Danish, Indian Fishereis Scenario | Aquaculture | Earth Sciences

UPDATED SCENARIO OF INDIAN FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT

FFB-123 Inland Fisheries College of Fishery Sciences G.B. Pant University of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar

STRENGTHS OF INDIAN FISHERIES SECTOR
I)
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ II) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

MARINE RESOURCES :
Indian Coastline Continental shelf area Exclusive Economic Zone Brackish water area : : : : 8129 Kms. 0.506 m. sq.km. 2.02 m.sq.kms. 1.24 million ha.

INLAND RESOURCES :
Area under tanks and ponds Area available for fresh water fish culture Area of reservoirs Beels, Oxbow and lakes Lengths of rivers and canals : : : : : 2.214 million ha. 5.4 million ha. 2.90 million ha. 0.82 million ha. 1,72,287 kms.

STRENGTHS OF INDIAN FISHERIES SECTOR
I) ‡ ‡ STATUS IN TERMS OF FISH PRODUCTION: Production at the end of I five year plan Production at the end of IX five year plan : : 0.839 mmt. 5.657 mmt.

YEARWISE FISH PRODUCTION FROM INDIA (MMT)
Year
Percentage Total Fish Marine fish Percentage Inland (%) Production production share (%) Fish ( mmt) (mmt) Production (mmt)

2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

2.92 2.91 2.90 2.89 2.88

45.13 45.04 44.93 44.78 44.65

3.47 3.49 3.50 3.51 3.50

54. 60 54. 96 55. 07 55. 22 55. 35

6.39 6.40 6.41 6.42 6.43

CAPTURE FISHERIES
‡ Monitoring of exploited marine fish stocks ‡ Stock assessment of commercially important marine species ‡ Marine biodiversity, database, conservation & management ‡ Fisheries enhancement in inland open waters ‡ Catchment ecology in relation to fisheries ‡ Ecology and Fishery potential of canals ‡ Riverine hydrodynamics and fish behaviour ‡ Hill fishery resources assessment and management ‡ Development of sport fishery in hill areas ‡ GIS based inventory of aquatic resources ‡ Development of predictive models

CULTURE FISHERIES
Breeding and culture of aquatic organisms Fish health management Fish nutrition and feed development Aquafarm engineering Integrated fish farming Environment Impact Assessment Cage/pen culture in large water bodies & floodplain wetlands Development of pearl culture technologies Ornamental fish culture Coastal zone management

Fish Diversity in India
TOTAL NO. OF FISH SPECIES : 2118 ‡ Marine water ‡ Inland water 1360 species 758 species (64.21%) (35.79%) (20.44%) (8.07%) (7.27%)

‡ Warm water plain 433 species ‡ Brackish water ‡ Cold water 171 species 154 species

STRENGTHS OF INDIAN FISHERIES SECTOR
I) ‡ ‡ ‡ EXPORT OF FISH AND FISH PRODUCTS FROM INDIA: First position holder among agro based commodity export from India in terms of revenue generation Total Export of Fish / Fish Products (2002-03) (2002Quantity : 4,67,000 tons Revenue earned : 6,881 crore Rs. STATUS OF FISH PROCESSING IN INDIA ‡ Consumed in fresh form : 65 % ‡ Cured form : 14 % ‡ Frozen form : 6.6 % ‡ Reduced in Manure/byproduct : 8.0 % ‡ Special processing : 2.0 % EXPORT ORIENTED PROCESSING ‡ Frozen fish / shell fish : > 90 % ‡ Frozen shrimp : 70 % ‡ Frozen fish : 11 % ‡ Frozen Squid : 6% ‡ Frozen Cuttle fish : 6%

‡

Potential available for exploitation in the Indian EEZ
1% 6% 35%

58% 0-50 50-100 200-500 oceanic

Major cultivated groups in India
Freshwater Carps, cat ishes, murrels, trouts, prawns, cray ishes, mussels, rogs, plants. Milk ish, mullets, shrimps Lobsters, crabs, oysters, clams, seaweeds

