Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture

A Publication of ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.org By Steve Diver NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart, NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Aquaponics is a bio-integrated system that links recirculating aquaculture with hydroponic vegetable, flower, and/or herb production. Recent advances by researchers and growers alike have turned aquaponics into a working model of sustainable food production. This publication provides an introduction to aquaponics with brief profiles of working units around the country. An extensive list of resources points the reader to print and Web-based educational materials for further technical assistance.

Introduction
Contents
Introduction ..................... 1 Aquaponics: Key Elements and Considerations ............... 2 Aquaponic Systems ...... 3 Organic Aquaculture .................. 11 Evaluating an Aquaponic Enterprise ........................ 12 References ...................... 13 Resources ....................... 13 Appendix I: Bibliography on Aquaponics ............. 20 Appendix II: Dissertations ................. 25

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quaponics, also known as the integration of hydroponics with aquaculture, is gaining increased attention as a bio-integrated food production system. Aquaponics serves as a model of sustainable food production by fol low ing certain principles: • The waste products of one biological system serve as nutrients for a second biological system. • The integration of fish and plants results in a polyculture that increases diversity and yields multiple products. • Water is re-used through biological filtration and recirculation. • Local food production provides access to healthy foods and enhances the local economy. In aquaponics, nutrient-rich effluent from fish tanks is used to fertigate hydroponic production beds. Th is is good for the fish because plant roots and rhizobacteria remove nutrients from the water. These nutrients – generated from fish manure, algae, and decomposing fish feed – are contaminants that would otherwise build up to toxic levels in the fish tanks, but instead serve as liquid fertilizer to hydroponically grown plants. In turn, the hydroponic beds function as a biofilter – stripping off ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, and phosphorus – so the freshly cleansed water can then be recirculated back
Aquaponic vegetable bed in Australia. Photo by Joel Malcolm, Backyard Aquaponics. www.backyardaquaponics.com

into the fish tanks. The nitrifying bacteria living in the gravel and in association with the plant roots play a critical role in nutrient cycling; without these microorganisms the whole system would stop functioning. Greenhouse growers and farmers are taking note of aquaponics for several reasons: • Hydroponic growers view fishmanured irrigation water as a source of organic fertilizer that enables plants to grow well. • Fish farmers view hydroponics as a biofi ltration method to facilitate intensive recirculating aquaculture. • Greenhouse growers view aquaponics as a way to introduce organic hydroponic produce into the marketplace, since the only fertility input is fish feed and all of the nutrients pass through a biological process.

ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (www.attra.ncat.org) is managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) and is funded under a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture’s Rural BusinessCooperative Service. Visit the NCAT website (www.ncat.org/ sarc_current.php) for more information on our sustainable agriculture projects.

Related ATTRA Publications
Aquaculture Enterprises: Considerations and Strategies Agricultural Business Planning Templates and Resources

• Food-producing greenhouses – yielding two products from one production unit – are naturally appealing for niche marketing and green labeling. • Aquaponics can enable the production of fresh vegetables and fish protein in arid regions and on waterlimited farms, since it is a water re-use system. • Aquaponics is a working model of sustainable food production wherein plant and animal agriculture are integrated and recycling of nutrients and water filtration are linked. • In addition to commercial application, aquaponics has become a popular training aid on integrated bio-systems with vocational agriculture programs and high school biology classes. The technology associated with aquaponics is complex. It requires the ability to simultaneously manage the production and marketing of two different agricultural products. Until the 1980s, most attempts at integrated hydroponics and aquaculture had limited success. However, innovations since the 1980s have transformed aquaponics technology into a viable system of food production. Modern aquaponic systems can be highly successful, but they require intensive management and they have special considerations. This publication provides an introduction to aquaponics, it profi les successful aquaponic greenhouses, and it provides extensive resources. It does not attempt to describe production methods in comprehensive technical detail, but it does provide a summary of key elements and considerations.

all of the nutrients supplied to the crop are dissolved in water. Liquid hydroponic systems employ the nutrient film technique (NFT), f loating rafts, and noncirculating water culture. Aggregate hydroponic systems employ inert, organic, and mixed media contained in bag, trough, trench, pipe, or bench setups. Aggregate media used in these systems include perlite, vermiculite, gravel, sand, expanded clay, peat, and sawdust. Normally, hydroponic plants are fertigated (soluble fertilizers injected into irrigation water) on a periodical cycle to maintain moist roots and provide a constant supply of nutrients. These hydroponic nutrients are usually derived from synthetic commercial fertilizers, such as calcium nitrate, that are highly soluble in water. However, hydroorganics – based on soluble organic fertilizers such as fish hydrosylate – is an emerging practice. Hydroponic recipes are based on chemical formulations that deliver precise concentrations of mineral elements. The controlled delivery of nutrients, water, and environmental modifications under greenhouse conditions is a major reason why hydroponics is so successful. Nutrients in Aquaculture Effluent: Greenhouse growers normally control the delivery of precise quantities of mineral elements to hydroponic plants. However, in aquaponics, nutrients are delivered via aquacultural effluent. Fish effluent contains sufficient levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, potassium, and other secondary and micronutrients to produce hydroponic plants. Naturally, some plant species are better adapted to this system than others. The technical literature on aquaponics provides greater detail on hydroponic nutrient delivery; especially see papers cited in the Bibliography by James Rakocy, Ph.D. Plants Adapted to Aquaponics: The selection of plant species adapted to hydroponic culture in aquaponic greenhouses is related to stocking density of fish tanks and subsequent nutrient concentration of aquacultural effluent. Lettuce, herbs, and specialty greens (spinach, chives, basil, and watercress) have low to medium nutritional requirements and are well adapted to aquaponic systems.

Aquaponics: Key Elements and Considerations
A successful aquaponics enterprise requires special training, skills, and management. The following items point to key elements and considerations to help prospective growers evaluate the integration of hydroponics with aquaculture. Hydroponics: Hydroponics is the production of plants in a soilless medium whereby
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Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture

the component ratio can favor greater outputs of either hydroponic produce or fish protein. Further. Water quality testing kits from aquacultural supply companies are fundamental. The gravel functions as a “fluidized bed bioreactor. and the Bibliography. chlorine.org nitrifying bacteria involved in nutrient conversions. most commercial aquaponic systems in North America are based on tilapia. fish density. well established aquaponic system. tilapia is tolerant of fluctuating water conditions such as pH. dissolved solids. pH. and cucumbers) have a higher nutritional demand and perform better in a heavily stocked. each arranged in a separate node. design manuals. Depending on the system design. temperature. and on-site tours. and bass. and dissolved solids. Arctic char. Component Ratio: Matching the volume of fish tank water to volume of hydroponic media is known as component ratio. Critical water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen. In the 1980s Mark McMurtry (former graduate student) ATTRA Page 3 . nitrate. when shallow bed systems only three inches in depth are employed for the production of specialty greens such as lettuce and basil. one greenhouse may contain a multiple number of fish tanks and associated growing beds. Water Quality Characteristics: Fish raised in recirculating tank culture require good water quality conditions. plant species. and related environmental fluctuations can elicit rapid changes in water quality. oxygen. and waste byproducts. carbon dioxide. constant and vigilant water quality monitoring is essential. ammonia. high humidity conditions in greenhouses than field varieties. Barramundi and Murray cod fish species are raised in recirculating aquaponic systems in Australia. the square footage of grow space will increase four times. Fish Species: Several warm-water and coldwater fish species are adapted to recirculating aquaculture systems. etc. feeding rate and volume. Please refer to articles in the Resources section. perch. Greenhouse varieties of tomatoes are better adapted to low light. bell peppers. The literature on tilapia contains extensive technical documentation and cultural procedures. The stocking density of fish. raft).” removing dissolved solids and providing habitat for www. Other systems deliver fish effluent directly to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds. feeding rate.attra. the Speraneo system described below is designed for one cubic foot of water to two cubic feet of grow bed media (pea gravel). A “node” is a configuration that links one fish tank to a certain number of hydroponic beds. Early aquaponics systems were based on a ratio of 1:1. fish species. nitrite. Tilapia produces a whitefleshed meat suitable to local and wholesale markets. trout. Furthermore. but 1:2 is now common and tank: bed ratios as high as 1:4 are employed. growth rate of fish. Some operations offer technical assistance through short courses. T Aquaponic Systems Profiles of several aquaponic greenhouses are highlighted below as models of commercially viable systems. and to facilitate conversion of ammonia and other waste products to forms more available to plants prior to delivery to hydroponic vegetable beds. Most of these operations are featured in magazine articles and conference proceedings. and other characteristics.ncat. Thus. ilapia is a warm-water species that grows well in a recirculating tank culture. However. The design manuals and technical documentation available in the Resources section can help growers decide which system is most appropriate.Plants yielding fruit (tomatoes. For example. Biofiltration and Suspended Solids: Aquaculture effluent contains nutrients. Some aquaponic systems are designed with intermediate filters and cartridges to collect suspended solids in fish effluent. for in-depth descriptions and technical details. The variation in range depends on type of hydroponic system (gravel vs. The North Carolina State University System Water consumption in an integrated aquavegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. including tilapia. Tilapia is a warm-water species that grows well in a recirculating tank culture.

