Among various traditional herbal remedies, the benefits of dandelion and dandelion root are highly appreciated in Europe
. Though dandelion is a weed, it is highly beneficial in health issues. In Europe, dandelion leaves are used just as lettuce leaves to add healthy greens to a salad, though it is slightly bitter in taste. Dandelion roots are rich in vitamin A, vitamin B complex, vitamin C, vitamin D, and are extremely rich sources of potassium, iron and zinc. It is then natural that the dandelion root benefits are immense and useful for anyone who wishes to lead a healthy lifestyle. Dandelion Root Benefits Dandelion root is used as a remedy for the following health conditions:
1. Detoxifies the Liver
Dandelion root is rich in vitamins, that help in detoxifying the liver from all the intake of unhealthy food, alcohol, and other dangerous toxins. Dandelion root has the ability to enhance bile production, which help clear out all these unhealthy toxins from the liver. It is also effective in preventing the formation of gall stones, but is not considered beneficial if one already has them.
2. Appetite Stimulant
This is one of the roasted dandelion root benefits. When dandelion root is roasted and a tea is prepared from it, it works well as an appetite stimulant. It is thus, helpful in reviving the appetite of those undergoing treatment for a variety of health conditions.
3. Natural Diuretic and Laxative
Dandelion root has high levels of potassium, that enhance urine flow from the body. This is useful in preventing health problems such as urinary tract infection, keep blood pressure under control, and is also a good herbal remedy for bloating and water retention. While diuretics drastically affect the potassium levels in the body, dandelion root is a natural diuretic that is free of this side effect. It is also a natural laxative, and generally aids the digestive system for its healthy functioning.
4. Controls Cholesterol and Blood Sugar Levels
Research studies conducted on animals have shown that dandelion root has the ability to keep cholesterol levels under control, and also help regulate blood sugar levels and thus,diabetes. Though this has not been proven in humans, dandelion root, in any case, is a healthy addition to one's diet, and in the long run, is bound to have a positive effect on cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
5. Anti-Inflammatory Properties
Dandelion root has been found to have anti-inflammatory properties that are particularly useful for those suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. These studies have, however, only been conducted in animals, and there is no proof for this benefit in human beings. Nonetheless, as mentioned before, it is a healthy addition to one's diet, and as it provides a host of other benefits, there is a possibility for its antiinflammatory properties to affect human beings too.
6. Heals Skin Problems
Another one of the roasted dandelion root benefits, is that it helps eliminate the toxins in the body that cause skin conditions such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema. When consumed in the form of tea, it can clear the body of all these skin conditions.
7. Prevents Cancer
Studies have shown that dandelion root has the ability to fight the development of cancerous cells that lead to breast cancer and skin cancer. Again, these studies have
not been completely proven, and thus, cannot be recommended as a definite solution to prevent cancer.
8. Alleviates Depression
It has been found that dandelion root may help alleviate depression and fatigue that is experienced as a result of stress. Also, it is highly beneficial for women who suffer from these conditions as a result of PMS.
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Scientific Name Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae family) Common name Dandelion, lion’s tooth, monk’s head, telltime
The cultivated forms of the dandelion differ from wild varieties in their earlier development, more abundant leaves, and dense, well-formed tufts. The most popular cultivated varieties include: -”A cœur plein amélioré”, with its numerous, highly serrated leaves that form a dense tuft with a volume equivalent to that of an endive and a heart that tends to whiten naturally. -”Vert de Montmagny amélioré” is an early maturing variety with broad leaves. -”Amélioré géant à forcer” has numerous, highly serrated erect leaves.
Dandelions are hardy plants, grown in the open ground. During the summer following the sowing, it develops a strong swivelling root and a rosette of radical, serrated leaves. Flowering occurs the following Spring. The root throws out suckers and produces several daughter plants that flower until wintertime. Dandelions are suitable as multiannual crops. Dandelions are mainly grown in France.
As for all wild plants, consumption data does not exist. Picking in fields and roadsides does not feature in the statistics.
Nutritional values (per 100 g)
Energy Proteins Carbohydrates Fat Fibres Sodium Potassium Provitamin A Calcium Iron
39 kcal 2.7 g 5.7 g 0.7 g 3.5 g 76 mg 418 mg 8,400 µg 165 mg 3.1 mg 35 mg 0.19 mg 0.2 mg 0.25 mg 190 µg 2.5 mg 2,000 mg 4,800 µg 800 mg 14 mg 80 mg 1.1 mg 1.4 mg 1.4 mg 200 µg 12 mg 30 g
Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B6 Vitamin B9 Vitamin E
* Ciqual 1995 ** Recommended Daily Intake
Dandelions are rich in provitamin A (vital for healthy skin and tissue and good night vision) andvitamin B9 (for cell renewal and growth). It is also a source of iron, essential for cell respiration and muscular strength. Traditional medicine recommends the consumption of dandelions to enhance the appetite and treat chronic liver disorders. The whole plant is traditionally appreciated for its diuretic, cleansing and cholagogic properties. It is rich in provitamin A and calcium.
