'~a1~-. ~;.~"hJ o· r·'re~".£,-,-~,·I,pn·~t' '!'lIilb--1 ,~u· them poetic 'w'D'fds,~ 'hit'l'r"' ...

" e 10 10 '. I' l'li~J '. ~ "': '1W.~w,&cW,I,~ , "- ,g. '.v ~ . .__:LiI. . '- . .. . ,~ &,IL

1 ,; " ..' .II .. in ~en~al Other groups are to be placed below the

,I'iWD WOfw ,I, b 'c. ',' 0"''';' , '. ~,", ",' . c C ' ..... c ' ...... 1

d Th· - .!!! ". ph' .- A"'"B o'f-; 'l'I'e' I '., e ~ n C'iIIl!'l ny. II ow·. er. an tulle D:euu w

.~: ali \Y011 I. J. ell's!:, : ...... ~ , " ,Q. ." ," u "' •• u, . !" ' ,,", , ' ,',

- - W··· . ".o,,"'n 'ilI,'1"'II'iiec- til'liD:'" «s.nper,~;neutral» l(elie:v;lted) and «sub ...

-·1re,~ ._ e 1!!i.t.;WJi ,ilil~jwoll"':) _--' W -':.'~ -.~ . ,'. __ . .. .' _ _ .

- - 1-, ~ (····w·'-a· 'r--,d' so..,· f' " "110, IW' DIII'"' '''"'~i'-I 'I"~"" -'. ~j';)1 ' .. ' ~s-:-'p:·'e·}·!~tively·"" ..

II 'U' a "iii' .,. -, -' '. I Jl . """'I. II; Im_~ :. ,. . .~. v. _ '.'

II j I I: _"-'i . .!. _' __::__:, .:...1. ~ ", __ ~ .. _ .... " _ (.' _

. .

,

.~

S t w: ~-

, -;- J. ~.' -. ).,- I ",- i, - '. '. ~iil .. i

"l',er--n e"trrl, .. _ .. 0,1'1 .. rs

Among e~evated wore we can find those which are used in

ffi Ii '( ..JI. d· 'II - Jt; d .. _ _

o CUt eocume - .s, f.plOnmtlc c, oonunerclal correspondence

lew slaf on , etc. Such words have a ~jDge of pomposity about them.

' 'elr col 0 III ring is that of soJeuuuty. and the words at'e termed «sole: c 'WOI' "». The other variety '01 words is the poetic diction _ words used MIl poetry 2nd lyrical prose . They are «poeti.: "'0 :ds». True. it is hardly possible Co delimwate strictly s07 emn words from. poe",~!cwO' ~dS:'i'

The stylistic ,colouring of elevation also occurs In arc;haisrns, bookish words and fo,re.ign word!,~,

An: arsms, This term denotes words which ar ' pracdcatJ:t QUI of use in prese~t-d"~JlOluag ~d' ~'fell ~ ,. o&~~t~ .:

Archaisms may be subdivided into two groups. The first group is represented by «material, archaisms». or «historicaJ. archmsms» _ words whose referents have disappeared. The: second group is fanned by iU1chaisms proper - those words which have been ousted by ,t .,' .ir s),'D,Qn;yms,.

In the works or fiction tb,e use o{ archaic words serves to cbaracterize the .speech 0- the 'ygone epoch. to reproduce i.ts atmosphere. It should be note thai IDichaisanon does 1110. mean

. - -

colllp~etereproductioll of the speech of past epochs' It is e"; ,ectc,d

b,Y the. use orisep',ar,B,te latch;a.ic wlt)rds,~; , "

In other cases occuning in the speech of a persont archaic words show his attaclmient to anti'quity

, In pot:my me. aisms life used to create mmantic atmoscbiere, thegen'eral colouring of elevation. The colouring may. be described as poetie and, soilemn at the same time\11

].0 official fOnno:f speech the :function of archaisms is the same as in poetry (to fisc above the ordinaty matters of everyday life), but 'dle coJ,ouring produced is different. I', u the ,colo, lulg of ,5,' :.' ,],e.omity ~

21

..

morn m I :1 Ig~',

'!" "1!'O~ga words. FOil' ig " words shoul not be oonfuse' with

borrowed words, Fo' eign WIOI,[i~J) i~ EnZil:is'b are, 'for' the :01018'- part late borrowings from French - those words whlch have preserved belr French p.r-aI:n,UDcillti'on land sp., 1 ,I~: -,g~, For ex;am,pl:~,e~ the French formula, ,(tAu, revoir» used In, ,1:'I,ngU,sb, by those ignorant lof'F:re,n,lcb bas something exquisite, In. the French word «chic» the same tinge

f.': .:- -, '.- , 101,. £;~:~ .. o e e.g.ce : SI ,J!,elIL.

1· .. ,- ~1'iIi' L .... tNle- ." lr~l' 'W~rd: I

L_, fS" 11'1. .' _ ' "Hl.t~. Fr" ~I • •• •

Am 'C:: O'g th "1 sub .... n eutr '~11 words the lo,Ilo'win:gr QI'O, ps are

___ - 0., "~_ ,,·Illt:·· L~. __ .I -[ I , .. ~ UI __ IQ[~ ,',"_ _":. •• ~. ....:__..-~... I I 01 I~' -. r; -

d" '", '"' 'b .

l;s,tl.n,gJU :5 ~ e: ~ ," _ _

a) words used in nformal speech Or . Y ,the ,colloquial words;

b) jargon words and slang, as wen as kldividuaJcreations

(: ·o,'.n;ce--words,)<"

, , _ .,. _. ".311

') I d

" - iii1 [ .. - ::- [- ~ I I I •.• , _1._ l-

c ,I vuigar wor is, .

1,,1- e first g,. 'O'UP-I lies nearest _0, neutral words, '_ ',' their use there

• :~ no' spe C":i~~ s:,ty',·,·-'m;~,,!c. intention whatever on the oart of the: speaker,

w ~ ,'. iIlll1" '_', . 'lim I ~ i II ~I I.. • ~, __! _' . 1 •• - - '_ ._. . •• r ~ ,-

he .:~. :0: -ds of ' tile seco id gro " h v'e been, created, SiO 110 ,speak~I':n

urpose with a viewto inten ional stylistic degradatio .. The lowest

28

I .

I .

~

'"

.

P I aloe: is · __ aken by vulgarisms i,e, words ": .. -hlC:h due to their

indecenCY are scarcely admissible in a civ' Izee community, - - ..

.Co'~a~DiaI 'Olrtis. They are words WI. '. B! 1i ge o.f&nu'"arity OJ ,~noffi~lal'l,f:y about them, There is: :nOL ing ,ethilcally improper in, t-hle,mr sty'~.i:st[C coloring, except that 'th'ey' cannot be used I~ offilc~ al fOnDS, of speech, To celloqaialis "8 may 'be re -Ie ;ec1':

a) colloquial words proper (colloquial substi.-utes, of ne.u.-,a~ words), e.g., cbap;

b) phon eDC, variants ,of ieutral words: baecy (tobaeco], leila

l(fellIDIW); , -

c) ~~m~t~ves (if neutral words: daddy. piggv~ as wen as __ diminutives lof,prop!eJ' names 'B'(Jb~~ ,B'eck),:" IJon'ny;

d) words the primary meaning ofwhich refer '_:, em tOI neutral sp iere while the figura _- ~ ve m ~.ianin,g places them outS:l·~' e the neutral sec here, . raking them b,-tlycoroquial B.g., spoon as, a col~,oq,J,u;a~ 'w'IQlrd means, «a man with ,I ,I.'ot'w

m"en'tallty»~, ·

I.) m,!o~st ,:illte~jectjoDS, belen ,8 ~D the colloquial sphere: gtte!

~'~ll' '

J;J,\r~, 'rIfJ,~ '.11 elte" ..

Ilargo ' " worl'~ s, Jargon 'W'ID' .ds: appear in, professional air social g~u,~s: for the P~-I'~ eose ~()f' replacing Ith,Qse: words 'w:hi,ch ,already'

exist In 'the, language .. , -

Jargon words cr' be subdivided into two gJ'CIUPS,:: profe ssiona [argonisms and social Jargo 1018. The first group consists 0_ denominations of things. phenomena and proceSs characteristic ofthe given profession opposed to thief; OffilCbd, terms O1f ~s_ professional sphere, Thus" professional jargonisms are unofficial substitutes of professional terms, They' are used b1y represent ~ai:~ VI es of 'the profession ,to faei ~ itate the: communication, .

The group of social jargonisms is made U,IJ of words used 'to ~oton-professlonaJ thing . elevant for representatives 0·· the given, social £,E"IQUPI wi common i rterests (:'e ICJr~_ m ~IIiS:;C" ~b,nllil" dru 'gliiil

. _' - - ~- I ,IiID~'UIII . 'I IlU. -=,~ .. lWAl!lil.l" _- ,.' ..

addicts and the I:~k,e,': Such words are used ~y representatives of the given group to s ~ ow that the speaker also belongs '.0 ,] (l-also-

29

ft- 1: d- .• ·.·r- the

belong-to-th .. ·~ -r'o'Up function), 'Very' (~;:[-I en t~" c.'y ... are us: '.:- _-"

. "" - 'hi "' ~ - ahe -~·,t ,f..,,,, "., ,t ,- d .' rs 1JI'~en 'used

PU.rpOIS,C of making [I,peec,~' _D.C10" ,er!.·.: , ~o O~llS~I ... ~,_ . ~ 'H u· -" __ - _ .. _~

(,,'u.tside the, 81':["-' '1 in, which ,they 'were created, su-b words unpa i.

.- , '.' -, ".' ,i' fI" '. • ·t·- to

expressiveness tOI soeech, In lit-rIllY ':IO,~I 1]'g":nJ,SIJl'~1 m:..,lc3,e_·

the fact that the spea f belen to II certain prlolfeslsiloln:a,~ 0.[' S;0ICI8.1

g-QUP~

- V·' , .. ' e-r\l' close to' ;-. J- iIilIi il'".D'., 0- 'n-I Ii!!' s··' C'- "aD'-; ~: t .

'_ .' 1Ii.J. U\al~ I ", ~ IIJLD"'- _' .,' I • iii

,Ca ,~'.t, is I. secret .lingo of t ~ e underwodd ... of enminals. The,

O_:1,y' .,: pr 1lnr11!linl re . 811 'Ci 0', "n W~";- "'b. v it appeared is strivi g.~', 'to' secrecy, to

~ILJlJI -: '-.r .~Jl[~J.J' ... ~~. I ;J' , . _. --- - t,_ -

making S ~eec, incomprehensible to outsiders. It also sen es as a

sign ofreccgnition. '. , ~,

I:t is [lIDte.· 'IQrlh\y that wh!en. jargon words 'and cant me r sed In

literary works theY f' empl·yed to show ~at. the 'chane

belongs (101 '.' certain pfoielsional or ,S,DCl,a1 or criminal ,gJIO'UP (the

function of characterization),

81,-_u=. Slang is the part oftb7 vocabulary ade by common y un,de·_od. and wild':'~y used words :and 'expressi ons of humorous ki . d .. intentional substitutes of neutral and elevated words and expressions, The p~yc'hollog'ical source of' its ,~pearanlc,e _-:nd

- - ,.. M dl d

existence ls st :iving for nov'lel'ty: in expression, ,··'1 ;;'_jY 'WQr[·,· san"

expressions now refe ~ ed to slang criginally a ieared in narrow .ro·;eS.siOD __ ', gr-OUPS;I since th.ey have gained wide currency, thl'~~

must be oonsid~- ,ed. as b l[Q,D,ging _0 sI.ang~,

In e,reatioln Qifs)'_; -,I~: v:anlo'us: figu [\8: Si lofs,peec'h '3k:- ,part:

,the' UPP'(jJ.r' I~talr;q rl, ,lead) .... m,etapbo;

3 _ -_ iT,' (gi'l'], ,iii, m,[etD:~ymy;

kill l(a:]oDis:hi.n;g) ~ J],yperb1o']e,

'w1hu'i''Ie.' (flutle) iii, u'deJS,taltemie~ '.-;,

c'lear IQS mu:d' ,_ :iI-oay.. ,

In s~ang 'we fled expressions, '~Dlno' .eo Hom, written s::.eec~·

8 (CY~l'a~ ·tY»,'secl~'-tead ~f th~ proDoTn «I») Som~ slang

. "'ds' ~e -j~;t ':.istortions- of literary word:': crJpes (L stead 'of

l ~ '~ s· - OJ rd!l! t 111!"1i1viii;lint,a,..AI,. '~.·hll'.·,·"_·.ln_._.,_iM': .,,<j,"'.',g··,_lan·:

Illln,st.ll~ \ omll!, lm.es, SLaft,g ~--O: 91 ,arle JU,S' I ,~:~.tI!_.",,'., I~;U," ~ n~Wi!'1U -

I ~ftles, n,on,s,cns,-) ..

3"·":0'1

-_' ,".

!.

I.

N'onl :IC .... " ords. None s-words are defined as chance words ..

~- ,- - -d- - - ds cr. ...... 'd" . -. "·-b· . '" " . ' .. '··,,'1 .... --. '-'Y' '. Dc logy

1C)ICC·_SUJln,a., wor ~s". wor· s Icrea,_e,_~o, 11..~e ,8Jv.~n occasl.. n n .'. _:_ .. ' ~,U,',j'

:'" the .... ,~",- '-.--.' d-" bv --'C'C ::--_.' - of - -·.-"t~:·:-:,. < .... ·-·'--·· .. sitio ~

'W~'.·. -, . It! lex.l,snngl wor,·: S' .' Y ,me'ans.-.,,· lX8u .. 'D" CDI,mpIQ, .. , I I .n,.,

conversion, etc, '= .g., «There was, a balco ful of gentlemen, ~",)~,lhe

- "" - , Ill' b ~ ~. h ' . - - - '-

word b,Q'lco,nyful W--<, COIID.E'·_, l,elY an:;llogy WJJ.'t·· '·IQf..~ S

'«mDutb:~,'~ 'b)"" «spoonful», (I(hanldful»)~ Bleing[ no': '. -existen _ ~ unkn - O"'-WO"-I-' -y> t· I~O'" .. ipreh '~nsi'b- e in 'the 'g. ':i'v'en sitll'atiarl sUleh words

=-- j' d". . - . . ,. =:. - '.~ I _', l • I _. _:.....: " .• , I" II 2 _ 'f ._. : .,,~ I .. [_ _. _' _._ 1_ ..,. I . _' _ ... _

P-_::Cld-L ce humo 0'0> effect Bel'S used Just o '-,C ~\'I they' dlsan ,:e.:I' completely.

V'g 'fI'ar' W·· "or'ds.. - 'his is a sty·!' is;ti '-'y'" JIO'w£'st group IOf' words

. ~lDr I • e- 1." [l _) " 1._ 1 '_",' _I • , . • - !~' - - - :"""'1 .

which Brie considered offensive fo.~ polite usage, Th 'm,~y ' u :.' ,sub,dividled into two grOIU,PIS,~ lexical 'v·','· .:ar.ism's and, ,sltyllsltic v ul gar;: sms,

T- th-'-' f .' -' -. -. ..... b =-,1 '" '.. - ... ,- 'd" ,- .... , -., -. ,'. - 'il .-, ,.' ~ d·~·I.- t, :-'I'~~ onsi le ' " ,.

10 ae nrs group. eiong WQlrl;~ s expr'8SS,] g I. eas IC··._c.;j'I\ .. ·· " J ,

,., ~ 'I" '11 '., d ,~ .- '", .... ·,1...., tb·

·unm,entiIDln:ab:~,le In '- C~V[~'lze,:.. s:oc~iel:)"" •. :1,5, So. 'to speax, tne 'very

I' -. '~' - . ,t - -', . - - III - - . ;-;- f- -. .--; h .'. .. d '- . 'h· :". h" ,~.. VU" '~' 0 i'

.l e:X~U;:al meanmg 10 SU,IC wore 91 W, ncr ~ ,I,S . ~\t:)ar~.

d ,-;0 - oj! 1 II d th

The seeon ~~I •. up .. 1 - S'~I' ,1;S:tl'C VU, gansms ,~ are WQr s IL ~,e

r~~, "~:I ..

lexical meanlngs of which hav nothing: indecent 10f' im,~ ,'ro:pl-r abo - t them, Their im.p1r-opricty' in ,civilized life j,s due sole ,y ,to their si~··.~s,ti,C value ~. ·t,'DI styli,slle. connotation expressing derogatoi •.

~J

-H~,-- de .s: ,-- .' ... - . k· r ~ ,.,-., .-. d( th - D···'b· ,- et ofsneech

a.llutu( e. :.'. .' ,Ie IS,P .,a Br I"'OW~ ·~,s' I "._:' !._ I ~,~ _ I ,... 'PW,"i ,I '"

In re ~' life 'vuJ.I~,ar wards h.:~'1p-.'· to exnress emotions, emotive

'- rD ___:,~' _

and expresslve assessment of the o:bj;e.c't spol .. ten about; Wh,en used ~'n . ,,~ 'IQlrks I ~ f '_ r - f,Bi _. e th.eyiernomJ, the. .~' I~,cti,o' iJ iof Ich;ar,lct,eriz' -.,tilon~

'If used, 1'00 freq~_en:Jy', VU. gar w'o,rds Josie thleir Icmoti.o,n'ed

- - - '~ - -. d- b" .,- '. 1 -'-'.' ,'I~:· (.- . - , ",. y" '.:'" , .. -~ . ", '8"0" d-::n' ' .. ' 'D'n'O-::"'d,- ... '

q~ ahty ani. - eCOlmlB mle;,e exPI!i:iU_.= S , .. _.e''''I!ill!l '(iC, . OU, arB, .. ' '.. . ·~rn ~lU· .. -.

.Iolo,kins'»)~

m-IJ!!"'_~ the I w,'··ho-·I-··-·· 0" eranee solemn [0· poetic P··'I.Olvj1ded 1-·.·[iC

~vlli - -:-- --. J '.' I " '. _)'Iw~~!~.rll .. ,.-' [~ __ ·IJiil ee= " .-~~, . ,_. - "_ I. 'I J' -

sub" ect of speech is consistent )ltb. the styl sti& colouring

o'f'lelcv':_tlo,-' ,

~'~ An lel[a'iated word ,in '_1 neutr,a1lcaotCX1: pl~'d.';ces an -- ;Jt

of.~:o[micality if' the I; '-bje[c:t 'of s~~'cech or' the situation bl incons:';s[Iell(' with lev.ted looIJ'OUfi:Dg~[

3,~ Su'b-n,.- otral 'wD,[ds! in I neutral OOD'tex"- lower the sty'iis,tic

value oftbe whole,

4,~ Sub-ne I~-,al WOt[[ds in a super-neutral con 'ext or vice versa

Pi ,aduces II ICOmiC effect

Again-i,'lille background '0, the n emy' •. 'guagejalect words as d"alect poouiiarit'.s of speech ., ,.' styrsticaUy l1elievant.Tbey ,ho'··. the social sbm-~",g ofthe spesker, 'Nlowad~ys[ i. 'is, Ot,!,y 'in 'the

's' ieeeh ~,f'tbe people dcplrived of proper school education forms 0' ~

speech are Ic~;IDS ,of'provmc.ialilm,~ _.

- On . _- - e whol'f3 ' aleets [differ frot,m,L ,13 lit.['ary lan,g,u:age most

of aIm in th,e sphe e ofpbone,--"' cs .~. nd voeabu ',_ ~ _

Of special signifi~ceo. Bnglish literature·s th., so .. called

l.ockBey ~. the "alec of the uneducated people In LOI)~oo.· The charaeta:' ~:S,'}IC[ features ·o·fthe. CJockDey p,rODJUDci:~ti:OD, '~r e _:5 fOtllo' - ,"S~:

a} Jhe diphtba . ~e'J, ·8 repL.c_ed by [ail: '01 sy, to PI insead of

«to [' ;:>." «to pay» I - .

b) the d~phtbong [au] is replaced b¥ mo~.ophthoDg [a.;J: nail

. .

t J.-'dij;!j, ,;; ',,",I '£!!It' e ad 0.· ··f 4mow' theID),~,

R'Gi'ifil! ,IL,I,~. . -- - _. - - - ,I

c) woros ·ike «IIIQdBels», «thank y) IU"8 pronounced as

m.eM'ers~, thr;n- _- you;

d) the Iii ffix «-i gs is pronounced as In]: sittin', standin'. •.

..

EXB1l.·'·a.' ", ~"""'-~[ .: '

, '1. . ' .

" ~ -. - .

____ .' l ~ .

Elil

1.~[ He kept IO[Q,kin[B at, the, fmtasti,c green ef _~ ~ e :"UDgle ,ani"[ then 1(the orange-brov .eanh, fe'b; il,IG: and ,pu,~s,ing IS 'thQ[u,p the rain were cu,tticB 'W()runds ln to It, ;. idges flinched bef.oliB 'fh,e ,power' [0';

'11+ [Ib L-' d '" th d- H tl"", 4, . _. -t

1~~ -=-' ae ,.'01\ give -[ ~ :311; . ~!e tai.eL;fl IWlay, ;.:I.-,:~ ges th,lOtU,gb"

sole "--.illy I(M!~ 'i.I,er)'j

2.-, Yates remained serious, «W'e have time", Herr Zippmann, tOI by

your schnapps. Are there a ',Y' German t oops In N~u,sta,dt?,,»)~ «No, Herr Offizie .',. that's JUSi! :,_hat' ." e. to tell YIOU, This morning, four gen lemen in, al~JI .' e 'went IOU:t C(f"[Busta,dt, to meeit the, Herren A"me.ri'-: .. ·:· n er JJ' l(Heym).,

']1 «Oh .. I' 'be leved,» Fabermaeher :s[brogg[cd :~" .. , !·ay 'hie, phrase [(1:': me: neutrons we e symbols, [n with I mass Olf' ,mn= 1 ... IO[DI8~, :B :t UD,tii new I never ,S ~ I ',w', them» (Wil,SQD)1

,4~ " :.,[ ,~tbIODYII~," clapped him effectiena el,Y 00,:':- e back, «You're a real knight-errant, JimDly)~I" he said (Christie),~

I\~ A ,yo._ ng -JiIOY' horne back '>Iom, school W,lS explair ~,ngJ" «Taklc an egg», sh .. ·• said, '«and . nake a p~:erfo .aD,'oD ln 'I ~_e. 'base and, [~~

'-

corresponding " .. De in the: ap~~"'i! Then app,~y[ the ,~'ips 10

,~pertureJ aad by :Fo[rci'~'-Y :~alin.g the b,~e.atb tb,le shell is entirely dis!char8e~- '01'- its '-Ot:n~ellLS»~, An, old ':~.~:-- ':~(~~Ol"" as lis,e. -~' (

[ ,

excla1m~.d~. «It beets :aJ]. b,tQW folks do th~_ -~: Diowaday'~,~ 'Wben .

'was a g[1I1 tth}~_.~' r - a._ e I ,~ ole in teach lend, BOld s;_~'lckecb~ (J esperse - ) .. 6~ I rad It: "-Q,:m Sully Magoon. viva v\DtC~.J~ [The: W'OI:r'~S are inde d his, (O'He .ft'fV)_

. _~!i.'>!.l !II ilh f _ "_.' " ·1II.UI;o.Ii rJ1- !!II!

1'~ The .' -~. 'as II long conversation ... a long wait, His fathe C ,

'back. [t'CI SlY n '._' 1 as doub 'ful whether the:y' could rna ··:[e 'the :[ '" ![ Eight per cent, 'then-:.eing[ secured '-. .money, W[8;,g B, sm '~l of int srest, c,onsid=rin,,~ its need, For 'ten J; .. er cent '., '_"U . I

],]

might make a call-loan, Frank went back to' his employe.r,r 'whose commercial choler rose It the f\CP10ro~ l(Dr1eiser) ,

at N'ot:so the rustic - with his trembling mla·te,;

He lurks, 0.01'[' casts his, h!e'm," ~e afar.:

. (B' ~·:y!~'r\D,-··n-;·;)1

. ' .. fl .. ' , '.'

',' .' - - ,',

.: The man. who obviouslv, did not understand, smiled, and waved ... bi~whl;. And Soames was borne along in ~at little yeUo",~

whee ed Victoria all over star-shaped Paris, WIth. here an~ there a, pause, and the question, «,C'~:es.t p~ iei: MOl'tul.lf).Ur,?JJ

(Galswo-rthy· ')1 _

- I~ if manners '~iake.th. man, ,then manner and, grooming maketh

' •.

poodle (Steinbeck), ,. _ ._'~_ ..:

~ O.·~ ,1;;J.·9- ;-.)- ,say· ,s Bill to me, (<yo,u are a :man, of.' learning and

I. ~ '\.\ .w, " '. . '"'&, '"

education, bas' nes baving knowle g~. and mtorman o~

concerning not. only rudlments but f8c~ and.a~~inments», - «I

. ~ !!().).' sa~l3 I" '(,{ID.d I have. never Ie~grette,d i't~~!,» (O-J:lle~),., ~ ,_

: 1~~ .. s, Tribute (.<m:y dearedi e~verylbody~ even things In.:iD'lma't.e'l

sueh 'as the p'ump' -~n the dJairy' (Deeplng), , .

12~ From the dark, crowded center of the: ha, s,om.,e~n.e., called «Gorconl» and, he moved IW3:Y fro,- ._ me smiling (Baldwin),

erclse 2,1 S'_,Q'I:e' 'lie typre of' ,sulJ-l~ll,ut':QI w'o'r:tls ,in the lo'IIQI'wl'n,' .. _'lllpla'r:

-- "v'c, often tho gIl', y'(,u~ d make a cor.kin,l, good, actress (Dreiser),

, . bey· gradu*d from Ohio State together, himself with an

nginee big degree (Jones). . .... ,... .. c,. ... .

«(-POOl' son. of a ~itch})" be said, (~I feel for bim and I m SO~ 1

was, '·s,tBrldt.y)), (Jones), . ~ . ,_. . 'm here q~ite often ,_ takio,g, patien -8 to hospltels for m~JIDiIS:,! :~ .~ d,

I~ '010 (Lewis)i'

b - ·'J,n.·;'.ln·.~.r~y·_"'.·, to . 0'.,),0 to the show thls aft, Dllddy?

, . " D W'" '~e· . -'!a~ V'f~ so'.: e - v. - .\.ii. _ b

I _'-'-----~. ". . <:,_' _,'. . - I-

I' - .emingway)"

..

~,cise .3. ~ettmllilJe the functions perjormeJ ~ cfJlloluitili.s '116

.if.M l.i,(iti.J.!!! fi -I'" - . l '"

1-11; il.'~I·O ·,OW.lMiD' ~'¥'~m~!p' ,',s'JtIi Ii! ~ • ."

-.. i1. _. . ..... [ r- _ Jl1liDI ~\ . , __ ' . ':~:iJl!11 .

._ ,

I. With all ~our b'tchlOg you 'VB nc_v~ finished a tour of duty even

O.-··Oiii'i'iD: ( e, "'~ ler ). , iI! • - '\I

'. ,~Jt;;,;>_ ,.·.~u.· ...... 111

2. I Wall feeling abou -as cheeri.o as was posSIble. unde the circs !,~en a muffled voice hailed·· me .. om the nerth-easr .. ,

(WID debe _._ 88\! ~' . - - -

J l~

:l Brenner bad two more j aya on Bro.;.dW&y in later years, both Id~s,astr'DU!: flops, One loft11em 'W,SS PI •. rc .. ·ld.rU-l-·IC~'I~d:·- b {'V' Crais ('.( 5: .I'h'~'w!)··

. . " --, ,,'_ .... ,-~. "-'J .'..:..,-.I,~ .'11'. ':It.lrir~ I~

4. She let ~e program drop to tile floor. «Did Yo~ c3St,an ~,e:oJ[). the's'. . I sent over?»)., 1(1 Shaw)

S. !h~ a U~IBope~ti'cm~';y ~e and the doc left a couple of

fox-holes 111 myskull to remem.er bi.bil by (I Shaw) <

6. Slnce when have you been SQ pat~ wi.th Ed B~nn~r? (1' Sh~) ;: ~~~.~ ... ~,,:,~'U .. run mto .. that s~arls?) ~ (Nope~ (B~·~ c~le~). ..,

s. :Dfco.rse he. ~ say that. Why sbo'Jdn~t h~? Hp's your pl;l. Isn't ~~? ~e probabJy told you y~u were doing the right U in ..

(Bench1,ey). a • .

.~

I~

-

•.

'" ..

... ..... ,

• F

.1

9~ He had wanted tal do tb,re rlgbt ·thing;1 ,th.~.'Y had forced him, :Olo't to.; If ,hJS couldn't stand, ",P tOI ·Vaugtnm., 'wbat, kind of Cll!P 'WI:!I :hleijl (Blenc._ 1',-il~Yl~

1.10. But y!ou mlu'stnl"l, M~ Gee 'yo-u, must ,'~t cry~, I. know i, is hard '0:_-_. YOUi But I'll be. ,all, li,pt, 1{Dr-ei:ser)~

I. You ri'D:~t. ,DIId buddv, Let's make; I:' 1(BC-~aI,d,win):~

'-- - '-'- ",t:);I,.L .. I' ""- . . J ,- -- - -' ". . - - -'.

'2-:·, .. lr..T '., 'I'" te 'J 'h-'- .'. said ··1 .. ,111. ':II·t' iiii.iL·. l ... :: 'd' -"'-f~' ioker ,o,·-·,~I'D·· '.:c, sive

...• II (\.Il,' IOiW, l.l,S, y.=_- » I) ,r" ,Ie s 11 . ", ,« . am, ._. UJ.C, Pt.lB - 10·, JI QI.~- cOl" g, !!.O' cl -'.

:,."ou a. hard time runnin:8 around after other chicks and, shit like

, . (8':- . a]' d ... .) r.

" 80)._. . (', WID' 'I

3- '~dfy.'·o,u don't mind- Belinden 'he said~ '(l~!m p.oing-. 'to 'M~ to Dap·~.

..... ,., '.' ".' ._~, _ _ ' '., .1_, '_'._ "_,,_,, '11 ' ~I _,I .__ , ,_ ~,.. =C. __ ItI.!I,~' ,

- ~ ~" ~ -. I' --. . b-I'I, , '" ·.'1 b ,- -'h ,.oJI .. ,; (iii' 'S'-:-'b'-"- - -')'

a l'l,tt,aC,,, ,', am aLJ;OII,U!l.C~,YU~LJ~:w) v- .~',' aw. ~I

~ . .

4 S~'h -, -- ...... ~ II. .' lid . ' .... 'h-" ." .' " '.' ide ".-; :-'-, bo th -". ",' ',.' t could b·,I···. "~'I ~ ·w··'· ha ·,t

';0 ,:>: de remlL,Y·],- n, I~ I. lave ,~y 1 . '.8. w,,~!O __ I :,II!' ,0,0-=., "U' •. id.·' . - e, or ,'"

h·' '" .,',., aft' ,-'-'. _' 1(":B":"'a!' d '.! .. ,\" ... ).

,e, w,as . _'" _Je' .. ~. ,~ __ ~_ wm "

Si,~ And, you carry 'that.' nessage 110 'the :HIQ,l,y' Ghost an,ld if he don't

'l~k' Ii. - '--' I Hi'! .. ---' . ~d 'b- ~ . ,Ii:.- t and .. 'b .. -··..,. .. M ,'. -- ,- ... ,: .• '" -', .--.- e"

L·~ e It YIDU te. mm ,__' 1511,·' J ,'.' e :Si ,I, lS.ggO' , anc ,-., e t ener ,DOl- come

n- owh n e~ ,!lfD, . I~~~~"" m'~ - e.": (8'. II. - ,Win)1

.UI'YV. . ~ ~ I ,weLl. . ... ~. ~ >

,6.,' ~:L_ So we - e a lot of'junk, I'm nottoo p!·"Qlu·.·. tal admitit. Four

o •• 'If\\ .1 !I! I • • • '_' - ",_ ,'- ._ - L . - - - - - 'I - ~

hi ,...:1- - d fi"~-'" h ,.- dr' - 'd-' ' .",'Ii .... ". - ,- -,.- .. -. - 'M' '., . if... :!! - c"'e"!Ji:ii' d.' '0':0' "It C'O~ m-'-'e" I ~Dnw"e':,I, J. ,v'e.: .i un,.· 'e, . P.lC:lU!llleS :8, ,Ylcar., :..c' ". :as,~mpl,e> .~ I.' I, I.~ -,'

... - -... , " .. 'f,1I!'!! "d- Iii'" " .. t I .'-:C' .--' - ••• ':' .. the . de J"lil'li_l.- ':k'-""~ "-;-'i!iiIS"!C:I!'