Brackishwater Marine water

Potential of Fishery Resources in the Indian EEZ
Depth range (m) 0 - 50 50 - 200 200 - 500 Oceanic Total

Demersal Neretic Pelagic Oceanic Pelagic Total % of Potential Available for Exploitation

1.28 1.00 -2.28 58.1 0.20

0.625 0.742 -1.367 34.9 0.737

0.028 --0.028 0.7 0.028

--0.246 0.246 6.3 0.246

1.933 1.742 0.246 3.921 100.0 1.211

Indian fisheries
Global position Contribution o isheries to GD (%) Contribution to agricultural GD (%) Per capita ish availability (kg) Annual export earnings (Rs. in crore) mployment in sector (million) 3rd in Fisheries 2nd in Aquaculture 1.07 (Rs. 34,758 crore) 5.84 9.0 7,200 14.0

Aquatic Resources
Coastline xclusive economic zone Rivers and canals Reservoirs Ponds and tanks 8118 kms 2.02 million sq. km 1,97,024 km 3.15 million ha 2.35 million ha

Oxbow lakes and derelict waters 1.3 million ha Brackish water stuaries 1.24 million ha 0.29 million ha

Resources
‡ The coldwater ishery resources comprise high and mid altitude lakes, rivers, streams, their tributaries and reservoirs dammed across such rivers. ‡ Water resources Length/area ‡ Himalayan and deccan Plateau river systems 8,310 km ‡ Brackishwater lakes (above 3,000 msl) 2,340 ha ‡ Freshwater natural lakes (1,500-2,000 msl) 18,150 ha ‡ Kashmir high mountain lakes (above 3,000 msl) 400 ha ‡ Valley wetland ecosystems 3,000 ha ‡ Shivalik Himalayan lakes 74 ha 355 ha ‡ Central Himalayas ( reshwater lakes in Kumaon region) ‡ Himalayan man-made lakes and reservoirs 43,770 ha ‡ Peninsular region Natural lakes85 ha ‡ Peninsular region Man made lakes and reservoirs4, 400 ha

Global production o culture in ish and shell ish by environment
Environment Freshwater Brackish water Million Tons 11.74 (63%) 1.51 (8.0%) Value (Billion $) 15.97 (48%) 7.56 (22%)

Marine water

5.30 (29%)

10.00 (30%)

Fishermen Commercial and Subsistence

Part Time 24%

Occasional 36% Full Time 40%

TOTAL FISH PRODUCTION IN INDIA
YEAR
1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

MARINE
5.34 8.80 10.86 15.55 23.00 23.47 25.76 26.49 26.92 27.07 29.67 29.41 26.96 28.34 28.11 28.31 29.90 29.24

INLAND
2.18 2.80 6.70 8.87 15.36 17.10 17.89 19.95 20.97 22.42 23.81 24.39 25.66 28.23 28.45 33.01 32.10 34.49

(in lakh tonnes) TOTAL
7.52 11.60 17.56 24.42 38.36 41.57 43.65 46.44 47.89 49.49 53.48 53.80 52.62 56.57 56.56 61.34 62.00 63.73

SECTORWISE FISH PRODUCTION IN INDIA

Production (in Lakh Tonnes)
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 5

Years

1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02

MARINE INLAND

2002-03 2003-04

RANK WISE % CONTRIBUTION (2008-09)
MARINE
GUJARAT KERALA 20.8 20.8

INLAND
WEST BENGAL ANDHRA PRADESH 28.6 18.8

TOTAL
WEST BENGAL ANDHRA PRADESH 18.4 14.3 10.7 10.3 8.3

MAHRASHTRA 13.7 BIHAR TAMILNADU ANDHRA PRADESH UTTAR 12.8 PRADESH 9.0 ORISSA

7.7 KERALA 7.4 GUJARAT 5.5 MAHRASHTRA

Marine Fisheries Profile for 2009
Resources-wise Region-wise Vessel-wise

Pelagic Demersal

North53 West South26 West

34 Mechanised 68 33 Motorised 23 Artisanal 9 25 7

SouthCrustacean 17 East

Molluscs

North4 East

Major Marine Resources during 2008
Resources Oil Sardines Ribbon Fish Bombay Duck Mackerel Croakers Carangids Perches Elasmobranchs Tuna/Seer/Pomfret Shrimp (P/NP)
% Contribution