What is about portions...?
-a child portion : some leaves -an adult portion : around ten leaves
Cooking and nutrition: tasty combinations
-Dandelion, poached egg and crouton salad: As in the trio "Dandelion/potatoes/cured ham",dandelions offer food lovers a great source of vitamins. The ham and poached egg provide proteins with a high biological value. These salads are good examples of balanced meals. -Dandelion, beetroot and sweetcorn: For a colourful salad that’s high in vitamins, nothing can beat this dish. It offers all the nutritional benefits contained in these three vegetables. Serve with a vinaigrette made using soya or colza oil, for a supply of Omega 3.
Taraxacum officinale herb health benefit, also known as dandelion herb Chrysanthemum, dandelion, and mugwort belong to the Compositae (Asteraceae) family. Chrysanthemum and dandelion were frequently cosensitized with mugwort in the general population with respiratory allergic diseases. Taraxacum officinale benefit Taraxacum officinale contains anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities through its inhibition of NO production and COX-2 expression and/or its antioxidative activity. Taraxacum officinale and cancer Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Taraxacum officinale on growth and invasion of breast and prostate cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2008 May; Sigstedt SC, Hooten CJ, Callewaert MC, Jenkins AR, Romero AE, Pullin MJ, Kornienko A, Lowrey TK, Slambrouck SV, Steelant WF. Laboratory of Biochemical and Biomedical Research, Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801, USA. Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, have a history of use in Chinese, Arabian and Native American traditional medicine, to treat a variety of diseases including cancer. To date, however, very few studies have been reported on the anti-carcinogenic activity of Taraxacum officinale. In the present study, three aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves, flowers and roots, and investigated on tumor progression related processes such as proliferation and invasion. Our results show that the crude extract of Taraxacum officinale leaf decreased the growth of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells in an ERK-dependent manner, whereas the aqueous extracts of Taraxacum officinale flower and root had no effect on the growth of either cell line. Furthermore, Taraxacum officinale root was found to block invasion of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells while Taraxacum officinale leaf blocked the invasion of LNCaP prostate cancer cells, into collagen type I. This study provides new scientific data on TO and suggests that Taraxacum officinale extracts or individual
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. and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Cholesterol. a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion leaf group. 2010 Jan 6. antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Pohang 790-834. lipids Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Root and Leaf on Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits. has been shown to favorably affect choleretic. Our results show that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis-linked metabolic syndrome. an oriental herbal medicine. a high-cholesterol diet group. A group of twenty eight male rabbits was divided into four subgroups. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). a normal diet group. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index. After the treatment period. the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Pohang Center for Evaluation of Biomaterials. and a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion root group. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Int J Mol Sci. Korea.components present in the extracts may be of value as novel anti-cancer agents. Lutein in Taraxacum officinale herb Lutein epoxide has been isolated from petals of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.