In SJi,o,s,s I,O~ an ... l, '--- m, nO,1 ,s~ymg "ey ~Ol'~j Ol,ay", mass

production, o:kay, but it served its PurpO,SIC»).1 (I'~Sbaw)~,

1 Wh'" .. ' -1" ... -, 't-" - B'-- .: ..... d.':: .. " ,".!' t- .. ...1nl .. ~ P'I'~ ',', - .. -:::-. . , h --; 1---e'f€!I' .Al, ..... ;,".g~ -push e'r,£!i'

.,~ ._',~ a, 8,,00,1 [,way Quny!' . DDP,S, W or!~·~, w,U~:- s: I: -, " .. ; ,a,

- b11 t;. iii, . 't .... ll

muggersl'~' I (1'.D."t blame :Y"OU io:r ' _' .. uag a~' ";~y .. ~om ,~, :iU_

('IIi S:·: 'hi .~ ,,,,'I,I)il

I,. . ,_8.n . ,I'

S M'" . . h " ,.; .- - , . ',.' ... , .... - t-ft; -' ··,h!1 . .... .. f V"~ ' .. iii , .' :T' . hat 'nunk';' -.. 1-, ::tt, ,-' -' 'e~ h U· ,~.1 ~~,

_ ,ii ,~,' ,Uql_Jy WillS CODI~m,pILJU,OU,s 01, AJlCIO;; ,« .,llg. ,rl,.- -::_, IJ,' _ .. ' , ..... ~dU.~,I"',\f-,,

- M':' 'h' I d .- ... -'. ~'--t"~ ..... 'f:'~Kl"''''' 'J~' ('1 S····-·b,·· ,. ')'"

was .'~, ,U ~.: y s~,escrlpLIDn 0- ,-,·_el:n,._·.~:~ . !arw .. ~

'9~ (<Swell», BlfOdy siaid~ "<That's J~ust, 'wba'~. I W,BIl('.d to hean~

~..!- • II .

(BBIlch.l,e:y)~' ~

llO~ <tHe's a very' ri,ch :man'i' . · .. · .. ~IO matter hOiW Jl),ng this s· _ark. thin,:s g'[3lCSI aD, he 'WIOI1,~ 'be baudly bW1~, S'ul)e.-, be;""illosle I l'ia:le ldou,gh,

Exercise 5~ De'ter:min:e' ,tI2:IB' /uncti;oRS' ,p,'r/o,med' ,631' jar:goll w;o'l'ills ,ill; tl'B ~:' ,110 wing' lex.'"plef',:

1,., .' ',-,ey put me: in this :rtt,lc cell with abfJDt four 'Of' ,fiv"e, othlsr !CI'ts (B,a~,dwin)~,

2"E -. " Uy to write ,i,nt,erv,[ews, '~.nce;pth fair m,I,lazines'j You're m~Dg: face, . >~'. ,.1

«In dept _'), be said,

You are ~,'~gbt" sb[e, said, ,D,ead~y' jarg'OD,. You fall :m'to ·i.t~ It ,sib_all never p:ass, my i:ipsi ag,aiD (I,;SlbIW)1

31~ -I. think: we've ,RO-' :1, floater CID, ou, hands, Chief ~ A, floater? What in, Christ's name 'is ,8 f1lo~ 'er?

. I, was a, word ,', Iendricks had pl:ick,ed, 'up from his night :reacUn,g. «A drownin8»'~ 'be said embarrassed (B,en,lcbleY)I'1

4i «I just Idoll] II,t see myself in the ArmY»'1 Matili,ew said stubbon '~_ 'j «!Get sent to some damn, 'blase in, the Deep IS,OU-~I~ ,_ )"IOU know 'I ain't for tha'~:~ ain~t about to take ·-.IQIIC[ap off'them (Bal d,wi_]) i

."

l,~ And that's ,8, ,crime;11 in this fucking free, CIOUD'try (B"I]d, .jD.),~ .. ' j , ":8 said, «'That~11 a, hie, l of a nlo.,tc» (Baldwin),

3 ~ 'Ylo'u can. t,e.l~, ~> 16 'w'a.y ,-: le~' s' talclCO_ '-11- I ~ $, Sl.· ii. til - " . ',.

(Blal!dwin).

~~t, ,(Man'»:, :he. ,sD.d " 101 J o,seph, «YIOtU, kn,o '. 'dlln 1;t Wi:. -'t - ,r :' . ] f.1-1

in the han1ds ,o,ftb.es,e, 'W,-l ite.:~ 'b1aJl ... iesf: ml-Ith,~ ·-,_---,.=·- .. I~ -» I' -' .. ~J '~i, ~ 1.1

A Manllal of Eflglish Stylistics

5. It's just that the bastards in the front offices won't hire me (l.Sbaw).

6. Let people know you are alive, for Christ's sake (I.Shaw).

7. He would have to get Murphy to stop calling him that little punk (I.Shaw).

S. Who could say what that gigantic many throated «FUCK» meant? It was a word like many other and he used it himself, although not often. It was neither ugly nor beautiful in itself, and its use was now so widespread that it had almost no meaning or so many different meanings that it was no longer a valid linguistic coin. In the voices of the giant choir of the young in the film it had a primitive derision, it was a slogan, a weapon, a banner under which huge destructive battalions could march. He hoped that the fathers of the four students who had been shot at Kent State would never see «Woodstock» and know that a work of art which had been dedicated to their dead children contained a message in which nearly half a million of their children's contemporaries had mourned their death by shouting «Fuck» in unison» (I.Shaw).

'9. It Isn't as though marriage has to 'be a prison, for God's sake (lShaw).

10.' You two dizzy off-white cunts, get the fuck out.of my face, 'you hear? (Baldwin).

11. I was always on that stoop, me and the' other cats, and they was always passing by, and, while I wasn't never on no shit, they knew some of the other cats has to, be ... (Baldwin).

12. You was making it with that white Jew bastard when you should have been with your son (Baldwin).

Ex.frc~se 7. ;4nalyze ilre vocabulary ofthefoflo~;r'g; Indicate the type and.function of stylislicaliy coloured units: .

1.. «You are arguing outside of my faculties of sense and rhetoric», says Bill. «What 1 wanted you to do is to goto Washington and

38

A Manual of English Stylistics

dig out this appointment for me. I haven't no ideas of cultivation and intrigue. I'm a plain citizen and I need the job. I've killed seven men», says Bill; «I've got nine children; I've been a good Republican ever since the first of May; I can't read nor write, and I see no reason why lain 't illegible for the office. And I think your partner, Mr. Tucker», goes on Bill, «is also a man of sufficient ingratiation and connected system of mental delinquency to assist you in securing the appointment. 1 will give you preliminary», says Bill, «$1,000 for drinks, bribes and carfare in Washington. If you land the job I will pay you $1,000 more, cash down, and guarantee you impunity in boot-legging whiskey for twelve months. Are you patriotic to the West enough to\ help me put this thing through the White-washed Wigwam of the Great Father of the most eastern flag station of the Pennsylvania Railroad?» says Bill (O'Henry).

2. «I always used to play out on the street of evenin's 'cause there was nothin' do in' for me at home. For a long time I just sat on doorsteps and looked at the lights and the people gain' by. And then the Kid came along one evenin' and sized me up, and I was mashed on the spot for fair. The first drink he made me take, I cried all night at home, and got a lickin' for makin' a noise. And now - say, Tommy, you ever see this Annie Karlson? If it wasn't for peroxide the chloroform limit would have put her out long ago. Oh, I'm lookin' for 'm. You tell the kid if he comes in. Me? I'll cut his heart out. Leave it to me. Another whiskey, Tommy» (O'Henry).

3. « ... You must of done something to make a passle of enemies here in this place, buddy, because it seems there's sure a passle got it in for you».

«Why, this is incredible. You completely disregard, completely overlook and disregard the fact that what the fellows were doing today was for my own benefit? That any question or discussion

,_

\>

t

39

,

,4" I": 'ep:f, U,P tori the peek of the 'ItJ-} ':.--_Du:- __ taia and ,Jan, my ey'e lover

'!IoIL- roA'nl'f:;g. 'U' O'=U""'~ 'tir.;C:-:'I~D''!ru 0' 'f'I,~e·' towards Summ -, '. ;t~ , e exp .,-, eeted to

!Ll_JJCr twv.Jlc."~[f ,."_ ..... - ~. 'Q. ""11&,,·1 ~ )~1' .. ,-1" .~. -iU .. [~U;) . ,I: .Ii. ' ~' . .1 e- 1: ,'_, _.'_,,_,' .

see tile stur-dy yeo,mEli11lY' of th ~.' 'v,i.ll,~g,e armed with s~el and

~ .. , 'bot': -~"'dil'!lll bl . - .... ,_- ",'L, ' try- - '" de' e;, - ,·'1 - .JI ......... oI,R,-d'l-y- kllii'A-~lnne-F~

. pnc ~j(or,~, aeatn gl me coon -'SI(.·';-' LOll' '[_J:, I~~,I,'" , ~'.UD~;r'··,J\QI~

But what I saw' W'UI :2, peaceful 'lands:cape dotted with one man · pIJOU!,gb~~" ,g with, a oun miule~,'_obl()dy W,8S, dragging the ,cre.elG, :00 couriers .' ashed blther and, ,yo" '-I bringing t'!ldiogs O'f' nOI :D,ews '._[0 the distracted, parents. There Was, :11 s,,'Ev;an, lltti,tude: [of s,omnolJ,ent sleepiness perv;auiog, that, :Sec~-j,OD of ' the externla] outw,ar,d surface of Alabama that: lay exposed '·0 ,my view, ,(<Perhaps)" SIYS I to 'm:yself;, «(i,t -has Dot ye·-'. been discovered tb::t. the, wo:lv'es have borne awaythe tender ,iam'bkiD, from th.e fold, ','_ eaven helpl the wolves!» IS_y[S~, and I went d,OWD, the mountain to b,reakfast (0 " ~ • ',Ie'nry),i

40

" ,

«That '~I~ Ip,n, -, L'-' -dC- Ii' ','-',--, - b I" - -

.'\ ,~,I!iiJil WIIU.-... r .- .. if, I ;--1 I .~r .. - '0-' I - -.:.- 1."· ... 1 I." ".' 'I, .,' __ , •• _

.' ,,' . - 'I - or _',1 ,rem,e, J_.[er ,~~V,mgl tae Idu mUlch 'dl,c: S'UD.,:',

'thing:" m'O!DlI' -y,'eQ,.l€'!' Ii!!'~;. .. _" . ,~',-.:' '. ~I --:-., ' • • '_ . ~. ,_

.. , .. '-'~.~ _ :' ", , 'J, _. .m~ I~,mlce,,- ,I.D an I.oq, _ .CS,t '1' :p1on a, sa:ding .... :vasel Ian

lagr"·" ouad "1"0 th ~,e" [iii:Ii;S'.-, .. tu !lnJ and .;- .. :f, b:-" --:-··k'··'· ',~ 'b-- -- ' Ii - ,-' ,

'j.' - ~_"--" --"~ ,___,_~~ .. ~. ~IJ ~I.· iBOI~ .. [:ro, ':'en U,p ryl.;ump~n,g, ,herself t'OI

I-·,~ts In a gale Th' 'e' U"Ilr;u,--,,· '-'-'" , 'D' " k' th " h-' th ;o;_-

~.,' ,-' " , '.' ;~.r - :';; ,~.,,,, ,U',iLa_,.rmlC'i!: . :'0.. ,',. '0', c:-::: . ·t· 'r" ~'II" e-·'i '. ·c'c<ctidAlt1.", 'ft'~' W· '~I'Ii:'I,'Da

. '. -' - _. , . . , . . Q . . . ~ '~U .~,..

a" gi~er~ . I forwards. We tuk it upon o~ LZ'~ demODs'ra~ ~bat w,r· t .. e wiad and tide satU' 1II1 ,tb~ did- the .. · b'~ oat ~h-'D'~~"I~d~- - ha "

b --'01 ~ Iu'l. V~., 11i:).. U II. ["

een 'we: l~a:w,a'y, r !ira " "~'"'I, shore if th .. · 'I'~~'- e#ol~'illid: Qt'c, the -h·--' th ",:

, Ul IQ\ ,/UliI;,'P,i;"t ,11., '.'. QJlLm!II,l~) a II' e o·'ur· r' ey .. 1

)- '0; d , - - , '_. . ''''-' -'.,:_'-' ,~.- '. ..::_' "":", ': I· .. ·

C',:'!!'lII'I' 'I'>' (:-;. "'II,,, .',-'_ . ',"", '1_,., ,.__ _ ,_ ,- _"

-. . U:J' J - '. _'". [. . .- I _ -' _ I. I, . j .'. ' " , . • ' • r 1 •

~ .me tae hi done We '1IOI¢'it the [ro,il31l!ilP, but I'v"· -- .. - ,_ . -'~*-, - d

- -"" - .. I:.: ltil _: ,""" ~g.ril'''"'' ...". _ '"", .' le'v'er iiIl',u;;re my

, o,peem1om:) r(Sltylersl~ . _.. . '. - I. - ".-- '- ,".,

1,", Wl£ were IdJovm So 'II "I th 1'!I!D' Al·· .'; "!'ii'''''~'lIfnllg -_ B: .,:;,,~ D- .. ~ ')-1 and - If

' - . U. -Ii ~'. " ·.1 "g,I!J\~.IJII~ '"'" , "'.1.1, .' [, '~I(c'!!!'·ft . I m' 'rvitlie' -

! . I . 1- I_,,_,g '-'U (' " , ' I j" I., " J I lliil

w-e,1]! ·b:_9 'lddnaprn,~:n.8- i.dea stru c·.··k·· us .... 1,t'-- W1~'. as as-·~ -B~I-_:I'J' aft'··-·~··-·-·· ··';-d'-

"r e . -". -., "_.' <ii .. 'I ' , .', - ',,', : II "ID'"·iU"~II.' ,-

- . - ., . ':111 ,_. -, ,', , W& nA.II

~p,-e~!ecI i~ «dur:'-g _ a 'oment of ten pOIBl'y ~ental

.,a, ~arI IOm)I.~ut \Ve dldn"t find that Q·ut till fat-er (O'He~).

2 .. Phllo",ro'O,en'ltiv'en~C,'Ii~_ S:lay'" ',.',1Ji'li1 W' ,.mil Is !~'tr' '0.' ,i'If'iI!ID II' .- ~

, r' b - ."'Q~- _:_-- ~ ',~,,_,-, a; 1[[·;Uti In !u:m'~rul-··

~D-··,t"liini''t.''Ii'U--II't·, ~ - ... ; ,- ,ilL, - e... - - .- " _ '-. -, ..' . ~- --,'. - -' '-~'--'

,",. I,~~U.U, ,0. 1.les" UI.e'relil:)lle au,d far Clth·· er'-= 'PA'!l:IiIlI.~"An' ,1f!I g ki ,.A .... ,.. _, __ Ii' ,.

I _ - - .., -' .__:: ~ '::"'~' '.: "'~'Ul ,I !i!J.;l1 ~, ~. Wlilp'pma

pr<)Je~t ought to. do b -er there than in the radius oCnewsp~a~~s,

tblt sen' d I ~- o-'ric- " -. t" '. lai I" fh ' r

'(':_ :c. .. ~ '," ,a,~ ~ .. '~"'I ',:r[s QU': ~D p.:i "'1iIIiiD' lr! 10'1" la.'n ··0- lDe",i. 'rI1'iII ,-. t ... nlll,.., , abo t.' b,

- . ,. ,,I, , -" ,~, " !I.oi\'," . ~ 1#... aiW. [U' .i.f.!L!K. v I " O'll' sue'

thing"'s ('OI:iH·--e,nry'· " .. ')' ,. - -, . .' ."----" .:.:-;: "-:" - ~ ,,' .' I.-,[,,-~.-

. ,./ ' ._. ' .. ' -' .,_,,--:1..,;_. ,,0;

'I ~ I"

EJre,"!C'''I1' 1,(1:, A"/'I'-"'~"l:" , .. - lii!lr~" i "'_' 61.' -~" , ... '. -,--,_ ,_, ,.,' - Iii _.

~_. ,.!!!I "~I ,_,ZJII! I,''':,B lIif~,p:(;iI .IIJ1i1'·".,Flf 1'1[:' .... ·~D fi,A'I"'o'-'U:III[H,ilJ" f.,' ~,- --,J'

'- rv..- • .c. Ml·LH,",,,,- IVJr [1Ii"a[lQ, 'U',;,:~. tt' .I1~ti;' .'l},I'.7DCI" 'I!!I

[deli.:~,r'.iftB ,the ~~I,e.' land' the /lmctitJ,"3 ID'r;.~t..I~I:~J)r.,~~",:~ .-.,,", ~'".' i'~i

l, "I~ -, " --,.@.-,.- ,';I' ~~,J"'t hJ\iI,~~'_I~, ,CrJI.:o."e,,:

'd¥,I1,;.'11:i1j11 ,1',II,HI,,'.OI iii

~,II!""IN,_. "",iliiJql!!l

. ' .. {<I got a nice liftlendian gir down in T01TeOW) beg···. an the'

Alj,'r-r m-I"'·-;-' - ,S'· ... , .. ' - '"",-, -. ~ '. -,-,- - -' --', ,_:', ,I_i' 1,1 .. _,--"

uIUl,~ ,·,an" « .. 3.v- lit s a cr'-~m'-'e,-" ',h'.-,y'· i:liihe'" d'" 0':-0' "'" -. '-',' "-.-. '~f" I'

,.I' 7 ""~ - -_ '" ' - _' ," ~ .. ' ~,., II.- cv:_ 'n Ie are m' I m,a:rry:~ -',

.ne:l' 0," '_~Ot.~ ] .... »0 " ,. ,., ~,.

I ' I

, .

I !.

, ,

«~. _.~-.~ at' s .. I e WI:Y wi' ~- , '-,em»,! 'broke m th~e other, r<<Lo osel That's 'what 'Ihley are, : ,'ve 'be:-:' in "-~_~e 'CQU,'otty seven Y' ars» "

«And do YIDU' O\V)I the Dither man 5.,-: oak, bi,s, finger se:yeri. -'Iy'

at me, «'YDIU:<,.~·. tell all ,I' • 't,OI a Mexic._~-. Greaser 'and. he I jus:t

bUJgh a;t, y'oul~ Tba;t\;s "he kind ,ofdirty· s,ku:n'~._'~1 tbley liJell»,

«They' 'V' e .~ at :00 pride)~I:" Sail ~ Ma,c~ g'l,oo:mil,y,~

(dm,a.glne»,~ began th·, ~~f<st compiltrio-·' .. ({lm:asi-'e what w,ould

'h lf id ~- Am·' I

-, I'P' 'pre . '1 r - 'y--:'o<lu.·-' s~-~ II!.I .'~ '"iii at tl ;0' _'" a'·' '.n' , . 'J ].-'1 ~in-Ilc~_': ,'d' IR '\;'\0,

____ I _. _ '_ ~_ !Ii __ ' I __ .. BJIJ j .1I.!tl& '_ _ [ ~L-' _. I l~'''~

!!!!!' . "

Mac banged bis fis,t on ·tb.e table, «The American W,omac,.,

'God bless h'erl!,» he said, '~jtlf;~"-: y man dared to di'n~l the, fair name; of

h - ~ , . ,. 'I tb- _..,~.... I' '1.J!!':l'l '11..,::-_,,,,,,, H' 'I~ d

t ,Ie. Amencan'-om:an to ,mcll1 I .J llWA. ': .:.1.., &JiJiu)!!I': ~- g),are:.

,around, the tsble, 111( as, :008·-: O'~ 'US, 'besmt'(C - .~·d the ret . tat'i'OD, of tb,e, ,,' e " 'i'Dlnjty' of the IOreat - -:',ep,u'b,lic, be proceeded, ,(<S,he., U1, I, P'U:~e, Id eal, ani I, : J3,"ve ~- .Iot to keep her so, I ~ d like to hear anyb,. ,Y' k rotten about a woman in my bearing'!'»

W:~~:~-I:an.k lour Tom-and-Jerrles wi,th the solemn rig;htrGOusness,

.,

OfIIClo'DIV'omt an iofGa~:ahiadls'!1

(:('8··.· a·~ y.' Mr' . ml'e· :.). ,\. said .. '~ a sec :0- nd m ,~-. '0--'- a· b ru p:i -.1iy" ~.fI' 1"'\'0" VO··U

. ~" I "-: .' ", ,. g, ." ill ~ U,I ". w~ iil! ~ . _ ,. - ,..._: . . -'. .]. ~ ,:\U -- ,J'. '- ,

remember them two UU'I,e ,gir:ls, YO'· and I had j,n, Kansas ICity that

'W'; '0- ter '7);'

~ I, L~_., ,~~'

<Do. 1'1»1 glow1ed 'Mac;; ;(('And, remember 'the aw'~'l fix I~.·'OU

'_ Jlo,r-, aht '1'0" , wefte In.?),)

- ,&,1 I~'

,(,W'illl ever 'fa ,g.-.t it'~:»,

TI e 'lrs:t' men spoke, (f(W'e.I 'I)" he said, ,(,-~,OU can, crac .•... , IUP 'YIQ'U.-'

P .elty seno itas !~~, you wlan(~ tIO.~ But 'for mt!<., ,g~,V(- .• me a. clean r-_-. e .Am,IBrlrCan gi 1!))~'U ,"l~ae':_~_-',. 'Ma~Am,eric"~: l-

'"

l ""Arcba/'sms :may b _ D'sed :i'D,_ [:~fer.ary text

a) to ·sbo.lW tba', the 's,~e-~ i .. ]~' 'i~I, a.Hac'bed. 'tousII, : QlfUDusuai wold.s;,

'~I} 'tOI ICf1eII~e tb.e histc 'i,e ae ~ , -'OS.P -- ere;

c.) 10 produce hum 0 fOrU s ,= fFec.t~

2~ T,~ ~m:s be'-.'Oll:~ to

-

a s;up~ .. r ... neutral ': !oea .~ U~,my';,

,_.

,42

.

tY-:\'tiiC s:y:n,'ta'l: is the bf,IDC'IQ. lof l:io,!u.isti,cS 'Wlbi,ICh

inv'es~'~,)Bat8~ the ,s,tyl~!tic value ef Is,yn:tacti1c 'foir,Uls,~ stylb;;ltJc 'functions of SYDua~ti,c, pbenorm,ena- 'tbej[ , ~tyl-'1i:;,~~i:iC""" ~;~,~~,~~;I.l'c"'~ii·;'~D'·ln- ~ .; 'w' ,'''e, 1111 ~,~ th';'Ii~;~:~P~'~P'~U'~I'rt'I" '~n,g~~~

1ifJ!1 ",' I.~~U .~' I ~11l1~li.]1j~J...~ .. :~"i.·· ... 4J1 ~ .,' ·.·.JtJJ ~ _- I. 'wn ,g _:_.' - ,,_. ~_, ._.U.li.L~JI.~~

~ , ,

'L. '11 'I

'to' sun-ranguages 0'[" I~,l,esi

'The vezy' forms of' sentences and; wlo:td, ... com,bJina:ti,Q,D;S may' be eithcf'cx,,,russiv'i6 or neutral .. , What is ICI-mmQI,n~p~·:lae.e~, Qilldi iarv,

F ,,' "'II!'..:.~~.

eu stomarv normal m'; i'U ~tl '~.,Q r'k$llt'th:~ll- ~ 'U' AI Q! II itral 'We are 'to' iIo~ 11",,~ ~b,r'

~ __ ~I. V. _ $~j.J' II _' . ~ I J', -!IIJ. . ~rw l~ll~iJ _~~~i ~_. ,g l!J' 1i1~¥I~U. Ql"":!!! _~. ',_,' I~ J' e= ", ~i~ lll . ea .. ,

"a" "l'y .. · :neu:mll the S,tru,ICtp: e 'of ;8. si:m,~] e sen,ten,ce not

~.~!. " " ,',

....- n_:~: 1 d ~ ;Mi;\k: b f:-' '"

prs,sessnng, illY P~,{I~J.cu;~:ar" eLonnmti'~: ,:-I':':~ :re; ,)._5, IU],e n,u'm-JCI' '0, _ :~'l~SI

c,on§,ti1u1ents ~rl eir I) • Collie f' hand. my pe~pdb, e ~ 'd,e:vil;tiJ'n'_;~ om the, normal IDd ge:nlel~any accepted strueture 'D:~,- the

- t .• ~

,se'n- enee changes S'l1"listi,c value of the ·~'l_:~an,ce",·· making the

~,Anl'II'~~ ii"iIP ~ru,ll ; ,~,'fo; I ..... ~ .... :' 11'\1 e;' o-n 1: -G cant ... ' ~Y' n(I',II+ii'!i' sive IPi'm' ~ ,iIf.\,,,,~ Inn' 'any"", 0- ''f.'!!'

kJ!u IL~ljI~W ~t~!I' JJ'~lli~lllJ.' ~'~:ilJI1,1:1·"w.~-IiI'_ _ I~ll\i,r" ~~": ~. ~ ~ 1'·JU,iLJIu ~ ._:_ '~~I '.: ",_ iiIL

belen "~ng, to som~: s,pecl,al. sphere lofoln,e' sub ... language ,Q,f motber,.,

"'I 11 ~~ n ;' ot 0- in,l,y".,.' e,y .. r 0" ,it~IJj"¥tl; cal form '~ of ~~P~I srate sen (t'e" ',n' ~~;~I '61,11

ll_ ,~,~ ~" !I:IIi:~j ~. Il~_gU. IW II Ji1U. _ . .:-1 U ~~ "~[~ -~~ y ~ Ilk. II ~~ .-._

• I, -.' '_'

possess certain kinds of ,s'Ly:li,sti,c value, but the .interre_8ltj,oDs IQf

r ... _'(.... • , ~ -, -:c- ' ,

con,ti,gu,rQUs l:ynt.lctiC:al forms ,IS, wen .. ,

Thus, 'the, expressive means of Isyn'ul!X~ :m:ay [1'13: subdivided into

tbe foll,'o,wln.,B, gr'OIUPS': ~

1· EC~'V:nr-D'Ci'C!!:;'I'II!"D' m ,1i!:IIii!':!ii"Ni'e'i' b ased UI '-p' "An· ab S'~,~III"liIlP~' o":"'f-- '~"liq9;;,p.all'-y',,·

i!i -~A.r'" VrO;J;;l!!.1 'II' ¥ , u ",""iOiIiIo,jiJ·,lilk}i\olc:_, '_ ' ,_ u, g _ '~~;I.~., lubJi'!I!i;!I---- "

].ndi,sp-- ens'lb;l,e elemen ts .

- ,. , ,,!IJI_ "i, I

'2"., Expressive means based upon 'the excessive use ofs,peecl'1

elements,

3,. E~~' ressive means eonsisting In :8n U:Du'siua], afiq,em.I:D:t ~D('~

n ,isti,c elemen s, ~

.. jjI,...I_

,4,. Expressive :me:lll;S: based upon inter;lctl,on of :s:yntacti,lcaJ,

fo,mlS,,,

,.

44,

"'

The pben,'omen:1 to be treated here are sly,ntac'tivcaUy

b,eteroti,en,eoUSi' Thus, the lack of certaln 'words m~y bee ~~tated ill,:, '-.

a) elliptical seo,tenoc5;;, '.' i

b) 'IlJ:o;fiiois'h!ed, sentences; ·

c) '~oniin2tivle :siBntence:~:;

d) oonstruetiens ,in. 'w:l~'iCh ,aux:li~,~ ,eiem,eBts are missing, Ellip'sis~ E],[l~ti,cal are those sentences ,in wO'i,'eb, one o-r 'barth

prineipal parts rl'ec't, and pf,edfca'tle) are fe'[t as missing S]'DCe'

theoretically" Uley c'~iUlcll b~ lI'~red.: , , - '.' ~

, Elliptic~d seD,jenc~s, are '~picalt, flrs'i. ,ana, foremost, of' ,o.,nrd communication, especi m:y of ,dcll:~,oqu')aI speech, The m~,s's~,n,R,

. ,ele:men'ts are, supplied bry the 'COlD't t ..• U·ng,ua] 'Or extra .. liogual",1 'It--b,e,

- .... . . - - ,-

1brli3:Yl'~' ~f~ ~,b", s,eD:teD~lej ~nd :a,'-'w,pftness 0-' their intonat i,on ~_m,p ~I.i :1,

certain ting,e ,Qifstiar:p.ines,s to th"em::

,~(',P,le'IQ3'e~ sir; w,i.:l:l ,you 'tvr,ite' to me to the pos,tl offtce. 1 don 't

'WlJJnt ,'~y hU:3'biand' to kn'ow' l,h;'Q,t: ,1 '~m' , ... 1 'm-»

(" ,-" lioted to' lJli',;,?, ~e'l'll' Na·m,~' IO!pI(JSt ,offi.Ctl'J)'

Vict(}~ine' g~.il and ~um~d h~; hp~. ~ .

ff'An hour' and' Q' he. Ii""e~ ,s'ld:ll,iHBSJI ,tM'(Jnk;yoiu., ,dR'd ,tQ!tn:o'rraw ,at ,hal/past two, ,Mi$:s Co,I',H's;"u,1) fGa'ltwtJ'.r,thy)~ While in colloquial speech ellipsis is the natural QutCQ,:mB of ema,-lingu.al,condi'tions'iJ in, otble:r varieties 'ofsp,eech 'i.t is used w~tb, Icert~n, ,si'" ,lis,uc :aims in. vi,ew~ rTh·,u~,. it ,bn,parts :a, kllld of emotional

.. II .. '!II, I " - I \F ,. "'" r ~ III J.

, :enS,.UDD to the ,u'thrOr" S DllraUOiD" Sometimes th1e, o:m.~s:s!i.olD. of

lu'~jects c6ntn'bu,te '1101 tille, ,8oce'~eC __ -,io'n ,of'th'e 'temp 01 o'f,gpeech'~

«He became OMe of the pl,o,minei"t~ men 01 the ,H(JlMe'~ Spoi,lce c,l,'e"fr,'~y {J':M'd' mod "YJ tJNa WQ3' n~,er' too lo,~g~ Held t,ne. House'

wher!f'J'~~¥li n" l.'ig,,~'L'.""~R,:ill':l'~il""... . .. <it,· "_,,,.';i - ,~"ii· . ,f;C' '-'11':/, ~ " ,,~,~ ., __ -~' .~ ,~IU~n V!J' r~_ c r~,,",;[ wu,l~ ,b,)',fi:l' «palr'B~:,» b;,»' ~",-:,(J,-.-,~ml'"

'E, ~ psis is a1 so ,chuacteri.s;tic IQf sUlch ,S'R'8rci:a1 s,p'D!eres Qf' 'Wf,itt,e.n s,p1eech :as ,tfd,e ,1_,' '·',e :m,essa·s ;and :refereo,ce lioo,ks (i:n

both, ,of'th,em ,~.'t lSI u.sed 'for 'tb'e, __ Ie, Qifbrevlti)" ·

A Manual of English Stylistics

Unfinished sentences (aposiopesis). Aposiopesis (which means «silence») re~ers to ases when the speaker stops short in the very beginning or in the middle oftfte ~tterance, thus. ~ol1tiGlrig . his-mode of expression to i" mere allusion, a mere hint at what remains unsaid. Care should be taken not to 'confuse the aposiopesis with cases when -speaker is. qv~~heimed with emotion. Aposiopesis is a 'dell' e;ai'e' abstl!ntihn from bringing the utterance up to the end:

«She had her lunches in the department-store restaurant at a cost of sixty cents for the week; dinners were one dollar five cents. The evening papers ... came to six cents; and Sunday papers ... were ten cents. The total amounts to 4 dollars 76 cents. Now, one had to buy clothes, and-» {O'Henry).

. No~a~~,-.: pentences .. Their function is speech consists in .stating the existence of the thing named:

«London. Fog everywhere. Implacable November weather». ThJ bre"'yi~ of nominative sentences fenders them especially fit for descriptions:

« Dusk - of a summer night».

, A' succession of nominative sentences reflects the state of mind of the hero and ih'vigorates the dynamic force of narration: «But if they should! If they should guess! The horror! The . flightl The exposure! The policel..» (Dreiser).