acceptable fruit yields had previously only been achieved with substantial supplementation of plant nutrients. Effluent from the fish tanks was trickle-irrigated onto sand-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds located at ground level. and the sand beds and plant roots functioned as a biofi lter. and improved aeration from atmospheric exchange during each dewatering with benefits to both nitrifying bacteria and plant roots. • Research to determine the optimum ratio of fish tank to biofilter volume on fish growth rate and water quality found that stocking density of fish and plants can vary depending on desired goal. The nutrients in the irrigation water fed tomato and cucumber crops. the water recirculated back into the fish tanks. intensive production of fish protein 3. particularly during winter months in urban areas. In 1950 Gosh and Burris (Utilization of Nitrogenous Compounds by Plants. • Previous integrated fish-vegetable systems removed suspended solids from the water by sedimentation in clarifiers prior to plant application. Fish stocking density and feeding rates are adjusted to optimize water quality as influenced by plant growth rate. Vol. • Aqueous nitrate concentrations in recirculating aquaculture can be adequately regulated when fish and vegetable production are linked via reciprocating biofilters. • Organic vine-ripened. • Such low-water-use symbiotic systems are applicable to the needs of arid or semi-arid regions where fish and fresh vegetables are in high demand. See the Bibliography on Aquaponics in the appendix for a of list articles that resulted from the North Carolina research. • Water consumption in an integrated aqua-vegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. Aqua-vegeculture research at NCSU has been discontinued because the technology had evolved to the point where it is ready Page 4 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . Some f i nd ing s a nd h ig h l ig ht s of McMurtry’s research: B iofilters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately flooded and drained with nutrient-laden fish tank water are called reciprocating biofilters. conservation of water resources and plant nutrients 2. histidine. Removal of the solid wastes resulted in insufficient residual nutrients for good plant growth. and leucine as effectively as inorganic nitrogen sources. • Biofilters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately flooded and drained with nutrient-laden fish tank water are called reciprocating biofilters. • Tomatoes may have also assimilated nitrogen in organic amino acid forms. pesticide-free produce and “fresh-daily” fish can bring premium prices. • Benefits of integrating aquaculture and vegetable production are: 1. After draining from the beds. The component ratios of the system may be manipulated to favor fish or vegetable production according to local market trends or dietary needs. • Dissolved and suspended organic materials accumulate rapidly in aquaculture systems and must be removed for efficient fish production. Soil Science. glutamic acid. The only fertility input to the system was fish feed (32 percent protein). reduced operating costs relative to either system in isolation. 70: 187-203) found that tomatoes utilize alanine. • Reciprocating biofilters provide uniform distribution of nutrientladen water within the filtration medium during the flood cycle.and the late Doug Sanders (professor) at North Carolina State University developed an aqua-vegeculture system based on tilapia fish tanks sunk below the greenhouse floor.

and ornamental bedding plants in the aquaponic greenhouse. tomatoes. selling locally at a farmers market combined with direct sales out of their greenhouse.org .” This way. However. herb. Paula explained this figure takes into account the cumulative yields of multiple vegetable crops raised during the 7. Interest in the Speraneo system resulted in more than 10. Paula Speraneo and her family continue to run the greenhouse and actively participate in aquaponics technology transfer.ncat. Later. so they dropped the St. PVC piping. For years. while others are modified. The commercial-scale solar greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farm is 50 feet by 80 feet.200 gallon fish tanks. Missouri – modified the North Carolina State method by raising tilapia in a 500-gallon tank. an impressive yield. The Speraneo system was practical. The component ratio favors vegetables over fish yields in the Speraneo system. Tom and Paula Speraneo – owners of S & S Aqua Farm near West Plains. cucumbers. each node can operate independently of one another. The following notes describe the Speraneo system and available resources. S & S Aqua Farm has grown fresh basil. The reciprocating water cycle. supplemented with tank-cultured algae. Purina® fish chow at 40 percent protein was the primary fertility input. Some aspects of the Speraneo system were modeled after the aquaponics research at North Carolina State University. The Speraneos employ hydroponic vegetable beds as “fluidized bed reactors. Later. with fish effluent linked to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds inside an attached solar greenhouse. S & S Aqua Farm now grows a diverse variety of vegetable and herbs. Each tank is linked to six one-foot-deep hydroponic beds filled with river gravel. Following passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Tom started adding small amounts of Planters 2® rock dust on top of the gravel as a trace element supplement. methods were designed by Tom and Paula to match their system. To handle requests for assistance. but the tanks are more conveniently located above ground and tilapia hybrids adapted to cooler water temperatures are grown. Louis. Tilapia are raised in fish tanks.” but they use pea-grade river gravel instead of sand. It became the model for dozens of commercial aquaponic greenhouses and high school biology programs. The resource packet includes a 10-minute video and a list of supplies. including school children. mixed salad greens.000 visitors to the small farm in Missouri. oriented East-West to create a south-facing slope. The resource packet is available through: ATTRA Page 5 The Speraneo System In the early 1990s. In the early 1990s. productive. Tom referred to each tank-plus-hydroponic bed setup as a “node. Louis market. farmers. and he was unfailingly generous and helpful to others. Response from growers to a practical design manual such as this was tremendous. Mexican imports of basil resulted in a market crash to $4 per pound. Tom and Paula were raising and selling basil for $12 a pound to gourmet restaurants about four hours away in St. Tom was a true pioneer in aquaponics. It contains six 1. Missouri. the Speraneos compiled a resource packet and design manual with technical specifications to establish an S & S Aqua Farm-style aquaponic system. Tom once calculated the farm produces 45 to 70 pounds of produce for every pound of tilapia. The Speraneo system is now in use worldwide. and an assortment of vegetable. then harvested at one to one-and-ahalf pounds in size. they expanded to a full-size commercial greenhouse. Tilapia in the Speraneo system are raised for 7 to 12 months. Sadly. and wildly successful. however. The Department of Horticulture and the Cooperative Extension Service at NCSU provide technical assistance to aquaponic greenhouse growers in North Carolina.attra. and return-flow water pumping www. researchers.for grower application. and government officials. Tom Speraneo died in February 2004.to 12-month time period required to raise fish to harvest.

Aquaponic greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farms. Page 6 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . NCAT. Missouri. West Plains. Photos by Steve Diver.

In one notable experiment the UVI researchers compared the yields of a leafy herb (basil) and a fruiting vegetable (okra) grown in aquaponic vs. Nile and red tilapia are raised in fish rearing tanks. pipes and pumps. field production systems. MO 65775 417-256-5124 Especially see: Maturing Marvel (PDF/282K) by Vern Modeland. a recirculating aquaculture system. and the aquacultural effluent is linked to floating raft hydroponics. sump. The Growing Edge. the fish tank is immediately restocked. which buffers the aquatic system and supplements calcium and potassium ions at the same time. The fish are fed three times daily with a complete. researchers calculated gross income potential. Basil and okra were raised in raft hydroponics.. researcher Rakocy sees integrated water reuse systems as a viable solution to sustainable food production in developing countries and arid regions – such as the Caribbean Islands – where fresh water is scarce. the UVI research team offers a week-long short course on aquaponics each year at the UVI agricultural experiment station.210 per system per year. which is added in a chelated form once every three weeks. base addition tank. May-June 1998. and other crops have been raised successfully. the aquaponic system yields $134. and six 400-square foot hydroponic troughs totaling 2.800 liters each. The UVI short course is the premier educational training program available to farmers in the world. The production schedule is staggered so that one tank is harvested every six weeks. Rakocy has published extensive research reports and several Extension Service bulletins on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. with outstanding quality and yields.808 per year for the same production area. 8820 West Plains. or 154 fish per cubic meter for red tilapia and cultured for 24 weeks.78 metric tons for red tilapia. while yields of aquaponic okra were 18 times greater than field-grown. and associates at the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed a commercial-scale aquaponic system that has run continuously for more than five years.245 (Rakocy. The aquaponic method would result in $515 per cubic meter per year or $110. et al. UVI specializes in greenwater tank culture.S.S & S A qua F arm [Contact: Paula Speraneo] 8386 County Rd. lettuce. Projected annual fish production is 4. Winter 1993-94.php3?AID=90535> The Genius of Simplicity (PDF/30K) by John Wesley Smith. Basil. Virgin Islands of $22 per kg for fresh basil with stems..growingedge. Like McMurtry. Yields of aquaponic basil were three times greater than field-grown. The only other supplemental nutrient required is iron. Tilapia are stocked at a rate of 77 fish per cubic meter for Nile tilapia.com/magazine/back_ issues/view_article.attra. filter and degassing tanks. floating fish pellet at 32 percent protein.ncat. php3?AID=50240 Bioponics – Revolution in Food Growing: Missouri Aquafarmer Discovers Huge Benefits in Trace Elements by David Yarrow Remineralize the Earth. and associates at The University of the Virgin Islands System James Rakocy. The system components include: Four fish rearing tanks at 7. com/magazine/back_issues/view_article. okra. the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed a commercial-scale aquaponic system that has run continuously for more than five years. 2004). Based on a market price in the U. www.D. When fish sales are included.5 by alternately adding calcium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide to the base addition tank.D.16 metric tons for Nile tilapia and 4. After harvest. In addition to aquaponics. J ames Rakocy. Ph.growingedge. air diffusers. Th is compares to field-produced basil at $172 per cubic meter per year or $36. ft. December 1997. www. Ph. www.400 sq.org ATTRA Page 7 . clarifiers. The Growing Edge. To provide in-depth technical support. The pH is monitored daily and maintained at 7.0 to 7.