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Plant Description and Basic Data:Dandelion
Dandelion Root (Taraxacum officinale)
.Plant Description and Basic Data:
Archeology and Name Origin of Dadelion:
Dandelion extracts? Phytochemicals of Dandelion:
Traditional and Contemporary Use:
Medicinal Action and Function of Dandelion:
Some particularly important uses of Dandelion:
Internally and Externally use of Dandelion:
Common uses and application of Dandelion root:
Take Method and Dosage of Dandelion related products:
preferring moist conditions. therefore. always kept well watered. Wild Endive Origin and Habitat: Dandelion is a perennial plant growing almost everywhere. Family:Asteraceae (Compositae) CAS n. From its thick tap root. but the juice of the root being still more powerful is the part of the plant most used for medicinal purposes. Widely distributed throughout most of the world as a "troublesome weed.Canker Wort. each leaf being grooved and constructed so that all the rain falling on it is conducted straight to the centre of the rosette and thus to the root which is. as otherwise the down will carry them away. like the stem. It is this somewhat fanciful resemblance to the canine teeth of a lion that (it is generally assumed) gives the plant its most familiar name of Dandelion. Irish Daisy. It originated in Central Asia. to cover them with coarse muslin. It has a rosette of characteristic 'lion's tooth' leaves. milky juice (latex). dark brown. when quite free of rain or dew.White Endive. Puffball. Taraxacum officinale.Canker Wort. fields and fallow land. and these teeth are themselves cut here and there into lesser teeth. When collecting the seeds care should be taken when drying them in the sun. These give way to the familiar 'fairy clock'. but are almost white inside and. They are best collected in the evening. which but for this arrangement would not obtain sufficient moisture. but now grows almost anywhere in the world. The long taproot arises from a short rhizome. flowers) can be used medicinally. either upright or pointing somewhat backwards.A well-known herbal bitter. the long jagged leaves rise directly. or when the damp air has caused the heads to close up. The maximum amount of water is in this manner directed towards the proper region for utilization by the root.Latin Name: Taraxacum officinale .Priest's Crown.Wild Endive. Leotodon taraxacum. and all insect-eaten or stained leaves rejected. which
.Swine's Snout. the leaves being spread too close to the ground for the water to penetrate. almost black on the outside though white and milky within.: 68990-74-9 Common Names: Blowball.Herba Taraxaci Plant species: Taraxacum dens leonis Desr. stems. All the underground parts are covered with a dark brown bark.Lion's Tooth. radiating from it to form a rosette Iying close upon the ground. All parts of the plant contain a somewhat bitter.
Dandelion(Taraxacum) is a native of western Europe where it grows in meadows. from the centre of which arises the hollow stem bearing the yellow capitulate flowerhead made up of 200 or more ligulate bisexual florets. The leaves are shiny and without hairs. produce a bitter-tasting white milky sap. the margin of each leaf cut into great jagged teeth.Cankerwort. leaves." Medicinal Parts Used: The whole plant(roots. The tops should be cut on a dry day. young tops. towards sunset. The fresh and dried root.
it yields this purple hue. form the characteristic puffball.3 cm) tall. The dark green dandelion leaves. Desf. an equivalent of this name being found not only in its former specific Latin name Dens leonis and in the Greek name for the genus to which Linnaeus assigned it. and reach as deep as 1. for though its flowers are more conspicuous in the earlier months of the summer. The root has a long history of use as an herbal remedy.
. Dandelion is a hardy herb and will regrow from root parts left in the ground during harvest. The perennial dandelion grows freely wherever it can find a bit of earth and a place in the sun. Imaginative Sign of Tradition from Dadelion: Some quaint traditions are:
To blow the seeds off a ripened head is to carry your thoughts to a loved one. with their irregular.7 cm) in length. it may be found in bloom. When the plant is used as a dye. leafless flower stems that contain a bitter milky-white liquid also found in the root and leaves. and in beverages.5 ft (45. They have alovely magenta tint that extends up along the inner rib of the stalkless leaf. Leontodon. dandelion develops a round cluster of achenes. deeply jagged margins. near or far To dream of Dandelion was though to bring ill fortune When a ripened dandelion head falls without the wind's help it is a sign of rain Origin:Dandelion
Dandelion is a weedy perennial herb of the genus Taraxacum of the family Asteraceae. is at home in all parts of the north temperate zone. The leaves are arranged in a rosette pattern. though not occurring in the Southern Hemisphere. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a common meadow herb of the Asteraceae or sunflower family. each with a single seed.7 cm) in loose soil. with compact golden-yellow petals. naturalized in temperate regions throughout the world. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is native to Greece. As many as 200 of these narrow seed cases. They bloom from early spring until well into autumn atop hollow stalks that may reach from 4¨C8 in (10. The root has numerous hairy rootlets.). but also in nearly all the languages of Europe. Densleonis. as a food.5 ft (45. and all are beneficial. Each achene is topped with a white. Linn. Dandelion's nutritive and medicinal qualities have been known for centuries. Young Dandelion leaves are used as a food in salads or cooked as greens. This sunloving beauty is a native of Greece. feathery tuft to carry it on the breeze. Dandelion's tap root may grow fat. T. and consequently also prolifically dispersing its seeds.2ndash. and familiar to nearly everyone. After flowering. There are about 100 species of dandelion. The golden blossoms yield a pale yellow dye for wool. almost throughout the year. Dandelion blossoms are singular and round. in pastures. Distribution and cultivation:Dandelion
The Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale.20. and may grow to 1.is a corruption of the French Dent de Lion. and is so plentiful that farmers everywhere find it a troublesome weed. have a distinctive hairless mid-rib. Weber. or seed cases. Leontodon taraxacum. meadows and on waste ground. Dandelion may be distinguished from other similar-looking herbs by the hollow.