Nominative sentences are often used in-stage remarks. Asyndeton .means «absence of conjunctions». Asyndetic connection of 'Sentences and parts of sentences is based on the lexical meanings of the unites combined. The stylistic function of asyndeton is similar to that of ellipsis: brevity, acceleration of the

... ~«,_ c :

tempo, colloquial character. E.g.:

(( YOll can't tell whether you are eating apple-pie or German sausage, or strawberries and cream. It all seems cheese. There is 100 much odour about cheese» (Jerome).

Zeugma may be referred both to the stylistic devices based upon absence of speech elements and to figures of speech. Zeugrna

46

A Manual of English Stylistics

is a combination of one polysemantic word with two ~r, s_e,v~,rlt other words in succession, each collocation thus made pertaining to different semantic or even syntactic plane. It is based upon the absence of syntactical elements, but the stylistic effect thus achieved lies entirely in the field of semantics, E.g.:

«At noon Mrs. Turpin would get out of bed and humor, put on kimono. airs. and (he water to boil for coffee» (0 'Henry).

In this example the verb to get (out of) combines with two words: «bern} and «humor», making with.vthe fanner a free syntactic combination, and phraseological expression with the latter. The phrase to put combines with three words, each time displaying different meanings.

The use of zeugma serves, as a rule, the purpose of creating humorous effect. The reason for it is the discrepancy between the identity of~ the structures of the word combinations and their semantic incompatibility:

«She dropped Q tear and her pocket handkerchief) (Dickens).

Excess of Syntactical Elements

-~

The general stylistic value of sentences containing an excessive number of component parts is their emphatic ,nature. Repetition of a speech element emphasizes the significance of the element, increases the emotional force of speech.

( ......... ~'--"~

'!tcpetition is an expressive stylistic means widely used in all

varieties of emotional speech - in poetry and rhetoric, in everyday

~, .. \.

intercourse.

The simplest variety of repetition is just repeating a word, a group of words, or a whole sentence:

«Scroodge went to bed again. and thought, and thought, and

thou§.h.{ itoyer and ~ve,:,.Qnd ov~n). ....

- Framing is a particular kind of repetition In which the two

repeated elements cic'c~-Py the two most prominent positions - the initial and the final:

47

(iNBvier w',oIH'der:. By means qf' "tJ:,',;ll'o,rJ" su.,b.'~QC'~,!*o" ,I

mu:lt:,ip!,licati(Jl1 and' division, settle ,ew;Bryth'i,~g s omeho WI" and ,H,ev,er

wonder'»' (Di'cl«lltJ) II' , _

..... he so called appended statement (the epe '"tiOD of the

pronominal su:1de\c't aad of the a;ux,iliary' part of the ,predii(~ate) are.

also, e[e_rred, 'to framing;. '. _

,«Yo'u lJ:,,'e mQlde (J' nice mess; you' have .. ~ » (Je'rom~),.

",'" .ac __ ' :lOIS.iS: is - kind 0' -' repetition in whicl1. a 'w'lord oir a

group o.'c words eonelu ing .'. sentence. II phrase or a • I: :se line r ,cur I,~'t i_ -;' '~, beginning oftl e 'next segment:

II With c ~'ick. on n.'!)l knee, 1 WI:~-> then h'Cf~'PY~~ h'QP~;,,." lat least lin my way» (Bro« 9~

Prol t'st ,,'I is re ~ etition of the '110'UO s'U,bj,cct :in the form of ' '

P- erSOI'D.' pronoun. Thle sly'list~)c P'" rpOS,,-' of fhis devie e is to

,- - 'f,

(,-' p-'h'- !ijJj'C!i'~'''7'jI;tIIi " I e sublect. to m ',,(_ it, more c'ons'p'.IIICU,O'U,S,,,, .~I"'lg!,,:

.:",1 'IJ"I'~~~ I~¥ ~. ~ .. I'J -,l r_

, ' ,{t Mis« ,Ti'lrl,ie'_: 'ebster, ske slept ,forty days and' n:igl~!t,&, without

waking UPI»1 ·(0 'H:Qn'1.)~ .

.' roler sis is especially typical ofU' - e Itivat- dl speec .: _ . ,«B'(Jll.i'vla~~ he ~s p1811' ,:- tired, and hie CQfJ' ~t: carry double»

(O·Henry).. ...

,'I 1 Ii - - '" , ," ,,, -,' er ,.. - - n'n· 0 th e

In ,::, wa,~.: JielliJ_ d to pro: e:P,SlISI :prDp,ile[' rs : e rep _.~. _- IU'",_ .. :_ -,.

, "L! I ' ,.' id d- ,~ - 11'" e -

:gen,eraJ seheme of the sentence, ·wme . is IL'OI - 'C aV()I" ec In Jtlt,r. ,f' s

speech~

-; .. ' «: . .J bow the lib of JI,fJU ,_ el I do» (Sh. '~I.

' .• ' y' istie significance is inheren in the int~en, ional recurrenc 01 form ... :w,c( ds, lor the, most '1)'-eonjunctions, The, re:pet[I,:,OO, of the IOOnj unction and under I:~ nes close connection ofth =' successive S;-,_', tements, e'''lg .. ::

«It (the' t,e"~) is. soaked tJnd hel~~ Qi71d it j10lgs IQbou"~ lal.~ d' ,tumbles down D',"~' y'a~~ Q _ rC,li,,~g3 round your head, andmakesyou

d ~"':r 1I'~

Md __ " 1"J.'er,ome.;I''' _

[ raJ I" I

IOICC:as"o ~'aJly', it may create a gen,er l im,pre;ssjioC '0,

so'~,emnt ,:"prlOlb ,bIY'j du" tOI oertatn :association wih 'tble sty'l'e ofth1e:

Bi,bl(~,~ ,I,' ~g.:

; .r;;l'll d II'.. -.J' 1'/

«sna me rain uJescendect and thefl":'.o(Jld3' came and, !iiii~~, \'IhII'iIl.i,~~,~

6l ' - - ' , - - ,- 'I ",- '- -' "n~ Fi"'iIll'~

,D'8iJidl! ai 'MI.;I I;-Ie' !Q'_'" 'U':-I"':;-" ,t ')12 ,- he - ,", d it fi'" l-l -, ,

GIt'JI" 'f'l"U (-' "':", , .. "" ... , '", ,,,',' I " ','" ","' ", ' ',', ,,: I, , __ ",~ " ,,,' ,_ _ _ _" ", ,'"

'" " ..rp'OlI '.,' e ,OUS;e'. an" it e ..• and great MlrJB the/all 01

IIJJ (Matthe:w)~

.. The ,~~Iljj~C':io: and is extremely often used in. colloquial speech, where ~I IS nota stylistic device but mere pleonasm 'ca:u'slcd, by the 'po'ye~j' '0, _- ~:he :S"leaker"s v,"o,.~"I"fI'~jb':-U~9~1"'U

-' :.Ii,!I.:J " , _ . _ ~ ",' ",J,~.:I!ii,

'"

t ......T eEngUs~ sentence is said to be bum accodill •.... to rigid

Pattem'~ ,n,f '-O',r":d" 0"" "'~d -"r It- , "" '" - - th - ,-, - de ,., " "

- ,,,, __ - _riOJ! U ",~.I I. Ji,I, ,,' ~ _ ,m -I ,s:.:' I ~ 3" t an,I' "':V' ',r, 'I-I'> ron &~O::- m USr.,,~,'

- -', "", I" ,I 1 I I I, ,UB

- - , . I : '_, _ ~ , ... I " ! I

order of'words which '5 pennissibe is very"ectiv sr:yjsti~ally~ ~"

" ''lis '. e i.bYer ion. A ~y dnd of ,vhtion fi"om.e usual ~rder o~ .\y0rds. in hesente ce is called Utvers·OD. Stylis'c

IDv,ers'l'nn ~S' plac - g" ,- ,-, art ' f'" t'h . ill -

_."', ",' ,iIj'\oJll' ,iii' ,i" C",_', ,I :1. PI' "e, 0','" I, ',.', ~Ie' n'l;~'- "If'!~, tnt '0:-" li!!ll p' ositlo n- u- -'11 'Ii I"i- ,_, ~

. - -, ' - , "- __:, - 1jjJ!. "",,, ~ il ill. Q, I I~.w, .It II I n ~ o;i U3j

for' for the purpose of en phasis. Compar.; '_, ... ~.' C,',

TJh 1_,·, - d -

" I . !.- .. ' _J r~ I ,- ' .... _ If,' I'" ,_ - I 'I 1 _ •

,«' Ley sL,1 - ,: "OVlro) 'R ({,Down t1J.'ey slid», .

Th,e In ";,if,,0! ,II ,--" ''";t.;' - f"-' " - - _

," . .' Il. hJ.a. pelluOD 0; a word or III word-gmup whicl do not

usua '11'y' O':C-,""'III'~ '-:-"y' this P-'O' .'5-'-t"· ", ake "'h'l 'I

iJ' ,'lJ,,' "':"","",'yj ,"" ':', '. I ',: 'I' "I "-' '. ,,' ",' ,- '-,-:'-' -,,' '_',' " ",_ 'i!

.'. " • - -. ~ .. .11~on m es them .. Iomment and emp abc.

Th.e Initial po~itjOD may be occupied by various members - QC the

se~tence" .i ~~ive. verbal predicate, adverb",aJ modifi,Cl~ direct O~I-:,c,t, prBpo.\s.~:tjaD,al o'~jectE

.. __ ?ther kin. of iav rsion produce sim iJar styfstic ...... ·ect, Th~: :f~. senence~ 'ember stands in tbellnaJ mstea: .. - oftbe jnl,'.-.·

- osmon l-"t 0' '''''10'''' be ,"',."': ,-"'-', '0' -, \ - , ,,- - ':- -: "I iI "' _ .,.

~ -'_-~ u, I I , I._eeomcs, pl'Dml, ent, This d,:'lce :IS, ,ofte,n ,-. sed I'

po"e '. ~" a --I ~ - - -

_': '~JJ',t:'i ~'~g .. , ~

{I' :Us.' had '1M',iiI"'iIl.Ili.A'.n'(II~'--'-I· . ,,:f ... - .JI

- ,.fJ>fw.,i . _'W;i' Jf"~JUI'~'~ ~"ins BnC,nlQn' ela"

MQi~ic mocc'Q8,im 0'';' deer-skin. _, :,'~

~I' rI' ~ ~~l ~ i"~"1. !1l:.11II Iii q

(LlJn.g/ellolw)

Ii

.49

A Manual of English Stylistics

Interaction of Syntactical Structures

Sentences consisting a coherent narration are logically connected. This circumstance brings about certain structural connection. structural influence of one- sentence upon the neighbouring one. structural assimilation of sentences is

stylistically relevant. . .

Parallelism means a more or less complete identity of

syntactical structures of two or more contiguous sentences or verse

lines:

« The cock is crowing,

The stream isjIowing, The small birds twitter, The lake doth gliuer»

(Wordsworth)

Parallelism is often accompanied by the lexical identity of

one or several members of each sentence. In this case parallelism serves as a syntactical means of making the recurring parts

I h thei di

prominent, more conspicuous t an ell' surroun mgs: .

Chiasmus is a special variety of parallelism. It I~ a

reproduction in the given sentence of the general syntactl.ca! structure as well as of the lexical elements of the preceding sentence, the syntactical positions of the lexical elements

undergoing inversion: . .

«The jail might have been the infirmary, the infirmary might

have been the jail ... i! (Dickens). . .

Anaphora is the use of identical words at the beg~rmlO~ ~f

two or more contiguous sentences or verse lines. Sometlmes It IS

combined with parallelism, e.g.:

«Farewell to the mountains high covered with snow!

Farewell 10 the straits and green valleys below! Farewell to the forests and wild-hanging woods! Farewel!to the torrents and loud_pouringj7oodshi

(Burns)

50

A Manual of English Stylistics

The expres~ive purpose of anaphora is to imprint the ~Iements, emphasized by repetition, in the reader's memory to ! m part a pecul iar kind of rhythm to the speech and to increase' the sound harmony.

Epiphora is recurrence of identical elements in the end of two or more contiguous utterances, e.g.:

«Now this gentleman had a younger brother of still better appearance than himself, who had' tried life as a cornet of dra~oons, and found it a bore; and had afterwards tried it in the tram of an English minister abroad, and found it a bore )}

(Dickens). ...

. Epiphora contributes to rhythmical regularity of speech, making prose resemble poetry. It may be combined with anaphora and parallelism.

Stylistic Value of Syntactical Categories

Syntactical ~ategories may. possess gertain ... st;:listic va!u~ r1,}o~~ of them display expressive potentialities; others Impfy a purtenance to special spheres of sub-languages, i.e. they are nonneutral.

The Connection between Parts of the Sentence

There are two polar types of syntactic connection in the sent~nce: subject-predicate relation and secondary relation, i.e, rela.tlOns between secondary arts f a sentence. The subject-

di I' 'r Wi. J

~re reate re anon serves to c nvey a piece of information, to

inform the hearer about something. The secondary parts of the sentence make, together with their e d-words ~rErt,ordco~binations, i.e, comL.posite d~nomi~~ti~~t"~ functionally equivalent to simple words.

51

A ManUDI of EnglishStylistics

Between the two polar types of syntactical connection there exists an intermediate type - a semi-predicative connecti~ wW_~_;; occurs when a secondary part oflhe sentence becomes «detat1fed».

Detachment means that a secondary member a) becomes phonetically separated, b) obtains emphatic stress, c) sometimes, though not necessarily, changes its habitual position. This secondary part of the sentence, remaining what it has been (an attribute, an adverbial modifier, etc.), at the same time assumes the function of an additional predicative; it comes to resemble the predicate.

Detachment makes the word prominent. Thus, from the point of view of sty lis tics, detachment is nothing but emphasis.

Theoretically, any secondary part of the sentence can be detached:

«Smither should choose it for her at the stores - nice and dappled» (Galsworthy) - detachment of the attribute.

«Talent, Mr.Micawber has, capital; Mr. Micawber has not» (Dickens) - detachment of the direct object.

Parenthetic Elements, i.e, words, phrases and clauses disconnected grammatically with their syntactical surroundings, also possess stylistic value. Parenthesis may perform the following stylistic functions:

• to reproduce two parallel lines of thought, two different planes

of narration (in the author's speech), e.g.:

« ... he was struck by the thought (what devil's whisper? ~ what evil hint a/an evil spiriti) - supposing that he and Roberta - no, say he and Sondra - (no, Sondra could swim so well and so could he) - he and Roberta were in a small boat somewhere ... » (Dreiser);

• to make the sentence or clause more conspicuous, more

emphatic, e.g.:

«The main entrance (he had never ventured 10 look beyond that) was a splendiferous combination of a glass and iron a w ni flg. .. )} (Dreiser};

52

A Manual o/English Stylislia

• to strengthen the emotional force by making part of the

utterance interrogative or exclamatory, e.g.:

« Here is a long passage - what an enormous prospective J make of it! - leading from Peggoty's kitchen 10 the front door» (Dickens);

• to aV~id . 0. notono~. s re,petit.ion of similar const:ruc. tio.n~

lI. . a . 1\ "".,. . '.o.c. "(

• to rm colloquial character to the author's narra Ion.

Revaluation 01 Syntactical Categories

Revaluation of syntactical categories means the use of certain syntactical categories or forms of their expression with their meanings transferred. Thus, a statement which is usually given the form of a declarative sentence may be expressed by means of interrogative sentence; several kinds of sentence patterns may express negation, although they do not contain any grammatical devices of negation (the negative p~i.cle o~egative pronouns).

Rhetorical question is an 'ilNfrmlhrve 'or negative statement which only assumes the form of a question. The use of the interrogative form performs an expressive function since it l~jre~J direct appellation to the hearer's opinion. The speaker never doubts what kind of answer to his question can be expected. and the conclusion is left with the hearer:

If this belie/from heaven be sent, If such be Nature's holy plan, Have I not reason to lament What man has done of man?

(Wordsworth)

53

&e:riCis."--' J~ ISla lei tll£' IlJIple' t!f ed'(:11 ,Sj1l1ttl:'l!li:clJ'l' ------:lJ, lelSil1B' ,mel.IIS '"Ii

tllelo,I'tJwii~_,lI ~' __ :- ::_:£I: '-- <F

'I 'tt"'~'I- -m' - i 1- - ,,--.'1 Ii __ ---~-: --- ,-if~ - -- I ,-",~,. -M'- - - 0- .. ---- --dll m'f-- j,'1L.. - - 11' - - - -_ - - _' ~-

r, ,~, ,- I. I I;8u"lng ,go .ner,(Jrl~l"-)~Y 1,0,- ~ i.-, me pO,dce eome ~ find

mehere - (He dashes 1:0 the dtJ(J,r:~, Thens. -,r) ,fG"'",,,o,~~)~

2- H' I' - -- - - - i!i - - -:- 'I 10' - ,<!! i -ii ,-, ' -III e- ~ ,--

--:~ -" Ie notices a. S·all- - ,", stain on the w,~ndo.rw"'llde ru,8.~. He cannot

_ change it with the o<-er 'rug, they I ea d:~ffer,en,t size (Christie),., 3, ~IDU would get I, slcaffolding, pole entan g lied , you wouldE~ii

(,1 erome) ~ - -

--- An-' nd _..-_~'-L, --, - - .10.,;'" ----, --- ..... 11- -: 'b'll -I ,- - ,ii -.. --

'_"ill -' '-- I~ 0,8.Y-:--- 10'D'6 UI ng-'~- rea.u~y·- 'bioOI- led h ilifli1li it!!! DD th, D ...... 'lb' ---

• L ," :_ .," ---':. - .~. ',_" • r H:I:ILJ ~ b1 __ -._~JL~ -- _ - i.'::."

m,~lmchol,y' le[, .v,ing, in his heart _. because the 'sun 'was like

~chanbn,en't 'OID _his face and 10' - 'the clouds and 0.10, tb.8 golden bilrch leaves, nd the wind's ru-I '1'"f'lla, 'W----~ICI so - '-Dlt"tll~--' an -d-- , ... ·L, 'y'A'

~I, _I. _~ '~.~~':!I! ~ '_ .. . ._' "'. __ ~ ,~,"IL v __ ~l " .. 1 .' ,'w.L.' ~ It..:: I ._1 _ ~ tJlll.'''' ·1', ~ rlliiii

'tree_peen IS,C! djat~, an.d the slekle of a m,IQOrD, pale in tb.,~ lb'

I('G' .·:I!i!illlew-, orth 'y) ---

'.,' .. '_:__ Ip,(~, [' Il,_ .,.11]

, "

S ~ - - t 'II - - ~-t- - --, t 1- h' -I ,'-., . -- - ",iL..::_'.' ... fi~'--' - Ii' ,~- OJ -( ,-- ,

'Il 1\ re, lurD I" •. u, - ~' ~.IOU., I ..• , YOlll IU.u:n~ - II t:OI ,I' ivest It :for the: benefit of

'the UtUe 'C:h:I,PI (we call Idm Jo;llv')-1 'who, bears' Ouf' C',-;L;":iI!,~j~g'n, and,

_ J . - - - - -IJIlJlJ\i!lYgJ!!I. UJLI!. ,I

_ ,~Y CDU:rt'BS?,'", Dar sUft],1uoe" I sba],1 be 'vlery I' ad ~Oal,sw;Drth1)~ ,

16,", l love ;,','Y Love and my' ~ ove IIQiY'es mel ([Collerid,g.),.

'7,!. ~d my soul -- '. m ou,t 'that s-~ ;ado'w dtlt ~les, illo'ltklg aa, the floorl

IS ·'0 "Ie ],i:I'oo, ~,:n,lev'~nnOlie:~ (p'oe),~ '-'

a '" D OIWJ], came th e storm aDld: smote ag,,::.:'Qf-, ~ Th-I· -- e vess -8=-.:1 I~D--I :Ii,ts'~.

• ,I -- - . . .. _ . iliUJUl1 ., .. __: 'I'lIioAlI!, .... ··1 .. . JI.

sb'le', '. (-'Long,~.·[eno:-w· -:)-- -

_.- - 1~'~]iIi ~ •• _. ~_.:. , •• _ _ -'. __ ,.: iii

·.~I,~ I ~~t ~o[ OiXio.~d, las IOD,e' ,goes iotOI exU,e; sbe tOI LOrhdOQ rwell5)~ 1.0j~We~,11 Jud,~[e' T-IJ~'tcher~ he· I~OIQ,k .i,t ·'!thle m,on.[ey] land Pllt j'-- [ou,_ at,

'-m-I-'·'-rl IA-ir'iif' ·cr·· "II':I~I- m:!'· .)-- . ~

!" i !I~ ~jl'r!i-~l!! ... J r -yt"[ '. ," I. !II

,'I~',,~<'amen, ,ar'e not mad-, for atta,c'-"~ Wait they' m,_-,sl (Coor:ad),., 12~O,enIUenessjn pas~~f Oil ,!~ What could ,ha,ve 'b e-':in m,Qire sed~oti've. to

'th'e scared,~ ,s,tar/,ed, h.,ea:n of --Jlt g·lrl? (- C--- -'O"~ nl'-Q,d----)' J ~

ttA dirk gentlc an.. ..A vrYb~c1 ·Dl~;in the ,hlst de~

[conBtrain~d reserved" di; Jele.n.' ').1 't [-'01 _.b,l,ed fDic':'[fms).. -

· • I

"

5--

"

A- -

-

.

l,4~,:Sh[e n.~~:_, -DW'OO, bier e;ycs ... '"~I· ifle at. me and said, I looked exacUy ~i,ke -'- .eli,a B ·j,g,anzall',S, bOly~, Around the mo,u,th I(Sa1inger)I,~,

~,S".:". d it 'was SlO 'unll~ely ,-'--I_;lt- ,an.y ene w'ou-,d, 'biDu'b),e 'tOI 'look 'dtere

,~ u:nti~ , ... until ... well (Dreiser), , 6~~ .. the p :ho'togrsplb 10"·' Lo _ I Lindbeck he tore intol sma) I, bits

- ~ .

aero ss and :aCfOSS and 'BC:[lO,S:S (F er .er);; ,

_1[O.lt was Mr Squeers's custom to., make ,I sort of repert, .. , ..

r-~lo:'i!:Ii,il",d-- :n',Q:. the 're.-:~,ifI!t-iln~'s·: :";II'D- d £..;:~'D- d !il', he 'L:8~d·.~. seen, tb--~, news 'be, e had rl

~'~ltUJI. W e! ~I-,~ _' _.JJ.gl. IIlU,I.!l! . ~ I ._I .lL1-1~~L - g I_ll,~ [IIjJl__ 1Iil.!~~-:II. ,_,V -_V- i11, 1.; ,~:~g.!. j

heard, the (letters be :b.ad, brought dO'WD" the bills w'hich had been,

. " b~' h 'h- d b 'id-' d --,

,Piau d, t - - e accounts 'W - ~ C~, ',_ at, , [ , -.~ en 'OUPal: 1;1, an~ , so :0' -_~

(Dickens),

]'8IJ - 'is ,~-lis~ike of her grew because be was ashamed 101_ - it,~~ Resentment 'bred shame', .. ' - d shame in its: tum 'bre·', more

Me' IIll"liSo'Ar" m' ~~'~ (H- I 'I "'""II-~"'I,e~'1J')-I.lIi f. ilw.~.~ _ ~_ 1Y~:J.'~.. I:Q&I "J; !Ii

191,,'P,i- st the UIQlnrt, then 'the back, th -0 the sides, tIt,in tblB

if'! 'II 'II' .~ e- -'rs- cripti ""n--:-- ,;I!.L~n th --, - ~[~ .... II w- -'c:-re- obieets ~;- -, '~'llre,__:__"wm' an's

~U![ -: ~ .,1 _' ILlY,. I,! IUII~·-' , _", iJI'~AI'1 '_' .. , ... ~ '. ··~IJJ~·· ,til. \.!II jJ!.~; .':. '. ~~- U-I.~ _:_

admiration (Dr]"ctms)~

20 I see 'W- at y01U mean .. , And I 'wa'Dt the mo -!ey~ MUl,t have :it (Pri estl ey )I~.

r

1!%:erC;j· .2 $--;·ecifu IIJ',~ fl" --"'DC'I;G"S' ~elrtJ,rl"(l,d ,I~v_-;- s'~ntilclie:1I1

_ [~:J'r '_.' ,. j'Jl, ll'~'

expressive ,Illf::fI,IIS I;n Itlle lo'llawl'n'l aamples:

-

·

'1 I~I" do ~- -- --.-' --ryth- - [;- ," ,;-',---- .t:,'" "t'-h-~- ,~:- Th-- - - -,;, - -----,,- .. , ----;-,', ,----:',- ad -.- d

r , ' •. .,." Ie", -one ey[e~, :,,' - l,ng, Jl.Of ,~' I.em ~ ,I ,ey 'Vie ,ea~en m,y ,00 ' an ~ .

d 'k ~ '1- -h-·' d far th '1- d lb'L '"

I runs my wme, I ve run tn e U~ enan.:, S tor t iem, ,[ ,,_ Ie ma:~,.e " l '8lJI

Plart'",les c;br them~ '[1'v·e, '-med m,ylsel" tn's,:~de out to do 'them

~ -

"fs'v[QUI-S A'od wlla 'havle D'ot D'ut lof i'? 'Nerthino nothi'Do

,I: .. ' .. _. ~ , .,.' _.'~' .. -. ~ [_ .' ~ .. ' - .. , .. _ ._'[~l :_.J..:_. - ,. [~'. ._.- - • e..[t.

no- thilno' (Mau n"'1L.i8D1)L

... - ~ I~!!! It! ~ . _ - I ! ~e-I, . " ~J

2,., « .11,1' res,\dt of an "pri,g' ~,t;. SOb-'l' an:, Rlodly life», he l:a,u.ghed~,

P'l- -, -- -- ,--, _--co, -kc' 'PI1:,-, ··f--'-- - -.-:~,- . .. ,- fl.A',-, nih, -:-, --)---

1(;( I enty 1011 WOlf .. [1, ~en:ty gl~ exe.rClISIBi,.,i,» I\Jk'YJ,,3U,&uam ~

"l'y- -"- - - t,-,- -' -- -- -- 1- -- --'d-:'~-d- '~r.riiHL I d'i -:-', --'ii'-t-- --'-Gn-t' UQ-'U t"-,-- h'- - e ---:-I--Y- -mo:re-'

,J ~ ,(: I au, 11av6 a, SiP I ,en t I rltu~~ 1_-1 Qi.D . Wgul- ,J' .1_- .,0 ' av, an_' "I -_-,

'-gmt It m'ir"bt g .. 0 to y··-lllur l·[·~~ad Oh duli'og'-' l"'m····· , .. "'Hy-- ,-, 'ad

~...:- ' •. 1 Il"~b~ _ '_:.. .·l· [' .. ,,_,1_, I ) -.' .• "I ',._" 'I .. _:...... '1.~-3] ! __ 't • , '.' .• ,t I·

Ynl'iI' ··'e-- n--O-'It-' IC.lnni'!l,.D';~Dd·- I d:~ 'h-- tt!!iIlv-I~'e'::' m-~_-., 1 _ __'" ..... ....1i 'Y-AU-I a''''tl~ ;f- Y'o- 'I --,---glre,-'

U11jd ,.. . . - \JI!I 1,'-'-'-'1, IL1'lliiilc• "i! 1 - ~~ a _.. - lOU, U __ ~'''' ~I~l lI!_ , .... !Ii._ ~JIi."

, - -

~ .,

COD[cieit,ed but i t 's v'ery re3tfu:l, to have ,8, husband who 's not eonceitedr 1(. ',emi'ngway')~,

4. «I'm Se:ri.DU.S" y'1mOM>. he declared DOW, with the same dreiBY so,lemm.ty. «I'm not joking. You get me ,that job out there as

It' n. on 'iiJi ~ y,~n[u" 1iii""'i!3i'i" I' 'm C!'liJ!n~ n'u,~"ii.~ (Pri psttey" )'

~IV U [UiIiJi > v" ,valLiL,., ,'," ~~:, ,1\:1 ,arlf,li' """" - - ',:. ,,' Il

S. eN QU are. You are worse the sneaky. Y ou are like snake, A

snake with an Italian uniform: with a cape around YOll:f neck»

1(H[emin,gwa~)~

[6-', ''':i''iI! ~~~t\'Ud dn ',~'~' m, in" - d ,- '11- im tif: ~ h-' 'I~ '~,~,if<[i!3I!~·n;' ~~ ie"""~ con - eeite . .J1 and d' :~ ,d;n""t b -, ore:

"'~ 'l!!;~I, v¥ u ,IL ' , Ii. ,'.,' II, _ , ,I, ,_ ,J, "¥ '¥!II"[~.!!,If., !J. ~u VV_ ,V'""'_ - ~UlJ - - i!

me, and 'bore: me, 'and bore mlC).' (H',emln,gway').,

7. I was veryangJEY. «The who:le .•.. . is crazy. Downhelow they bloWUp II Uttb3 bridge, Here they leave I. bridge on the main road, 'Where is lev'er:yb6dy?'Do[n'~t 'they try' and stop them at ,81ll,7)~,

(H,emin,g,wa.y)~,

8~, «Isn't it a grand coon,try?l I love the way' j't feels under my'

f sh '-,,- --', (H":--1M,; w'_ ",,",v), t ""L' ~vl I'

~ , "oes~)' ", ,Ie~~~n,g ,"_u..~tc,l~ ~

9'.«Nev,er In my .life have J faced a. sadder duty .. It win always be

W<j; ,., 'I,..., m,II~''"~ I(D- -F~I~,~,efii"\1

JlitJ.J. '_ l~' ,'. .J&l"'·lil _ ,~t:}~! !II

IO~,«(Bu,t~ JIIn,C"1 'you owe 'Bverythin,g to Gllberb)." s,lid Mrs. Tower

1I1dipantiy. ~(you wouldn't exist without him. Wltho'ut .~. to '

d~C;1 iD'O' y[ - ""Ii;'['1if p. ~ .eo 'y'iln.l1; '''I'~ 'k.:a n €''iii'''L. ~'n'" o'!!.\. f'lA "~nf'll A',brQ'IH'l[)~1 I

I, '1I&!i!iiJ(Ji,m "" ,~' uw'..c ~'J _'v~'"vU!, 11 1jJ~, ,u,uUj,b " ,t;;.''I' \J;,If',"""II;,.I!I',i$II,~WJ!l;,w;,!,

l l.In her mother [;'1 ,SI la~ iUtieI\Ylards, 'Ro:sem;~~ cried and cried, ,<<)

-I II;" ~1!.1

love hinl,! 'Mo'tb'er,~I':m; !d\'&S,per'llte~:y in, love 'with him ... I never

mew I ,could :-~l that 'way' about 'anybo!dy .. And he's married and '] like her too ~, it's j'us't helpless, Oh, I love him 8,,,,11»

(F img,era), d):'. 1 J<

12'-[ n"-- e --n~p;l!tJi i ,·'1 'h-' ":i~i -'- - - h'" - t.. ~;I;,L ~,n't'illn' "- j'!i;,t:ii;!I .i :V" ,'p '-e'll

_ •...• i~ "_[ " 'V'~ll~~; In _.'e "aut :r081~ '_ l:gu W1W,1Il :KIl,u~'uy:iWw;:.: ,(,' ~r:J w,~,_

",L. I l' '[-1 ,,- -. ,- ," ). ",AI b'EJi, ~-'~!1 L . f

UJi,Q;,'I'lii . 'W .. "iIi"iIi!D t~ ~,~;II ... V'n.'i'~' th~.~ Ie, ,I"ilg''If' '~if!' a.' 11, ,- I m·e- ''iI:ii[tI'i'u;,ef' "0······ 0'1 '1'Q'~t!i AD' 'tjt;,1

~~;L;,., '_ ""'1, . [~U .I yu , . '_ '"",,,1tU. ,"~" '''~~'''''I " -- UU,_ ' ,u,., "- -' iL~~ __ YI", .. u

youa:t :a1ll .•• and as for your bothering me about it at lunch time, 1

wo!,n "t s:tuui 'tbiit :at, :11'I,!,) (Fi.'tz,g:,erald) " ,~.

13,.,«No~' 'No~,l 'Let 'her' ,g:o~: Let. b,er ,g,t)i~ you :~DD1" you fO!Dil~,I[)~ cried, U'rsula. at, 'tb1e: tOPi of her' v'olce~ 'CQmp:I,IBtl~i1.J;" [outs:~ de, h,er,self'

(Lavnen,ce ),!,

,56

.....

