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m&g 2 geography meterology

m&g 2 geography meterology

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04/30/2013

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WMO

‡ WMO facilitates the free and unrestricted exchange of data and information, products and services in real or near real time on matters relating to safety and security of society, economic welfare and the protection of the environment

India Meteorological Department
‡ It is an India Govt. organization, responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasts and detecting earthquakes ‡ It is also responsible for forecasting tropical cyclones in the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal ‡ The head office of IMD is in New Delhi

IMD organization
‡ The dept. is headed by Director General of Meteorology. There are a total of four junior Additional Directors Generals at New Delhi and one at Pune ‡ Additionally there are 20 DDGs, 10 of them located in New Delhi ‡ There are six regional meteorological centres, each under a DDG. These centres are Mumbai, Chennai, New Delhi, Kolkatta, Nagpur and Guahati. There are also sub units in each state capitals

IMD history
‡ After a tropical cyclone hit Calcutta in 1864, and subsequent famines in 1866 and 1871 due to the failure of the monsoons, it was decided to set up meteorological organization under one roof ‡ H.F. Blanford was appointed the first meteorological reporter to the Govt. of India, in 1889 John Eliot was appointed the first DG of observatories in Calcutta.

IMD task
‡ It undertakes observations, communications, forecasting and weather services ‡ It exchange the global data ‡ In collaboration with ISRO, the IMD also uses the INSAT for weather monitoring ‡ The IMD is also one of the six Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers within the World Weather Watch programme

Storm warning signals
‡ Weather reports based on satellite pictures and observations from other vessels may contain storm warnings ‡ The meteorological deptt. sends warnings by means of high priority telegrams to port officers whose ports are likely to be affected by adverse weather

Storm warning signals
‡ The port officers display visual storm signals on conspicuous masts specially meant for this purpose ‡ The signals consists of black colored cones and cylinders by day and red and white lights by night ‡ The port officers also send words to fishing vessels and country crafts in their respective ports

Storm warning signals
Number 1 2 3 DAY SIGNAL NIGHT SIGNAL MEANING

Introduction to geography
‡ It is a science that studies the spatial arrangement of things on the surface of the earth resulting from a dynamic interaction between human and nature ‡ Geography uses information provided by various disciplines, all the way from nuclear physics to ancient history

Introduction to geography
‡ Geography means description of earth ‡ The term was first used by Eratosthenes, has now acquired the status of science that explains the arrangement of various natural and cultural features on the earth surface ‡ Geography is often called as mother of all sciences

Branches of geography
‡ Systematic geography- a study of specific natural or social phenomenon that gives rise to certain spatial patterns & structures on the earth surfaces. It has four parts
± Physical geography- geomorphology (genetic study of soil forms), climatology, hydrology, soil geography ± Biogeography- plant geography (distribution of various forests and grasslands), zoogeography, human ecology (study the changing human nature, relationship and its consequences for human life and living), environmental geography (quality of living environment and its implications for human life)

Branches of geography
‡ Human geography- study of location and distribution of all such phenomenon fall under the purview of human geography ‡ Geographic methods and techniques- field studies, cartography, quantitative geography, spatial information system (GIS, GPS, LIS)

GIS
‡ A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated attributes which are spatially referenced to the earth. In the strictest sense, it is a computer system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analyzing, sharing, and displaying geographically referenced information. In a more generic sense, GIS is a tool that allows users to create interactive queries (user created searches), analyze the spatial information, edit data, maps, and present the results of all these operations.

Regional geography
‡ It starts with spatial imprints of one or all the systematic geographic processes discernable as regions of different sizes ‡ Region could be based on a single factor like relief, rainfall, vegetation, per capita income, literacy and so on ‡ The main branches of regional geography areregional studies, regional analysis, regional development and regional planning

Parallel of latitude
‡ Latitude is angular distance of a place from the equator ‡ Equator is an imaginary line drawn from east to west on earth in such a way that all the points of the line placed in middle of the earth and divide it into two equal half parts. The distance of the equator is same from both the poles

Parallel of latitude
‡ Parallel of latitude- any imaginary line drawn on the earth with parallel equator. These are tropic of cancer««.. ‡ On the basis of these parallel of latitude the world climate can be divided into three

Meridian of longitude
‡ Imaginary lines drawn vertically joining North & South poles together are called meridians of longitude ‡ All meridians of longitude are of equal length and they meet together at both the poles ‡ It begins from Greenwich where British Royal Observatory is situated (the distance from east and west is equal and it fall exactly at halfway mark

Meridian of longitude
‡ Any place would be denoted as 0E or 0W depending upon it lies east or west from premeridian ‡ For geographical location first determine the grid of the place then determine the position of place latitudinally and longitudinally

Shape and size of the earth
‡ Earth is a inner planet of solar system. It is largest of inner planets and densest of all ‡ The shape of earth is not perfectly spherical, it is an oblate or flattened, spheroid or ellipsoid. It is flattened at the poles and bulges some what south of the equator ‡ The age of earth may range between 2- 5 billion

Shape and size of the earth
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Equatorial circumference- 39843 km Polar circumference39746 km Polar diameter12639.84 km Equatorial diameter12754 km Mass598x 1027 g Time of rotation23 hr 56 min. 4.09 sec Period of revolution365 days 5 hr 48 min 45.51 sec

Shape and size of the earth
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Inclination of the axis- 23027¶ Orbital velocity29.8 km/ sec Escape velocity11.2 km/sec Distance from sun(max.) Aphelion152 m km (min.) Perihelion147 m km