The generic name is thought to be derived from the Greek words taraxos. They include pissabed. but other plants of the same genus are also used. who was so much impressed by the virtues of the plant that he likened it to Dens leonis. Dandelion held a place in the United States National Formulary from 1888 until 1965. The fruit is a ballshaped cluster of many small. swine snort. under 'Dens Leonis. leaves that may be nearly smooth-margined. fortune-teller.' there is a monograph of half a page (unaccompanied by any illustration) which concludes: 'The Herb was much employed by Master Wilhelmus. The herb uses the whole plant with roots. tufted. doonheadclock. bitterwort. priest's crown. meaning remedy.Native to Eurasia. Harvested in summer and autumn. and is still extensively employed. Irish daisy. who on account of its
. toothed. The first mention of the Dandelion as a medicine is in the works of the Arabian physicians of the tenth and eleventh centuries. as to whether it was really the shape of the leaves that provided the original notion. as the herb. and akos. a smooth. we find allusion to it in the Welsh medicines of the thirteenth century. There is some doubt. meaning disorder. Dandelion was much valued as a medicine in the times of Gerard and Parkinson. puffball. There are numerous folk names for this widely-used herb. a reference to the irregular and jagged margins of the lance-shaped leaves. which refers to the toothed shape of the leaves. 'remedy' and the name Dandelion comes from the French dent-de-lion. it is washed clean. wild endive. lion's tooth. mongolium Hand. but the leaves may perhaps be said to resemble the angular jaw of a lion fully supplied with teeth. meaning wild endive. 'to stir up or exciten.
Archeology and Name Origin of Dandelion:
Name Origin: Dandelion's common name is derived from the French dent de lion. or deeply cut. say that the name was conferred by Wilhelm. Some authorities have suggested that the yellow flowers might be compared to the golden teeth of the heraldic lion. In this country. one of dandelion's common names. The bitter young leaves are used in salads. as there is really no similarity between them. and akos. disorder'. and the roots can be used to make a coffee-like beverage. yellow gowan. blow ball. officinale. Another possible derivation is from the Persian tark hashgun. The most familiar species is T. a deep taproot. it is widespreaded throughout much of the temperate regions around the globe. History: The first mention of Dandelion as a medicine is in the works of the Arabian physicians of the tenth and eleventh centuries and in Welsh medicines of the thirteenth century. while others say that the whiteness of the root is the feature which provides the resemblance. 1485. and the dried root of dandelion is listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). In the Ortus Sanitatis. who speak of it as a sort of wild Endive. clock flower. The specific designation officinale indicates that this herb was officially listed as a medicinal. a surgeon. one-seeded fruits. Mazz. The Chinese use mainly T. Fl¨¹ckiger and Hanbury in Pharmacographia. and cankerwort. dried in the sun and used when fresh or when raw. under the name of Taraxcacon. Dandelion has a rosette of leaves at the base of the plant. hollow stem. a surgeon. Its botanical name Taraxacum comes from the Greek taraxos. and a solitary yellow flower head composed only of ray flowers (no disk flowers). however.
' In the pictures of the old herbals. the one in Brunfels' Contrafayt Kreuterbuch. D. and akos (remedy). the leaves very much resemble a lion's tooth. It is also important from the beekeeper's point of view. a latex-like substance. which is present throughout the plant. Taraxacum.
. Dandelion Nutritional Content:Dandelion contains lactupicrine. which more than half fills it. C. is derived from the Greek taraxos (disorder). tannin. for instance.potassium. Each bloom is made up of numerous strapshaped florets of a bright golden yellow. so that it is a source of honey after the main flowers have ceased to bloom. in others the segments or lobes form a much less conspicuous feature. Its main use as an ergogenic aid is as a diuretic (to decrease water retention). magnesium. zinc. and silicon. polysaccharides. a bitter. likened it to "eynem lewen zan. called in Latin Dens leonis). calcium. a bitter principle. and the presence of which provides the incentive for the visits of many insects.