'14" ,.:'01 l I ill" '~I 1"''U .' -

. ~.<~ut_ w, I._ u sayjust what you wish and I'U do what you

wlsb [and you, will never want all;y~'.: other !O'l11;"'I,s. '~,r1I'~' y::'~'o"u' ?"!to, She

_ . , __ "_,_" iC;!i~' _,";II, ,11:, .' .... ".' ,II _.'_> ,'!!;or

looked at me very' happily, «I 'l~ do w'hat y~-'Ou "j.f,~ nt ~I'n,d" 1i!ii'~V' 'W' ", " 'lb- , at

_..' I _' ,_ rJ"!!II - j '_ ,,_l ,', " . '_ I. _'. I' ._. _~J '~"'I~EAI- I~Jl.:... ~.aJ.· :. I IQ,I._

you W,3nl'1i: and 'then 1"[1 'be 81 OT-,Q\atj~ ~U' jf'!i;,('iI;A!C'Ii!li:'!' won't "'[?"'\.

'_ _ ., '_"" . '. ",,_ i~'!!.;i'--'-- ~',_:_1!I;;i!1;;;.;oV~!;.'!ii,[>:'!V _" 1 ~"T

(Heming<wa:v')' IF v''·

~ , - ;'" :.".".. "_;iJ.' ," "'iiil ~..,.

I (!",',f'lb- ~'I! - b -,,- - ,_, - b - b ,", ' ,,-, , -, ,~'

",~,![(~I~I.·· e s ,.~flZen, .• rszen» .;rU:r.,st 'from Mrs Davidson 'Her anaer

..... ~L .. ",::-,,-c,:,:~,;-~'-c:.'-_J.-::-'~.-,' hi' ,." ,'~ c·-,.,--.-~---" ,_: ,,"c, " •• _ '.:",' ~ ,','.' J,~,_:'

lIJm,Qst suffeeated l er (L,awreo,ce) ..

:m6~,((: . ",;dlrigbb),,~, Edna wrig[:[]ed. her shoulders «Don't 0'0 on" Mld"

_ ,_ ,_ ,,' .' , _ " II, ' , 'r:_, ' ' '- , . -' "'-' , ' ,," , '", "" " ',.', '[~i!".'" ,..' '-'+ '~--,_,I ,

un, [about :It''''i'» l~les,d,e~'),I~ "

,~. ,~,~ IJ" _ •

17,~«I 'w'ou],d:n."t have at bo,y" I mean 'I· alwavs wante d [0'1il,'-I· i!ii' I mean

'iii _ '-I·· , -"'.' '"' ,. '-'-'-'- ,c', ["110.,, .'I~'J"~ :' [UUlJi,_·-:- .. , ,e.ll, ['iiJi';o ,I ,., ,IWWI&

[Glr 511 ~vle: "[I,ot a Iot more zip to them, J: mean thev're II Jot

[@- '" ~'" .. B- , , I '1i' I '- , ,.I -'. " . ,.

Z1ll"ltnrllCr . .' ut . el' s, 11.')10 b (. L ard o· . ,1Ii:!Ii;1Ir"~1

Jrr _" II ." .. .1.", I·, rb~·-·t~I-:' .. .'.:"__~''':'_l_!l~'.}~

), :8~F:i.ve milllu:tesl of erashinz tbto'U,:~'b, a" thieket olf·~'L.'~lp .. , ~!,-,'~ b ro , 'U' niJ.r.,f

o 1!O-- -- --'--- "_' - - ,_' -'_0"[ I ~llll}~ _.·WI,m .!__',' _", ,I. 151:111.]

tbsmto· open woods, where the three horses wm-e tied to· l~wa 'b;aogin,g branch,e~:t, One was wailtin,o fo,'r' John Blg Doe whe

- - - ---,t;!! -'-'-' _., , . .. i. , '·)Vb" ,., IU

would never ride by night or day again. This aoimalthel'Obbers dlvested of laddl,e~ and brldle and, set free (O"'Henry),~,

]- Wh-' "-:-L ' ,n..4, ,-,.,,1\... .

'_' '" '«li"","'" .', " ,at pu:~ 101 i'llU'e East 'w'[as, you 'from any 'w,ay?» '"'" <~:New' York

'S.::,t'-'_ r!~i., ','. , .. ~ id If_!fh'" . ,'-11L .. D'" ~" ' ,_ ,., ' ''''''',':If.'''. -,I, 1> ',' , -_:' [Ii '_' , .. - " - ,'.' '-' <- \. ,',

'.' I_BL,e>-", Sal,I., ~. ,lar,A, ... edson., (10 "'H1enry)",

2~ ,~(Glfl» lli.d, the .fl.-rst man, ,~N'[Drth,wles.tem M:o'unted, Polieel That ,mus,t 'be a j,ob:1 A, aood rifle and '3. g':"IO"-"'O'~' d horse and no closed

- - _',," _' - ," [t:;!! '-,' - ' -' , .. ,,'._'c_.', - 1'::..: .' ,"._:_' , _ _'"",I!.~[!j;;;!t, QJl.Ji.'", ,Jul '~\' ','~~ ,

!!ellSon on lndbms!' That's what I call Sportls (Reed). ' ·

31 Thl~ 'gnl snm' ab-Rid'v' "Ii' .' .. r-1d .[ii<, ~'II ,-" -

,_ '"' "-' , '\;4[Ij, :,."v [ >Y~ ~v",\f I CO:Ut= n _ t see Y"e'Jlted out so h,n~r~PJ 'h' ~, 0:0"" u1d'-n' " ",t,

,_ ,_ '" ,_ _' " _ ,', _,_, '_' '_, _ _"' __ " ' , ,-,_,u,~,~!~ c.:,_'Ii;;i!' ,,,, < "~,,,' ,,~_, "

Ii1ti1;!i1p[d'c "y-!: !!!Iipa.........- ·'1;1I::n...· " . '. 'II d- h - , , ,'1 ,'- [- -

, "aI .. · _Il; .. ' !~: _","ii4ILl! 'r(' "" Q,ere . "" .. £!l: '0'0' t)~, ,""', «pl'a~tr io[b,~ hA·ue1e", an:~"'-:- d·~ "U--;f,o

~ I! - _. D·_·!I!I _"_' _. "1 "_ ,~~ -l(JJ~ :_,·_U __ I~'.'· _.. I .1_,. I iUI Ill.

~ .. I» s~ys I, and shlrtiedto nln (Reed).' . . ..

4~1 ,~d, lo'va 'N,ev.da~j' 'Why t 'Ou:y do,n'I['t c:v'en, h,ave :m:ealtim,es here.. , n,ev'er m,et' so many,"['." pl-~'eolp[,.le; didn~'t o'\W a 'W;tIJC,L'~:". I~Ai'I'1IAJjj!J')':'"

. _' .] ,~, _. . _ .. l _ J 1 • _" u. " .. I.W ll~ "JLil~_I/~!!"~J . iii

. .s~:' 'Pll-. am,d discQ,m;fo(rt - 'that: w[.' :all the fuiure:' h·~~~ld·';A-'[d'~-1 :wiean,whlle: U,g]i'D,ess", sickn,es:s\i. fangu,1! l(HiC ,': :~~.'~Iey_'::-'~)", .'_ ... _.... ...• II,'" c

_ ',1.1 -.-- --el-.l·~· ... 1 I _"_A.!l., __ .' .. !III

.. , /

A Manual 0/ English Stylistics

6. {(What about the gold bracelet she'd been wearing that afternoon, the bracelet he'd never seen before and which she'd slipped off her wrist the moment she realized he was in the room? Had Steve given her that? And ifhe had ... » (Quentin).

7. With these hurried words, Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy on one side, jerked his friend into the vehicle, slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the street-door, locked it, put the key in his pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting ... (Dickens).

8. This story really doesn't get anywhere at all, The rest of it comes later - sometimes when Piggy asks Dulcie again to dine with him, and she is feeling lonelier than usual, and General Kitchener happens to be looking the other way; and then - (O'Henry).

9. «Very windy, isn't it?» said Strachan, when the silence had lashed some time. - «Very», said Wimsey. - «But it's not raining», pursued Strachan. - «Not yet», said Wimsey. - «Better than yesterday», said Strachan ... - «Tons better. Really you know, you'd think they'd turned on the water-works yesterday on purpose to spoil my sketching party». - «Oh, well», said Strachan. - «How long have you been on that?» - «About an hour», said Strachan (Sayers).

IO.Nothing - nothing! Just the scent of camphor, and dustmotes in a sunbeam through the fanlight over the door. The little old house! A mausoleum! (Galsworthy).

11.Students would have no need to «walk the hospitals» if they had me. I was a hospital in myself(Jerome).

12.She possessed two false teeth and a sympathetic heart (0' Henry).

13.She had her lunches in the department-store restaurant at a cost of sixty cents for the week; dinners were $ 1.05. The evening papers - show me a ew Yorker without his daily paper! - came to six cents; and two Sunday papers - one for the personal

58

A Manua! 0/ English Stylistics

C. olumn and the other t d

o rea - were ten c t Th

to $ 4.76. Now one had to b I en s. e total amounts

14. There was a v:..hisper in m u~ c ~thes, and - (0 'Henry).

out, and not love of the w't;\ ami y. that it was love drove him 1 e e mamed (Steinbeck).

Exercise 4 C' ify I'

. laSSI the expressive d, . b -

of syntactical units; specify tI. fi ev_'C€S ased Upon the excess

e the follawing examples: te unctIons performed by them in

J J .... the photograph of Lon a Lindbeck he .

f: and across- and across (F b ) tore into small bits across

1f 2 H . . er er .

i . e sat, still and silent until hi fu

! proposals and brough't I .. IS ture . landlord accepted his

f: business. He sat, still an;I:I~g mate:lals to complete the

1 (Dickens). lent, while the Jandlord wrote

I 3. Suppos!ng his head had been held u

i SUPPOSl[lg the first blow had b nder water for a while.

fJ shot. Supposing he had been truer. Supposing he had been

-r." way, the other way SlJpeen. strangled: SupPOSing this way that

. posmg anyth b . '

i from the one idea for that ' tng ut getting unchained

t 4. You know _ how brilli tWha~ mexorably impossible (Dickens)

.... Ian e IS what h h .

f hurts me. It hurts me every da ' f .e s ould be doing. And it

t 5. The Whitewashed room yo my life (Deeping).

.~ book-keeping was in p::~:~;e while as of old, the methodical

~ distant howler was h . .. progress as of old, and some

'.. (Dickens). angmg against a cell door as of old

i 6. He ra~ away from the battle. He was a .

i that didn't want to kill or be kille n ordmary human being f battle (Heymj, d, so he ran away from the

~ 7. Failure meant poverty

i th fi ' poverty meant squal

.. ~ . e mal stages, to the smells . . or, squalor led, in

Maurier). and stagnatJOn of B. Inn Alley (du

f

,

t

59

- .' ... ~.\. ' ,.~.: _. d'"

, ! 1. I _ -, , "1-" " .

. I , . . bntan and' II' - Qirs, S" ratt ,. ,I ,~-

8 . -' dI ,- . e' ,i"!!jO' ·1~lc··.h- - 'and the '.::CU1C _' ',: ~ ':I '. ,:.:. ..~ '.' ',. '- - d" -_ .. t..:.II,_cA c'''· 'n-

, ,. '. 'W.g. -:31 d - an' tumUi,lI.~ . II

.. I~ ~ " ". "Ii ~ d~ ~~,d~ wh·l. I"p-::Ip' e .:d' and c1ursc,d'll :111,·, S,W'O-'Cil " :, -' . " .,~,

J-I'ana~. , ,~I!, '-: - I.~' ','. 'J. I.:: ' - ' ' .. Ii 1,..... .."

.'- . D".' .....• , •• 1 ;'e ~ eawe to Golden SqUaN: (DICLeDS). - .e 'I·

together, .. , ., '.,'J,,~' . c" ..... d I - alle round Wadey and 1m

g, i wake up and I ' .. ' aio e, an.v:, ' ....,., " Ilook at his face

-:- , .. ,. ~ bilk"" (l .. ,· .: ,'~th,·-· '·.·I· .. cole ,an,d 1 m~:. ,01_, e and 1100-

alone ~".,d.1 I·" ,,' 'WI "pc,~. - -

llil I ""I BI,iI, - -. " )

~"'I;I ,~n'l"m hom'~', land :itlls ~. ead.. (B[,~ln~~~ . ds ,'. -. ~'d' b·:1-:S·7) bsn ads

'¥'I ,!I[.;J':I,J, - - b d 'h~ - 'fl - .. -. IBn" .-- 's·~ O!!i'.!ii,iPIPi I I, I .

'I'~" . -.,~ .. '.~ .. ' --::er" '19 ':cet··· , .... g..: ~':_:__I ~," ,-

10" ,.: e:: ·D·li ,1:1 S~IIO- 11!iI1:p'~d· ~,:~ SI . :ace, aDld, rub . '-' -' . I· ,'I - j ". . dl 'hOt ~ . .:: -. -ao···I. .,'

I . D· ,a w .. ~,u_ .. ,", d --'use" "Im I,

.c... ,;;;._ . '.~, - . '._. . .}- - '-:-.- -:-1, -. d hl'm an: I rI·· . . I" I~' ,

. d" . b:b· ed . - '~IS' . 'and! ,aD!d :S:PI asne ,.' I 1.'_ .. , - . - " ~ . --,

lao, ru~ .. ~e· _ll.'c,' . , - ,- ~ ..... iekens)

. - ., . d 'bl' untll 'b- e 'iII~!Ua- 101 ~I~ re d :as, b :et...,[IOiot :: __. u;:~ '."',,'"

': ·o~· w- :-:Iar~' ~1'n"'II. - ll.rlilU. ..",,: I~' S~ .'

_,II_i_I,wl y.-.,.~ - . '~ -

'iii' I

--, I '. -- ... , .. - .....

II II - _-'. ~ .--' I' tee 'ie,.

. . _ "' ... ,!i'ii -'iJ~'lfP.'n.IJI1'J " .,' 1!(lN.' SJ',1- --'- --.'

,!!.,-, ~-r-I -,di. ',1 on lu'l~el iii., - hJ,iI:·~I~'"dl:·;:J" • . ,L

, .' ere se : __ ,"",,!om, , .~'I_'- ~,' - . -":-:, - _ ..- :: e-r~·,!I!·'~'.--·-111i,1I., u,-:--

. ........... ~ - " t /I' . DIM" L)' . ,~.... ~ .' -, I...... '.''''' .

. . -' ", .~-' .. -'~-'- .... ~, --:-i-:-ac'sl r:'~.!1'~ '1/\"''-'' ~ "j, -----" .. _-' '.'

. - '-1' ~IJ' -lji"I!I!II!" 's ,~ I ",I... }il": 0., 'u~lln,· 1(11 ~IS. , _.' :. ' '. -' . ..

DIrDC' ,I,." Ii, ~ .' . . ,B .... Ill" - It!I!l

,..IIIi;i' I:", II! __ '~ : .. I_'_ - '!' ' .' .' - .

'R "

I " .. ', . .1:", II

l,,~- .lee .!I

. ~ - .-, . tit ." '. t a. 're~lgioUB

'I M'" ae 'IO·····,O·-:,1l ... ed .: ~ moe 'w'~'tb, some dls:tIS,.::,e.", I~ .. :.'. ---., 0,001_ ····d' -T~'h-"_~ .~'~I~

I .'.1 '~:'I ' '. , .. !I\i ' .. :"__, I_: iiL "-' t .. _ • - I kn ~ ... :,. ~ I" :'-0' .', lerlw ~,

- ,II 'OiL· . - .," __ ... 'r.,. 'donll't.-o II,oun,ld _."~I'·;OC,M·~.,;'B-:·_: .,.:i '-' ,.:_' ,

m-ID»~., ,.e S,n\ati~' ,(B., ,I '-" gl'~" ~- .. _~~,_ ,- .' .Wh·, ',' - -c nen y. '10:- IU: , Id·-r,le ....

I"" - isk f - !!iliA,,) "'"''!!. i'( y' W ~ .' " - -

. !il f' ~ _ liIi, . ,: '. .' [- 1 • I "." •• ' - "'.,! . alL il' ·i,.· \~l ~., . - .• ' .', ,_. 1- - ' •. ,," • _',. -

t"--'m-'u'-C"b'I'lle"lD'i fI["~) _,(~S,.O,.WI ~._'-.' l_.

, 0"'0' I ' .-, 1i<J," '- ,IIIU '!Ii - ~ •. I

." .'.,., '--"-' -- d d an' -' ._,

.. - [~-_ 1--, "~I ,,- I'" '\1~:' ... :. "~!'-"'.' , .. <I], 1'li1

., " - ",' ;-.' .. _ '-1\, .: ow ,h;:.: .. '" as d.lS" ·~uslte Ill. ' -, '-' .. ,. _ .. _" - :i!!~-'1- '1

you . ow",., .. " . - - k ~ !h'e' lum' b- ~r II

-" "-' - - - , -, '[II 'gl'-O' . ·t: 0--:- W'" '. 'O'I[ . 'l-'n ~ I .' "',, .,'\;.!! . '-" '.\10 Ii '-'

_ ,_ j • I I .' ! ..". , [. f I~.

2 "'W' ',' ii"Ii, c-'am·,·;;~'a,· I~~ "tD .::,ur.,··.:· I ... ~" . :_. '':' . --'" '~.' -, ,!iI, -0'.

'C( . '1.,1 .' Lr U, - - h d- bP8D W ' DD

'''-!I J' . - ' ,'-' - ~ _,'" d. 'ab""" '. ,t' .- III,:, : l:;;Ii;eo! ·M,y .. ' 'bro ~ -I):, I' .. a; _l__1 ~:=- I" - '-'r' ~

iil:Ii,e' o· 'D"Y a. . I 1 OU s,· ,Il,"", " . .. A

WIAi/I I.~., .]-"" '-',J ,-:. . i.' .... ' ., - - ._ }t'.' ..... p t·· 0-: 'b- ''''O''~' ~Irl~ ~t, .' e:am~,

d h ,too" m' 19i UI I I . CiU U U!

. . I - .' -. - . ~ . - . I" . . .' -- :. 'W' ,. ~ ~ _. -. ._ .

,'-:- "::"[1 Ie 'air _ ~~. ,dy·' a year'l :an ~ , ,~ - .. _:'. . , '. __ '. _ _', ,.,' 'b,J!·" pc ,. V' '~'OtOt~

- !.. .' .JIA:[' tbl ,gnl m' II - 8 ,1° . '.r1 " I~ - II

.. _ ... -. :~_ . H':'~ -W~·-D~j ~Dur y··'e:~::'.s I.:" ILJ,IQ;, . ,: 'A,Ii.iI!, . ',,-- .. -. ' 'lD " I :: . __ ,

b· "UrC1'ic 'IS ,I~ . ~ IJI . db*' 'b - 'wrnD" ~III a. ,-" ,--,' '"_-- ',_~, . - - _ 1Ji1'~p"- b"u'llino "1 Ic)'un, a 001, _~'DW': '.;-~ : a'

b· t·- ,.' 1·i!!it'-'118; '~'D,ftilii!i Ii', .. '. :~}i'·:' .fi,!"",,__. .... ,' :'_:'b ' ,- "'I I~.,. .,.~-c.'

IU,_ ,'~ '..11. _1:1o.!! IliilII. ,'- , . . 'iii ,~ .- i'. 'f[';:" ·/'1'e· 'W': i.-o,-·'uld= b, '11ft mil I ".'~ even

d rI'~ - II~iil'Iil'dl 0 sh'lil" . 11ilII1.1· '"Ii. . ,

~ I ,_ ,... - '. ~., .I_t an lidlt !l\.JU:1!~ I'.: ~'l'U I ,~, ". ~', '._' _

~t Wlas to ..... 11.t.,' _.1 ,-,_. '.' - h - '!;'d '-W' as~'~ s·'··m"" ... ,·~lle-: -;'.'!j."

- - 'b' , . e' i£!'QIII'" '. '. ,'c, '.'1, m. I . ..:' ,·'lilo]

. I' _. ,-. .• .'. .. . , 'Ill .. , e 'I. rOliaJI.· ., . I~

. . L ~in be ;o,ot ,bot lat m,e '. ecaus· ..: . - ." _ - "'~..' \ 'il-A 1.i"'.~' r hi- I!!!' m·l- _ \tno.' ,

, ~ - - b' , - ~1 - . I' - ed IL!y I\J,.IIL I :t. ILU· !O

. ,'. __ '-. '-d] fin1ht H'~, was, OU.t'DO ". I· m,e~ '. ., .. ,,; -"- '----.~, . ',I '~"I

3'10, ~(lt 'was I, b'B, . ~~I.' e. .._' d' "II '-'-I . '"I't' a···lg·: '''ng,~" 'if[e.annOI m:a4 ..

- r' me ,aiDI' I .. U . 'lJI iii.: .. D

A Ib~ _ re' c~o-' ,~ carne OVle,!, I. '-, '" . ," ,. ~'~ '.. aI-I, ,,-I - .

,~'llg, ~', . "',:,' '" .' -.'-~': ~'~ '~'--d" th-.~ .-""ill'11'm·,·'n 0"1. 'th,e membe,:' ::.IU: e:"

- ,- i!!1_'I"' • A(,fttrr- 'lind ICa:~· 'I I. Ie S"'I~ ,r '."

S,~A '[thi:!, .' .:ar.,)) It¥''''~' ,U,IIJ'-" ,_: :_. , . b'· '.,'. '. 'It..". ", 'n- g,llJi.'" S-:,t!1JIW

~~ .' " .' ' ..... , 0'" 'U' 110' SOUle ,\oi' \Y ~.rIo .' ,go .

, ,., . ~'- ,,- - ,t, 1: 1';:(' .. ·,·t· -h- ·un·'-·" 'lin lone ICy:'le _JL~,_ -.,' ;1 ",.:__ .' - '. ,-.

i ·o~· ~"'di'" ~, .: l' II. " :0'101 - " .. ,' I, " "_"'. _. - d b- -'kJ· d,--'- m-'-:" d<

I I" , Il!!i.!!' ' .,.,.. '- t:l!1 ,-. O' Pi I. I

.... Ii ',.... . - -. - - . - tch e . "'1 C, i I . I .IV.·: I I:.'" . -'

.again. We soon quit usig' fi~tsb; WBth~c sc~~" '~'U ,~ 'roar Il.JB a bull

- ~ k- '" '"",,, I' iPili\J' S:-.'I' V , .. y. I rOI I leI 1 " w . - _' . .. -

. ;:.!!!r.' :,c' ,'- " IIC~, j .,:' I~j" ~:'_,i;J ..: '.' -'. . ... L' - ,- _ .- ._. I' .. '

... .t- and.l- " - '. d' . :' _: - o' u-,'th ~Inld 's .. cJieaJ]l,cd all

, . ~. 'b- ., ,~,t" :' !e-'. 0" p"e'n' I·~': . ·Y·I. m,-'! IL·· CiLl.w,·~· ,I.. " ", -

. - £..- - 'nun"'- 'IU+a.S,1 ,111''11 I. .,~, .. J.""'~' ',. -

everyl lew ..: __ . !,!l~-,~ ._.U, - ,

th e', t1.I~, . lei I;';\. -

-:- .. liiill"',)

",,' . - ~

I' :'1

'I I

,Ex",:::rcue I'~"~ A"j·~_:t1z.e "i .. e !/knc;tiol_,-Is . ~er:lo" ~Ie' by' IjIrIl,tll'ctica' ~', .. ~·'~.,Fia',I:e! dinJiClu lin, ,61e ,1011.' 0_', I::ng· '6c,i".ct'J~1 s'.'e tblS IJ'Jlre of

IP,_'!lI" .. ·. '~1~#.t1 .. ,.n'~liIiir]"- ,lill"II' 1/1 "1."" ,II", 1fI,' 1 ftln.,_,'!Ii· -.. I.. I ,_',IL,n'• ~..A .-, Ii

d,II,,'" ". '1;1Ii!&,; " 'U'II:v, '" . .' .' . ~, .... ' ':~U 111U In:~. M . II'IUI;.~ '. 1_' ~,.'., II;fI~le !.eyrces:~,

...

)- '. '!' d-' 'I"k ~II!I S!!II ~'" '" .

'--" me srcewaucs 'ran 11,1>.'-C I'~<'r-n,g: ice ,IQllllg out, g ·D~lDg, Ian',

hurried :1O,d: packed, close 'fi--o,m bank Itol b1ank'5 Ferret-faced slim

men, 'W I >,te-.faced, slim women, gleam of w,-~ ite s· irtf[oats, IS,I" I,: '1- aLI " ,,- oddin.g, f]jIQlwety 'b,[oad, b,ats:, silv'or 'yells over Idar1t: I L:·:ai.r'l h;l(ld Ii 'lie somber 1,~·_I,ts with, :1, b of', ermilien, satin sl:~ppeIS. ,I ,,-etticoat--edges,i : .. ·8\~lent-lleathefs" f',:':lu,ge m,d em I. leI. arldl pa. ches,

.,"IDI~ ptuous exciting ,perfumes.· ~ hi ._-~ ,of cigarette 19D1,oke IC8'~~.:gb .. ~~. to gold radiance, b,llu,eIY"i Cafe '-.:':: ~d 'restaurant music I~'carce)y' L e'~ r ·d,i [ iythm'~,ea1~, - '·i,gbts, I'olund:, swi.ft fe,,' 'en,sb, pleasure, ~,,~ ,_. j" IS;I ~

t- r£1 d' - 1~ - II 4li1!. fu"l .' I d A'ii'~ ~ h- ~t. III 1)1 'I III

rne ,IJOIO'···, Icam.e S.dlW_y; '~~ie:D : .. 1 \~, ti,.: e: ~, ,~UiLi flC, er'IUJaD, IDnUSllI,

,s:ilksl than t ~ e IOrient" j'ew'~" ~S th,an, plari,s~~'aces and, ~yes II. ,d bodies .-.··e Id,es,ire lof the 'w~,,'II,d, ~, th,en, 'fbe rapid, ebbl" 111,', the ,stt-eet~,walkers (Reed)~

2 I --'., .. d -' "'d- dl '. , . . ,,,.\.., , ,' . .c'-. . ,i; ' .. ~ ·-t· ..' , .. ·1. - d' " ··.IIL 'll!!' --b- ., -. ~. d

II, wan "Ierc, I' :iO·'·· . IUlie ie,ve·IS\ I fi,lu,ee C - eoLBle ~ WIUl 'Ig, " an

'._ _ _ . _. .' '_ _' _ ,__ ,. _.. • I _ J ~. _ ," ~ '1 _. r· .. ".. I , . 'I' ," _. __ - IT' -:_ ,ri I I l.~ ....- i

,.'h-l'~I,d' I~ C[\O:ill'IInII~'d'l W' "~I"L, 'DAC-~kI·.' IGCiili!i!~ an--: . ',d":-! P- lii!'i'O--:- d" ·1.ft;lt~1 ~'i"d": ~\·a· ,·'.,"' .... "~I.~a1\'"s·· '~rilfili,d

,1i:Jh M 1~'1 .. _. l" ,! -rPI I~~· . ,ILlW IU" . . Ig.· .~l \_ ._ ,.::_- .... ~~_;. ", _ ~rillrlrD QILI.~· [I ~.,'y- .I)~~~ i' I ~:~ ~I

,sunbursts ID:" ligb. -, ,t ~ittmed 'wi' L 'IIU\C! IDld- ~ Aln·. ~ S 't·o,,· UI fuf'

~ __ . - - - ~ .:'-:_, .'-1 - - ~ .. . -' _. I 'D~ , I: ~! ';Ii _f. .I __ I.,

sub'way COl struct!OOj pa~ ~,'oUed by' Ibe pickets o;f wom8l1kiDld~

10,· 1'- ,iI;;A'~"~' i!!!. ..' ro; : :---,- .. '. -, ft,~iIl .... d' oiil'i;L,. d· .: ... (. . ~. -, I" "b't -'d'-: 'U.m" " ~-" '.' .

':...,De I~" _ gD' W_~OI w,~,e" 1Q1~ ~~J.:__ o,~. ,I ,1',_' . w'~,!\le 11] ,~ • ~ace

." ,gl'~ Ide.adlty': p-;:la'l~ and bgr 'rp'II' 1m bIo,"n' I ~I-~e t"l'l!'m' 'e!~' ,. 'e~'1i'~:rr bier

__ I~I ~I"_"" •••• ~ ..• {i~' ,: ~ ._- 1. __ .' [ __ ~ ['-1.",,1 ~._ _., ,',VI,". ,11U]lg .. :-_, I.~l ~ _ ___:~Ql ,.Ii ~11f :_I_'~.

'. ~ .. - .. ,: ',' ,..-:; :-- .. :-.: thr· . ·_-c'- .~. ~:IIi'¥"Ii'" .' dg""- · :101,;-. " '. ,,;1...,~ "'::-"1' -'. "·d'· ';- ~-,,:th·· ,,'

,s,pe:_. ; , lLiD m,en ,~, I~_. lee l~lIJ.~es, e ·~'e, ,mto IW,eu ps.::, S~I an ~. WI,.I ,', ,a

ha:w,k[',k,e, tilt lofb,er ',bead, murmur to them fro". 'tbe cO:.~·er 0:: her

O ", ,-~. (RJ' '~'<"~'Pld)'"

_ 1 ....:~ .. __ .l."':: < . .!~~. ',,!!l

".1 L,'

3j '. :"', :151, '.: gainst the: 'w,a1l,. 'watlc,hmg '~ '~'I flush, alf races,I~. e:

-W'.· t"pn"e's~'~ 0"if=-' C"'['llilmi' (!i:b-'o~ '1"d:1er!'i!!!1 '. ~.:~I'I'";'I1ID 81'1:- e 't'nO~1 11 ID·.·· I I' ,~ ill~,U-·~ -t·t·"-·C-'f'

. . . ,wJlJ_~.~ "0. -.' g. _:.... ~. -,,_, .:"_,1 .. 'J. 'I~IJ "J ~~I .. ,~ _ ~l ,-y,. 11_ ••• 1 J .... 1 ~,~L._:_) .. _· _f'·.' Jl

smelling c:~,garette s-~~o,kle and 'the ad,olr that, is Uke .. ~',e, taste loftolol m'uch ch,lD1p,agne~ Two olflches:tras :braY'led, drum'~ I,ed latI.ld bans,-d al",:-,m,a,~_eJy,~ A Idanc{:' fOlr 'the ,guests, -- "tj!,D, pr:ofessional (··aneers, an', singe;rs~ ,br_c -ing s:plasmodilcar:y ~ bl __ 'wllD\g fl.a: J,' mle'aD"': ~ gles.s

words tal sw;ft-· rh m. Th ,--- en 'the ~ig':"h'ts "i.~~,nt [n'ut. all Bx[ce~' 'the

j _ II I I " 11 .. ~ _ \ _<_ I· . '.' ".' . . '~.!I~~&_- ~._ -'1 . . I . "_I .~. - .t'.~ ....

,SlPO't OD the performers, and, in, the drunken Idar:k, we 'kiss - :boltly,t. , --:Ias[!h,!: Lights Ion ,again~ burst of' hard ~Imi~" whirl of .':' _'og[ words, words, words, rush of parmers '1[0 the dan,etC 8loDr:~

ereh estr - a·' crashi 'n Iii')' ilZ'!'y' I_.A 1"'~'t"I a· 'iI'Q'd'- b r- p,~j;'IL'1 ~2!i' ~ ;;d~'-;[Ii [A~V bedi ~>c' ~~'liirl~I"U'I" n·-·· a

I", .. ~"llt~I~~I._ . _ I] "- ~J._)ll~I;'~b I~. ~ . ~IIUU,r _ .IL1~· . 1 . I ,]lwalLl-1 '!vi:ti3 ill. . ';U~J " .~~ W U,II~~ ~""T' ~;J' - -'-jD,

IDdl}er.king, in wi'~d. unison (Reed)~

I .' 'BU"prtica~ I-en't,enres m.d, Il'ommll!tive seetenees [_ •. ~erfbnn the [s:lIDe, ,fiul,etioas:~

:._ !F' - -lir.

b) Iper.form d:iffereu:t 'fuD~t~QnS ~

l~ ASYJ],d,Gt,OD i;s: 'I-sed

1::' te :aoec~,erat,e th,le [te: - Q o.f'dlJe speecb,~

'b) 1[0 c:hma.et[erize. 'dle l,mD:Uon:a;'~ state !of' th,c [9!Plak~Gr.; to;' 'tOI imp:1d expressivene SIS, 't,o the sryee-c:b~[

I _! I r'

~']!l.' A:PD\si'opcsm: ls

I) 8, cas e 'wben 'tbe [spea:k\er do es JJl,ot br-ins the ui'tterance; 'u,p 'tol the end.

bel"[., ov,r:fflbc~: ~~. IDry' cmul'loifis;

b) [S d,e~ ibe~a,t[e, :lJbl~~F~;t.i}cUl, uo':m, br~~ngiq d),ei: urtmtance u;p[ '10 'lbJe end,; c· a ease '\Yh,en, dtlC ,sn_er. d,ge! not MO,t, ~~o finirSt:_ [th.e lenience lor

, r

C,IDnOlt :0 n:~.s'h the [S0!ll~C;I}I()e brtd'l"l\g !Qiv,enwltekn,ed. bf cmO!'ti,OBSi~,

[4,~ Anld:i sis is based,

". U:PO,I]. (be: absence Qf,the. ind'i,spens-I'b~Ie:, elements ,~n. the: sGo.teulctt; b) u,po.n the . .lrllieracti,oD [o,f s,yntacti"cal stru~'tuN;s;

I UPDD, 'lb,€; exces;~dve use o.f s[YDitactilcail,e,le:menm,j!