organization – specializes in aquaculture research and education. The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System – Design Manual is a 37page manual published by the institute in 1997.S.fas. Rakocy. the institute published a series of publications on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. Tilapia is raised as a warm-water fish species. PowerPoint Presentation. details on greenhouse layout and aquaponic production. Contact: James Rakocy. Virgin Islands 00850-9781 340-692-4031 (340) 692-4035 FAX jrakocy@uvi. St.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/ AES-Aquaculture-Home.47 MB) http://ag. Philippines. it has made some of their publications on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics available online. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. lettuce. Hydroponic crops include basil. Thoman. University of the Virgin Islands USDA Ministerial Conference and Expo on Agricultural Science and Technology. parts list with suppliers and cost. James Rakocy. West Virginia. Treatment of aquaculture effluent prior to its return to the natural stream flow led to collaborative research with USDA-ARS scientists in Kearneysville.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/ AES-Aquaculture-Aquaponic_Systems. on integrated hydroponic-fish culture systems. Included are diagrams and photos.000 Kingshill. 2004 in Manila.usda.arizona.See the Bibliography in the appendix for citations to articles and papers by Rakocy. phosphorus. estimated operating expense. The institute helps Appalachian farmers set up two types of aquaculture systems: (a) an indoor. West Virginia – a program of The Conservation Fund. Donald S.pdf. phosphorus. University of the Virgin Islands Agriculture Experiment Station RR 1. and wetland plants.htm The Freshwater Institute System The Freshwater Institute in Shepherdstown. the institute implemented an aquaponic demonstration program based on a Speraneo-style gravel-cultured system. Ph.edu Aquaculture Program www. protection of spring water quality as it relates to aquaculture effluent is viewed as a vital component of this technology. In the mid-1990s. held September 12-16. low-tech recirculating tank method. To provide technical assistance to farmers and high school biology teachers. Bailey. the institute has specialized in cold-water recirculating aquaculture systems raising trout and arctic char. Fresh spring water is an abundant resource in the Appalachian region.arizona. Contact The Freshwater Institute for information on obtaining design manuals and other publications not available as Web downloads.D. However. hightech recirculating tank method and (b) an outdoor.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ ista6web/pdf/676. Trials at the institute’s greenhouses showed that nitrogen. edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/presentation/ p676.pdf Aquaponics: Integrated Technology for Fish and Vegetable Production in Recirculating Systems. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Instead.gov/icd/stconf/session2/ session%202d/02-rakocy_j-2D%202nd_files/ frame. Croix U. PDF Presentation: 49 pages (PDF/1. and other nutrients in aquaculture effluent can be effectively removed by plants grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed wetland systems. Page 676690.uvi. Box 10. and other nutrients in aquaculture effluent can be effectively removed by plants grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed wetland systems.uvi. and further informational resources. an environmental non-profit Page 8 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . Proceedings paper: 15 pages (PDF/254 K) http://ag. www. 69 slides. R. aspx?s=RE Especially see: Update on Tilapia and Vegetable Production in the UVI Aquaponic System James E. Please note the institute no longer provides direct technical assistance to farmers on aquaponics. For years.aspx?s=RE rials at the Freshwater Institute’s greenhouses showed that nitrogen. T Aquaponics www.

The foundation is dedicated to the preservation of rare breeds of farm animals. Hatchville.net Especially see: An Integrated Fish Culture Hydroponic Vegetable Production System (PDF/6. and aquaponic greenhouse production. sustainable agriculture and local food systems. 1977. hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. WV 25443-4228 Phone (304) 876-2815 www. In addition to hydroponics.org www. fish production can be located in outdoor tanks or adjacent buildings. The website has a section featuring for-sale articles on aquaculture and bioshelters (integrated systems). Massachusetts.The Freshwater Institute 1098 Turner Road Shepherdstown. Tours are available. water passes through a constructed reed bed outside the greenhouse for additional nutrient removal.57 MB) by Ronald D. www. Contact: The Green Center 28 Common Way. hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. A selection of past articles is available online. Although the institute closed in 1991.thegreencenter. NY 10549 914-241-2658 914-241-8264 FAX www. New Alchemy publications on greenhouse production and aquaponics provide historical insight to the emerging bioshelter (ecosystem greenhouses) concept and are still a valuable resource for technical information. is again making these publications available for sale.Pomona implemented an outdoor integrated bio-system that links: (a) a pond containing treated sewage wastewater stocked with tilapia and carp.thegreencenter. Cabbage Hill Farm promotes education on aquaponics and hosts greenhouse interns. May-June 1986.attra.org Miscellaneous Systems Instead of locating the fish and vegetable components in separate containers inside a greenhouse. conducted research on integrated aquaculture systems during the 1970s and 1980s. MA 02536 www. Tilapia fish and leaf lettuce are the main products of the Cabbage Hill Farm system. Zweig. The Green Center.org Selected Publications from The Freshwater Institute: • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Integrated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System – Design Manual • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installation Guide • Linking Hydroponics to a 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System • Operators Manua l for 880 – Recycle System The New Alchemy Institute The New Alchemy Institute in East Falmouth. The effluent simply needs to be delivered to hydroponic vegetable beds. In warm climates. the Center for Regenerative Studies at California State Polytechnic University . Cabbage Hill Farm designed and continues to operate a simple recirculating aquaponic system. Cabbage Hill Farm 115 Crow Hill Road Mount Kisco.ncat. formed by a group of former New Alchemists.cabbagehillfarm. Journal of The New Alchemists. I The Cabbage Hill Farm System Cabbage Hill Farm is a non-profit organization located about 30 miles north of New York City.thegreencenter. Aquaculture Magazine. www. (b) water hyacinth – an aquatic plant ATTRA Page 9 . As an example. though basil and watercress are also grown in smaller quantities.freshwaterinstitute.net Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institute Publications Online Summary of Fish Culture Techniques in Solar Aquatic Ponds (PDF/815K) by John Wolfe and Ron Zweig.net Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institute Publications Online n warm climates.

backyard aquaponics.Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia.com Page 10 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . Photos by Joel Malcolm. (with permission) www. Backyard Aquaponics.