13 7 5 4 5 5 8 2 2 13

MARINE RESOURCES POTENTIAL IN INDIAN EEZ
Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Item Sharks, Ray and Skates els Anchovies Lessser Sardines Oil Sardines Bombay duck Lizard ish Perches Cat ish Sciaenids Pom rets Ribbon ish Carangids Silver bellies Mackerel Seer ish Coastal tunas Flat ish Oceanic Tunas and tune like ishes Bill ishes Deep sea ish Deep sea prawn and lobster Penaeid prawns Non-penaeid Prawns Cephalopods (Cuttle ish/Squid/etc.) Others Total : Potential Resources 168 7 53 306 191 104 48 239 123 142 54 311 447 86 224 42 279 38 209 4 71 8 178 54 71 443 3900 Estimated Yield 72 11 92 154 49 185 16 133 71 27 64 167 105 77 190 37 38 30 Neg. Neg. Neg. Neg. 172 67 67 1045 2869

Sources o Funding in Fisheries
National
Plan Non - Plan AP Cess
Adhoc Projects Revolving Funds Network Projects

International
FAO / UNDP NORAD ICLARM World Bank DANIDA DFID French Aid Japanese Aid IFS ACIAR NACA

Govt. Science Deptts. Private Organizations Autonomous Bodies Financial Institutions

BRACKISHWATER AQUACULTURE Only about 10% of the available brackishwater resources are under utilization presently. Weaknesses in terms of unregulated development of coastal aquaculture and single species approach with shrimp for the short time higher profitability would need to be addressed.

BRACKISHWATER AQUACULTURE
Emerging technologies for several high value fish breeding and their aquaculture such as sea-bass, groupers, pearl spot, milk fish, mullets and several commercially important shell-fish such as oysters, clams, cockles, lobsters, crabs and shrimp species would need to be put into practice.

BRACKISHWATER AQUACULTURE

Presently the 75 shrimp hatcheries have a capacity to produce about 3.90 billion shrimp seed in the country. During early 21st Century, India would need about 500 hatcheries to produce about 30 billion shrimp seed.

BRACKISHWATER AQUACULTURE

Fin-fish seed requirement for brackishwater aquaculture would be about 2 billion. Besides seed of Crabs, lobster mollusk and other nonconventional aquatic fish/ shell species would be required.

Chilka lake
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Coordinates19°43 N Lake type part reshwater part saltwater Primary sources Mahanadi River Primary outflows Bay o Bengal Basin countries India Max length 29 km Surface area 906-1165 km² Max depth 132 m Surface elevation 0-2 m above MSL Settlements Satpara, Puri, Orissa, India Largest coastal lake in India.

2. Pulicate Lake
‡ Pulicate lake at a Glance Area - 468 Sq.Kms. Status - 2nd biggest brackish water lake

STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING FISH PRODUCTION

‡ Bringing more and more water area under aquaculture practices ‡ Increasing productivity of existing water bodies ‡ Diversification & Intensification of culture practices ‡ Intensification of mariculture/searanching activities ‡ Increasing coverage of area of fishing operations ‡ Technologies to be developed for utilization of unconventional fish species & by-catch discard

THREATS TO THE FISHERIES SECTOR
‡ Anthropogenic interventions resulting in loss of bio-diversity, decline in fish catch, depletion of natural resources ‡ Man made alterations ± construction of dams & barrages ‡ Increased water abstraction & deforestation ‡ Overexploitation of coastal fisheries ‡ Pollution of water bodies with industrial & domestic effluent ‡ Possible environmental degradation due to intensification of culture practices ‡ Clandestine introduction & spread of exotic fish species ‡ Unscientific management of fisheries & aquaculture activities ‡ Unplanned & unregulated development of fish /shrimp farms ‡ Contamination of indigenous fish germplasm resources ‡ Environmental, economic and social issues

WISH FOR THE GROWTH OF THE

FISHERIES SECTOR
D

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