,5,~ P,foleps is ls 'Used, 'by ,cbln1~ct:e[is of' ~ i:~;e:nuy' 'wof.)ks, a) 'to :mak,: s,p,e-caD, :mQr8 expressive;

'15~ ~o e ftlp:bas·i ze the suibj ee~, of s,lu~e,e:b;

e)1 tnt ·m-·:;iii;11l..io ,.L'~i [if"'p·~g~-b' sound less ,1t~l1m-;--a'~ .,_,'.: ._:,v. _~:_~~J IL~Jl'~ 'liJ1 I"~~~~_~_' I~~_~~<_ . ,IL.'·· ~a J1",~. "_£~O_l_:_~ll!!!

if),; .&llcue IOI~-' :i,n,v'[e;rs,i,tH], the em asized element OcrcUpil6S [11) 'lb,e initi!:aJ positi.on;

6_ tlhe ;6 nal pes [fi[gID in stead ef th1eini.1i;al posj.'ti,O!]';'i

c) le~ther ini.'ti aJ p o\~d;t'ilon or fi.rull p olS,itl.,oln ins:~eld. of' the mhi al

posi'tio[IJj", ~

7'.. ParaU£Usm ~ 5; 'Used

31 't,o make the surroun,d :inSS;[ l I

I ,

£3-' UI'

- ,

. ,-,. -@al-"" 'f- lit ·<!J'itr\l-.~vt should """'O'V'~I~'

T, comple styhs~c Ill:' Y51S , o a lITC1'_;, exr snoui ,," .....

: . Co J'III -'. ""0' "-, ';0.-:: BU~S" .'

.' Ie ,1;Ou~OW.I' IS~ -~ .. ~ ·

. 1. The-rom eentsbl the author's li'ethat inftuenced bOs

n,"":;,~.;ic" regr'FP-r b-L-1'!s w'ay" '.' iQif"thinking·' and .- s stllle~

w ,"IIIJ~ilj,lI, .) Iww ~"_.:, " .~ ' .. ' '.' )"-' .. -" . ,~. '-' -' - ,.-

.-;-. - .. ..' -. -, , .' ~f·-:-'th··· - .. ", 't· ·-'-t b ... - !"-'~'" ,--;'" - ,,,,,,·"'Y"";e:I;,d"-

2~ .1, -l,e Iconteot, or me _CX,- .:.Ie:tD\1 m~,~,~' ·

. Iii ~d- r;-:-' -, .. , -- t !ii'. $"'-" -. ·th'- or's J·J'm·' D'fI"S'R'iD'la",,, 10-'

3-'e mam l' ea Ill' '8 _", 1.8 •... 2 ai" '." ,,"""""C,f,"'~' U,

;Iou... 'r~~Oid4liirs,LI'1! p' "

4. ~;ibtic'" ~i~es which help to e 'press the main idea (i,e.,

10' characterize the- PeBooages, to .~ !epict precisely the '~I~Wmo for 'lhe. evens" to exp'-]~ess' .' '-c aDth()t'r~ls, atti'--,":: e

1~'wi"L~ . Ijl ,I,!. ~ - .. --- 1" -

. O'IW'-~~"~i"" fL,cc' n- ~'""'~i! .,~ ... ,' £;'1,1'1 .. ··u- 'tsl land ". - e c _' ,·ilct.erS,1 etc, ,'. 'I"

_ .. 'l'r~LGiI 'U_I.:. '. ~ !~£l£l_._ . :' .. iy· ... ~ ~" ~ - ~ ~.'

,. Other stylist~c devices (.~o,se which . n '. obl torybe\p

_ _ __ - _ .&.'!I,.., ..- +1..., -', _"I. ,-:- '", ,.~ .-::-' " b-'" ":" b':-: n11"I'd~ '~'fllp'-' th c· ,coty.-ll i:I! o·:··f,'_'

to '[len ,er we: laU,U~10r 5, message I ,I, .. ' ,tllAl 1\1 . '\.I~ ~ , .. ,~, : Iv. ",

.tb!e narra .1on)I,~

'b'" ,i 0':-" ," I I I errl!',", ,y ._. " .' ~'-,J

TWi.nty miles west of ' -. CIS on , . e Sunse Express sto,ped at a. tank to take on w,ter. Bosidcs the aqoDS addL·on the engine 0 that: ,.ImDS ftver acquire" some other things that were no .. go {or

il'" _

il

Wh', t e the fif1.man wasDwer.~ g the fe,ding bose" Bob '~idbaU, <<Sar,~ Dodsl)·, and a quarter':bJled Creek Indian cared lohn 'ig Dog 'climbed on the ImginellDd shOWB' the engineer " "'e ft)~d ;_,·fi~s 'U1 pi~ces"o' ,o~ance tha', dley carried, These

orifices so imp. c &Sed the engineer with 'Ieir poss'" iUties':'Bf: he

.~ il _I !! 11 ~

raised both hands 'It'" a. gestu :esuch as ~,ccompmlUI:S .. ~' e eJacUi OB

,,,,,n ~ '1' - -1- '111- .

(U-IO . -e JJ ~ )).1"

At the crisp OOmmand2f S~,arl( Do ,on, who was lea:e:r ,of

the attacldng force, the engineer desc tdd 'j) the ground and uncoupled the 8RgJDe and tender. Then lohn Big •..•• og" perc .ed

64

:P08 th c c ~iil, sportively held two gun upon the en n .... river and the fieman and suggested that tile,. run tb engine fifty y: rds

away and there await other ord rs. .. . . c .

Shark Dodson an' Bob Tidb8!lll, scomm' to cJul such I,ow-

grade ore, as the passengerst hreu J , • Ce mill, struck ,_'ut forth, ,. i,eh

pocket IOf' 'd1,e., expI_:lresscar ". hev found .fIi,l.. ~ m' ~,(!Ic!I:i!!i'D-' g- '~if!i Iii!!! - - - , " Ii -. th

: _ _ _.." '_,,}' ,:... ... _:_, .. , IU,I.I~ , ~~ill!i.;li II. '1!!ii.;iI~ aerene' 'In ' , . e

· . be.ll,e" tha ~ ~th,e ,(Sunset BxprrliSli's'IS·\;'IIi. W·· ~~,~ ;Iio_,L...'!' -. 'Of . 0-" . '._ .".;1. ~ -:"'" " ~ ,'- -

,~ _ ~ . _.) .. . ... ~ _. . " ~._, ~.c , '. "1'1 .:' _. g~1 I~., ,b . ~ 'D ,D'D,'lu,aJ:og, mor,e

IS _-~u,ano,g and, ~). angerous tha -_ ;aq,i us inl :_~ -, .. ' dle B'~, o=b'-:· 'W-~I~

kn - _," " r - _. _'" ,-III., . I I ,~

_c,·okin.g this idea out of his head Wtththe bctt~end of his six-

sboo:te~ Sh;BI'_.-:-: -.Iodson ~.',~as alrea"~-1Y IdDS:~, I ~.' 'the lexP-;:·:·rres:'·\..car' safe with·';

"''''''amite· . .,' ,- . -- ', ..

";1",1,1- l. ._.[1 ..

.. , __ 'rhcsafe ei"ploded '~O the tune of S30,OOO, all g~ld and

Icurrent: ~ , ,lie passe'-'~ rs thrus f..' lb' 1 ·e.:_;;ir::. he 'r"l:li,-'- Cii "~'!!ille·~·u·-l]--y. ..- ·.·,~t· r f' tbl I

_ ", __ "_ . ". IU.,U 1U,_11o " lL_, , '-:BI '!ill '''''~ m - ou 0' , e'

."" indows to look for the thunder-cloud, Th~~()'nd~c,~o'-, ~Jle:r-~'c--d·'~:· ~~~_ .

,m 'b' ' '1' ,. ' ' ~.I,I . " .,', .. we

ae rope, w"ch sagged down loose an unresistml at ~",·tug

Sh k Dodson and ~iU Tidbar, with th~ir booty B1 a;U;ut ~~a; bag. ' ..~ bled out of the express-a ani ran awkwardly in their bigh~led boots to the engi~e. ... .'.' ' , .. .. '-' .

. . I,-~-,e engineer, Isullenly Ill' ,: but wise ran the e gi e

accordinlg, to lor,d='rs, rap~idlY-'-'-I,way': rom th -' ~D"le'--rt')li' 1!!I'n BI!!~-U:-·t b" £-', ~.~

, j , " • " ,= _ ,_ _'_' . " , _ . _ . __ , !I' ." eLOl'le:

tb.·~iS 'was aocompli,slbed" ,~, express messenger I-'-·C·-O¥e. . ·d·~I'.c:..- - -8 'b

_ _ _ __ . , ' __ , _, ,.._. .," •. c. ",' .:..:..\~" . ,~:,I!!i.t, '1" ~-. .... le· . U"IQlm _.: '01 -.

T:i,d'aI-ll,s p.'ersua,~-,er to neutralitv, jumped '. O~"U~I' . -D~'f- h'--'~'" ". ~"" . ",~~~,-

~ ,_ ' __ . _ 'U" -'~".J'I 1 _ _: - ,"1.. I I us lcarl WIu.~1 III

W,!fi!cbes·.~-~-' r:i;-,e: ,aud took, a tr~ck ~in'- tbl--~ g'.:c .. "~I'~.' - ~~~' "·_,-.L'_~ "B' '\iIi,:'-D' ._ ..... " .• -

. _ _ _ _W ' ,Ui;lJ!.lI!~. 11"U!ti' . , DIJ[rI..Iu, 19 .' log

ISlittm(':, on a CD.: al tender: unwi ,- ~~ - "¥ m-" I~d-MI 'il!!!lil 'i;ii·i"FO-· IfI." Iead IuJi~- .~~ _:~ I

-- - - I! --'. '. ,"" __ ,c_U "'" a \1'11'.1" '0 I· ai u,i (p'Vmg

~"J:mltation of a ta Pt.)' the mcssellg,.~ ~pBd' hm;:,~·tb '~ ,ai, exact].y between IUs shQ,ulder bladles th·.··" C':-:-r'~'-~e~'k'- p;b'~'IJ''''-'I'::e--- '··~."f··~'

_ _ ' , . ,,~ _ " IIfIo;iI ,. " """ 'W"'I'iI.U: if Q

. indu:- ~ned off to the grad, thus :~ncreasing thesh~ of hls

comrad in the loot by one-sixth Bach. . . · .- .. . ,

Twol mile's filo' th,e tank 'th- le':7 1ii'l:"!I!'iii'g-: :'D'c-:-e' "f li,'IIJ~'\!lIIIC'I' '.' ,A'['d' 'e""r-ad" 1,,- - ".' -

. _ ' ,~Ii' ," " . 'n'~1 Ullll, ;-c' 'l!J.iI' 11.0 S'tO'P

,.' -- '=-18 iP(D :-ILi~ij!!i" W' " "d ' d -l.i ., ',-. -I~ , - - ;-' '_ '::'~' ,,:._: '" .... , ",~,

, ~.~~" ~11~.~a~e~ a: eLlant adl,eu and,L l~ge4 down the

steep:".i,Sl o~e Into the: .. L,::'c.·k··· 'W' ·'0·,··0··'···· S' +1'''11,'1, i!li~'11 1.;'nD...I1 ·th,::-g ,~- ""k 'p'" . Ii .

,_, r -' uu. - ',' "." -! ilJli,glL iL· I~iiu.. I ~ [U'ac .~ I '= 'm ,--', -''',n.~,

~!.~g thr~sI1 athic~et afeba: . _,1 'brought" th~ to op:

w,,_ods, wb,lere fb", tbree bor.s::.a~ W' aro, 't'-llDd' ''"'0-:' 'IO--::·'W.' "b-r.:Ii''nlg''"·-. b- "

_ _ __ I __ '_ , _., __ 1- ~iiJjl '~J.~, V.:__ ~" '.' ,~ .. ,', al .. w..Jill'ng "IaClC lei

One: was wlaiti~~_cg,' for Jo~·.··. B,i'o: Do·,-.,g· 'W,: h-'o'-' W'" o'~,u-I'd-: 1_' e-v~·""-r··· n~~~'d=I,~~-- '~' ~!gh-":~'~'

'. . _, _ b ' ,: , .. .1.. 1 ~ . I - . . I I ,_, "ry" .. 'III' .. '

.~. :_ - .'. I _ '1',' '. _·,_I • ..:...._:~' ..:.... J 'Ii - I

! . ..'

£5'-' U·.

""6·-·, \) ..

67

Vie: been pards- 'm,~1 and yOiU, Sha ',k Dodson, . or three:

Bob said quietly. «i'~ e've ri ·.1 I our lives' ogetiler time and

"'V'-'" [, -'W' .'. "'y"'S g'" (!!!IV'C'" you 1,' ;·'··[q·u-,e-I" ' .... ea and I "~--'ough····'::"t 'y.··.IOU, was a

":",:1 r', _,'.,1(7.,',1:, ",-,'1 :'=." ,,'," :,'UIUI (, ,~'.' I I.~ ,', " :.;_ ,.. I., ,'_ " __ I _.1_.. _,,"_

v'e hearc some queer stories about you S,llI0(J( In''1 [OD[C [or two' I peculiar W'ly" b . t I never believed "em~ 'N OiW if you're just [3; little fun, w,ith, me, Shsrk, pU'1 your' gun UP", and wlet ,I 81_:1 fv'c ,- a ._, ,[d vamoose. If ,Y[QU nean 'to' shoot .... shoot, Y[OD

!!Ii

earted I,D'n of a taran -: . lab

i '~ark, Do dsen s face bar,' ~. I, d,ee.ply' SO[ETO' .- •. ~~'-J l 1100 :::',.,

,:Y'o:u, ',:- 01 _I '[ '1,- ,-'101- : -~,o-,_ ':- bad I : ~'~~:,: », 'he sighed, "~:abou:: - I,'

~'[f'y'o'u'nl'brealdD' his leg, Bob»,

['he expression o· Dodson', face changed! ~D an instarr 10 r cold fe~oci.(y' ~i[-gl,,-,d with inexorab Ie c'up'~i,di':_ ~ 'The 9101'u'l of

'-1 ',11.- 1Jf' -,;;. - - 'I~~~", ." , -, .Iil~ ,,- 'ii, ,,- 0; W' _I'" ",.dIO~"'-WI

;'- ShIO'\"I~, ' Itsel, ~olr I, u oment 111.e an ,e:· "11 . , ,_c-_,\;i' , !_, ' I, _I'

epu bill e house, "

'Truly' Bo ' Tidball 'was. never ('0, <<hi' tbe breezes agal 'Ii' '~~"IB ;-.45 oCcc_e iaJ~e -fri~;~d'cr~~~d ~cI fiUd the gorge~th •..

·';'Iat'tble walls h'ur),ed back with jndigrDlIQ't, echoes, _/""I[~ Bolivar, nscious ,accol,mplli,ce, swi 'd ly' be CI a,wlay' the '1,'181 of' "_'-. ,e holdersf the, «Sunset ,EXP' . [e5S»I}! I, Oft ,Plot ';: ',OJ u :Sl~ ress of' «carrying ~1[eJ)~

,8'U'I, as: Shark Dodson galloped IIW,a.y the '91100'.' S seemed ~to .from b'IS view; the -Ie, elver :C_I_ his ri,gbt hand turned to the ec 81-111 of a mahogany chair; hls~[adld.le. W',IS sltr~'.'~'lge~:y'

;~d.s,_Jer,e,d, and he openec his eyes . nd S,I'W his feet, " 0- in ,'IPS, but resting q'ui,lctly' [0:0 the edge of II ~,'uiarter:e'=- -0 "~' [d~~sk,~

I am telli :-' :yoll~ that 'oldson~l·of the fUJIl DID on 1,&' Decker, U S,'U'~:~t broke IS", opened his eyes, Peabody, 'the, confidential it was standing ~y 'his chair hesitating to s,p,elk~ There 'was I, :'S .~' h~ofwh~~ 'b .'I'w, ~cltb~ ~edativ buzz of an elect lc

«Aheml Peabody», said Dodson, b[Iinking!," «1 'must :haVBI

Ie-Jr., ''!:Ii,,~,'~ ~" '~"p' I h'a: [d·' - a~· m·ID-··~·tl F[·m--'~lr;ab'le,! Wh,D:, is il,

. '" ·1/1] K!ii:J.rl ',' ... -. iii! .. ,..... :_l _l J " • '1kJ! . I: '1-1 H ~ 1 [ . _. _ _

I ·,'b-I'o" "Jy,'. ~\.:)

r •• .:_:... .' _. rt'lf'l_

-,'

68

i'

f<Mr 'W'~'IJ~

Come to' -' s-;~H~lhi~~' md· ,S,_s~r, of Tracy '&: WmUiams, is IDUfnl'~dA H-l_'I-; - h

'liif -- .. "Ut S leah X. Y.Z ,', -c, mar t ( n.k ~~~-.... e as

:~, " ,Y[OIDI rCm,cm beril» , - _IE ' .. " ,I" ~. "'_;,,_L ".·.slJ.6u:· ,iJUU, short. Isir:-

_ --, ~ -'--J

«Yes, I ,emember Wh

p", "aho[d,'y;?» _, "- '. .~. ,·'at is X.y,Z. quoted at 10 .... ~ 1. _,y.'-:'

- ", :_ '"

«One eigh~~five sir »

(cTh e' n--I .' ' '8' .,I'_ bi~' I. ," '~ :._ Iii' ~'

" ,(_ . " '. '" •. IIi,:I 'I~ p' "l C' .. - \~\.

~ - . l . [ [_~ j~. [ r J:. [ .,,~

· . «Exc .. se,·e», said ~·Ilbody- 'ra·'thLe-' ·

't" b 'i''1I'iJ "ve b '. - - "'_, "', . '::'_,"1' ;111,.( .. 1,' r nerv olu'llI!'I!ly ,I!_; . ~

Ill" "- U'I.: . 'VI: 1,_-;,eI8n talk'·io'g.·: "" "W' ,,"i!!'J' ,~' ,~,' -- -'--, I' "_ [', ~ ","1 «I Of' IP:"akinl"

- ", = - ,- --' ", II!.O ' . ' I ~"'l 'I '" . He' IS - 1 d . ~ 'i ~ _ ',.I

, . D' - d - - -D.iI '. " I . I [. -, I 0 I' . - - dl f

,'.:. ["I ··0: 510,0 and -Y"""O"IU' p-' -'!ll!Ii'C-: t·-_:·· al 1--'. - - '.::,., (-"C_,[ ,~' .. '-_ '. ,_,.,I,eo/- [Oi_' ''U'O'li'~"S'''''_

]1 " '.. '. a· ']Ie" Y I' -v' - -, I";' '- W;II,I "

you ,migh· ~ ' .. :·'at i; I'~=o·:'~ -, 'c - : .0 a comer In X. Y.Z. I tho.t

- '_" 'J '. 1_, ,,,IU,gj.~ yo I m' g" b' 1101 - ., b _.

you th.~1 sto[c~'" ar n.o·~,1 If';'1 '1...." '.", .': = ,.:.:, '- I.' ":,1- re,mem~"er' th'~t he so Id