ams. but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. It states that accredited organic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations. The NOP is an organic certification and marketing program that ensures foods and food products labeled as “organic” meet universal standards and guidelines for organic production. In fact.ncat. Quality Certification Services in Florida has certified three organic aquaculture operations in the U. documentation of inputs and production methods. but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. a second group – The National Organic Aquaculture Working Group (NOAWG). A farm plan. barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) fish species have been adapted to recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics systems.S. made popular by John Todd at Ocean Arks International. Organic Aquaculture.very efficient at sucking up nutrients – covering 50 percent of the water surface area.html) an aquaponic greenhouse in Illinois. accessible at www. Version 2005 and updated in 2009 at www. AquaRanch (www. Production inputs used in organic production – such as feed and fertilizers – must be of natural origin and free of synthetic materials. In 2003. In Australia. set a precedent for the aquaponics industry by obtaining organic certification for its hydroponic produce through Indiana Certified Organic. reports. and the solar-aquatic ponds. The ATTRA publication Aquaculture Enterprises: Considerations and Strategies contains a section on organic aquaculture. Meanwhile. In addition to locating the fish and vegetable components in separate containers. To provide access to the large volume of documents.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRD C5062436&acct=nopgeninfo. AquaRanch markets its greenhouse-raised tilapia as “naturally grown. salmon and other fish species are raised in Europe. However. or Living Machines. gov/AMSv1. and organic production standards surrounding the issue of organic aquaculture. and Israel using production standards developed by international organic certification agencies www. Models include the Rakocy system. The stocking densities for these fish species is higher than tilapia. or NOP. O Organic Aquaculture Organic production of crops and livestock in the United States is regulated by the Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program. solar-algae ponds (see literature by Zweig and Kleinholz).” To address the issue of organic aquaculture.org/about_ifoam/standards/norms/ norm_documents_library/Norms_ENG_V4_ 20090113. ATTRA Page 11 rganic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations. which in turn results in greater hydroponic surface under production. ifoam. For example. and abroad under a private label. the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) established an Aquatic Animals Task Force in June 2000. and farm inspection are required to obtain “certified organic” status. This process allows farm products to be labeled and sold as organic.pdf ). organic aquaculture was not clearly defined in the NOP and the lack of organic aquaculture guidelines has hampered the growth of a domestic organic aquaculture industry in the United States.usda. fish and plants can be placed in the same container to function as a polyculture. The interim final report published by NOAWG in January 2006 provides proposed recommendations on organic aquaculture to NOSB. (for more information see The IFOAM Norms for Organic Production and Processing. through the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. tilapia.aquaranch. com/index.attra. Several references are provided on these fish species and aquaponic systems in the Resources and Bibliography sections. comprised of 80 aquaculture professionals and related stakeholders – formed to provide further guidance and clarification to the NOSB.org . Organic trout. (c) nearby vegetable gardens irrigated with nutrient-laden pond water. the National Agricultural Library published an 80-page bibliography. Australia. the plant biomass generated by water hyacinth is used as feedstock for compost heaps. plants sit on top of floating polystyrene panels with their roots hanging down into the water that fish swim around in.

gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/ afnotes5. offered by University of the Virgin Islands. Take lots of pictures to document the system components and how they relate to one another. the Desktop Aquaponics Booklet.com/ infoCourses. Nelson and Pade.htm. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. No date) in North Carolina. 2. www. grading and packing with brand name labels. Inc. The Bibliography in the appendix provides access to in-depth research and technical data. diagrams and images. No date).htm Evaluating an Aquaponic Enterprise Due to the highly technical nature of aquaponics and the expense associated with greenhouse production. Read technical and popular literature on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics to become familiar with production methods. Retail sales directly out of your greenhouse or roadside stand might be an ideal situation. Aquaponic greenhouses yield two food products. obtain typical yields and market prices for hydroponic vegetables and fish. To evaluate greenhouse profitability. prospective growers are advised to thoroughly investigate production methods and market potential. and hydroponics is one method of greenhouse production. The book Aquaponic Food Production: raising fish and plants for food and profit. No date) Aquaculture International (Aquaculture International. Stephanie Hauser. Cornell University cohosts a recirculating aquaculture short course in association with The Freshwater Institute (Cornell University. This includes labor to harvest vegetables. depending on the system design and choice of components. and Growing Power (Growing Power. and market prices for fresh fish and hydroponic vegetables. 5. 4.000 to $30. 6. and Ann Young. yields. Consider lowercost and simpler alternatives. In addition. with compost-based potting mixes – is a simple and productive way to get started in greenhouse vegetable production. For general information and supplies associated with greenhouse vegetable production. Due to the highly technical nature of aquaponics and the expense associated with greenhouse production. Attend a short course. Visit an aquaponic greenhouse to gain firsthand observations. prospective growers are advised to thoroughly investigate production methods and market potential. but this will depend on your location. and hydroponics is one method of greenhouse production. and investigate local and regional markets and related point of sales. There are three prominent aquaponic short courses in North America. 3. The Web Resources listed below provide quick access to reading material. A quaponics is one method of hydroponics. A sequence of considerations and learning opportunities geared to evaluating an aquaponic greenhouse enterprise are listed below. has a list of training courses on their website accessible at www. National Agricultural Library. No date) in Wisconsin.aquaponics. (University of the Virgin Islands. Mary Gold.usda. You may quickly find that your biggest challenge is weekly marketing of fresh produce rather than successful production of vegetables. Complementary ATTRA publications include Organic Greenhouse Vegetable Production and Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops. Bill Thomas. Obtain one or two aquaponic training manuals to acquire detailed technical specifications.000. Building and equipping a commercial-sized aquaponic greenhouse can cost $10. Keep in mind that aquaponic growers are busy people with a considerable investment in time and resources to establish their businesses. and related details.Organic Aquaculture: AFSIC Notes #5 by Stephanie Boehmer. USDA. post-harvest handling methods to maintain superior quality. and quick delivery of perishable produce to established markets. 1. Bag culture of greenhouse vegetables – raising plants in polyethylene grow bags fi lled Page 12 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture .nal. Aquaponics is one method of hydroponics. see the ATTRA resource list Greenhouse and Hydroponic Vegetable Production Resources on the Internet.

8. University of the Virgin Islands – International Aquaponics and Tilapia Aquaculture www.org 5. send an email request to: snsaquasys@townsqr. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. practical solutions.Aquaculture Aquaponic E-Mail List Paula Speraneo of S & S Aqua Farm in Missouri hosts the Aquaponics E-Mail list on the Internet. based on years of research and experience. 676-690. The old saying. This is where practitioners.backyardaquaponics..org ATTRA Page 13 . Th e Aquaponics List is a prominent source of technology transfer and resource sharing on all aspects of aquaponics: hydroponics. The Web Resources section lists additional training manuals and technical documentation. avoid the “inventor’s urge” to reinvent the wheel. and serve as a treasure trove of technical information and farmer-to-farmer exchange. are good starting points. Participate on the Aquaponics E-mail Discussion Group. The archives are publicly accessible. Inc. A few consultants with expertise in aquaponics are listed in the Agriculture Consultants section below.com/aquaponics www.uvi. 9. R. aquaculture.growingpower. Aquaculture International – Short Course on Aquaponics www. supplies. Rakocy. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Bailey.attra. the design manuals from S&S Aqua Farm in Missouri and Joel Malcolm’s Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia contain in-depth technical specifications.ncat. and resources. 7. no dates). p. illustrations.edu/cals/bee/ outreach/aquaculture/short-course/index. The e-mail list is hosted by Paula Speraneo with S&S Aqua Farms. www.” can be aptly applied to aquaponic start-up greenhouses. Thoman. Successful aquaponic greenhouse operators have already figured out the system components and methods of production. “Get the engine running first.cfm 6. Held September 12-16. Pick one of the existing models and duplicate it insofar as possible. and to shorten the time and risk involved getting started. Philippines.i55mall.aspx?s=RE 3. scientists.and the Introduction to Aquaponics DVD from Nelson and Pade. E-mail discussion lists have become the modern town square. When you are ready to explore a commercial system. 2004 in Manila. Hire an agricultural consultant to acquire expert advice and consultation. go to: Aquaponics List – Before 2002 www.org 4.cornell. edu/sites/uvi/Pages/AES-AquacultureInternational_Aquaponics. 2. Joel Malcolm. S&S Aqua Farm – Design Manual www.com To view Web e-mail archives. 2004. Donald S. Update on tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI aquaponic system. fi sh species. To subscribe. supplies. and parts lists (S&S Aqua Farm.aquacultureinternational.com. The e-mail archives are a key source of information. James E. Growing Power – Short Course on Aquaponics www. Cornell University – Short Course on Recirculating Aquaculture www.bee. then adjust the carburetor. specialists. and business people all share resources. com/snsaqua 7.com Resources E-mail Discussion Lists for Aquaponics . Joel Malcolm – Backyard Aquaponics Design Manual Western Australia joel@backyardaquaponics.Hydroponics . and production methods. Lastly. References 1.jaggartech.