Dandelion extracts? Phytochemicals of Dandelion:
What it does: Dandelion extract has been used for generations as a medicine for conditions such as fevers.virtues. On picking the flowers. In this tiny tube is a copious supply of nectar. The leaves contain substantial levels of vitamins A. diarrhea. and carotene. are leafless. when the bees' harvest from fruit trees is nearly over.' There are many varieties of Dandelion leaves. which rests on the singlechambered ovary containing a single ovule. thus delaying the need for feeding the colonies of bees with artificial food.manganese. Dandelion. in allusion to the medicinal effects of the plant. some are deeply cut into segments. but a small succession of bloom is also kept up until late autumn. purplish flower-stalks rise straight from the root. and are sometimes almost entire. and B complex as well as iron. A possible alternative derivation of Taraxacum is suggested in The Treasury of Botany: 'The generic name is possibly derived from the Greek taraxo ("I have excited" or "caused") and achos (pain). milky juice exudes from the broken edges of the stem. on account of the curative action of the plant. each tooth representing a petal. The Dandelion takes an important place among honey-producing plants. The name of the genus. It often is combined with other diuretic agents (such as horsetail extract) to magnify results. 1532. no matter how cool the weather may be. the enemy of suburban lawns.insulin. and which when it comes into contact with the hand. This strap-shaped corolla is notched at the edge into five teeth. breast problems and liver diseases. chlorine. as only the herb was used at that time. boron. among whom the bee takes first rank. as it furnishes considerable quantities of both pollen and nectar in the early spring. smooth and hollow and bear single heads of flowers. copper. and lower down is narrowed into a claw-like tube. The substances eudesmanolide and germacranolide are the active constituents in dandelion and are unique to this plant. The root is not illustrated at all in the old herbals. because not only does it flower most in spring. turns to a brown stain that is rather difficult to remove. fluid retention. happens to be a very nutritious food and has been used for medicinal purposes since the 10th century. genannt zu latin Dens leonis" (a lion's tooth. The shining.
and manganese. carbohydrates (including inulin.zinc.They also stimulate bile flow from the liver. Terpenoids:The plant also contains terpenoids. vitamins. Dandelion's active phytochemicals are found in both the roots and leaves. chlorogenic. Other acids found are gallic and ascorbic acids. Sodium and vitamins C and D are also present. crystalline bitter substance Vitamines:vitamins A (contains more than carrots).000 IU/100 g in carrots).vitamin B.silicon.Taraxaceron. Other reported constituents in dandelion include choline. Vitamins A.the leaves also contain substantial amounts of Vitamin A(14. iron. taraxol and taraxerol).Phytochemicals of Dandelion Herb:
Dandelions are one of nature's richest green vegetable sources of beta-carotene. pectin. the alcoholic extracts stimulate bile excretion whereas the aqueous extracts have no such effects.magnesium. carotenoids.manganese. asparagine.000 units per 100 grams of carrots). inulin.gluten. volatile oil.sodium.
. 2% in spring.Potassium is present in the level at 297 mg per 100 grams of levels. phosphorus. Dadelion contains:calcium salts.000 units per 100 grams of leaves. p-hydroxyphenyl-acetic. terpenoids. The sesquiterpene lactones found in both leaves and root have demonstrated diuretic effects. magnesium. Generally. Sesquiterpene lactones(bitters).6 mEq/100 mg leaf). Naturally rich in potassium and lecithin.potash.compared with 11. vitamin A.choline(for cholesterol distribution). 11. B.phytosterols.Laevulin(early in the season).tetrahydroridentin B. triterpenes (beta-amyrin. potassium (297 mg or 7.potassium salts. Reports are available evaluating fructofuranosidases from dandelion roots. calcium. palmitic acids. oleic.uncrystalizable sugar (early in the season). Acids:Dandelions contain acids including caffeic.vitamin C. pectin. acrid resin.
choline. terpenoids. potassium salts. choline.The leaves contains bitter sesquiterpene lactones such as taraxinic acids and inulin. luteolin and the glycoside apigenin.iron.000 IU/100 g leaf vs. gum. choline. D (the vitamin A content is higher than that of carrots). sucrose. Chemical Constituents: Bitter glycosides. Constituents in Different Parts:
Leaf: bitter glycosides. taraxinic acid (taraxacin).taraxinic acid 1¡ä-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and furan fatty acid content. sterols (Beta-sitosterol. glutin. C. stigmasterol.vitamin C. iron and other minerals. taraxasterol.Different compounds may be present in different products depending on extraction methods.Inulin. tannins.vitamin D.various B vitamins. thiamine and riboflavin. from which vitamin A is created (14. glucose). homotaraxasterol) coumestrol and sugars (fructose. They are also a very good source of fiber.potassium (vital to proper kidney function and muscle tone).For example. up to 40% in autumn. potassium.Taraxacin. and the fatty acids linoleic and linolenic.sulphur. vitamin D.gum. sesquiterpenes (responsible for the bitter taste). triterpenes (including taraxol and taraxsterol). Root: bitter glycosides (taraxacin). resin. carotenoids (including lutein and violaxanthin). phenolic acids. sugars).
which is only slightly soluble in cold water. the yield and composition of the extract are very variable. The British Pharmacopceia considers the autumn dug root more bitter than the spring root. the bitter soluble principle. triterpenes. therefore. sterols. beta-amyrin. phosphorus and iron. The root may contain as much as 24 per cent. taraxerol. Compositae). and inulin. contended that it is more bitter in March and most of all in July. stigmasterol. Dandelion Root Holistic Extract Containing: Water.