[ev'[e~' cen ·t··, 'hL'Ii" bL" 7~. . I, ne sees a tba market pn' i - - PiA ;~,' -w-" 'U"]' :,'11:,

- ~~~.t .....:. r:_e nas in th,eworJd and ~~ .. :O-~-I-'" 'Ie-" . 0:"" ,[ ,llIWlw 'dl~ l',~1 - 'I~el

:~\Jiaresci!» _ ',,':"" , a'a~' "', '", I,IO[ 1_0 .-:c e'"veri tbe~

lb. expression 00 D" 'QQ' n[ iii"" «: .' _ _ - _ .

on .-. f I-d-' ~ _., . " "",~ [,Ill, I~I lace changed i' - -,

I,ue 0, I CO _~ feraei; :tningledwith :1]--' ~~'. . '~[ ~._ ~" ~-,!_ ~"-~, ,~~~~ an, Ins_I' '10

'the' Im- g,ft, 'h' ,-I 10' - ..." .. - '--'" ,exam "ll,e le[[ p'f- 'In" -Th'- '- I '1

,-'., ~'- ~I S )1,0' '~'led J""\Cie'~f' ,e.o--: r G -- - . ~I'~' - ,-" ,,-' .... ~ I' ~1Ji1iil . ··,e, sOUlI iO' f· '-

- ". ,[l~I·.I· . .1,[1·,·1. R momen-'t !,::'II .... g .. _ it - _ - - - - _ . '.

of'a - e,:p' U-I 'fig,'b·,J'A; hl_ " . -'-, '" _ _;" I" I· ..• _1.- "U\)¥ an e"", J face 1'--'1 "~'e' ", urind"~-'" __

'_' "- .:ll.a, illv [' OUI - _1iI1of, , ..' "'",ill.. ow

«He -. c-uc settl~ ,c t ·.neir-J.tQ~ i . - ., '_

'110' [carry,:,~- --:-- d' 0'''' -, 'bl ··'1 . ,frl"J" _Ie)" ,ST'.~,d: D[[D'.'-SOID. ,( 'lio':'j'-'IIl"8r" "

' _. - ,_" [ .... , .. ,,: . ·e\·-~\. ,- -' 'i!'" '., .. ,~,'rrl.'_'

' .~ ~ _ I JO •• _" ",

..

+

A Manual of English Stylistics

FUNCTIONAL STYLES

v',ev:':-f

1, language makes use 0 a

. EaCh style of the uerary , 1 f of which

e means the mterre a ion

group of languag, 1 It is the coordination

is peculiar to the given s~~. stvlistic devices. that of the language means f" each style and not

" . features 0 '

shapes the dlstmctive E h tyle can

r tic devices themselves. ac s

the language means or sty IS 1 di features which are

, d b e or more ea ng , ial

be recogmze y on ..... 04-'.................. the use of specl

lcuous r ot mstanC, . if

especially consplC, .' f the style of SClentl IC

t rmino\ogy is a lexical charact~nstlc 0 . d e . . h i asily be [e~ze .

prose, and one ~~ whic ltfucan/ 1 style ~ese~bli::s very much the

The defimuon of a nc rona al

. fi h pter of the present manu . . eel

one given to the rst c a ifi d as a system of coordmat •

A functional style can .b~ dedme1 e mecl11s intended to

d d' tercondltlOne anguag

interrelate an In . ,I' munication and aiming at a

fulfill a specific function oJ com

definite effect. 1 d a number of functional

The English lan~uage has eV°frve other. They are not

di shable one om an al

styles easily istmgui . ts all having some centr

homogeneous and fall into several ~an.an distinguishes five classes: point of resemblance. Thus, l.R.Ga penn

1. The Belles-Lettres Style

1) Poetry;

2) Emotive Prose~

3) The Drama.

2. Publicistic Style

1) Oratory and Speeches;

2) The Essay;

3) Articles,

3. Newspapers -,c,

1) Brief News Items;

2) Headlines; ts:

3) Advertisements and Announ~emen ,

\

70

A Manual of English Stylistlcs

4) The Editorial. (__-- v'~ , 4, Scientific Prose

5. Official Documents.

The Belles-Lettres Style

• Poetry

• Emotive Prose

• The Drama

Each of these sub styles has certain common features, typical of the general belles-lettres style.

The common features of the substyles may be summed up as follows. First of all, comes the common function, which may broadly be called «aesthelical-cognitive». Since the belles-lettres style has a cognitive function as well as an aesthetic one, it follows that it has something in common with scientific style, but the st¥,le of scientific prose is mainly characterized by an aITMllement of

'h'\. " 't; "'.tt.' .fl.

language means which will bring ·pro s to dinen a theory.

Therefore we say that the main function of scientific prose is proof. The purpose of the belles-lettres style is not to prove but only to suggest a possible interpretation of the" phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer.

The belles-lettres style rests on certain indispensable

linguistic features. which fl,fe: _ . ..

I. Genuine not tnte, imagery I achieved by purely linguistic de IC . W\O. .... "

2. The use of words in contextual and very often in more than one ictionary meaning, or at least greatly influenced by the lexical 'J \0'1,.,1(. i ~

enVlrenmen .

3. A vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree the author's personal evaluation of things or phenomena.

4. A'-pectiti'm i~dividual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idios~ncrasy.

...... '0"'" '\./

71

A Manual of English Sty lis tics

5. The introduction ofthe typical features of colloquial language to a full degree or a lesser one or a slight degree, if any.

poetrY

The first differentiating property of poetry is its orderly form, which is based Qlainly on the rhythmic and ph\.~rc arr~gement of the utterahc_es. The rhythmiC aspect calls ferth syntactIcal and semantic peculi~es which also fall into more or less strict ordedY arrangement. Both the syntactical and semantic ~~3~cts ~ of the poetic substyle may be defined as compact, for they are bi; a m check bi:., rh~e ;parlerrii.· .Both syntax and semantics eomp1y with the restrictions imposed by the rhythmiC pattern, and the result is brevity; 101 ~'5tl!ression, epigram-like utterances, and fresh,

"J."w~o.u~expected. un'dgety. Syntactically thls brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in

inversion, asyndeto~.1U~her tYJ>,t_a; L,~ peculiar~:s.;.(.

Rhythm and {rhyme are dist~~~~~~l~,. properttes ~~ the

poetic substyle provided they are wrougn into compositIonal patterns. They are typical only of this one variety of the belles-

lettres style.

Emotive Prose

Emotive prose has the same features as have been pointed out for the bl11es-lettrps style in general; but aJI these features are ccb1r"'gf:lt~d diffeftnl1y U),emotive prose. The.,~g~ry is not SO rich as it is in poetry, the petcentage of ~ords with contextual meaning is not so ~igh.~,~p~e~ n e .. id~~YRfasy of the author is not so clearly discvenllble. Apart~orn fuetre and rhyme, what most of all

distinguishes emotive prose from the poetic style is the combination of the literary variant of the language, both in words and syntax, with the colloquial variant. It would perhaps be more

72

A Manual of English Stylistics

exact to define this as a comb- .

. . matron of the s k

varieties of the language. po en and written

Present-day emotive .

b th b prose IS to a large ext t h

, .eD,,)':JN. .... &'" reaking-up of traditional . en ~ aracterized

~ 'Pr~~e<1lllg periods. Not I f)l~.syntactJcal designs of the

f on y aetacned constru ti

ragmentation of syntactical mod I .. e 1005, but also

combining sentences ar fr t 5, _peculIar, unexpected ways of emotive prose. e ee y introduced into present-day

The Drama

Ian u The third subdivision of the belles-lettres ...

. g a&~.Rla¥s. Unlike poetry whi h "y c..c-t "9"t§txL~~~ the. essen.ce exclu~' direct speech .and the c , exc,ept for ballads, iK emotive prose, which is c . . refore dialogue, and unlike the language of plays is~~k;~~o~ of monologue and dialogue, almost entirely excluded C" ia ogue. The author's speech is

ta . except lor the play ight'

s ge directions, significant th gh th wn t s remarks and

au ey may be.

Publiclstic Style

. ~~lici~tic style also falls into three vari . .

own distinctive features. Unlike th ieues, each having its

has spoken varieties, in Partieul: er styles, ~e publicistic style development of radio and t I .. ,the oratoncal - substyle. The spoken variety namely th e -adioc, has brought into being a new

h ,. , e ra 0 comme t Th

t e. essay (moral, philosophical liter n ary. ~ other two are

soc.lal, economic) in newspa ' . ary) and articles (political

, .. pers, Journals and . '

reviews In Journals and· magazmes. Book

. generally included among .,:.~nes and also p!i:,'P!if.l& are

The general aim of the publicistic styl hi

out ~ a separate style, is t~ 'e'x~rf e, W ich m~es it stand

public opinion to'dto"n-'V "''" th A constant and deep influence on

. t ' nee e reader or th li

ill erpretation given by the . t . e istener that the

wn er or the speaker is the only correct

73.

14

i,

.I1Tesp-::,ectiv·:,· 0" ··f- th'"· - ,-

I '-' . _ •. ' '. '. lie I':' ·-a:lr--'~cIifo\QIi!!!· ' ",1... _

, I! . . 'Ci.,! '1~1\a, I Jf --..- III

(bve:geocef subi'ct- ma"'H'~"'-= '. "'h' _0 the ml~gazIQ.e ,ani:, the

-.- ... ' ~ "1-: , - -'~. ~ . - . _. ;J-" ,I', ,1 ...... I~r .... w- etlllier it i"" 'I'.,i!i' - 'III'. '-

,popu_.,ar''''';Slc],en' ifie 0" r-' S:'B""''!i, }'. '. -"1-1-,'1 ,_ . -. -. S, •. II 1,leaI, 1,ter,fIIru

~ .. - ". ". - '" Jl_n'cal _, ail thle already:" . ~ . -' . ,- - "'_',';;'"

t ~ e .pu.b,r:.clstic.·: stvle a'" re .0''': be f - ' d' '" "".' :~'''~'. mea --,'Ob!f!. rtatui i·'~~ of

. -" ~'~Ji(, .. """ It I I'e I"U'D' . -. ...~.~I ..

thl I ,---~ . .. '~, __ - " - ~ . .- '.- ... 1 '._J .'., I,D an'!' artii"'t~, -Th-',··· "':II!. .. - _. _ - ., .

I:_ ,I Ie, mag,azm,e, as· "~je. I) - '.' t'h:~" '. . E • , 'J' , .. -,'~!I~'. " ··,e CIJ,aracIJer of

.. ' -. .In,._· ~ as ." if! S'U I rm -"C-"~ .c:-:b ..... ,__ ~ - - . .._. . I

- . ,. - . '.. " ,- , ,i, - . "JI .. ~ ··'l ". ,osen ." Jll.~"::. '- -- -' ,.

U!,C of ,sn/.Ils,'·;i;c d e v";;~'~IS') 'W.'· ord - . r . - -- - a~_.ec.t. ·5, Itha ChOllce, and

I'":J u. - .... il:V~ I ... or' I~' n.f t'"' - - tJU.!l.

lIie .c'-.-, if - - -,I, " .:_ ~ v,; emo l'YS Dleanin ~, .c .- ..

. . 1 I, itc·W J.: anv ';[1 p- :'O"'pu-'~-a--' - ..... ' .. - .'fi' -- . - _. . ".:_ -' .' _ . g, tOr ,ex~i'~!plle'_

, ,it., .. ' I, . 1'Ir' ~c.' Jen· h.- -- C 'll II qJ.!&.J) I, .. ,.

. . . ~' ,'- . .... .. y. ,iiJ.' '. ·.u. ; II :.) art Cit -". ' .. 1- ., - _. I, '"

'!OlI. co'sistentand the se e ,' , _ .... _ •. L 'es. Then- exposition is

'th·,·,.-·,_ c-, !-- _ , ... ", i -,ystem lot Ic'onn,eotives. - -.:-: --: -. ,

an.:, [say i' ID s, s,at~nca1: sl'~J'lle'i' ' .. ~. ,I .. O~e, ,cxp,and,e,

Tb ~ '~J

.1,,1 e !3Jlgua" '-f'- liti

'that ~rn8'~~":~~p,ge',-,'r:e( aJrtl_:~o,cltJC21j magazines articles d·'ffers Jittl,c- ,ii'!..o"m-'-

.. , , "1l'iIiJI_ 0'_. . ~lI1C IDS ·:'ut· h - - '--' Jr,: II!...[l .! .

. ,- . . - ..... - ,w iii :.' I ~,fJ ~ . 'e ~ ---.' . -. ~. - . f' C • . . '-

'.1·_. ,'c---::-' _ . 'I' ~ -' .,;;1 .... _1""", u ·~·m,eD-':' [ ..... "".-." --. _ .-Ii ,,. '.

tyl., as r,I',e and bo,oki''-.h-- ..... ,. '.' ".' , '.' __ ~ - ,S 0., the p1u,bilJc,1,stlC

_. - - . - $,_, words. neo~ogfsmS ( .... , ... oft' b-

req -,~:~re exp Ian a-:-I't!=Orn- ';:n t"h-: e- t t) - ., , "'~ ... '. i'.' II '. '. w~~' 10 .... '" 810m[ ID"';'" .c·s

- G"" 'U" .II I I' "'X" t d 'I ,~, ., ,1I..;;o,tlll. '-

.' .[ -'.. .' ..:..:.':' .. '.::·:·,.'··· .. ,,-·-·1 .. _.Jj .' 'I' ':_.-

',_, '.-.; -.-~" ra .. Itlo ," 11''[' !I-'U'~ '.- . '. I . --' ,~

p,BrenrhleslS ,are mi' 110'. ··r· e~ ~. - _. - . a WO .- Ii OOlmb'lnat.l01.ns an:·" . d

, - Jrelquenf here 't·r... 'C'., '!' -- - - ' ... '

,-' - '.: . iuan, lO n6w1S·.·· .... 'alp' -:g,r--' a'· rti 1-1

. c· __ , .. ,\;;;! I C les.

, . _' •. '.:_."-.' m

75

- '-I" +r ··t a" 'n" d 'biy

. -- ,- essavs both by their 'C!Dn~en':, . -'"',, - . , ... ,

'L'"tlC[arv. '"ev,i,e.ws s;I'an,d closer .~O 1:"" ,"y ~ . ,.: =-: ,~-- . ~ .111, -,o'n,:t'n,g are

"A.~ '. _ fi' , ' More abstract words of lOgJcal meam t:> ",., ,

their U~ngulStiCI term, ,,' ... I-~, '~-' _C,,' 1-_,"= 'rt·.,. to ..... ·. e' mo:oonad \:angu:a"p,c and less

_ '. ed ,"'., ,:': - .... .. . .t '1..." AM' m··~·'· .o.'rt"\e OillLen re:slo. . ., '...... c:: :. '. -"'"" - .' '.1 -

US.'" . m . ,6m, it 111''"'''J' .Jl.'_ ~ _ .

frequently to traditional se expl'BSSmns.

Newlspapll,r'S:tyl'e'

- :-1 d fi" ed - as 'I 'I"· '. stern lof

'K gl"~ 'b "'~.''!I· .. ,'~ .. ,ip··~;'p~··e[--' ~Irull,@, m.'sv .-113 :'le~.",n,I~:.-' :,:.:::.:;, ,·...;··,_·,- .. ··h~i,.'

"-'-0' . IS 1i:.l,~''H ~'i d! ,". iJ"""J l,v "'.J.' - - - .' -

.1-,1, .--'ti,"·· ::._,' ,:' ',' '.:._'''-'-,' ' .. = , ~' .... ,tl' d OT'~'T"n1Tl11a1tical me.Ins, w ~:lC"

,~ ,._. __ .]- ~.~':', '~IA'V':;IC·~;~I. p,.'L.·"'ae,eollo'O'~iC.W an,'.: ,b~PJJJlU~~i- c'·.,~ __ " ,-, ,_.' --- - - """i"

[ tA.ft'D a I- I III ~AJI - W J .]11 ~ -~ 1~ ~_ ~ DiPi!!I'j"IJ!!;I!' e

u ,-...,,: "''''0'' ',' ". omm --'ii''iin-'i~'; sne'2ddng the ':an.,gu -' 'BS, a :~[I!.II:: ~,[S\ .'.' IS perceIve:. ..'Iy' I:' 8ICIO: . ··;u "-' ",.J' '-)y :-.'.-. ",,' ,'~'-- . ',c' . ..~, .. - and instructing

unity •. at baslcally serves the purpose of inJ.ormJD.g~c .-'~ ,,'. " _'

thlL'- 'lea,4er.- . _ .,,~. _. f.:,tb~·I, .:- .. -wspap' er' ,s,tyie is, to i',_~p:lI1:,

S, .. '!,- Ice thll P- ~I:mary 'mIlJc.t),DI:n, 01. . _c, e. n~ - - , I .. ' _._~- ' "I'

. ,- 'OJ _.. - --. . .. Dr- S"a.~'to['reSi are

i!'u,c'O"':'-nn' ," a tio n 'lhe fo.ul' basile new;spapl~JL l~a ..... - .... _. .

.[ .1 I.,L' " .. ', ,)IoJ." .- _" _" .. ' ,',

-.- 1 B~' ~ r" D'" ~1!'l..lrs' item 'IS" and I c.~OllDDlun'~,lque!!.,

I ne . ~'n' '.' Il." . I IQJj,,1 ',,' " '" " .

iA~~ments and announGeJ ent:

"'l 'T"b'" - 'h: JIiljI'I.· ..;I1'1':=.n.i!!ll!~

;} .' : .I!!i!.f. ' .1iW-' _JWlIIiIi.\Oiii"

d~- i_:1

4,~ The e ltoD;iu~1

76

The headline is tb,e title g,·:iven. to a, news item or' 18c newspaper

I I ..

article, Tile main 'fun. .' ion of the h,.:" ' Ine is 'tOI infonn c,- re reader

bn,e:fly of'·w.hat, the ,n'~'<IIS, \that fbl'Iows IS about, Sometimes '-"eadlines

_. )

c OlD ·ain ele '-Ients; o,r a;pp.r,3l-S~~- 'r i.e, th,le.;y ShOiW t e reporter's or

p,~, gp'!l!lC" - ·tt':'t- dl to th- ~- - ts --e orted

~PW.I ~, a ,; 1,..1. u:."_,e: I:.: .e, iDC,.~ I r',p~" "'~: II

The; basic ,iJaqguag,e, pecu,U~tie,s, of h!eadJl,'es lie in theirl structure, IS"YDtact~lc'ally ' __ cadli.nes are very' short sec tences or phrases 10" . f ~f 'Y" Y:, -- i!!"iiIi! ,,' .' 0'-: pa.-· n' " '~m- ~ ~

,I,II~'~~ ''', ig _ - - I w_ I _:.' ','(_ ',' Vi I" ~!lI1ii

.

. 1, ~ :' I ·1" deClerm~':v'e, sentences,

2, -~' ..

7' Q" ·u·- ,,,+-~ '0' -" . .,- in ·th.'· '.;'. :-0'" ". I of7'" ",i!!I;' •. '. "*D

'. 'II'::' _,eSI.--,I.·ns ,.n. el.'rDl .. 1 , Slw!u~,!emen:~,~

8 C' "··.I,·o-···m'p--··l-ID-V e,g ".fr~n'~e·· QI

iii ,',.r.. '". ~" ~,\~W II~I~ ~.- .. i

n H- ~le-~dJ- un" e s ';"0- ~IUI 'ld:'_'g .. ~d,:',""'"4C·' ~p·le·· eeh .

:,,~ , , .. '- Q. ~I·· '. - ~ 1 ~ w,l_ l.wli:llt, , UUj~ -.ILI Iill . ",~, ", - Ii

.. .

'T" '·b· ~ fun . 'C' t")~IO- n"'1 of a d'._' 1""'P-rt-"·I£!I'e: 'm--'-'AA"'~ an~:::' l'ld· anaoun eem eats 'll,iliIL .. ,cAl thl :~'Iill,'t-,

.' r, ~J .:_ _ :__L '. ',' I \ _ IJ j" ~" .' _ .. __:._ ~Jj~iIllLC!1 .. __ ,._:__i IUl1-UJIV - . _ ".'~ . ,~, _:", :J JLL~rw _J •• J~_

'f~~ b II f" . t - t· j;,-,~ - ... \., - d T"L -" - ., - b~I'" f~'

0" one ~ news, :1.1,' JO mro - •. ~ IU],e [[8&,:' eli' , nere are two I,· .. IWUC 'ty-pes, 0'.'

....... ;ll I~ ...... i -, . -.- .. - ... ,""" . ",d,' , .. -. - .. ' I ,---; '- ...... "-f,r"II ~.. .,1l.I·' .-,----=- -: de - iC'_ ~:~ -'h

lilUVle'lllSleme,l. ,l:jl lan~ ,anDOU ieemeats m IUJe mo.; ern l:dlgdS!,',

n-:-- ~!W" "S'P-;-:ii!!!iIP""C' r'~ classifl ed I ;'." ad non-classified

i": __ I'.:.:._~.,.~ 'Ill ~'1~1~._.~.~ !,,_: __ ., : .• "I~~Il" \# __ IIJ

The " E~ d Ito -al

~ _ .... _ _- .I .. ~ _, ". l I . ~,

78

interrelation !an .. ·· interdependence. . 'he second and :·~~_o' less

Impertsn "," one ,;,a , .. he use o:lf~;' te rm --r.' !it'i-:liil:IIC·.~':ti-:-IC·lc, "'0""1 '8·" certain b ranch of

'~., _' !. '''.ll,.~_ ,I~ -UI.·-. _.i]l_ ... _~. __ h·I~.1Il! ~_.,-, ,I...~, ~<.' [._·._I~"L1Ld,· , .. tll,l _ _:_ .... _._. U.

". "" 1

scier ce. The tb:~, d characteristic feature 1.S sentence pattem of 'three

t:Y.ples: postulatory, argumentative, and 'fomtulativeM, The fourth obse ',.a,-'.:Ie feature is: the use of q ' .• ~,ot'\:,:tl,-Ins an,_' retere ices, The fifth

J . r

one is the frequent use of foot-notes of I'~: ,i,gr'8SSlV'B character .. , Th,IC:

i.m:p,e.r,s,o.n:al~'i", Off SIC· entifie writing can also be cor side ~ed I" typical, featur,e of'th ],S, sty'i.,e,.

The characterlstic features, enumerated ,above do not cover all the peculiarities ofscie •. ~j·.IC, PI-r,osle 'big I th.ey are !h.e most esse-'filll

0- nes

_ .. ~Iii

The ~,'tyl-' of officlal documents, ike other sty),es" ,·'ISI no', h 0:":: ' 0:- or - e'", '1f.1IS and ;~ r~' resen ed by th 'e-' e.o··-·JI-'HWl-lliiin,O' e- bstvle n--

.:, " :10::, .. =' ~"'~'I ItD .• LI, lI;~' . w: -' .. iJ,~I,=-~, ,.:.' u ,'. It~. u'--,_~'J~, '~illlJ~~ir:S, 'vr

variants:

,- _, IT_lie la'_ guage o'''b'' siness document; ..

- - 'I . - I III d

2" The language 0 -' le:~.'ajl .: ocumeots;

31~ That ofdiplomacy;

4 T-~ :B'ti o····f~· m,}It1't:'Q'FU' d oeum ents

I! I ". I .. l I Jll,l, _l~-J' . ". ~. I _~111.· til

Thls style has a de. inite communicative alm aod acco(rdin,gly' . has its own system of interrelated 1,1 .,g~_age and, stylistic means, - <Je. 'malin aim of :.' ;-l5 type of CO" ~ 'mun,iilcati,ol:n iSI JOI state the 00 -, ditlon .. c·in,,'-~ing two parties in an 'un'c-- -;-L:.· dng,

'In-' 'I 0' Itb-'· I '-··r 'W·' iords the 01 ,; m-' . '0-1" c'-·o·· ,-.-., ,~ nmication mil ... th'li 'I~'~ ~i i~ of

- •. ,.1, .....:. ". ,! .• '::: a ~ CiJLj. '."'. '.::_' I _:_: .. -_ '. -:_I ~'-=-I' -,.~ "l~ ~Jl~~'IIW ",' I

lenguage is to' r each largum1en'f bet we{~n, two contracting parties, Even protest against violations of statu .es, contracts regulations, . tc can g' S·· 0" be r~g"'. ar rded '~IC a 1:.0" inn" by ~w' hich -'-'0' rmal c .. ·.'o,· o·····p·.·· .. 'r .. atioID is

I .:,1 .. : [~, ~ _l~.!, ~u." 1', V till WI,::" ~ v ~_, ~"~l '_ 1'._ [ L B_1' ~ .' _~. l, ; l._ ".. - " .' _ ~ , I, _ ,~

. sought o,n the basis ,o'f- reviously attained concordance, .

As in the case with the above varieties this Istyle also has , ,SOl '--,e eeeuliarities:

\ r

I,. The'g,e -of a ~'-~,re.·I' ru,. ticns, cosventional ,sy"m,bol)s,.

C- 0-'1" tr'-3' IC~-'t' 1'~ I

. '.::C' L .. _ ".'

79

2,~ The use ofwords :~n thei ~ ~,o',g]ca.1 dlcti,o:~'ary m,eani'Qg,;

"]1 IC"" om aosi ional patterns of the varia ;~s of'this sty'1e~,

!~!III -.: "",1 .. :..._;_:_: ....• _ .'---:...., __ J.~.I .• Il·.l~ __ ':.· II .[. ," __ ' __ ,._ il" - - - ~

4., Absence of any emotiveness,

, ", 'xercis« 1,., A_~:~ .'~yze' til' , texts belol-':' Q.'ttl!':~- ,j,n:ldic;II'lte ','Ii' 16 ,rs;'c' sl"'e.~ formi'lI;g rCliara'ct,-'r_~I.ltilcs of:j~'- ,c,l~ ''lIe IDiH:id o'~,£,t~P.~">!"_ /elll., IllS,:'

(1) Spelec,~' 0/ V.'&C'Ll'Untl Simo« qf the ,HO'U8.(J ofLord»:

o

-

The purpose of the earburettor is to provide a mixture of petrol and air for combustion . ,I. the engine. The,' aixture

normal y c:onsi&ts, of 001 part (by .,eight) of pe rol to fd't~

. parts of air. but tl··~S mixture varies quite co .ide'abJy wi h t,l£m,pl~rla'turf_: and en_BI'De, speed. If' t ~ ere :is a, high er pro .• ortion 10 ,~'

P- etrol the mixtu -e :~" said to ," e «~!cb,'::- ~ 'I!i:~ A,'~, 'h,ijlw'h-lA1i'"' :p '0" IP--:-:'O" rtion :O'~'

! - . -_ ~li_j _ 1""[1],. _ J[ 1111:11 J~~, . . _ •• ' J;lIJt .. ) . 1 i.. 1

air f!l VlfS IS (~wIEal») m ~ 'Y,' tu I ... I~ _ ' . ~ _-;- ,

Ib - _ lilA! _._._1 ~~)

hili 'hV'eb,ry' B.~p'ly, t: ... E: carburettor consists of a tube through w "IC .~. "I ·e. aJ: . is drawn, and a series of very ,s'm,sll holes known

~ jets wh~ch br~ the petrol up ice 0 tinYdto.Eets and pus it In!o the airstream In the form of a mist. The mixtu:e of petro

· ml~t .~. nd air is sue i, •.. d along cn in. er pip. (Induction mafiifo d)

and. then, bJ'~Y of branches in the pipe, in"o each cylmd~~ A float chamber In he carbu 'eUor provldes a small reserve of netrol for the jets anc ensures an even l·p·II~JI'-

Y.~.e flow of air ill:_lto- th~ cUburettor' ~ controlled by' a 'btt~y throttle», '.hie' is a flip that can be opened and '~lo~ed ~Y operating the accelerate .... edal in the cu. Pressi .... ' :t· e accelerator opens "he throttle, This lets in more lur which in turn. sucks ·m~.e petrol _~apoUl' tbi~.ugb the main jet. The r ixture passes mto the' cy' ind,e~ making the engine run, faster,

(~)i ,A' !co»J.'me:rCia/'llel,te:': ,~.

",:lle' 'it :_ - 'b r l '6·., 11 n9-=I'O'

_1":.-_,, _em _e, . _"'I ,1;-:7" 10'

'D ' 'tiI;t'"~'; fe '

,_ ...... :._~ .... 1111 !j;l!ll!ll

- ,- ,"' -. -'d' ~I ~,-, '- or,'" leT' ,of 'Septembl' ,;:, 15 [and,

We'" at' e pleased "0 have fcelve:: I, your ,,'~ " ~,'" -'~' - ---~'i- P Iastlc

' .... ' . I. ~v . . s'p" -~,"',nn "s ' a"E! ~J~

.', "" - ,--' ,',,----, '. -:-·I.1aii!l.U· , . - g,Q' ,_~!lJ."

: Duld Uke to welcome you as a uew customer 0 "',i ' ", -e

f 'liS:' ,.

d - - 4' 'i' 'J!,_ _ S' ~ , s'~h-I_, eets 01 .':!

" ' 6''''''2-''9'[97' )'" for 0:-;' e oze,n "' .. ' x, '"'-''' ~I!l. ' .. ,. _I ..

Y- - - :<. rd e'f (N"'O-:' 1:',,', C ,,' .... 1, lui, 1:_)",:" - ,'...: ... _'" ' - iii ., .-.'

. . I I o,r I " ", ',Ill "', ...., _, . . '1 ~ - - - _ - '. .. '

our .. ~ _c .~-~' . " ... ,.', .~._ d s -;-. dr, I ~)}' ~II' be read'" 'fort shl'p:m,e:n,t Ion

L 'I! - ~ . b·' e"'iI'n- 0 'l'1i['O'Ces,se:. an, w, J" .' - - ' !J

-~l';·:·-'" [IS ,.: .. ' I~, D ;~I "', ••••• ,' •••. _. - ~ __ I ,_ ••••• ~ •• -. ( •. 1 '" 1\) .-'.~. '.:~"

, U,CI_- " " - - . ..;11 1'''''' , - -_. d,-' "A yo' ',:NlIr'll'" W'·I 0' "I'l""'~ho. Pi I bv our own

. . . ""'" 'b' - . ue I vere . IL~ . ·I'!.Ql .. ", ,I\.ac ', .. ' -.I'

S,ep-'i.e ~Ier 21. .. It, WI, ..: e~.',.: -' .. ' '_. , ' , ,', ,: '-'ii -, - - '1"1' .' d~7 .. ~. un,dB['

~. ",.' - -,._. .', '- , _'_"_' _ -;-:-: '. '-~'I'1 be e.o d., ('Dim' p~.'O_lICy 'for a 1\ (J, " ,crs "': .. _-' '.

"'G'n, .' r. p;:la~llen, WI_.I ¥"'" ~ ~

''I' _<I'l' . ' .. " , . - !.J ~ .• 'b."

$lOO)~1

'i,: ; __ . -.'~" ,', tble clear fini:sh aDd te·:.si .Ie S'1 . em '

We are sure you WIll appr,ecl~~e _ .c~ _0, ',.. ", ,,' -M'.- -~~I..e.l -Y·.I'our S les

II ,.1 f ' ·11 a,C'!f;:tc, S.. M'~ . ,I Ie ,., j\o!l'IJU, , I

. "r ... . " nt',-[·- 'iliO' eO' "1Ji,~'Ui.~!. c...:-" Q' . '._ '- :

. . 1 I Ie! .... : .' 'I l . "_ F __ l ,r _ [' _ _ _ .' (- - .' -' ~ 1

01. our . __ '!';;L, .' .Ji._I'o· ... g .... [DTr'd'" samples

I "1-~ ~l·'" . "U ,if!iJO"O:-'IO-' Wl' 'iW a CBU1lL"I'. ~ .... "I_" "~:.." ..•

. -::- De,- '.a~···( ve 'WI 1,1 Ica1 , O.n yOI :.', ,i\J" .! -' _ - . '- '. - ".

I,ep,.~ .:..._,_Ij., '_'_ . , I,. :" ,., _ - '.'

PAYT'" '- "0' " .', -" S'" P':LASTIICS. IN'ell

- :.' _:. ,:: . . .... I . ". -_)... _'__ ~', ' . '. I .. :_.: _ !II - ..

:"'-.' g. e-":' sm F- actor

T 1 '. J'_ [1._ . [;, _ _:, I lD;_ I~ •• _ •• "

, I, b'- ame Pri. ~ Ice Philip, rathe than." he Queen, fori' :- e

dll ,j'11 ,.. tl dl iii III ' 1 ..m.... .... , ,6., .. h t 1_

ex,ttl.'or lnan.lY Sl.~y 1'"eC:IS,lon '10 ',sU"PPOI,rt -.eJlu:cy i'U'C.··I"S pnvare

bill '··!hic\h~'i~l ,~~'I,UO'W' I {em a' e ,c:b.f,ld 0:1: 'fb.e :m,Q,narch to iohe:rit the

1"1'(--;0'· "1,- ;: e'bl e t\~1 born 'b- efere b-'II~[' biro.' 'lb-]': ~I~ AI·'", tb·\-c' o"U(i','h, ;t', !Oi,'~1 seem .-.

'~ -,_ : 1, II· ~. __: !II [Ii~ _' U I_!_: '_:. _.'.I~... _I •• ~ I ,-, -. :'-.:' ~,_I:l!'!I! t, -:'_l , •. " ~I •. ' . .1, '.. ro' '

- .

. ;8 _ ' .. ,Iely progressive ~"I "d miDI ~-,e: - eve~:' fe' ninist, the truth, i,s tb:IJt it

'.1 1''''(11 ·d· '-0" "0-::- g··te" ;"nIB' 'for" .-" - ~-I·'o-·m·p;ln'J~, dism .. ·I-II role W,;';4iL,in ';:;'1..,_ 'rep':;-"- 'w--"-"'d-u-' ctlve

~.' _,,_c I . ". ,_.,.', 'C __ I ,~ ,C'" . ~ . I.. ". ~ I'"~ . ,.II.ro, I ,m.,.',I~'" [1;1LJj.1J,.. IUW 'I'~: . .-'. .:::~;IU· ~.'

·.sy,ste~~~·. 'which is the basis 01' 'aU disadvantages,

Ifthe monarcby ils seen as "'1, prize wb:~I. h my OiD e wou,ld, 'W,III;I~',

then :;:t" rn i .. ; ~''h,t make some S:':O" "11-1 I f'~' se :'n" S: e to open ~,." '11'~lp;'.·· .-::..:, .a ' .... ~r" '~,n

. 11_). 191.- ·IJ~liU\·. iI· '_ I .. ~! _).,-" _ .'. -.,_-' :' ~I _,", U _"~i' I~_-:- l~ ,J l.' I • [tv__:. W.

'w'Olme-CJ, but in those circumstances, ' .. e P(fOPOSaI en pbas:isesi another injlu,s,I"i.ce'i If' the fermer arrangement was le"it," :-'8 n,ew one is 'u;nacceptlb"I'y ,Igeis:t " "~I Y should one eh~ld be peft,i-ed to anothe 'just because it is lOll, ~,e.[?

In 'the' Blew ,Sfpirit of the :8,g 'we have to accept 'that tbc'

~I " . '" ,i.\L _, ~ Th---I Ii bl

:Y'IO', .'g,ger o'ur j[1,'f!S ,or' ,:1 ,',r,I',1 t -~. .~tte,r' u,l,elf :I,mage .. , ." !~:_; L 151 W:, y

'the C'>nsJerlativ'e's are ,DOW led 'by l~c:itiD':,', 36t~)le~ IOI,ld '_·~'illi.am

" ""gue;,~ Some of' us might be egretting ~be C,bO,l.lcell' MOI.~- I '[think'i 'wo,'uld ,I,greeb,e made a mistake in a-.lowi:ng his ,sp.i:n-doctors to . . ersuade him to adopt 'the accents oif 'WaUace, the television

., f-' W 'l~i d Or ~ ~ - -

entertamer 0 "::'1 .~ace anc Groant lame:", 'to promote his !(<yOI_J-g)'

im·:·,s.··· e,

. ',.], ii'

~ ~

E' ". "0 so, the su:pe;ri'ori'~ ot ,yo ~'I'IlJ,th is .D,OiW unassailable, Before

'too long, w,hen the monarchy fans vacant, ,it wi'.1 ,8:0 ',0 thl'~, yOlu rgest I child lof either S,-XIIU ar"',_: ':'Ie, aoo,n tiO be '~o]:d. -tbJat 'tble QueeD':'ir b.·,col.m.e s: 'Ich ,a, law?' We r.a,thler' '~IOO',I ... ~ '~,O 'lb, .. ' ~~~ o(Darlchy '~Ol ,prlotec,- us '!.iO .. ~_ su:ch D'olnSlenSle,~ ~_:~~ >!oinL of <act 8.5, : S2tid:, I suspe'lct 'that P'[in.cle

. h- i, ~ .. II' 'b ~ £:.. hi", III - I ~ r- "' 'h '" {- ' .. " ,"

.1 "hlP IS: to ~IJam ~ ,i(r' 1-]8 ,l2nest lIt Ol~. m,I,SIC ,; lel,~ _e aRid Jeffrey

8'·1

A Manual of English Stylistics

Archer are simply sending rude messages to their sons. Lord Archer is a Life Peer, so his opinions are not of the slightest interest on this or any other subject, but Prince Philip deserves a small rap on the knuckles. Some things are too important to joke about.

(The Daily Telegraph, March 2, 1998)

(6) A news item:

Standard Investor Seeking to Sell Stake

Standard Chartered is expected to be back in the bid limelight today after reports that its biggest shareholder is looking to sell his lSpc stake.

Malaysian businessman Tan Sri Kboo is said to have been attempting to find a buyer through a third party, with Barclays Bank one of the prime targets. The stake is believed to have figured in the short-lived and tentative negotiations over a Barclays bid for. Standard.

Banking sources said yesterday there were two approaches involving Barclays and Standard. But Standard sources disputed suggestions that Malcolm Williamson, chief executive, was the driving force behind one of them despite a meeting with Martin Taylor, Barclays chief executive.

Mr. Khoo has maintained «close and friendly» links with Standard since helping the bank beat off an unwelcome bid from Lloyds more than a decade ago.

Banking sources say that he is unlikely to make any move without consulting Patrick Gillam, Standard chairman, or seeking his approval.

One said: «He wouldn't want to do anything which would upset Standard but it would be surprising if he hadn't been approach about selling his stake, He's been tremendously supportive over the years».

(The Daily Telegraph, March 2,1998)

84

A Manual o[ English Stylis(ics

(7) A classified adverlisement_.

Companies for Sale

~~~LUTION CONTR?L., Company located West Midlands

ng own modem facilIty III pleasant rural area with .

to motorway network Compan f d . I easy access approx 750K Pro fi t·ab Ie T Yd· orrne IUKn 1980. Current turoo. ver

.. . fa mg In and i t ti all

Desl.gn~,. supplies, installs water and wastewater trn e:a IOn I y,

speclallsmg in industrial treatment schemes. ea ent p ant

. (The Daily Telegraph, March 2, 1998)

(8) From «Hexameters» by S.T.Coleridge:

William, my teacher, my friend! dear William and dear Dorothea!

Smoo.th out the folds of my letter, and place It on desk or On table'

Place it on table or desk; and your right hands loosely half-closing,

Gently sus~n ~em in air, and extending the digit didactic

Rest it a moment on each of the forks of the five-forked left hand

Twice on the.breadth of the thu~b, and once on the tip of each finger;

Read wi~ a.nod of the head i~ a humouring recrtauvn,

And, as I live, you will see my hexameters . .h?pping before you.

ThIS IS a galloping measure; a hop, and a trot

and a gallop! '

85

A Manual of Englisb Stylistlcs

STYLISTICS AND TRANSLATION

As we already know, s~l~stifu?&.~~ t.hat can be used in a text are rilanr{o~ ana various. That. certainly, does not mean that the problems a translator will have to solve while dealing with stylistic":j5~~culiklo+"fies of the text being translated

from the 's<ftlrc qhli§~~~:.J~LJ. into ~e target I~~uage ~TL), ar~y,?" less numerousYiS'\upnsmgfy, despite the ·6ovlOus dl~!nzyot . stylistic means, in reality we can speak of onlyJW_o stv~listjc,~pects

"ilV-I·Ut!c:.v_r.c.;~(5 G~; .... ,,\.-\:.. h

of translation. First, a translator is supposed to pr r!~ I~ t e

target text those stylistic features of the original that fmiiirtesl the

l>..- ~',f~ t!ipp'urtenance of the source text to a certain functional style. :yet, one - <-resbvatJOn is to be made here: preserving properties characteri~tic of the given functional 1,i.ty\e in SL in the final text, i.e. the text of translation, must conform to the. teqiilremenrs to the same functional style in TL. One shouldbear in mlnti that one and the same functional style may have somewhat different features in SL and TL. That means that it would not be too' wise just to transfer stylistic features from jhe so~rce text into the target text. As a rule" ~o:?e st.?'l_ie!£~s!o~mitlorts are necessary to make ~e target text comp\y W1tnilie requirements of the genre and style 10 TL.

Second, there always exists a problem of rendering a certain stylistic device (mainly figures of speech and stylistically coloured lexical units)from one language into another. Not all of them have correspondenc"es in other languages. And even when they do have them, those ~~o*aences may be found to be inappropriate in the target text as they are not in conformity with the requirements of the given functional style in TL or they may be just incOh'e-rent' for the reader of the final text. As the saying goes, «What's good for a Russian kills a German». Thus, in each particular case a translator is expected to come to a decision as to what means he would use to preserve in translation the stylistic colouring created

86

A Manual of English Stylistics

b . d . . r .Yo. "'. s...

. y a certain evice In. the original without Viol ing the rules

Imposed by the functlO'lal style in 11., and making the text '1 h t d i h£.~wt-\,.~, f- .(...,~

nco eren an mcompreuensmle.

.It is llotewo~fiY; _ ~~.~u~h, ilia!,. ~<tx.ts belonging to different fun~tl~nal styles eh1"proy different 'se'1'S 0 not quite identical stylistic devices, which simplifies the process of translation in

. so~e.cases and makes it more difficult in other cases, Appu~m1tfce of ~ text to ~ certain f.1nctional style is a factor of great rmportance I? transla~lOn. riti to tHis facto !he, two stylistic aspects of translation get Interrelated and inthwov~n\o such an extent that in practice it is just impossible to separate them.

The following exercises will help a student of translation to unde~stand how the two tasks mentioned above may be solved in

practice, .

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Analyze tire means of rendering the stylistic effect produced by figures of speech in the following examples. Was the taskfulfilletl successfully?

"'-'\;,.""C I ~'.L..tv

Hyperbole:

I. I went out and caught the boy and shook him until his freckles rattled.

5I BblWeJI H3 nemepu, nOHMaJI MaHh<JHwKy Ii aaxan TaK ero TPSlCTH, 'ITO BeCHYlIIKl1 aacryxarm npyr 0 zrpyra.

2. «Enough», says Bill. «In ten minutes r shall cross the Central Southern, and Middle Westen:

States, and be legging it trippingly for the Canadian border».

- 3Toro .llOBOHbHO, - rOBOpHT DI1JUI.- B ztecsm, MHH)'T SI nepecexy

U,eHTllanbHhle, IQ)f(Hhle H

CpenHe3ana,llHble urrarsr H

cBo6oIl.Ho ycneio no6el1(an. no KaHancKoH rpamnnr.

87

H non ~'r,'alO

[ ' .. ' " A- III

- "'Mmiti;'Iifi1' 'D1f'!'nQ" I n:t..iI:·-H- loro P'aJJlIDCI B -~,;;;; ... -F~',I, gl.,1" .:_' ,V·l!,Q, .:_.~-

"- •... ." H 'II~OAY ,~D.uw 3XOM

~y,'~,~ , ,. '[.~. ~,'I'li:!i!,',:'HI'~II,

-:- '_'<_Y KI.M£H-IIL,I,e !wjI,'~, ~

'M,b'~ C ']i'HJim,Q ~j, =\2Ij,CClIBT,IiJ.JBaJ'lI, '" '01 3oeHe3ep Cpa3y Bhl1IOIafi HCM )8 CbIRK[:, De [ThlleRI" nOI_:',I apo I,~[

H" =,=aK HI~[ :f._ '_.: f{' ae,

;8;-', :-"

. -1.-.