Salt Creek Lane. The awardwinning magazine is now online as an exact digital copy of the print edition. research and development. and Journals Aquaponics Journal Nelson and Pade. Parker Coliseum Louisiana State University Baton Rouge.gov Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture ATTRA .austasiaaquaculture.com Aquaponics Journal is the quarterly journal from Nelson and Pade. Inc.com www. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses P. Inc.com Page 14 Ball Publishing 622 Town Road P. MSN.ballpublishing.au Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses is a bimonthly magazine dedicated to soilless culture and greenhouse production.com Greenhouse Grower www. USA phone 608-297-8708 Toll-free Fax: 866-815-9734 info@aquaponics. reports.O. news. Box 1027 Corvallis. Grower Talks www. Inc. Bellerive Quay. 3030 W. bioponics. Aquaculture and Aquaponic Trade Magazines. Articles profile soilless culture and greenhouse enterprises from around the world. bioponics. and organic hydroponics.noaa. Past articles are an important source of technical information on aquaponics. Summer 2004.com.au www. Oregon State University. and Topica. Australia 701803 6245 0064 Aquanews Archives http://pdacrsp. WI 53949.org/main/summaryasp?page=magazine Carol Mendoza. Bellerive Tasmania. LA 70803 (USA) 1-225-578-3137 FAX: 1-225-578-3493 carolm@was.com. available in print or as e-files.was.com Greenhouse Product News www.greenhousegrower.Hydroponics and Aquaculture E-Mail List A number of e-mail lists on hydroponics and aquaculture are scattered among the Internet hosting sites like YahooGroups.com. Permaculture Activist #52 (magazine). IL 60186 Tel: (630) 231-3675 Toll Free (888) 888-0013 Fax: (630) 231-5254 email: info@ballpublishing. OR 97339-1027 800-888-6785.com The Growing Edge is a bi-monthly trade magazine on high-tech gardening systems like hydroponics.com.html Aquaculture articles.com http://aquafeed.oregonstate. The Growing Edge Magazine New Moon Publishing P.oregonstate. Organizations. using DjVu technology.O.growingedge.edu/aquanews/archive. Back issues are a valuable resource. and industry news. Box 225 Narrabeen. and ecologically based pest management. It has become a prominent source for articles.O.com. aquaponics. Box 1660 West Chicago.aquaponicsjournal.net Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. PO Box 761 Montello. http://pdacrsp. 31 Cambridge Rd.com editor@aquafeed. Level 2.org Aquafeed.au Unit 2. Suite 201 Arlington Heights. Illinois 60005-5025 USA 847-391-1000 847-390-0408 World Aquaculture www. www.com Scranton Gillette Communications. 541-757-8477 541-757-0028 Fax www. and supplies for the aquaponics industry.hydroponics. Back issues are a valuable resource. It also reports on new products. M.com Austasia Aquaculture www. NSW 2101 Australia Phone: +61 (02) 9905 9933 Fax: +61 (02) 9905 9030 info@hydroponics.edu NOAA Aquaculture Program http://aquaculture.com.gpnmag.permacultureactivist. Director WAS Home Office 143 J.

Contact: Nelson and Pade.com www.ecotao. Steven D. Wa 98295 USA Phone: (407) 421-9816 www.com/holism/agric/aqua. Pade.. Breinigsville.aquaponics.com/bw/journal. Inc.org Ecotao’s Aquaculture Links www. Inc. Aquaponic Food Production: raising fish and plants for food and profit. Nelson and John S. Hampshire. 2000. DVDs. Inc.ncat. P.com www.growfish. Inc.sciencedirect.aquanic. and educational curricula on aquaponics. www. Box 658 Flanagan.gordoncreaser. Aberdeen. Bozeman.htm Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer.com/ Ecological-Aquaculture-Sustainable-LaurenceHutchinson/dp/1856230325 Van Gorder. hydroponics.allenpress. PA: Alternative Aquaculture Association.com/ShopAFPBook. and flowing water. Inc.com/content/1573-143X/?p=d6dfe772b 59245f287cad843d6809276&pi=107 Aquaculture Research (Blackwell journal) www. LLC [Contact: Myles Harston] 404 D. Wisconsin 53949 USA 608-297-8708 866-815-9734 FAX kat@aquaponics. Ecological Aquaculture: A Sustainable Solution.attra.aquaponics.com www. England: Permanent Publications.wiley.com www.html Agricultural Consultants for Integrated Hydroponics and Aquaculture AquaRanch Industries. cages. 505 Aldino Stepney Rd.org/docrep/005/ y1187e/y1187e00. and aquaculture. www. Small Scale Aquaculture: A hobbyist’s guide to growing fish in greenhouses.aquaranch. Inc. [Contact: Bill Manci] 506 Wabash Street Fort Collins.fao. See their Web page for details. recirculating systems. publisher of Aquaponics Journal. McMurtry PMB 267 1627 W.com Global Aquatics USA. www.altaqua. IL 61740 815-796-2978 (815)796-4485 FAX kat@aquaranch. offers booklets.amazon. 2005.com www. MT 59715-4011 (406) 585-8000 mcmurtry@avicom. videos.com Rebecca L.com Mark R.com/science/journal/01448609 Aquaculture International (Springer journal) www. East Lincoln St.asp?ref=1355-557X The Aquaponics Guidebook http://accesstoaquaponics.com/book.Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) www. MD 21001 443-243-8840 410-734-7473 FAX aquatic@iximd.com S&S Aqua Farms [Contact: Paula Speraneo] ATTRA Page 15 Aquaponic Books and Videos Nelson and Pade.sciencedirect. PO Box 761 Montello.com www.com/perlserv/?request=get-archive Scientific Journals on Aquaculture (Elsevier journal) www.ftai.com/science/journal/00448486 Aquacultural Engineering (Elsevier journal) www. CO 80522-3245 970-225-0150 info@ftai.springerlink.O.htm Hutchinson.htm American Fisheries Society Online Journals http://afs.org .aquaponics.net Nelson and Pade.com Gordon Creaser 4886-115 Garfield Street Sumas. PO Box 761 Montello.com Fisheries Technology Associates. Wisconsin 53949 USA 608-297-8708 866-815-9734 FAX Pinfo@aquaponics. www. Main St. 2008. FAO/ IIRR/WorldFish Center 2001. Laurence.

MO 65775 417-256-5124 snsaquasys@townsqr. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems – Index.gov http://afsic.com AFSIC. USDA-ARS 10301 Baltimore Ave. The Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library is a topic-oriented portal to NSGL.tamu. published in January 2005.org/publicat/usda_rac/fact.nal.gov/nal_display/index.com/snsaqua Aquaculture Associations Aquacultural Engineering Society www. provides extensive aquaculture resource listings. organized by subject category.aesweb.htm Texas Aquaculture Association www.htm Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library National Sea Grant Library http://nsgd. Especially see the extensive resource listing on recirculating aquaculture systems..usda. Aquaculture Resources http://afsic. 454 (PDF/314K) http://srac.pdf Regional Aquaculture Center Publications – Index.php?info_ center=2&tax_level=2&tax_subject=295&level3_ id=0&level4_id=0&level5_id=0&topic_ id=1410&&placement_default=0 Aquaponic Resources on the Web Selected Publications from Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture SRAC Publication No.miami-aquaculture. NAL.org American Tilapia Association http://ag.com Directory of Aquaculture Associations Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic. Room 132 Beltsville.edu/tmppdfs/504545-SRAC454.edu/azaqua/ata.org/systems/recycle/documents/ recirculatingoklahoma. 5).html The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) contains a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work.000 records that can be searched by authorkeyword or browsed by topic.php?tax_ level=1&info_center=2 Other Aquaculture Resources Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.jaggartech. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.usda. and the complete listing of publications from the Regional Aquaculture Centers.com www.html The Alternative Aquaculture Association www.usda. Organic Aquaculture (AFSIC Notes No.org/publicat/govagen/nal/associat.nal. it also contains a section on recirculating aquaculture.edu/aquadig.texasaquaculture. MD 20705-2351 301-504-6559 301-504-6927 Fax afsic@nal.altaqua.gov/nal_display/index. www. is an important new publication from AFSIC that addresses the potential of organic aquacultural products.407 Pennsylvania Ave West Plains. Selected items include proceedings from recirculating aquaculture conferences and related documents. a program of USDA-ARS. Aquaculture Directories and Resource Collections National Agricultural Library – Alternative Farming Systems Information Center The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) at the National Agricultural Library. The NSGL maintains a bibliographical database containing over 36.org Miami Aqua-culture.gso. Inc.org AquaNIC is the gateway to the world’s electronic resources for aquaculture information.pdf?CFI D=504545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c 91b4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture Organic Aquaculture • Aquaculture-Related Internet Sites and Documents • Directory of Aquaculture Related Associations and Trade Organizations • Directory of State Aquaculture Coordinators and Contacts • Automated Searches on General Aquaculture Topics Page 16 ATTRA .arizona.uri. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.