. Bentley. of which the yield varies in roots collected at different seasons. because of the conversion of the Inulin into Laevulose and sugar at this active period of the plant's life. volatile oil. when the yield of Taraxacin. The chief constituents of Dandelion root are Taraxacin. The Extract prepared from the fresh root is sometimes almost devoid of bitterness. acrystalline. Dandelion Juice was the favourite preparation both in official and domestic medicine. calcium. The most active preparations of Dandelion. Mixed Tocopherols (a Natural source of Vitamin E). C and D. It is made with proof spirit. transparent solid. glucans and mannans and inulin Carotenoids such as lutein and violaxanthin Dandelion is a source of potassium. The leaves are a richer source of Vitamins A than carrots and contain some amounts of B. the Juice (Succus Taraxaci) and the Extract (Extractum Taraxaci). tannins. caffeic acids and rho-hydroxyphenylacetic acids Polysaccharides. and Taraxacerin. If gathered from roots collected in autumn. Triacetic Glycerol. Root Extractives. the resulting product yields a turbid solution with water. but soluble in hot water. In the fresh root. except for making Herb-Beer. the aqueous solution will be clear and yield but very little sediment on standing. asparagin. 15% Grain Alcohol (left after extraction as a preservative). it should be dug in the spring. taraxacoside (an acylated [[gamma]]-butyrolactone glycoside) & at least 4 others of the eudesmanolide. germacranolide & tetragydroridentin types Triterpenes. sodium. gum and potash. Provincial druggists sent their collectors for the roots and expressed the juice while these were quite fresh. bitter substance.Constituents:
Sesquiterpene lactones. There is a difference of opinion as to the best time for collecting the roots. On account of the variability of the constituents of the plant according to the time of year when gathered. which differs from Inulin in being soluble in cold water.taraxol. The root contains no starch. an acrid resin. it is to be preferred on this account to the spring root. The dried root alone was official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. but that as in the latter month it would generally be inconvenient for digging it. the Inulin is present in the cell-sap. and that as it contains about 25 per cent insoluble Inulin. but a medicinal tincture is sometimes made from the entire plant gathered in the early summer. and it is. are made from the bruised fresh root. Glycerol. This diminishes in quantity during the summer and becomes Inulin in the autumn. if from spring-collected roots. In former days. Many country druggists prided themselves on their Dandelion Juice. it being considered to be in perfection for Extract making in the month of November. but in the dry root it occurs as an amorphodus. is greatest. but early in the year contains much uncrystallizable sugar and laevulin. The leaves are not often used. less than 1% Gum Arabic and/or Sodium Caseinate (protein) as emulsifiers. with Inulin (a sort of sugar which replaces starch in many of the Dandelion family. gluten. directed that in England the root should be collected between September and February. [[psi]]-tarazasterol. on the other hand. choline. phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin). The root contains bitter glycosides. betasitosterol Phenolic acids.
fats (0.) Recommendation:As an addition to the daily diet. eye problems. coumarins (scopoletin and euculetin). calcium. 25% variable throughout year). protein. the actual amount of water loss is slight . inulin. potash. constipation and breast tumors. beta-amyrin. taraxasterol. there also is a question as to whether the herb might cause side effects.detoxifier. violaxamthin and other carotenoids. betasitosterol).cholagogue. Dandelion roots include: inulin (approx. anemia. gum and potash.Dandelion root also purifies the blood. stigmasterol and campesterol). 73 mg leaves). B2.increases bile production and improves the function of the spleen. B12. especially potassium. appendicitis. and various skin and breast problems. gall bladder. thiamine (0. iron. the plant contains mannite or mannitol. vitamins A. cramps. B6. rheumatism. which can result in increased fat deposition (although effects on metabolism aren't that great. Vitamin C (35 mg root.laxative. phosphorus (66 mg). fluid retention.26 mg). linolenic acid. potassium (297 mg).(4%) Dandelion contains (per 100 gm): Vitamin A (8400 IU). at best. riboflavin (0. choline. sesquiterpene lactones of eudes-manolide type (tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide) and germacranolide type (taraxinic acid and 11. magnesium. Dandelion leaves contain: leutin. niacin and choline. and minerals. In final analysis. dandelion extract might have some marginal utility if you are competing in a fitness show or need to drop a little water for a certain occasion.