3., ~(,T[_::UDU the truf\, B!ilb)11 s~iJS 1'1 (~dUs, ]iH,L: hi' ewe; lun,'~ h .. som,e,wh .'.'~: 0,01' on, m,!d aerves '00101"

I~. ~-

'We."':-[ tlkl- .him bome~ piay 'tbe:

,mnSQ,m:t. &0.,__ make our geta _ 8\Y>~~

... CKl3an 'TOOe: 'DID npu:.ae:. EIt1UI, rOBOPlQ1 B,bI' ,~ 3TIO CDKpiOIB~[.e 11"0 TO '-~ , '\ :ee aeA,cII,Ye.T aa ,H:epB'LE!1 M:L\m O-l-BI=.,_,~ ere ,JlOI:M[DB~ .. ,J,IUDtlT ~i y,.

B'L HIil''lUn' H P-~JI 0" . PM-' 'n,n' ,~'U flr·~ ~ -=, '6:; v' niL

,gl,n,,I-' ~,~ :; , ~w .'~ ",~ ,~j,~"" - ':i[(-\U

n- OiRI' i:.·we' '.

"'A __ ,.:· •. ,·iI

4[i Shark DodSQ,D. aJld Bob T:idhB]~ .. scomi' g .- ~ pU,l such Ilow",grad e lore: IS, tb~: Pl_ ',' se-- 8--S 'UDo'U[gh, -'>e ,m;;]l, ,slrUek oUI, for' 'the; rieh

~ pocket of 'tb ~: IBXPf.'BSS,w.C,U ~

: ' ''JD'a' Jl' o D't'"ft" 'I'~ 'Ii' 0'6-;- '-T- IlJfo··,'I'II" H"~ -',

" " ,[ . ,. ~ I. ,[ . ,~ ft. r: .. " '.1 , ... "U . ~o!I.iIi _ I ..

o r 11_ I. - I [_ 0_l _' -'_1 - . . 1 I '_. _ _ '_l _ _ _ I

- '" Y'-'- . ~, ~ O'~I!;, rp'ovn craJIII: up D,n' :ICKB,,I'u[ I~n,'): ',,).,g,, ,~,(~ AW

.... ~vv - t;~~ !i'ZI10'·ID,A'T.,A-" n"D'po"IIV'

,I, I~" .. , U~~~~~~¥I '.i;I _,'.!fJl!v'oII; V _ ,. L:__ ~_"I~" iii

U,i!lii,p' 'nii!!iJiii'i!!j\i;~I!!i.r.!:"T"pi~.,g! ',a" ,1'1I"IIl:i!:Iil ,. ,I _'-" : 1 C,',~ n,~ , ig""~:.,,gl;"l IU, ,. . ~~,rg .' __ ,_' ,111!11

1i'In[in HK-:-O"· -'.' V' ~n-a' 'T"'L.lr : p' "D' ,··~,jf'Ii'L~I- "., ',-, '"''"'F~ I[ '<' ,,II\, u"':'·._'._,.iliU"1i _ 1' .... ~M.l. -:..:_,

nOI lTO.oro [BarloH:a..~

1. Ome more mght of' Is kjd wiD Ewe OAR. "ROlUo C 3TIIfM

send . c e to a bd • n Bed alii. ·a.uLIIHWB:Oil. P IJPJI,ZWr'c.a Mem.

I

I cL',."}n 'A"!~-'r ~IO"J-:_'" '-", .. - ;-', .' . '\I: .-, ,.:'11'11 [!ijl!i.II"-'1 ,.iI 1/1' ,I !Wy[e:. ,II :S, _ . '_,1 D.le.rtle ~ 1£ _: ulll 'n'!:__'

Im;jO:~,A""'a'jAlp- Ad" - rl :' .. ', .. h III.i!\D'Iii,I[QiiO'O~'~1

IUIWJ· r,.,:~" . >L, ''Wi! lI!!y~DU

skJro.cket of a , "I,d,,)

,R ,'HKDI:r "_ ,:' ,_'·~-,er-o 1111£: 160:lUJ,lC:JI,1 n'IOI(- 1,···' He y,x,_11JIH .ny' )3;BY,HI.··rylO P,U:etyi

I. Them was a town doWIIJ diere. as Ta-' OllJlQ roP0Jliq. '0,

nat "~ a fWmel..cue~md Icaliled! Imocd, ED SDK. B,oDe . -0,

~-Iummic~ of 1001 irse, fl83:.m;&!C1lC:JJ ,Bep1wa; i'M'.,

..

,21 ITha'E, 'boy ,IJ1u't U,PI ,I, :6,&O;t ,~Jke, ,0,

we.~le!f~lwAi,,,.'[ir.I' ei ill'fiI'i'lli1a!H'iII'on bri'~[~"

. . . '~I. I - ~ 151-1-1 ,_. II"IUriIJ~{."_ .. '~J

bu'·. ~,t ; I. !Il"'~ 'Ji!)Iii"!i.f, h"· 'I'""m'" d:'- Alftl!~R'lii ,iii!,

~~" '.} '"~ DU~' ._ ~ J • V lJ"r'irlL~ -__; I

Ma n'LU'Ulf'If'I'J'Iiliii, Q/ 'DT-"" ~. ~'I!:ilnCJI'" 'rr, 'ifF

!Q,o!I1&D ''''3i,.u.u:n,w, ,~.' , " .. ". Wdll.l'· ". ,- ,I'Iio - II,'!!.

. - , _' ._ • • 7' ,.., , . ill _ .' ,

1613, p'-=: 'Ib'I,;s" 'II,JII.@'nlili:h~''IfIf. mAn'D'Rtill""n. neca 8-: 0'"

':'_:,;J ... IDlIi~" DJi'!!!i'~'~ J 1*:r'~''''"''1. 'v _,.~!!j.,; '." ,' ..

'R: I '1[-=0': ·H": ,e, UIO' 'IU'~'B-- [M:- iL.'11 ero ~;'Ii!!II'nu~' ~I nT~'

' • 1._' "-. I'~ dI7'-, ~ ~IV _ l __ lUll . lL V ~·a __ 1i'i.A~1 U'I

·,Na, JUiIO ,[U;apa,'6aH'1 [II noeX8JIH,.

"

89

3,,~ BUI, gets down OlD 'bls ,all 'frfJurs,~ and a. h)ok loom~ 8, in his· BY',e. bkiC a iabb,:""t~s wben, yo.,o 'ca'-'jch it in a 'trap.,

A- ,Ii I-

-' ..' .. - iii

, 6'4 Im;a . Ii

'lIE:' ~.I'n·n' 1if!l'T'~ '6'0-' 'D''I!'.I!'''tV'"iI:'!I' KOI 'H~~ prU''L 'Jjj!'1'.lIi' ,UIJ,UI,UJi ty [LI g,. I' l" "Drn .. ~ 'wD .. ~gl 'l~I,&.D~r ~~"uP.ft nil

if A' 'B rD9,'i'j,Ii"!Ii'V '\I' H- e' ro- 00- UU'l'lll'n'~~'

,n, ,~ ,1I,_,_,a",;oM'aA ,J' ~ ere ,I :.~'~_~Li:I¥,iIi,I~H

TlKOIB 'B~;lpaE,e:-; He,~ ,)Cax " ~pon:MJ(a~

00- 'n'a'B~"ml~'r'o"" B--'I iiOj'a'nal'Trn.I~

l~} '[ . f_' ~j[ ~. -.,',' [ -. riiJ. ':, I ~;'N"

Kalt TO·.11LKIO M,1JiIJ .HmK;a. o 6'H:I,PylKHJ1" q"flC) M'bl ooti,'Hpal8,M[C_& era OCTB'g:trrl), AOM;I!,., 'DIIJl no:J1DD1, B,OM ae ')t,:YlKe na:pox[onaoR cupeHLlJJ

II a'Qen'f,ji "CR ,. ',nlM] 'I:"'I'.'\'i'I'FrIj\1l . ~~no--: Ui' r , ',;Fi;,

_ I " _ _ ".u.~ . ,~} II Ulilii 1// ,UI,!l-'U1U,IJ_ 1'1 ~I;~ :_/Ul ~ ·u

n.1tH".'K.S., Oren OT~p8J1: ero or

- 0' r ' '[j!l',;m " !m"iLI'iI'ftiI"'II,.fij [n'1IfIII1~'C1~m','

,_ ~_,I .. , ,.' .~ J1I!.'iIiiI " ,,j!!,iUl',Jdl,m.",,,,,, 1,~\.IIJg ':. -"".rl!h,

R -

e :~'HXHI' HBH ItDDJlH,"" 'wm, BO.'fti,

iI;~!r 11'-

'1I1'1I'iiU' '. :";:i, ~i 'Im;;o'a~'o:-"'iJ"!\O' i ·M· ,O·~ ~'H~ '[0····· «:~.'" "0-" ~'~.III

(nJl~Jrll . ~ "I. ~I •. ·A :._ .. £ : . . ". ~ '_I .. " U iii ,.... UIUJj

AW" ":n1~~. 0· .. · T- ro"···JlO· ···It'!i,n·B-"r;__·'IIIY f'!l;Dfi~In.1ifiI'

U~. .~~ I) lUI .. ) '] ~' -"_:_ . ,_-vv· 'lg';tA t~~~I~(II,\

M'Y·'"'i.il\"' . H'N,'bm "" HIQO'Ii"' 'RP:-ID'IiI[O-TI'V:1I

. ",_::;@,' ,_", _I' -' ~.l.l~1 ~ ',' ,n~1I'.II -' '-' _,f!!;. I

He~p.: .,: J1:Hr~HDm:H W''d:a!'a;'!lli:lli!i.n,'lI'urHii

11-;-" __ ~-- II ~-~, .. ~~,. " 'I

' ...

YH.H3Jflle.JilbHbIB 1s:l13r:" 'KiIK:HM,

DlDiKI!T 'EeR'ii'I'rIl.-.HI)I- VRu_,'neB

_ _~ ~ 'J ~'I~rJ;~r--

uJnuUtJlel~He. :KJlH. ·ryee.BHl1Y,,,

, ,

l. On. the !Op,pOI~te :s,ld,'e 1.'-" ,: the street was 'I, esta-~l-',;mt of :00 ~ea:t

pretensions .. t catered to forge tJPfJ,fdiU:s and mo'dssl purses. 'It.

.-- ,-:~- '.-, '-1 'd··' :'. ,'- .... , .',_ -.-. h~""-,-··, .'- .. iil~,'~·';"'"' ... , " '1- . nd - .. -,, ... -,- th·,·'·-

CroCM,ry ,an·., atmospnere we,re 1~,n~C,A.,~1 its ,StJup an:, nape,O' -.: ni'

In- t', :'" th t.'" C" ~'.'[q. - I'S'''-' ., .. - .,c-." 't -' ok 'h'~ . 'I-~" ,-; ·h-l -. .' 'd- ",Il" ~J',

_,J)' ,,1,9,.P ace .OI::PY _100, ,. I'S aC'CUSlv,e :S.' .:088 ano ,~le"1 .,al,e,

'tr" . ,. '-, ',-- ,- . ,_IIi·th,'-, ',' -'le . ,h, .... 'U - -, At . .', b ~ - h-" -. md . . ,- - . d

J .,ousers, Wl_~1 !lOUi.:. C, ,Wl, eng,e,. ~ .: 'I a-:. JI e., . e sat ani- cons' - ", e .. :.

b fst · .... ,'11 ... , Il, ': 1"/ ,:., ( I. -:- d· I'·' " ,L,_.~ 'I'·c;- ,'-.' d :.." - " d ,:-1.;, .. _ ... ,. "-." the . '" ., !~" '-:-j-'

le!f:l;".:etu\._, J apl,lc ,'S,;! .'. ,OU:~JUIU _5. an, , p:1e~ _, "._', ~ !.en - co' _,Ie Will. cr

90

.41 III en .lqll'NU,al [a,,:-":I';'j;jj, .

_ v ~ ••

_j," . (

'<II"

91

A ManUdl of English StyILHjc-~

3. What means would you use to render these stylistic devices from English into Russian? Translate the

text.

4. Is the stylistic coloring of the translation the same

as that of the original?

1) Japan's Banks: Survival of the Fattest?

- Japan has wasted nearly a decade refusing to attack its mountain of bad bank loans. It has gone from wildly underestimating the size of the festering pile, to confessing that it is some 77 trillion yen ($546 billion) high, to admitting - under intense recent pressure from the United States - that it is indeed a health hazard for the other countries in its neighborhood. Last week Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto broke out the shovels, presenting a long-awaited plan for Cleaning up the mess. -

Now all he has to do is get his countrymen to put their backs into the job. The key element of the plan - expected to be adopted in a special legislative session at the end of the month - is the creation of so-called «bridge» banks, a tool for winding down insolvent institutions. Busted banks would be taken over by the new Financial Supervisory Agency, which would install new management and try to sell or merge them. Failing that, the banks would be run by the Heisei Financial Restoration Corp., usually for a maximum of two years, as bad loans are sold off. Public funds would be injected to enable bridge banks to keep lending to creditworthy customers until they are shuttered.

It's a plan Japan could use to build itself a modem, healthy

financial system - or to drag out the problem into the next century. The Tokyo stock market rose in anticipation of Hashimoto'S announcement. then eased back on the recognition that the measures on the table won't necessarily force the biggest banks to

92

A Manual of Engtish Stylistic.';

offload their problem loans. Will Japan really force change on its elite institutions? History isn't reassuring.

((N ewsweek», J uJy 13 ,. 1998)

2) FAD ... Let There Be Bread

A new excitement has been added to the queer race that Man has run against himself down through the ages, testing whether he can pro~uce food fast enough to feed his fast-growing family.

IIi the past the race has never been a contest. Never, in all the yesterdays since he clambered out of the primeval ooze, has Man

. the Provider caught up with Man the Procreator: there has been famine somewhere in the world in nearly every year of recorded history. Even today, after twenty centuries of Christian Enlightrnent, half Man's family goes hungry and vast numbers of them are actually starving to death.

Nevertheless, the race has suddenly grown close enough to be charged with suspense. For the Provider has latterly been getting expert coaching from the sidelines and, despite the fact that the Procreator, running strong and easy, is adding to his family at the unprecedented rate of nearly fifty million a year, the gap is steadily closing.

The coach responsible for this remarkable tum of events is the Food and Agricultural Organization, more familiarly known as FAD, a specialized agency of the United Nations. And for its achievements in this crucial contest it richly deserves two cheers. Not least of all because, when it comes to the c ategori cal imperatives of eating, every quack can be an expert and, in consequence, FAD operates in an area where lunacy often passes for logic.

93

. ···.·r\P';,.~' .AI.iI'~a'lfotr~~' til: ,:b.~l,~·.,ti.c'Jl,ecu'lillritlesJ/' t6ei ,:;-dp£"··~'s,i'. '.g'

.......... ,. Lodkl!llij;; .'.. ,n"li'll!,N!o .;)T oti;;.':;' - - - - ", r -

. c~ter'~I.. w: "~i stylistic featuI'es Ina}' constilllte "11"''''- wh'ls

tIlNI:ltl'Iing tli e I:exl:?

~ I

A ·I"enaissance Person seeks hotels where hospitality IS king. (No ms<:erwha:your.title.) .. ,c_ .. ",11 requests are graciously attended '.'01 at Renaissance Hotels and

R,esQ,rtS (even king-sized requests), In fact, eie( con,g to our' guests

H ~ ali "'t -u may ask

is the essence [of Renaissance _ ospitality, t ~elDS yO'I., r ',,"'::' ,.',::_

our staff'· for tru"y' ,anything,,, Mid al~ leV',ery Renaissance h lot el, you'] enJoy supe . dim g, co:. fo ble accOllll1llod···ou and I . 't ~:_v· ing atmesphere 'Iher are over 82 Renaissance

'~'Iolels and 'Resorts in 26! countries worldwide.

And hospitality reigns in each and, every o e of'them, ~ I.ISI II' .' e ftolr :R,e'" a,i!s,Sa,n,ice,~

. ((N',Bwlwee:io); Septen ber 28" 1998)

. ,j Ii E' it ,I' ~ ,., _. R' - p,'i!I_ '_ RIl1'u"I:n,p" 1~,lIe-l!Iilj ..

<r:c .. _ I' 5. ,7] '~"'IUI.·e J,t,(jI.1H ".11:'10" m. ''0. 'i I, >iJj,' ... ' 'fl' ,I' 1l".'''II; ~~"'i"_l_'"

... , .. ··.--."'oln, ID ren dering' s,t)'IJ';-tir: ,p\l!culiaritiss' D/ ~1tle' lI'dv.ertis'l", t .. '(;;,,18 111..11' '.1 p,rel;e;"':n:t: t "'18.'/0'1<111:,1;'0',1,1 of',Ib. e ,Ie:tI'::'

94

JU - T THE RI' - HT SO-" , UTI 0' N FOR' OUR' NE-- 'W'

S .. · "'1':-"-' · .. :·IG','·' . ':,',1'. ,- -.,: ,.II':' ::-~ ": .. ' ..... : .... ~:".'

_ _":_," ['" ,'I . '."_ , ~ • .1" '_' '_ _ .. ' .. ' ',', "', '."__: .. ,., '. ".," .. ': . ", _____:..

E""'"I'" .. !RL·,O· .. ,'liN.ftl'n'N··· .. 'T'AL:" - 'LVi .... 's~··O .. ·-···UND' ':' .. ""1 C' AR'" ... ' p'A~'r'ira1

__ ,1;1 'VI - ' .. :"';"':'.= . Jf'l r~'r~JI~ ...... - "'". [ -':1 ''__':'' ._. _ ['._, ,. . : _ ~._ t.. ";'. '. ~., J1, ~

'Water~ ',~,'h[e basis of life ion our' planet, A syml 0'), ofpu:rity~, And com led with paints using organic solvents an, I obviously superior, environmen ally' sound, base,

BeC8U,S::s, '(hie environment is, harmed 'by the emissions of organic solvents that otherwise arise during the paintjng process, While searching for alter -,atives, we WI ere j,:ni,ti,ally' successful ~::i .. ' '(e,! eloping water-based paints for primers. Not '~I' -I easy task, JUSlt

think about it: :81 paint '~lla:t [can be diluted by wate :" of' '~,_:I 'th1n,g~sl~ is resistan nt '"'O~''' ru st,

~I~ . . ~" __

The next step was to develop primer surfacers and, base COll,5, which in the meantime have gone into full-seale proc uetien,

For som,e time now, even the popular metallic pamts, have

'b 1I 'LI . b d d rl !iiI I. I.:. ....:rI:-

neen &V'81,8101 e as water ... oaseo IID,j arge y. iSm]S~U,IO, .. rree 'IDGuc;ts~

D I I

-[ ~.bis success was '"arg,td.y generated b:y our subsidiary,

Herberts, which built 0;n18, ofthe w'(),ri!d,'·s larges ' 'wat,er ... 'based, paint fact 01:' nes in W'u,p,pe,rtaJ (Germany) last year .

Then a e 'thus, a number of good, reasons '·'~hy our water'based paints are used O,D the assembly-lines of' an ~increasin;g, , number' of'European car manufacturers, And in the near 'fu,1IIft;1 cars

J:!:..]' d 'U" S- A ill I L, ,::,_ !! ,- !iii 1-1

I rrem .ap'an 80,;-1 .... > .'~_;.;., 'W'.. a_lS,O snme ~~-'I" __ - [o'ur e, ",'_': f10'" ") ~ :~:l ,Iy

CO=-"UD'" d·' p" ·,a···· ~m·J,·· ts

til " _I.' •••. _._ • " ._~ i!!!

, "

W.~: wi '~, behappy tOI send you additional information.

- " v ~II' L -, "';,-'l~'" .'J., the sem .,1.". Irom ~',. -.', . ~ 1- ,j.~I .. -. E--'-'-' l-:(?ll.i

, ··xerICIse I~ . 'II,"IS fi,e ,1:i.·I_:~;:e" ,enL ItS J" u_· I '. u; "" ... 11 rnlD, ~nr-·iI·.;J'n

,P,tlyil,lg .:.pec;illl ~:t·,e;~.ti~on to fig'ur,e'- of.·~· seeeh:

.

I " ~··~oQeH~7e' nOI rpafiR..JI:::·' "'" Tp8' ·IUIl,IlIOH' :~ aa safiaaa POCCHHCk; ,x

!ij!

Hi: IC-ny~ -: ... '·U,l' la··~ ,I~! c '11'''(0·-· -.'.' . ··'··Y··H-' H"leTa'I'" - e'MB'HHO"..1

_ -~ _ '-i _ ~,; .' . _I '_ ,_ " . _ I. I , ::'. - L . ':__:!. ' ) _ _:_:_: : I .: .. ')

95

A MaT! 11(1/ IIf English Stylistics

npOMe)l{YTOK Me)l{ Y fHlnHI (mpOKOJ1aMH» nO.ll.03pI1TeJ1bHO MM «d1TOrJm, 22 nexatips 1998 r.).

2. To, '{TO )l{ypHaJll1CTbl 3<lrnOTJlT HJ1IOXHHCKYlO Ha)l(HBKy, 6blJIO OqeSH.llHO, KOMMyHHCTa! OCTaBaJIOCb uosatsrsc» nepBoii «(flOKJleBKHJ) If noucevs (<<vh::mm, 22 nexafips 1998 r.).

3. HanOM}fMM, '-ITO uonpoc 0 TaMOlKeHHhlX nsrorax )J..JUl CMH Ll.O CID. nop He peures, a B aenpax ,I1;YMbl Y)l{e asnperro HeCKOllhKO «(Y,l.(yllIa/011/HX» 3aKOHOnpOeKTOB no 3TOMy nosozry (<<MTonn>, 22 nexatips 1998 r.).

4 . .5ipoCTHO l1HI.C}] roncsoa, .IJ;)1{epaJIb.o: Conouoa asmanan O).{H)' sa zrpyroa KOpOTKI1e ¢paJbl B xajaepy TerreKOMnaHHH 3H-6H-CI1 - B nayx uiarax OT nopoaoaeaureji OT saxaraoro COJIHua 6enoii MaxHHbJ KanHTOHHJl ... (<<MTOfl-m, 22 ·,l{eKa6pR 1998r.).

5. Paxapn Barnep .D,Be nenena naaan n06blBaJI B MOCKBe C KOPOTKHM H osyrsnusn« 3aEeCOH TaiiHhJ BH3HTOM, nOCJIe xoroporo MHorHe yqaCTHHKH nOllHTH'IeCKOrO npouecca H ero nafimonarena OKOWlaTenhHO ysepnnacs B TOM, 'ITO 6eJ Y'leTa n03HlU1H POCCHH peurenax B OTl-IOWeHHH Hpaxa snpens npHHHMaTbCSJ He 6y.o:YT. I1 BOT - TaKaSJ nOII(e'lHHa. Teneps-ro, nocrre paxeruo-Sosstioaoro ynapa, cosepureaao OlIeBH,IUiO, 'IT':' see npensuryuiae «yperyrrapoaairas» 6hlJIH He 60JIee 'ie~ cncrrsxneu, B KOTOPOM poccHiicKHe PHlIHO~aThI, JzyM8Jl, 'ITO nrpetor Bep)'IlfHe pOOH, ssrcrynsnn B POJIH craTHCTOB (<<I1TOfH» > 22 rtexafipa 1998 r.).

Exercise 7. Determine the means of rendering the lexical units which belong to super-neutral vocabulary into Russian. Is the stylistic effect preserved?

1) It was, as Bill afterward expressed it, «during a moment of temporary menial apparition»; but we didn't

find that out till later . '

·,[lOIDKHO 6bITb, KaJ< roaapasan nOTOM EHmI, «H8WJlO apeueanoe noapaxeaae YMa», - T01lbKO MhtTO 06 :nOM ncranamrcs !.{Horo nossce.

96

A Manual of English Styiistics

2) There was a town down mere, as ECTb TaM OD.HH rOpO.llHWKO,

flat as a flannel-cake, and called rmOCKI1H, K8K 6m1.H, 11, KOHe'lHO, Summit, of course. It contained aaasraaercs BCPlUHHbl. )l(HBeT B inhabitants of as undeleterious HeM C8M8Jl 6e:lo611)l.HaJl Ii seeM

and self-satisfied a peasantry as ever around a Maypole.

class of rtoaorn.aas nepeaeauiaaa, KaKoH clustered snopy ronucc nnscars BOKPyr MaHcKoro uiecra.

3) Philoprogenitiveness, says we, is Qa.llOm06HC, rOBOpl1JlH Mbl,

strong in semi-rural cansao pa:3BHTO B

communities.: nonYJlepeaeHcKHx 06ll(HH8X ...

4) Over towards Summit 1 expected B narrpaanerora ropona .!I O)!(H,UaJ1 to see the sturdy yeomanry of the )'BH.aeTb .ll1OlKHX cpepMepoB, C village armed with scythes and KOcaMH 11 BI1JI8MH pE.1CKaIDll.{HX B pitchforks beating the countryside nOHCK3X nOXI1TI1TeneH.

for the dastardly kidnappers.

5) There was a sylvan ani tude of COHHblM cnOKOHCTBHeM .neCOB

somnolent sleepiness pervading BelUJO OT TOH 'IaCTH AJIa6aMbI, that section of the external KOTOPasl rrpocrapanacs nepen outward surface of Alabama that MOMMH rnasaax.

lay exposed to my view.

6) <<1 ain't attempting», says he, «to decry the celebrated moral aspect of parental affection, but we're dealing with humans, and it ain't human for anybody to give up two thousand dollars for that forty-pound chunk of freckled wildcat».

- .51 BOBce He nhlT31OCE. YHH3HTh rrpocnaanesxyto, C MOpa..m.HOH TO'lKH apeans, ponarenscxyro mofioas, HO se,ll.E. Mbi HMeeM neno C JDOJlhMH, a KaKOH )!(e senoaex aauren 6bl B ce6e Cl1JIhl aannanrrs .D;Be TbICR'IH 1l0nnapoa aa 31)' BeCHYW'IaTyIOII.Ml<yro l<OWKY!

7) We have your boy concealed in a Mbt CI1PJlTa.JIH aawero MaJl.b'IHl<a B

place far from Summit. H~e)!(HOM MeCTe, nanexo OT ropona.

8) ... the money to be left at midnight )J.eHbfM .ll.OJDKHbl 6blTh ocraaneiru to-night at the same spot and in cerozms a nOJIHOl.Jh aa TOM )!(e

,.

9) ,('1 tim :~. !Cf:r', ~i- person 'wi th

mas cu,1inre, pr1o,e,'Uvl'tj,ls, and ,~ ·._bits o,f :Ie,~f .. defense, but ···:·ere ~:s, a ti:_-~e .

. - ,

:dl Isysl,ems, ef e -.-:o,til,m

p .. ·.dominance (U]~lIjj There was martyr,s "'. D,ld, t:m,I£Sl)', goes IOD Blll, (cthsl suffered dea'dJ rather than, tgiv1e ~J.p e ~·:a ,_leulu ·,'-i.;!·-~~:_Ley eDJ~yedN'Q ae olf" .. m " .. : r e'·, was Iu,bj ,gated'to such su·penlatural. 'io11Utes as, I have be en. .. ,~»)'

M,ecre 0",-' _' 'r T'O' "', JK:_ XQ'PIOIDortm:e:, 'IJT'O :H B8W, OTB!e;r,~ , .. , :~Jle, M ~ eHHID.11 6::YIAet

, 'O~' :- '0' H1!'.ri.l:.I""· EiI"i'mrll'.JII ol;_'l ,1f!i'o·.·~a-::-·c:-··'ll:jO': 'i[ !C,K~;_~ '. I -_!~ 'II !" W1£r-1 ilJg,1/ ~"·)I.III'I;' _ __:'_:'ln ,I

'H' a'~1 i';I,"II"TAf "'lcnrODHI.. np .'H1DJDft'"e OTlI£,T

I. I ~ !i. 1""13 .].1 -' -' - - - if' ." _. _

n'" C:-,,·· 'PH' H' 0.111.1 '. 'Un'~! " ~'·M··· -'H"H-;-6~;;'v~-:"

!_.; . "... _ '[~ __ III _.~ .ii!f·~W ~ ~'w _' [_ ~"" " fL· .

OJ!H'RM K: 'n:OJlOBHHtG· AeBHrDI'rOI~

I-/' (if 1D'~'P"··O·II'!i''IT'il'!I:. :" 'iil.'II'Qn·o·,'n';:!i"K'· to;'ft'D·" ·OO··j ,-::"6' ':-rH" V:

".Ill Dii!lij ·j.··.~!iI._ "J ~~Jl.:_!:L~~ " ~II& .. ~ .. :..:_._, .. ~. ~\!!! ~ n

lea(· :O(:J,all'HTe:~ ,M: :f.IpiKB.'I~H Y' 'MeHl !"'''y", ., '·'~C'IBIp."~~\rr,e IO~I.KO' 6Lill'IIfIr

__ . ,.'W _, ,~.El.ID'~'·iIi' ~.'I,_ __ _. _~_

, .'

".'nuu'~1 lUI' ~'I~[" n'!:i 8,ee. 'U'~eT UIOa.XQ hi ~, ~ILJ '!lU:~IIJ, ~u ,~~. ,_.,_ .• '~-. [.IIil.r:~-- --

K (~_-_ .·_Dtd.HleH:-: ,e: N, CB 'OIO[t5\nljq,-:-_~:~-:~e~,~

':6.~Bamt M:y'q:emm_H HI erapce

''''p-'llI:iiir''"rIi~. 'til"O:iT'O-"P:ILJ1'8 'iCK"Dp:,',. '.I ee tl.'UIH

, " W!f'JI,a'~1 ,A",. __ ,. iUiIl _.

roo 'T"o-·g~' iii "H' .1L'ii,~ c-:.·~jj' -'£M- '._-' _'

, ' .. rilL :·.,Jg~1I1 '~).lLD_~

'I'. "3' cera --- 'C::'D' ."... '~I'::I'uM,A"R~

r ".1 ... 1~W111. i' J' ".....:.. ~.~ "" r.ll~ Urn: ~ IU I

,.

. -. H~ ·"H, 'H' n ii~rI'\ na uu,·· He '.

nplo c ,_' .n~ tlu :r,Di'!!;;;II, vr _,;" ",11'.";11" ',1!J.o!

nO.,epFIJICB ~:~'KH:M ""'B- C' p-·'X·iOfb·- ~~AH' " "Lit"" 'n° tl..·lf"l""Ua-I'M' x:·--'

~ :' r. ,-.I ~,[II': ~I~ ~~I~ g~_:_,_:; ·PUlllVQ 'U~,. a" , _ [I < .... ~. I

". ,., 'Th- - li~ . - -' - - -~ -'~, .... ,...II 'h· ii, .Il, ' 1!."

,2.) , '1: parl~,Ic.-,man M1r,~,'GU ,: 15: CdJ,U"

~,ume_' his back nOI S:::py' and remarked 'tOI a cltizen, ,c~n, 0111':.-

:n110' rn~." II -. ll'lm r J' ,A ~;~!lI,

n,o'se .. '··HYJ1l'CB CKa'HlUUIH'C'I')" CDHH'rQ '~. '11 3,aM'eTHl[

'npO'XOiK:e.MY=

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A Manual 0/ English Styllstics

some kind of trouble or something, to get right down on his knees and pray to God. He told us we should always pray to God - talk to Him and all - wherever we were. He told us we ought to think of Jesus as our buddy and all, He said he talked to Jesus all the time. Even when he was driving his car. Thai killed me. r can just see the big phony bastard shifting into first gear and asking Jesus to send him a few more stiffs.

B cny"lae KllKHX-JIlt60

3a1J>YJ(HeHHH HID1 erne sero

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. BpeM.II. «Bsr, rOBopHT,

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Exercise 10. Translate tli e foil owing passages paying attention to the difference in stylistic colouring of various remarks:

1) «There's an expression on the tip of my tongue which seems to me to sum the whole thing up. Oh, rather, when I sayan expression, I mean a saying. A wheeze. A gag. What, I believe, is called a saw. Something about Joy doing something.»

«Joy cometh in the morning, sir?»

«That's the baby. Not one of your things, is it?» «No, sir.»

«Well, it's dashed good», I said (p.G. Wodehouse),

2) «Odd's boddik.ins, Jeeves», I said, «I am in rare fettle this a.m. Talk about exulting in my youth! I feel up and doing, with a heart for any fate, as Tennyson says».

«Longfellow, sir»,

«Oh, if you prefer it, Longfe!low. I am in no mood to split hairs. Well, what s the news?»

«Miss Hopwood called while you were still asleep, SiD).

102

A Manual of English Stylistics

«No, really? I wish I'd seen hem.

«The young lady was desirous of entering your room and rousing you with a wet sponge, but I dissuaded her. I considered it best that your repose should not be disturbed» (p.G. Wodehouse).