2002. originally published in Journal of Agricultural Mechanization (1997).pdf Free Articles on Hydroponics.htm ATTRA Page 17 . literature) posted on the Aquaponics Mail Group (see e-mail resources above).rainbowfish. including a materials list with approximate cost of materials to set up a 350-gallon aquaponic unit.com/Index.se/mailgroup/index.tamu.jaggartech.org/publications www.com Design manual with specifications A Prototype Recirculating AquacultureHydroponic System (PDF/94K) By Donald Johnson and George Wardlow University of Arkansas.com/snsaqua Design manual with specifications Backyard Aquaponics http://www. Th e HTML version contains additional photos that illustrate system components and greenhouse production.freshwaterinstitute.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart.edu/tmppdfs/504545-452fs.rainbowfish.backyardaquaponics.edu/tmppdfs/504545-451fs. The Freshwater Institute Publications Index.W.aquaponicsjournal. West Virginia www. economics.org General Aquaponic Resources on the Web The Essence of Aquaponics – Index to Aquaponics Mail Group Topics www. Aquaponics Library http://aquaponicslibrary.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Integrated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System . Wardlow and D.pdf Selected Aquaponic Training Materials and Design Manuals S&S Aqua Farm www. Shepherdstown. 452 (PDF/115K) http://srac.doc A 10-page booklet with directions on establishing a small aquaponic system. plant nutrition.ncat.attra.Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: An Overview of Critical Considerations SRAC Publication No.M.se/english/f89. www.uark. fish feed. Department of Agricultural and Extension Education. 451 (PDF/142K) http://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/504545-282fs.edu/dept/fisheries/education/documents/ barrel-ponics.php?f=3 Aquaponics Proves Profitable in Australia. Johnson University of Arkansas.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Management of Recirculating Systems SRAC Publication No. water.20megsfree. maintenance.09MB) by Travis W. links.html The Essence of Aquaponics website of Pekka Nygard and Stefan Goës in Sweden provides an index to key topics (aquaponics.Design Manual • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installation Guide • Linking Hydroponics to an 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System • Operators Manual for 880 . plants. It describes a low cost (less than $600) recirculating aquaculturehydroponic system suitable for use in laboratory settings.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Tank Culture of Tilapia SRAC Publication No.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Component Options SRAC Publication No.htm Enhancing Student Interests in the Agricultural Sciences through Aquaponics (PDF/725K) by G.rainbowfish. 282 (PDF/49K) http://srac.pdf A 10-page reprint article. Department of Agricultural and Extension Education AgriScience Project www. fish.tamu.uark.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart2. including a parts list.aces. www.com. biofilters. First Quarter.edu/tmppdfs/504545-453fs.htm www. Practical Hydroponics and Greenhouses http://hydroponics. Hughey www.se/bilder/education_short.au/php/viewforum.com/articleaustralia. greenhouses.tamu. Aquaponics Journal. Barrel-Ponic (aka Aquaponics in a Barrel) (PDF/3. 453 (PDF/378K) http://srac.Recycle System Aquaculture on Cat Beach www.

Part 650. 2002. University of Arizona http://ag. www. National Engineering Handbook .pdf download from their website. http://srac.edu/fish/international// waterharvestingpubs.wvu.htm Aquaponics Pty Ltd www.html Aquaculture Publications Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publications. Springs Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture Aquaculture Budgets Aquaculture Enterprise Budget Spreadsheets. www.extension. Publications are located here www.com National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Aquaculture Program http://aquaculture.webofcreation.php The Extension specialists at Auburn have developed four Excel spreadsheets and are available as a free Page 18 ATTRA .Teacher’s Resource Website.edu/azaqua/extension/Classroom/ Aquaponics. Recreational fisheries and Natural resource conservation (ALEARN) www.purdue.aces. The budgets include • Channel catfish pond farm • Hybrid striped bass pond farm • Rainbow trout raceway farm • Water recirculating fish farm Aquaculture Budgets.uaex. Chapter 12.umd.noaa.aces.gov. Water Harvesting and Aquaculture for Rural Development.edu NRAC is a principal public forum for the advancement and dissemination of science and technology needed by Northeastern aquacultural producers and support industries.html NorthernAquaFarms.gov Florida Division of Aquaculture www. Aquaculture.php Alberta Agriculture. Auburn University www.Integrated Systems of Agriculture and Aquaculture Aquaculture in the Classroom. 1984.uiuc.lsuagcenter.au/index. Tomatoes.org/readingrooms/aquaculture Aquaculture Resources on the Web Greenhouse Tilapia Production in Louisiana Louisiana State University www.floridaaquaculture. Agdex 716 (A15). Alex.com.ag.edu/dept/fisheries/aquaculture/budgets.northernaquafarms.edu The Southern Regional Aquaculture Center has an online library of very helpful publications on all aspects of aquaculture.nrac.agric.edu/smallfarm/pdf/oursare/ aquaponics.com West Virginia University Extension Service Aquaculture www.nsf/all/ agdex4595 USDA.edu/ publications/factSheets. Technical Services Division.aquaponics.edu/dept/fisheries Mississippi State University Aquaculture Publications http://msucares.edu/~agexten/aquaculture Water Engineering Bocek.cfm.nrac.edu/dept/fisheries/education/ recirculatingaquaculture.php The Urban Aquaculture Manual by Jonathan Woods www.tamu.edu/AQUABUSINESS/budgets. Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www. ALabama Education in aquatic sciences.org/BuildingGrounds/aqua/TOC.pdf Hydroponics Integration with Aquaculture (powerpoint) www.agecon.arizona. http:// www1. Auburn University Marine Extension & Research Center.umd.ab.htm Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -.com/en/communications/ publications/Publications+Catalog/Environment/ Aquaculture++Fisheries/Greenhouse+Tilapia+Production +in+Louisiana. from pond and cage construction to species and disease to marketing and promotion.htm Aquaponics Combine Fish.ca/$Department/deptdocs.com www. Universities of Illinois and Indiana Sea Grant www.org/Presentations/ Masser%20Aquaponics.auburn. Auburn University: International Center for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments.texasaquaculture.edu/aqfi/extension/publications/factsheet National Ag Law Center – Aquaculture http://nationalaglawcenter. Spring Development.com/aquaculture University of Arkansas Aquaculture/Fisheries Center Publications www.aces. and Ingenuity University of Illinois Extension http://web. Engineering Field Handbook.

wood chips. Western Regional Aquaculture Center http://aqua.org Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) www.org/wfcms/HQ/Default.umd. a three-tiered.edu North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (NCRAC) www. along vermiculture lines.com Aquacultural and Maricultural Business Development Aquacopia www. whereby customers receive a certain amount of product per week (a share) for a yearly share price.bioshelters.wba Aquaculture and Aquaponic Farms Sweet Water Organics.html Photographic tour of a Growing Power aquaponic system. www. Massachusetts.com/blog Sweet Water Organics will be the first major commercial upgrading of MacArthur genius Will Allen’s aquaculture methodologies.aquanic.com/science/journal/09258574 Ecological engineering has been defined as the design of ecosystems for the mutual benefit of humans and nature.gov/OpenNon WebContent. ATTRA Page 19 . Paul Harris.edu/wrac Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture www.html Catch a Piece of Maine. no pesticides can be used on our produce. animals and people.edu.usda.uncg.html Information for fishermen and consumers. Backyard Aquafarms http://backyardaquafarms. This soil in hundreds of potted plants on the simulated wetland tiers is key to the transformation of fish wastes into natural nitrate for plant growth and water filtration.uncg.adelaide.aspx?content=17550.com Bioshelters is a recirculating aquaponics facility located in Amherst.org Community Supported Fisheries Much like community supported agriculture. bio-intensive fish-vegetable garden.ncrac. Carteret County.ucdavis.attra. www.au/biogas/website/integratedbiosys. To learn more about our greenhouse system please follow the link below. Because the fish. i. Project Green Leaf. Bioshelters.pdf World Fish Center www.g.fish.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/WRAC-103. Organic Aquaponics. Sweet Water’s sustainable aquaculture system harvests urban waste streams.ncat.org Aquaculture Network Information Center www.edu/dept/srac Western Regional Aquaculture Center (WRAC) www.e. NC http://greenleaf.worldfishcenter.edu/carteretcatch/Index3. coffee grounds. community supported fisheries are cooperatives of family fishermen who market their catch directly to customers usually through a subscription mechanism. Duke University’s student chapter of the American Fishery Society www. e.org Integrated Bio-Systems on the Web Integrated Biosystems.msstate.aspx Ecological Engineering (Elsevier journal) www.nrac.and Wells.com DukeFish. veggie residues.egov. cardboard.washington. yielding the richest possible soil.aquacopia. http://directives.org/growingpower.growseed.PDF Regional Aquaculture Centers sponsored by the Extension Service Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www.walking-fish. aquaponic. a Durham-based community-supported fishery. Our entire system is contained in a large solar-heated greenhouse called a Bioshelter.org Carteret Catch. and brewers mash. plant and human systems are linked. http:// greenleaf.com www.sciencedirect. The University of Adelaide www.ctsa.portclydefreshcatch.com Aquaculture Investment: Lowering the Risks.edu/carteretcatch/CommSuppFish1. Lobster Community Supported Fishery www. http://sweetwater-organic. Eli Rogosa. Sweet Water will be the anchor project in the transformation of a massive industrial building in an “ industrial slum” into a showcase of the potential of living technologies and high-value added urban agriculture.catchapieceofmaine. Four innovative projects are listed below: Port Clyde Fresh Catch CSF www.sc. Solar structures create the least expensive and best natural environment for plants.