. chromium.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid. Further research is needed to clarify this issue. The leaves have traditionally been used as a diuretic.1 mg). But overall. sodium (76 mg). PABA.7 g).(2-7) In the spring. gallbladder inflammation and gallstones. take three capsules three times daily. cirrhosis. the studies suggest that it also causes a corresponding decrease in metabolic rate. However. pantothenic acid. What's more.13-dihydrotaraxinic acid glucoside. liver diseases. This contains biotin. fluid retention.The verdict: Several research studies have shown that dandelion extract does help to reduce fluid retention. niacin. boils. phosphorus. lactupicrine. and as a mild laxative in habitual constipation. phytosterols (stigmasterol. heartburn. triterpenes (taraxol. fevers. B1. and digestive ailments (a bitter tonic in atonic dyspepsia. protein (2. boils. triterpenes (cycloartenol) and phytosterols (beta-sitoserol.preferably with food. homotaraxasterol). sesquiterpene lactones (germacramolides taraxinic acid glucoside and 11. hepatitis.Also used for the treatment of cardiac and hepatogenous edema (dropsy and ascites respectively). Digestive and hepatic tonic. and kidney ailments. phenolic acids (caffeic and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). the benefits are modest. and rheumatism. Dandelion root is recommended for the liver.diuretic. C.
Traditional and Contemporary Use:
Both dandelion leaf and root have been used for centuries to treat liver. Since diuretics do alter hormonal regulation and other bodily processes. E and zinc.19 mg). calcium (187 mg). taraxerol.about one pound or so in the short-term. They are also considered mildly laxative. bitter tasting subtances)glutin. liver congestion. diarrhea. manganese. It can be used for gout. and the prospect of side-effects raises sends up a red flag. weak digestion. sulphur. inositol.slightly aperient.7 g) and iron (3. stomach and kidneys. The fresh root or its preparations are thought to be more potent than the dried root. pancreas. either). fats.
or sores. consisting of therapeutic doses of dandelion preparations taken over time. This characteristic makes dandelion a safe diuretic in cases of water retention due to heart problems. and is a good remedy for gall bladder problems as well. The juice extracted from the stem and leaf is the most potent part of the plant for medicinal purposes. The native people soon recognized the value of the herb and sought it out for its medical and nutritious benefits. The dried leaf. Its application is very broad but dermatological. iron.Folklore:
Being a general stimulant and alterative. boron. Dandelion leaf is also a good natural source of potassium. Dandelion root is used to improve appetite and minor digestive problems. applied in cases of dyspepsia. and other minerals. is used as a mild laxative to relieve constipation. The herb is useful in cases of anemia and hepatitis. with iron. as a mild laxative. It cleanses the bloodstream and increases bile production. tannins. magnesium. Eclectics of the 1800's and the early 1900's also listed Dandelion as a major herb. choline. particularly as a liver tonic. Dandelion appears in the ethnobotanical literature of over a dozen North American Indian tribes. It is prominent in Gerard`s Herbal (1597) appearing throughout herbals from the 16th to 18th centuries. Dandelion's strongest influence is on the liver and kidneys. kidneys. calicum. Dandelion therapy. and will replenish any potassium that may be lost due to the herb's diuretic action on the kidneys. It has had a significant history of use in Ayurvedic medicine also. Dandelion provides several B vitamins along with vitamins C and E as well as vitamin P. It may be taken as an infusion of the leaf. bee stings. Some modern naturopathic
. Fresh leaves may be added to salads or cooked as a potherb. carotenoids. and zinc. Infusions of dandelion blossoms have been used as a beautifying facial. proteins. even as far afield as the Aleuts of Alaska. and spleen. asparagin. a root decoction. Dandelion was used by Arabian physicians in the 10th-11th centuries. The herb is also a boon to such other internal organs as the pancreas. The latex is excellent for getting rid of warts (apply 3 times daily for seven days). may help reduce stiffness and increase mobility in situations of chronic degenerative joint disease. taken as a tea. The entire plant is important as a general tonic. It is considered one of the strongest cholagogues of all botanicals. or a tincture. volatile oil. The root also has bitter glycosides. stomach. and lecithin. can used as a coffee substitute. Many herbalists regard the dandelion as an effective treatment for liver disease. This plant produces a mild diuretic effect and reduces serum cholesterol levels. sometimes combined with roasted acorns and rye. Chemical constituents in the leaf include bitter glycosides. potassium salts. It has also been used as a high nutrient food. and inulin. analgesic and gastrointestinal problems seem to be prominent uses. Dandelion is a nutritive herb rich in potassium. Dandelion may also provide relief for rheumatism and arthritis. and may lower elevated blood pressure. niacin. refreshing the skin. phosphorus. It was mentioned in Welsh herbals in the 13th century. silicon. to increase appetite and promote digestion. useful even in such extreme cases as cirrhosis. choline. General use of Dandelion:
Dandelion has a long history of folk use. a juice extraction. It has been used to eradicate warts and soothe calluses. dried and minced. sterols. Early colonists brought the herb to North America. terpenoids. This genus has been listed in Chinese medicine since the Tang Materia Medica (659 AD). The root. triterpenes. Dandelion leaves are commonly recommended as a food supplement for pregnant and postmenopausal women because of the numerous nutrients they contain.