Earth¶s movement
‡ Galactic movement- movement of earth in relation to sun and rest of solar system. Movement is in orbit around the centre of the milky way. This has little effect on changing of environment of earth ‡ Rotation- Earth rotation around an axis in imaginary line passing through the centre of the earth. Direction of rotation is eastward anticlockwise opposite to the sun¶s apparent movement

Earth¶s movement
‡ Rotation defines the movements of the zone of day and night on the earth¶s surface and circulatory movement of the atmosphere ‡ The velocity of atmosphere varies from place to place (0 at poles and max. (1700 km/ hr) at equator (at 600 latitude the velocity is half of max.) ‡ The line separating the light and dark halves are called as circle of illumination

Revolution
‡ The earth revolve around the sun in an elliptical orbit at an average distance of 1.49x 108 km in orbital path. The distance varies from time to time. During January 3, the sun is nearest and on July 4 it is farthest to the earth ‡ Speed of revolution is 29.72 km/ sec. One revolution takes 365 days 6 hrs ‡ The earth moves around the sun in plane of elliptic

Revolution
‡ The equator makes an angle of 23.50 with the plane of elliptic ‡ The earth¶s axis has a constant angle of inclination with a plane of elliptic and it is 66.50.

Equinoxes
‡ At two points mid way between the solstices, a line from sun to earth is perpendicular to the inclination of earth¶s axis ‡ At this point the sun shines equally in both the hemisphere ‡ These are two; vernal and autumn ‡ On March 21, both the hemisphere are equally inclined towards sun

Equinoxes and solstices
‡ On September 23, both the hemisphere are equally inclined towards the sun. The sun¶s rays are vertical at equator ‡ Solstices -These are places where the inclination of earth is towards the sun. These points are very near to perihelion and aphelion. These are also of two types ‡ Winter solstices- the sun with respect to the earth is farthest south occurs just before a few days of perihelion (22 Dec.)

Solstices
‡ Summer solstices- when the sun with respect to earth is farthest in north, occurs just before a few days of aphelion. At that time the sun is directly overhead at noon in latitude 23.5 0 north

Eclipses
‡ It is caused by the fact that light travels in a straight line producing clearly well defined shadows of objects in its path. These are of two types ± lunar and solar eclipses ‡ Lunar eclipse- when earth comes between moon and sun and shut off the light of sun from falling on the moon

Solar eclipses
‡ Solar eclipses- when the moon comes directly between sun and earth and obstruct light from the sun falling upon some portions of the earth & people in this region can not see the sun

Cartography
‡ Study of map is called as cartography ‡ Map is the graphic representation of all or part of the earth surface on plane or flat surface ‡ Lad surveys, aerial photograph and other sources are used for making maps. Map use standardized colour and symbols to present the data

Map
‡ Locating places in map- On the basis of latitude & longitude by using direction, numeric grids are used to locate the places in map. The direction can be shown by compass needle. In topographic maps, magnetic north is also shown. When true north and magnetic north are coincide, the map is set or oriented

Map
‡ Bearing- The four main directions indicated by magnetic compass . N,S,E and West are cardinal points. Bearing is the angle measured in degrees, clock wise from the North to a direction line ‡ Latitude and longitude are also used to represent the earth surfaces

Map
‡ Map scale- It is used to draw a map on a seat of paper or on atlas page. It must be reduced or scaled down ‡ Scale is the ratio between distance on a map & the corresponding true distance on the ground. It can be expressed in three way: verbal/ written, graphic and representative fraction

Map
‡ Verbal/ written statements tells about the scale ‡ Graphic- A horizontal line divided into section that represent unit of measurement on the ground in metric & imperial unit ‡ RF- It is the ratio which means one cm on map represent how many cm on the ground; RF= distance on map/ distance on the ground

Map projections
‡ The earth can be most accurately represented by globe (spherical scale model) ‡ It is impossible to show the earth's surface with absolute accuracy on a plane or a flat surface ‡ It can be shown with relative accuracy by transferring or projecting the curved lines of latitude and longitude to the flat surface of map, is known as map projection

Map projections
‡ Map projections may be two typehomolographic where area is shown in correct proportion & conformal or orthomorphic where shape is shown accurately ‡ Both area and shape can not be shown accurately in the same map but some projections minimize these distortions

Type of map projections
‡ Map projections are of five type ‡ Conical- the maps are constructed by projecting a part of the globe on to a cone . The parallel of latitude around which the cone is tangent to the globe is called the standard parallel. All parallels are concentric circles and all meridians are straight lines

Conical map projection

Map projections
‡ Bonne- it is the modified conical projection. It has only one standard parallel, but each parallel is truly divided, therefore it is an equal area projection ‡ Conical projection with two standard parallelsAn area of a country with a large land mass can be represented more correctly with two standard parallels and it is represented by a cone bisecting the surface of the globe

Bonne map projection

Cylindrical map projection

Map projections
‡ Cylindrical- constructed by projecting the surface of the globe on to a cylinder. In this the parallels and meridians intersect at right angles at all latitude eg. Mercator projection. It is true to scale only at the equator and latitudes are further apart in the higher latitudes. Wall maps and atlases use mercator projection maps

Mercator map projection

Map projections
‡ Azimuthal- constructed by directly placing on to a flat surface, a particular point such as south or north pole. All the meridians are straight & parallels are concentric eg. Lambert¶s equal area projection

Lambert¶s map projection

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