Vol. Greenhouse Management and Production). p. February. ecosystem rehabilitation.au The Speraneo System Durham. Closed system opens markets. The Ozarks’ S&S aqua farm. M. Wade O. recirculating aquaculture.D. Low-tech polycultural yields. 5. Journal of Plant Nutrition. habitat reconstruction. see the publisher’s websites: The Growing Edge www. 28.com/BackIssues. Integrated Aquaculture. M. 1988. Sanders.C. 33–51. 420–428.ch/pub/files/15. R. 7. Vol. 1997. M. Fish increase greenhouse profits. p. 42–44. p. Modeland.pdf Appendix I: Bibliography on Aquaponics The following bibliography contains selected literature citations on aquaponics and integrated hydroponicsaquaculture published in trade magazines and scientific journals. Small Farm Today. Thomas M. and related topics.June).S. (July-September). Summer. they are relatively new and less widely distributed in university libraries.C.g. 1993.R. p. No. No. Please note The Growing Edge. 32–33. 1992.G. and they offer on-site photocopying services to library visitors. 1–A. Amand.. Aas. p. Effects of biofilter/culture tank volume ratios on productivity of a recirculating fish/vegetable co-culture system. 10(3&4): 465–498. Norway www. McMurtry. and Challenges. Inter-Library Loan is a service available through most local libraries. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. M.hydroponics. Vern. Collectively. MI. However.R.aquaponicsjournal. Sanders. 1997. Efficiency of water use of an integrated fish/vegetable co-culture system.. 78 p. Rich. Tilapia Production Systems in the Americas: Technological Advances. Aquacultural Engineering) and trade magazines (Aquaculture. and R. D. 428–432. They are provided here as an important time saver to those seeking technical and popular information on this topic. bioengineering. North Carolina State University. For a complete list of articles and back issues available through these trade magazines. reclamation ecology. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture North Carolina State University McMurtry. p.hortikultur.. and Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses are the most relevant trade magazines for aquaponics.. McMurtry. No. Hodson.htm Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses www. 1992. Journal of Production Agriculture. 115. and can provide photocopies of articles for a small fee. Watanabe.pdf McMurtry. 1990. these articles provide an instant library on aquaponics. restoration ecology. Applied Agricultural Research. Kevin Fitzsimmons. 23–25. Doug. June 1999. Wastewater-fed Aquaculture in Temperate Climates Nutrient recycling with Daphnia and Fish (PDF/97K). August 24. Vol. 4. June-July.growingedge. p. http://aquanic. No. Trends. Modeland. The High Plains Journal. Cure. B.R.Olericulture System as Influenced by Component Ratio. 4th International Conference on Ecological Engineering for Wastewater Treatment. 9. non-renewable resource conservation. 16. Deni. Hodson.C. 3.R. et al. Aquaculture International. 1993. Reviews in Fisheries Science. et al. Nelson. No. UMI. 6. Vern. 3.com. and Fred Hanley. Vern. p. Losordo.R. Haning. University libraries carry scientific journals (e. and P... Sanders. Aquafarming on a budget. PhD. BackHome. sustainable agroecology. 28–31. 4. June. ecosystem conservation.com/magazine/compindex. p. D. and P. 1993. 5 (May. J.org/species/tilapia/documents/s6. hydroponics. Ann Harbor.C. p. M. 34. Vol. 1998.C. Maturing marvel: S&S Aqua Farm. 1998. McMurtry. Aquaponics Journal. 1998. Mark Richard.. No. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. including farmer profiles. and Mark McMurtry. The Ozarks Mountaineer. Vol.html Aquaponics Journal www. Vol. p. 35–38. 4. Dissertation. Sand culture of vegetables using recirculating aquacultural effluents. American Vegetable Grower. 280–284. D. Doug.Specific topics covered in the journal include: ecotechnology.G. Modeland. No. wetland restoration and construction. (Fall). high profit. McMurtry. synthetic ecology. stream and river restoration. Vol. Mineral nutrient concentration and uptake by tomato irrigated with recirculating aquaculture water as influenced by quantity of fish waste products supplied. Sanders.V. Page 20 ATTRA . Yield of tomato irrigated with recirculating aquacultural water. 407–409. The Growing Edge. 2002.

2004. 83-88.. Vegetable hydroponics and fish culture: A productive interface. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. 704 www.K. Remineralize the Earth. 1987. Losordo. 6p. tropical areas. Rakocy. p. 1989.htm Rakocy.3 Rakocy. Thoman and R. 1993. J. www. http://ag. p. James E. SRAC Publication No. Update on tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI aquaponic system. Vol. Shultz and W. Proceedings Aquacultural Engineering Conference. 1984. Orlando. J. James. Thompson. Roanoke. Shultz. J. 1999.org .S. Hargreaves. Vol. St. R. J.. LA. Martin and R. September 20-22. Virgin Islands. 1.M. American Society for Agricultural Engineers. Charlie Shultz.E. Wang (ed. 258 p.M. J. 30 p. Thomas M. Rakocy. J.) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture. and Michael P. James E.arizona. Charlie Shultz and Eric S.) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture.C.S.gso. Baton Rouge.fao. St..E. Rakocy. A recirculating system for tilapia culture and vegetable hydroponics in the Caribbean.S.S.E. James.pdf Rakocy. Rakocy.A.. 2004. J.org/books/648/648_8. Auburn University. Joseph. p. Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture.C. 1998. MI.) Tilapia Aquaculture in the Americas. Bailey. 1998. Donald S. Intensive tank culture of tilapia with a suspended. Eric. David. 454.A.E. (Fall). Proceedings Aquacultural Engineering Conference.actahort. p. Spring-Fall. 1997. Mississippi State University. In: Report of the Subregional Workshop to Promote Sustainable Aquaculture Development in the Small Island Developing States of the Lesser Antilles.ncat.htm#bm7. D.M. and A. Rakocy. World Aquaculture. World Aquaculture Society. The genius of simplicity. (PDF/ 251K).A. Virgin Islands Perspectives. J. Bailey. p. Integration of vegetable hydroponics with fish culture: A review. 2. August. 584–596.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/pdf/584. 64-70. Rakocy. (PDF/368K). 2003. 40–44.E. In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Costa Pierce and J.E. p.uri. Acta Horticulturae. Donald S. Cole and K. Bailey. Alabama. and Thoman. K. The status of aquaponics. 1. A food production revolution: Missouri aquafarmers discover huge benefits in trace elements integrated with hydroponics.A. Wang (ed. 1999. D. D. Rakocy (eds. Part II. 19-23. p. Part I.. Rakocy. 2004. http://nsgd.E. R. (Winter/ Spring 1987). In: J.S. Aquaculture Magazine. Manila. John Wesley. Missouri Conservationist. Thoman. http://ag.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/pdf/676. Economic analysis of a commercial-scale aquaponic ATTRA Page 21 The Rakocy System and Related Papers Rakocy. p.org/docrep/006/Y4921E/y4921e07. 1993. 148-158.S. 112-136. 63–69. J. FL. MI. 1992.pdf Rakocy. Evaluation of a commercial-scale aquaponic unit for the production of tilapia and lettuce. 676–690. and J. p. p. and D.html Rakocy. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. 1. 38–43.. Integrating tilapia culture with vegetable hydroponics in recirculating systems. James E. Yarrow. p. p. University of the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station. 28. In: J. 12-13. Shultz. 1997. 1993. 70.S. Bailey. 42-47. 5. D.Smith. No.A. Rakocy. Joseph. FAO Fisheries Report No. Rakocy. No. W. Fish + plants = food..edu/vsgcp/vsgcpc98001/ vsgcpc98001index. The status of aquaponics. Shultz. Philippines.E. Cole. The Growing Edge. Southern Region Aquaculture Center. Integrating hydroponic plant production with recirculating system aquaculture: Some factors to consider. S. July-August. Tilapia production systems for the Lesser Antilles and other resource-limited.. Nair. 392-394. September. 1997. James E. J. E. Croix. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Vol. Hargreaves. James E. Rakocy. Presented at the Auburn Fisheries and Aquaculture Symposium. Vol. 163-184. p.attra. St. Aquaponic production of tilapia and basil: comparing a batch and staggered cropping system. In B. American Society for Agricultural Engineers. James E. VA. Bailey. 357-372. September-October. Held July 16-19. U. p. Bailey. Integrating fish culture and vegetable hydroponics: Problems and prospects.K. www. treatment process. bacterial-based. 1993. 648. No..arizona. p. Bailey. Nutrient accumulation in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with hydroponic vegetable gardening. Aquaculture Magazine. Masser. Nina.