!

.,

~

f

3) «Was Nobby alone?»

«No, sir. There was a gentleman with her, who spoke as if he were acquainted with you. Miss Hopwood addressed him as Stilton» .

«Big chap?»

«Noticeably well developed, sir». «With a head like a pumpkin?»

«Yes, sir. There was a certain resemblance to the vegetable» (p.G. Wodehouse).

4) «Who was it?>)'J asked, as he filtered in again. «Lord Worplesdon, sin>.

The significance of the thing failed to penetrate and, as I say, I oh-ahed with merely a faint spot of surprise.

«The call was for me, sir. His lordship wishes me to go to his

office immediately».

«He wants to see you?»

«Such was the impression I gathered, sir». «Did he say why?»

«No, sir. Merely that the matter was of considerable urgency» (P.G. Wodehouse).

5) «You did say, Jeeves», I said, touching on this as he entered with the steaming Bohea, «that Aunt Agatha would not be at Steeple Burnpleigh to greet me on my arrival?»

«Yes, sir. Her ladyship expects to be absent for some little ti me».

103

«If she's going 'to remain with Y'OiUD,B Thos till tbey'llv',e demumped him, it ,ml;lf' w'el~, be, that she 'wjl~ 'be a,WI',Y during th,El' whole of my 'soji,oull»)'~

'«'Q:ui, cOlnceiv,ab'~'Y~I' :sin~ (p~iG~Wod'e',h"clls,e)~

6) FOir' some moments we diseussed the relstive merits ofh'IDI, and kippers '.,S buckers-up of the morale, there being much, of eourse, ,'~.o be said on both sides, and then I touched 00 something which m' 'had 'been meaning 'tOI touch on earlier, I CU1,'1I"t think, how It: csme 'tal slip n ,m;bl!d.~,

«Oh, Jeeves», 1 said, ,«~I knew there 'WiIS something I 'wan,ted, '. to ask you. .~~, 'at ,in, the name 10f' e:verytbiog, b oodsome Ille ..• IU doing ,h,er,e',?:.),

«I fancied tb:lt: 'y'OjU, might ,plossibly be C:U:riO;UB on tb!at point, sir, and I was, aibo'u,t 'tOI volunteer an explanation, I, have come here, in; endanee 0.0 !VII~ ,Fink ... Nottle.;,» (P~O~,W'Old£:house.l·,

..

7) ~".,~'Bu't Bill, IS, 'we say, was! agitated, He was brooding over

an, earlier.' remark that had fallen from this great man's lips,

(;{Wha. do y:ou mean, the, gentlemsn :may at an" moment be

callin,g7» be :a~Jked,~. 'Th,e thou ,- - ~. receiving I, visit from 'that red-

faced m,1D wi e loud VOII,lce: WhlD had bellowed abuse at bun, :all th,e, W,IY from E',p-:-:som D,Q"YlDS, 'tDI ~S,oTa,thm"ol:tDnJs;'b]re; W:IS not :ID

~, ill

unmixled:ly :agreea)b,le one", .

,<It bJ., pcssible 'that he observed and memorized the number lof our ICII"',I m'Iord, :HiC Will in, I, ,~ ,j':ti'on to s,t-u,dy 'OIUI licence pilate fO'f S'D,m"e CQ'D,s.i,derabl,B time, Y"O'Uf IO'[lds, tip will recollect».

Bi~,I sank lim,p;ly'~'. a chair and brus teed, a, 'bead ,o,f'

perspiration _:'M, his forehead, This contingency, as Jeeves would have called it" :had, nlot occurred tOI him, Placed before him, now, ,~,'t D11ldlc him 'feel filleted,

«('O'h~ golly, I never thought of 'that, Then he would get the

ow ner's n ame and com '~1!"~"f!ii_~:IFiiIID' ~,110"'" here 'W· "'o:""'u,-1d,"~n-:-,~'''''' he?»

~ I .. L, c__I!!i,,;o\ . ~ ,r!tiU.JI •. I1'!11;.;;i 'PJi·I, , I!i;;.!! " ".' """ JI. U,II;.j;!II ,~LL,,~, a,J,:, .' ,WH!l"",,\_ III,,;itJ~, . ..' _~,. ", ~l.li, '. 1'1'

«S,c lon,e w'ouJ.d. be dislp1o'sied to i:m,agin'e" m' lor,d'):~,~

104

(dI,e~l 's the bells, Jeevesla

~-y": IAJ!I,\:!i' m nAr~''''~_ ~, I" I~' l'_ jlu, ·Wr~J

'Bill '~p.li,ed the hm,dkerchi,iefto' his forehead a,g,aia,.,

,«(Willt Idol I: do 'if:be doeS?» .'

4<1' would ad.vi,sB y'otl,r '~,o(rds'hi,p' to, assume :1, nonchalant air and

..I,~ 'II'~ _1~ '1- 11 d fth iPiII;"

wSClIJ!11m :WI ,Lli,Dwl.e:,:__,11e O'I'~~.J~, 'm!~!M~'ln)I'

,«'W'i:th a I~,g'bt ll:u,gh:" 'you 'mean'2)., ,«(f,reci;s,e.ly, m'I,lord})\~·-·

B- ';'I~J- '~g ]-"l!ii'gb":- :~ .. t 111'!lIlu' (- ,- . 1":8" :-:'D~.'W'~,I.~ did '1It~' ~O:'IIII'ilpnlid~1 J" ,··e)A';~le=~~,?~!ir.

ltl:'_J" IUIII Ul . L. ~. 1._] Ig. J!I ~'.",. _"_ . c', _I 1~ •• !iiI .l~ll; __ -11 _" W '" ~. I!!!!l It,.

'(~Bar,e~I'y" adequate, :m,~~l'Drd»)~, .

(~Iolre likle I, death rat e'?"

'(f.;Y 88; m "I D(rd),~,

(m: s::bal~, need ,I few rehearsals».

~;'S:··gi-:-V~Ifj;!f·,",,",ll m'Jord I h w~"~ .;;;111 be e ssen :t·~,nll' to c '~'if'if'"\1' i~O'in~:;-·V'~'~~·t'I" em ':.":\;

[~\ I·: •• ~' ~! nJ, Idlil I _ •••••. Jl ': !I! II. :. ·~·,iI ·1 t. ~ .. ~I ••• -.~!liiiIWl~ [-.'.:lm !Lr.· ... -"-~I~~- ¥.'." ;~: ~'ll/~' ... Iu,. ,.·;t'iJ

B~··,;111' kick red <:p;' ,,'11~nt,t'Y' ~t: 'a' '1D'''''D~'!l!l'!!''D'''''O''''I-1

:_ .. , ~iJJHI .LI,·.·_,_·_:_'~··" . 1 :_> . ~,aI~11. llJ Ipl :: !l't~ .. _ :La!'L·. "' .. ~ ,I III

«B,ow' do you expect 'me' '-10,1 carry cC(Dvi:,on" €eelin;g, th,le: 'WI,Y

I, d . iIl' '"'

( •. JD'~,~)'

('I can 'r'cally' Ippr,~ciat,e 'that: 'y'o'ur' 'Ior,dshi:p, is dlstUrbled»i'

«I'm, :1:11. of a nviuer~ Have, you ever seen a Jlel1.y' hit. by

Icyc,l:oln,e'?»)1 ,.,

,itO,! m'lord, I have never been plielent om :stu:b, ,ID, occasion»,

i, ,«It Iquivers~ So do I»,;; .

,~lAft,er such an ard'eal your lo(rdshi,pl 'w,o'u:~d be' umtnm,I)~,~ «Ordeal ';I(!!. th a n~; ~'~rl" w,'~ ord Jeev .,~'j!Il! A'~ p' n,~ '~n'm' ',~" th "-'IA! 'b-I~i!illiur·:'ful,":'·

'\',~·.'.')~~~~ilP-~ .I~~ _.~~_)'~~I 1·'.fiI,i_ ·.",_'U~I_l' l. ~w,·_IWi~lhll ~-:"l:__"_lIL, llu'l .' r~ ._,"~.':·_'lU~~_~l

p,eri~, O,D,e is in, 'i,t was so dashed 19n'D,miDi,ou.s :baV:ing tOI IDeg, it lik"e, that»,~

,(~l should ,h'u;d'l:y=ltx,prreSS lour recent :a,ct,i:vi,ne& N 'legging i,t,~ :m"I.'a'r,d~ «lSI tegic retflea~b)' :i,s mere the ,m(Jl,t jll8t~rJ:~ This :1:9: ·;21 recoenized , m~I';i,t~inl' manoeuvre 'prgJt'i!i"l,i;eAdl b "Y' "",:u th 'e', srestest

'111Ii;;!'~~~:LI~i', '.'iIi . .lIJ.'~,j' ,i., 'w.Jj .. ···.,:,,!!!i;ii, .!~'I~u.''!!;,;i!l ~!!Ii;,;i,~.'I"r _I I. ..•. ,~.'V;g!~!iiiJ1

ta.cti,cians wb.en the occasion seemed 'tOI cal] {o,r such ;1, move, I h"atve

no doubt th 'Q+ General IC';:!jlZ!jlAnh'-' ower 'LI!"'", .... had recourse *'0'-" it fr":' n-m' tim C~';i;Iii, ,1;,iIi,-. 1)1..:. iii. _ :...:QI. I, :'I!!l;,oo: _~.!L,uJJ. .ll::.!i',iIi,jjj'fI!iJ' • ,1.:1': .. !!ii,iI.1 1.!LlI:i, iiI,U" II;!' ... '. J,IJ~ II;, ,ul,1 'I,.·~

In t· im '. I-\'-'\,

Wi _ "! .:__,~" i!1

«But I don't suppose he had I, fermenting punter after- him, ,cIJ'b"'o' u' t· 1'A,O J.'~W-~ .D'm'~~b~'r·'f)\ ii!31"i th-,~ rf,Ap~' A"f"hl~,![iI< ·v~;Fridi,p'e''r;;.'i;;

u' I' ' .. I, _ Aldlle ,'\ ~. : ~'~IJ~! . ,'-"~, I!Jl!'/! IU;'I1. - I~ l.ul :", Ul. 1 '_. l~ ':1 UtlU.:-:-/·I'!~

«Possibly 0,0'1" m,":IIQ1rd,»lj,

'B'~,r~ brooded, ·(tIt 'W,IIS, th/at .:. ord ,«:WI-.lsh."~,o), that hurt, Jeeves»,

'''~,. ii.. .11 .~ , :11'1" . rd 0'" b ~ ~ .d tc gl'~ irrelevant

'( Ica'n :read'ily 'DD/ag:loe: ,lt~, m,' ,.IO:.:J'II.~: ,~eCI'~ .. -:~I ~ ..• ~J,I.lIl~'¥alL';

incompetent and inunate£ia; as I believe t:e . meal cxpressi'o~ is, As you lOFt' tp several times asseverated uring our p:r~cano~s

hom f!!jI.W·,· ar d: jo um .:V y. D'U . is:v',e, everv Inte.~ tion of paYID,gl 'the.

," / ",1 V - !~., I _ '. ~~ ': __ ' ''.,Iltl ,", _ r~ &I(J" . ~

entleman».

,«0; ·CO':·: se 'I have, No argument a:bou·t tba't~ 'Na:tur,atll'ly .' intend

lt th ' . ,'. -_. - . --'' - . -. l·t·;11 ~ 'a'" c· I' S· D o· f' .:" 'tI!'Ub" at Ti ee"es?»

,0 brass u,p to I' '" .. _. tast plcnny," " .:: 1&' I~:.::->~Jy · ... "OlD P -" ,.1111:.:: ... :YT'.'· ::,

~" oblesse IQ,blige, :m"lol,. d»,

«Exactly'.. The, honcer of 'the Rowcester is at (,'tak,e:~,~,,) .. "I~G,~, ,'. odehouse),

]1' .'

,i'

does not come and take my '-, at from off my .' ead, does he?» (L,a wr. : nee) ~

6. A dark flash went over his face a: s~lent fury «They are not roused to ,~sci~usness,»;- b~-~~d. ~'«<:onsei~~~~~ c~o~~ ~~ them, wjUy~mmy» (,awren'ce). --

7. yo~ snob, You damned snob You though me a cad because I

badn't been to Eon l(Maugham). - ..

8. I have never seen women uke ths sort of omen. I"bave known

many -'.,' 'm-" . if; - rt f-:'th" ,- 'I .' .

. c an : '0' " e _ eat oou'esans 0 .. Je WOI d" and ,or them I ave

m.uch respect often, bu wome - . like 'these women I have never seen before I: .• , ;~'j:~gera'lid)~

9. «It was the most crying, scandal of the Paeifie». exclaime d

• - _. - . . -,' ""'"'A. c rQ,[l "" ,.

Davidson v'ebemen'tl' ~("-e ~IJioID'an,[I;A~1 'had'" been agit ,.:_ .. ~.

'Ii .,~ - -_ ,_'~ ,', ", " , "- ",1 ,'_:_ .• ,_'" . ~g " ~.~, ,.'\;;o!'~,._ ~'.I ',1 'a'UJlg

against 11<'0- yean, and at 12'1 the local pass took if up. The

po: II'iIi tIle' rei I', s' e' - to . t:!!I y' '7_ -.,. t,.._, _ - . ,,:L, 'i! __ . I ,:..;,

: _... ',.-: _ S,I: ..... au 1U1OWuieD' &rgUIbeDt They say that

VIce IS IneVItable and consequontlYI-'_' best tbi~g IS to localise and control it The truth is thev were P:,.iI!I,·,"d.· P-':'g;'d-- "·-h-. "e!v 'W' u ere p' 81I!!d'"

'I '~J ."' ' .. ,I,'~ ,11iiIY.. 'II" A.J, " .... '.' J' 1I!iJ,II "".. ,

, the _saloon-k.cpers:.aid b" the b:'-Ilies, paid by- -the ~ODl~

t ,emselves. A~ Iast t ey were forcec to'· 'ove» (Maugham)

:. ,O~"A Id:am'·'-;-·'n'.e.·Jd --;,' I' d' ... lr' ·I'~kl-'i., "~III''C"'~'' ,,-.,-:-,., _'" '.' e. ,~' ','~ __ .: " ,_._. - _ ~ ._'I!!

. ,. .,' ,._.'. goo _. oomgelcow you were ,i.. . se days even

th?ugh you had overans on and your race was none 100 clean, IOf course you've broadened out, YCI [ hair's gm;~y and you'" got a., mustade, but it is the sam c ap, Unmislakably

(Mau"ghamJ~ ,

, ,I ,<<A_. 'fa··~",t 110".' .' . yo' . u m t i, 111 d' II -

~ ' ..... 1, us n,c,ve love. men) she ex;Jwned

(Ma'i I~D' c- am)

• - f~ [. ..: ~= .. ". II

12. «l'm serious, yt\knoW)} he rcIued now.w·thhe same dreary solemnity. «I'm no joking. You get me that job out -tbere~s

. _ scon as you c. n I'm sermOtIS> [Preas ey). -

13. <<Any more of that impudence from you. » Mr Smeeth shouted

at her g Bring (Preastley), ~. >' '..., '. " •• ~. ", "~','.

I 4, «And a mess! it he was making,'» she cried, «A mess outside e kitchen and a mess 0 the stove iOO probably!» (Faulkn,).

l(l1

A Manual of English S(ylislics

J 5. «How blue the sky is!» said [lizabeth, throwing back her head and breathing the soft air.

«Yes, and look how the elms make long Gothic arches!»

«Yes, and do look at the young leaves, so shrill, so virginal and green!»

«Yes, and yet you can stili see the beautiful tree skeleton ~ youth and agel»

«Yes, and the chestnut blossom will be out soon!»

«Yes, and the young grass is . Oh, Elizabeth, look, look! The deer! There's two young ones».

«Where? Where are they? I can't see them. I want to see thernl» (Aldington).

16. How lovely to smell dirty old London mud again! It means I'm free, free, free again! (Aldington).

17. Mr. Bobbe snarled rather than tittered. «lie's an insignificant, toadying little cheese-worm. That's what he is, a toadying little cheese-worm. And you won't be much better, my lad, if you let yourself drift with these people. You'll go to pieces, you'll just go com-plete-ly to pieces. But humanity's rotten. It's all rotten. It stinks (Aldington).

18. In low moaning tones, founded on the best tradition of sensational fiction, Mrs. Winterboume feebly ejaculated: «Dead, dead, dead!» (AIdington).

19 .. If this boy is really guilty, he'll have to take the consequences.

Not a dollar· not a penny ~ of my money will I devote to any one who could be guilty of such a crime, even if he is my nephew! (Dreiser),

20. «I'm going back to Mike», 1 could feel her crying as I held her close. «He's so damned nice and he's so awful. He's my sort of thing» (Hemingway).

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A Manual of English Stylistics

Exercise 12. Read the story and a) answer the following questions:

• When was the story written?

• What makes you think so?

• How did the author achieve the humourous effect?

DEAR GRETA GARBO

William Saroyan

Dear Miss Garbo:

1 hope you noticed me in the newsreel of the recent Detroit Riot in which my head was broken. I never worked for Ford but a friend of mine told me about the strike and as I had nothing to do that day I went over with him to the scene of the riot and we were standing around in small groups chewing. the rag about this and that and there was a, lot of radical talk, but I didn't pay any attention to it. .

I didn't think anything was going to happen but when I saw the newsreel automobiles drive up, I figured, well, here's a chance for me to get into the movies like I always wanted to, so 1 stuck around waiting for my chance. I always knew I had a sort of face that would film well and look good on the screen and I was greatly pleased with my performance, although the little accident kept me in the hospital a week.

Just as soon as I got out, though, 1 went around to a little theatre in my neighborhood where 1 found out they were showing the newsreel in which I played a part, and I went into the theatre to see myself on the screen. It sure looked great, and if you noticed the newsreel carefully you couldn't have missed me because I am the young man in the blue-serge suit whose hat fell off when the running began. Remember? I turned around on purpose three or four times to have my face filmed and I guess you saw me smile, I

109

A Manual of English Stylistics

wanted to see how my smile looked in the moving pictures and even ifI do say so I think it looked pretty good.

My name is Felix Otria and I come from Italian people. I am a high-school graduate and speak the language like a native as well as Italian. I look a little like Rudolph Valentino and Ronald Colman, and I sure would like to hear that Cecil B. DeMille or one of those other big shots noticed me and saw what good material I am for the movies.

The part of the riot that I missed because they knocked me' out J saw in the newsreel and I mean to say it must have got to be a regular affair, what with the water hoses and the tear-gas bombs,

. and the rest of it. But I saw the newsreel eleven times in three days, and I can safely say no other man, civilian or police, stood out from the crowd the way I did, and I wonder if you will take this matter up with the company you work for and see if they won't send for me and give me a trial. I know I'll make good and I'll thank you to my dying day. Miss. Garbo. I have a strong voice, and I can play the part of a lover very nicely, so I hope you will do me a little favor. Who knows, maybe be some day in the near future I will be playing the hero in a picture with you.

Yours very truly, Felix Otria.

I o .

b) Characterize the author of the letter.

e) Choose from the variants given below one which you believe most appropriate and finish the translation:

1)

~oporaSl MHCC Tapfio,

..H nazrerocs, Bbl 3aMeTHJIH MeHSf B KHHoxpoHHKe 0 HeAaBHeH CTatIKe B /J.eTPoi1Te, rne MHe p836HJIH ronony, JI HHKor.ua He pa60TaJI na <t>op,na, HO O.uHH MOH npyr paCCK83an MHe 0 3a6aCTOBKe, H TaK KaK MHe nexero 6hInO nenars B TOT .ueHb, TO 51 nouren C HHM na MeCTO CTa'IKH, H Mbl CTOSlJIH TaM

lID

A Manual of English Stylistlcs

He60JlbWHMH rpyrmaxa, 60nTasr 0 TOM 0 cest, H oxem, MHoro 6blnO panaxam.max pasrosopoa, HO Sf He o6panm xa aro BHHMaHHH ...

2)

J1106e3Hasr MHCC Fapfio,

Haneiocs, Bst 3aMeTHJlH MeIDl B KHHOxpOHHKe 0 aenasaea craxxe 0 )J.CTPoHTe, rrre MHe pa36IUlH ronoay, CaM SI: aa <I>op.lla HHKor,na He pa60TaJI, HO OAHH MOH npierrerrs paCCK83aJ1 MHe 0 aafiacroaxe. )J.en y MeHSf OC06blX He 6bIna, BOT H H OTnpaBHJICH C HJiM aa MeCTO C06bITHH. Hy BOT, CTOHM Mbl TaM, 60JITaeM 0 TOM 0 cew, MHorHe roaopsr 0 nOJIHTHKe, HO 51 KaK-TO He 06paTHn aa aro BHHMaHHSI ...

3)

Ysaxaeaax rocnoxa Fapfio,

51 nanerocs, Bst 06paTHJlH na MeIDl BHHMaHHe, nOCMOTpeB KHHOXPOHl-1KY 0 npouremuea He.o,aBHO B .n;e-rpoH"re crasxe, B xozre KOTOPOH MHe pa36HnH ronoay, Ha saaonax <I>op.ua 51 HHKorna He pafioran, HO O,llHH MOH rtpyr paCCK83aJI MHe 0 3a6aCTOBKe, H TaK KaK SI 6bl caofionea B TOT .o,eHb, TO .SI nourerr C HHM na MeCTO C06blTIDL Msi CTOMH He60nblllHMH rpyrmaxa H 06CY)i(.llaJIH pasnste npotirrexsr, MHoro rOBOpHnOCb 0 nOJIHTHKe, HO HHtITO He npenaeutano HHtIerO nnoxoro ...

Exercise 13. Read the story and a) answer the following questions: • What emotions does it evoke?

. '

I

• What linguistic means render the emotional colouring of

the story? t· - I

• What is the author's "attitude to the character?

b) Translate the story.

II J

A Manual oj English Stylistics

A VERY SHORT STORY

Ernest Hemingway

One hot evening in Padua they carried him up onto the roof and he could look out over the top of the town. There were chimney swifts in the sky. After a while it got dark and the searchlight came out. The others ·went down and took the bottles with them. He and Lux could hear them below on the balcony. Luz sat on the bed. She was cool and fresh in the hot night.

Luz stayed on night duty for three months. They were glad to

. let her. When they were operated on him she prepared him for the operating table; and they had a joke about friend or enemy. He went under the anesthetic holding tight on to himself so he would not blab about anything during the silly, talky time. After he got on crutches he used to take the temperatures so Luz would not have to get up from the bed. There were only a few patients, and -they all knew about it. They all like Luz. As he walked back along the halls he thought of Luz in his bed.

Before he went back to the front they went into the Duomo and prayed. It was dim and quiet, and there were other people praying. They wanted to get married, but there was not enough time for the banns, and neither of them had birth certificates. They felt as though they were married, but they wanted every one to know about it, and to make it so they could not lose it.

Luz wrote him many letters that he never got until after the armistice. Fifteen came in a bunch to the front and he sorted them by the dates and read them all straight through, They were all about the hospital, and how much she loved him and how it was impossible to get along without him and how terrible it was missing him at night.

After the armistice they agreed he should go home to get a job so they might be married. Luz would not come home until he had a good job and could come to New York to meet her. It was

112

A Manual o/English Stylistics

understood he would not drink., and he did not want to see his friends or anyone in the States. Only to get a job and be married. On the train from Padua to Milan they quarreled about her not being . willing to come home at once. When they had to say goodbye, in the station in Milan, they kissed good-bye, but were not finished with the quarrel. He felt sick about saying good-bye like that.

He went to America on a boat from Genoa. Luz went back to Pordonone to open a hospital. It was lonely and rainy there, and there was a battalion of arditi quartered in the town. Living in the muddy, rainy town in the winter, the major of the battalion made love to Luz, and she had known Italians before, and finally wrote to the States that theirs had been only a boy and girl affair. Sbe was sorry, and she knew he would probably not be able to understand, but might some day forgive her, and be grateful to her, and she ·expected, absolutely unexpectedly, to be married in the spring. She loved him as always, but she realized now it was only a boy and girl love. She hoped he would have a great career, and believed in him absolutely. She knew it was for the best.

The major did not marry her in the spring, or any other time.:

Luz never got an answer to the letter to Chicago about it. A short time after he contracted gonorrhea from a sales girl in a loop department store while riding in a taxicab through Lincoln Park.

Exercise 14. Translate from Russia}, into English paying attention to the means of preserving the stylistic coloring of the text:

QYEARC-EECCMEPTHI>rn

)J;MHTIHiJi KID!:3b

¢onbKnopHCTbI 6Y.D.Ylllero, npl1H5iBWHCb aa 113Y1.JeHl1e

naM5ITHHl<a zrpeaaeit nHCbMeHHOCTI1 non H3.3BaHl1eM

113

A Manual of English Stylistics

«Oreaorpasoau 3ace,uaHI·n':f raCY,Il;apCTBeHHaJ1 .ll.YM bD> , ofiaapyscar, sro llallJ,e npyrax nepcoaascek B .ll.YMCKHX CKa3aHIDIX CPHTYPHPYeT HeKHH Pbl)!(J1ii MHpoe,u no. nposaauiy l.!y6aHc. 11 BPQ,Il;e 6bl caMaH 60JJhWOH Me,{TOH H maBHOM uensio )I013HI1 60JIbWHHCTBa aaponnux H36paHHHKO.B 6blJIa aroro cavoro l.!y6aHca nOJJHae H3Be,ueHHe. Ho noxesry-ro nonsar aror HHKaK 60raTblp.slM He zrasanca.

BOT H nOA PO)!('ueCTBa rpersero rona OT corsopeaas illITOH .uYMbl (1998-H no. CTapCMY CTHJllO) CTpawHWI 6eAa fiyzrro 6bl HaBHCJJa nano ncex aTelIeCTBOM: peuian-ne KaBapHbli1: co. CBOHM WeCTHrJIaBbIMqYAJUu.eM - PAO «E3C» - nO.JJ-PCCCHI1 3aMOPO.3HTb. Bb13BaJIH nenyrarsr Qy6aHca na 6aH. rnaBHblH 3aWHTHHl< PyCH, npo3BaHHblH sa CTaTb KpacHblM 3IO, KpH'lan: «OH yrp06HJJ BCIO Ca6CTBeHHO.CTb B crpaae, Tenepb npHH.sIJIC.sI sa aaeprerzxy, B cTcTaBKY ero», - B aapone AYMaJIH, 'iTa reneps-ro PoDKeMY OT pacrtpansr He yMTH. A TOBapHllJ,H Kpacnoro no. nanare .BMeCTO Tora rOBOpS!T: «ITpHcaBeTOBaTb .HaHH3aTb Qy6aHca na KO.n Mbl MO.)!(eM, BOT rorrsxo rennee or aroro Bp.slA JIH CTaH'eT. A e)l(eJlli C HHM noxopcurevy, rmr,n.HWb, H nOMaCT napxy PbDKHH qepT». B 06ll1.eM, On.RTb 3JJa,ueH uenexoaex ymen.

KaKoM-HH6y.lf.b XHYp0YMHbIH ACll,eHT nenpeuemro

.lU'!CCepTaUHlO HanHlJJeT B TaM p;yxe, "ITO. H He AYMaJJH 6araTbipM Qy6aMca H.3BD.o.HTb. Beas eCJJH 6bl He 6b!lla aroro «fJJaBHarO npaxaarasaropa», npHXBDCTIDI yxacaoro MB<l>a, KaK D6b.sICHHTb caporaa, CTapHJ<aM H B)J.DBaM nee TO., 'lTD TBOPI1TCJI B :.naM 6afO.M 3a6blTO.H crpaae. A TaK cxasan: «Qy6aMc BHHoBaT!», - H BceM ace .sICHO, H C ce6S1 spone KaJ< BI-my CH5iJJ. TaKoH cneu,MaJIbHblH o6eper JJ,JU!. nerryraron, aanonofiae «xypa»,

Maras, l<OHe'lHD, c!lMaH sro HH na ecrs xepaaa. Hy na Qy6aHc C HHMH, y'ieHble pasriepyrca.

(<<l1TorM», 15 nexafips 1998 r.)

114

A Manual o/English Stylistics

Exercise 15. a) Read tile. text below and specify the stylistic devices (semacioiogical, lexical, syntactic) used in it; b). what functions do they perform: c) Trans~at~ the text trytng to preserve the stylistic coloring and principal features of the

individual author's style:

CTPAHA HEHYrAlIbIX ~ATOB

Banepaa HOBO.ABapcKa5i

Ha HaweM CT2)l.110He OlIeHb MHora npa3AHbIX 3pHTenei1 H O.'leHb, xaoro cnDpTcMeHDB. 11 He TO. 1ffa6bI nocnenane 6blJlli B xopourea crropraaaok tPapMe. TpeHl1paBaTbC51 11M 6blJJO Heme H He c KeM. Taxas crpaaa. TaKMe BbI6Dpbl. TaKHe CTa)J.HOHb1. Eerars nerne, H HMlITD 6eraTb He YMeeT.

11 He TO. 'lTD6bl cnoprcaenu . co6mo.n;a.rnt KaKMe-TO rrpaanna 11' BeJJI1 ce6>l cnopTHBHO. Kyna TaM! Kycaiorca, IDIraIOTCSI, nI1XalOTC51. MO.rYT H noxarre-nrrs. Ho npaaan HeT 11 He 6bIJIO 3.ll.eCb axxorna. A TO., 'ITa y aMepHKaHu,eB crracaao H lJei1 .o.eHb pO}!{.ll.eHHSI O.TMe'laeTC51 12 .neKa6p.sl, BHCHT ce6e aa

CTeHKe. B pauoxxe, ,[I,l15I rOCTeH. , .' .

l1. He TO 'iTo6bl spwrena MDrJIH cetie n03BOJDITb npasnao masers na safier. JIerKO-"11 T.sI)I(enaaTlleTbl 6eryr sa HHMH, sa

. 3pHTeJISlMH. 11 xorna ,uO.6erYT - Mano He noxaxercx, Ho ua Hawei1 enoprrrnoutanxe -rax 6bIJJO scerna, 3a 3pHTeJUlMH ronanacs uapn, reHCeKI1, npencenarena I1pe3,~lfYMOB. 3PMTeJIH npi1Bb1KllH caners H )K,uaTb eaoes yqaCTJ.L Cl1.11.eTb caaxana na cranaonax, nOTO.M O.ruITb-TaJ<H aa CKa~b.sIX, HO Y)l(e

ua .I1.PyrHX, B aaxpsrr stx nOMeWeHHSlx. "

A nOTOM - B npyrax MeCTax, OT.I1.aneHHbIX, XOTH 11 He

CTOJIb.

Bstno 6b1 CTpaHHO, eCJTl1 6bl npa TaKDM CTIi)Ke nauia

60JJeJ1bllll1KI1 06eCnO.K0l1Jll1Cb TeM, lITO. nepen HHMM 3a6eraJ1H xaxue-rc KaH)'lH)laTbl B npesunexrsr. OHI1 )l(e He rcsopar, YTO OHM KaH1l.M)laTbl B nanasu. TIO. KpaHHeH Mepe, He see, 11 He Ka>Knbli1 nens.

115

tIel}o 10iC ,-0 l~, :', ',Ta HS t=, _ _: l _1_ l~d tCT-=La' I ~'OH'" ,,_K ,'TO'

cYJ1ieA:~ I "" -ItO" Y I, D~~'C, I, ,,-- ',I_OTP"",16-~,Tb!'1 ,Jl~~CK,B"a.nH'-l,,:M:U ",: ~',OllaT,b-

-

H: 'J a,OIDa~' I, ' L, I, 1,- __ 12lcaplTl JIf.U('OID 31' ': W:HBO ' 'OT Hi~~ _ 'IJ:TOI

H'C, -H)T" : ),Ol ,~ y, ~bH, 'i K,p, - -"" "" : e" D,IC1e: ~]:" ,6e~r',H:

otra~ JIBlIHl,- " M ',I ~ -RJl,M,O,HB, ~,aiCX!D: I_HJlHIC~ c 16,paHbIO-

HO' :BH'II,:&~le~, , _._,_R",IWBn" 'lice: HP' ',_:q:a,T':: (~, YJlJ)m aa

=) ",~I!I(: rx IcnyqalX :pew:ltr 0101

'_" He CY;D, :=,M:L:I 16':Y:DIT8»"i E-, ::Y' 'q,~,o)

~ la,' -oq,lee' >jeC110 :D~ple3,-:a,e·-':--.=:r1 P

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