J. p. 40-42. Phytoremediation of aquaculture effluents. (October-November). D. Integrating aquaculture and hydroponics on the small farm. Glenn. 4. 3.S. Vol. Feedstuffs. Glenn. and D. Orlando. 10.A. Takeda. p. HortIdeas. 23. 1993. Effects of solids removal on tilapia production and water quality in continuously aerated.. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses. Vol. 2003. 15–34. 4. Vol.T. Gordon Watkins’ System Watkins. and S. 1. January-February. Adler. P. and S. 5. P. 57–61.R.E. Steven T. Jenkins.R. Gordon. No. M. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. www. Stanley. Vols. Orlando.. 223-254. E. 10–15. 1993. 6. Summerfelt. Acta Horticulturae. P. 5. 1. Vol. International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture. A natural gas-powered small-scale: aquaponic demonstration project.T. Agricultural Research. 35–40. R. FL.. p. Farmer to Farmer: Better Farming in the Ozarks. (Spring). In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. F. Takeda. p. Vol. 56-59. 1997. No. outdoor tanks. Adler. Vol. 1990. 3. Watkins.. FL. 1982. Bailey. J. 1997. p. Aquaponics Journal. HortScience. Demonstrating aquaponics. No. Harper. Aquaponics Journal. 48–51. and F.. 3. p.) 1992.. Adler. Takeda.org/books/439/439_113.M. Strawberry production linked to aquaculture wastewater treatment. 4.L. February 5-8. 993–999. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Warm Water Aquaculture – Fin-fish. Jenkins. Evaluation of the effect of a conveyor Page 22 Inslee’s Fish Farm Nelson. 15–18. Vol. 22.R. No. 673–678. Harper. Kara. 5. R. Takeda. Vol. No. Hargreaves. 11. Aquaculture springs up in West Virginia. F. 130. Ayyappan. Dinda. p.. 1996. Scientists seek better ways of utilizing effluent from fish. 12. 264–267. Bioshelters. Gordon. 1997. Paul R. 1999. Spencer. Small Farm Today. Adler.R. p. p. Summerfelt. Shultz and D. Adler. No. and Pat Williams (ed.actahort. Acta Horticulturae. No. 131–136. Adler. S. The Growing Edge.htm Williams.R. 1993. (Winter 1992–1993). F. 17–21. Greg. Journal of the New Alchemists. 1998. p. Vol. Summerfelt. Summerfelt. 9. 2000. p. Brown. 10. 373-384. p. Water quality characteristics of a closed recirculating system for tilapia culture and tomato hydroponics. Robert H.M.K. James E. Rakocy. p.W. and D. 2001. The Freshwater Institute/USDA-ARS Adler.M. Vol. Environmental Research Forum. Adler. Investing in an ecosystem. p.K. Inc. In Business. July-August. 35. D. 5–6. 65.. p. Brigham Young University Hawaii Campus. No. May 31. Vol. 2000. Glenn. Michael Glenn and Fumiomi Takeda. 1999. 1985. (May-June). Takeda. 4. Economic analysis of an aquaponic system for the integrated production of rainbow trout and plants. 439.M. 1985. Cole. p. p. Economic evaluation of hydroponics and other treatment options for phosphorus removal in aquaculture effluent. 9. September-October. Jr. p. Vol. Gordon. AgVentures. F. 1999. p. Inslee fish farm: A family run aquaponic operation produces chives and fish. Nair. Hydroponics in the Ark. No. 45–46. 17. K. P. Aqua-vegeculture: more food from our water.R. Hydroponics & aquaculture working together: A case study. 20. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture ATTRA . 4–8. Vol. Fishpond effluent + iron=good crop nutrition. P. Robert. p. p. Rakocy. March. and S. (July-Aug). P. M. (May-June) p. No. The Growing Edge. Richards (ed). Summerfelt. W. 1993. p. Inslee’s aquaponics.M. Doris. Overview of economic evaluation of phosphorus removal by plants. 348. No. R.. and S.T. Wade. 1–3. Growing greenhouse strawberries with aquaculture effluent. Vol. and John A. Mechanistic approach to phytoremediation of water. Wade. J. No. Watkins. New Alchemy Anon. 44. 5.T. 603-612. production strategy on lettuce and basil productivity and phosphorus removal from aquaculture wastewater. 2000. E. 251–264. Summerfelt. Vol. 4. In: Randy Day and Thomas L. 8. No. 10. Ecological Engineering. 1998.system for the production of tilapia and lettuce. P.T. The Growing Edge.

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Chrysothamnus nauseosus. and Cercocarpus montanus). including parts and pumping equipment.attra. PhD Dissertation. Masud A. Singh. 1995. Head. 218 p. Land-grant university libraries – through fee-based subscription– provide full-text access to recent documents via the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Contact: UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations 789 E. and wastewater effluent for those who wish to explore further. PhD Dissertation. MI. UMI. Jr. An Assessment of a Closed Greenhouse Aquaculture and Hydroponic System (Tilapia Diets). Evaluation of a Closed Recirculating System for Tilapia Culture. Eisenhower Parkway P. Ann Harbor. Atriplex canescens. 127 p. MI. 1980. There are numerous other titles in hydroponics. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 127 p. Damon Eurgene. 2005. Print copies are available for sale. Utilization of Aquaculture Effluent to Supplement Water and Nutrient Use of Turfgrasses and Native Plants (Ephedra viridis.O. UMI. Oregon State University.Appendix II: Dissertations Dissertations (PhD) and theses (Masters degree) on integrated aquaculture-hydroponic systems can provide critical access to research data and literature reviews. PhD Dissertation. UMI. Integrated AquacultureOlericulture System as Influenced by Component Ratio. Ann Harbor. UMI. Ann Harbor. via keyword and author search. PhD Dissertation. Mark Richard. University of Mexico. tank culture. Khan. Dissertation. tilapia. Ann Harbor. MI. Ann Harbor. Evaluation of a Recirculating Aquaculture-Hydroponics System. Rakocy. aquaculture.org ATTRA Page 25 . 1996. UMI. Ann Harbor. 129 p.shtml Faucette. MI. Computational Model of an Integrated Aquaculture. Chad Eric. UMI. MI. recirculating aquaculture. Integrated Agriculture and Aquaculture for Sustainable Food Production. Sahdev. PhD. MI. Ann Harbor. Daltech-Dalhousie University. 69 p.Hydroponic System. Artemesia tridentata. 78 p. A Computer Simulation Model for Wastewater Management in an Integrated (Fish Production-Hydroponics) System. MI. Carla Dawn. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Auburn University. 87 p. 274 p. Raymond Frank.com/en-US/default. Selected titles on aquaponic systems are listed below. 150 p. 1996. William. the Speraneos in Missouri and Gordon Watkins in Arkansas used Mark McMurtry’s dissertation from North Carolina State University as a guide in the design of their systems. MI 48106-1346 734-761-4700 800-521-0600 http://proquest. For example. for example. 1997. Seawright. Ann Harbor. MacQuarrie. The University of Arizona. MS Thesis. PhD Dissertation. 1992. James Edward. The thesis by Carla MacQuarrie contains a detailed description of an aquaponics facility. www. PhD Dissertation. The UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations database (see below) provides public Web access to titles and abstracts. McMurtry. UMI. 2002. Integrated Aquaculture-Hydroponic Systems: Nutrient Dynamics and Designer Diet Development. PhD Dissertation. Oklahoma State University. UMI. MI. King. Ceratoides lanata.ncat. New Mexico State University. UMI. Ann Harbor. MI. North Carolina State University. 1986.

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attra.attra. NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Holly Michels. NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart. Editor Amy Smith.org/attra-pub/aquaponic.html or www.ncat.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/aquaponic. Production This publication is available on the Web at: www.pdf IP163 Slot 54 Version 033010 Page 28 ATTRA .Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture By Steve Diver.

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