total cholesterol. No human studies have been conducted to either support or challenge any of these findings. it has been used for treating bruises and other minor skin conditions. topical use of dandelion is not common. It works on the liver. It is believed by many experts to promote the flow of bile and stimulates the appetite. stimulant. They're used to stimulate stomach secretions and aid in digestion.Urinary tract infections Current Uses of Dandelion:
Currently. cancer. flushing excess water from the body. high cholesterol. Leaves are also used to treat high blood pressure because of their ability to reduce the volume of fluid in the body. and detoxicant. gout. eczema and other skin diseases. rheumatism. Dandelion is considered a remedy for the following conditions: Appetite loss. when rabbits that were not diabetic were given dandelion. to prevent or lower high blood pressure. jaundice. to relieve the pain of endometriosis. however. to treat liver disorders. or any other condition. A separate study found that an extract of dandelion lowered triglycerides. a mineral generally lost when using conventional medications. Dandelion juice once was quite popular as a diuretic. It is an ideal diuretic for heart problems and hypertension (high blood pressure). Some evidence from case reports suggests that the roots of dandelion may have weak diuretic and laxative properties ?which means that they may slightly increase the loss of urine and solid waste from the body. dandelion is used very little in Western herbal medicine. The dandelion sap. results are inconclusive for its actual effect on blood sugar. It shows proven value as a diuretic. however. insomnia. Due to this possible ability to increase water elimination from the body. Dandelion leaves contain significant amounts of potassium. dandelion has been tested for lowering both blood sugar and cholesterol levels. high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in laboratory rats with artificiallyinduced diabetes. stomachic. laxative. In laboratory animals. high doses of dandelion leaf increased urination in laboratory mice. dandelion root has been promoted for weight loss. Currently. In a study conducted more than 40 years ago. Dandelion root encourages steady elimination of toxins. Fresh or dried dandelion herbs are also used as a mild appetite stimulant and to improve upset stomach. warts are sometimes treated with juice made by crushing the leaves of the dandelion plant.Indigestion. a slight decrease in blood sugar levels was seen. tonic. and roots have been taken orally to treat a number of conditions that include arthritis. diabetes. Dandelion cleanses the bloodstream and increases bile production. heartburn and rheumatism. diuretic. Other studies found no effect on blood sugar in either diabetic or non-diabetic animals. and root extracts are ingested for its diuretic properties. As a medicinal plant.Kidney and bladder stones. Dandelion leaves are unique as a diuretic. In one study. Much more study including studies in humans is needed before dandelion can be recommended for treating diabetes. Dandelion also treats arthritic
. even though dandelion leaves have also been used to stimulate the appetite and improve digestion. Dandelion is extremely versatile. to stimulate bile production. dandelion has been considered to be an aperient. Dandelion tea has been used against fever. leaves. liver ailments. and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) while increasing the blood cholesterol. In the past and in other parts of the world. but in the past.physicians believe that it can help detoxify the liver and gallbladder. and remedy for rheumatism. Dandelion is a natural diuretic that increases urine production by promoting the excretion of salts and water from the kidney. to relieve constipation and control diarrhea. leaves. In folk medicine. its flowers. and is a good remedy for gall bladder problems. and constipation.Liver and gallbladder problems. and to inhibit plaque buildup on teeth. as the whole plant can be used for medicinal purposes as well as for culinary uses. the kidneys and the gallbladder to accelerate the removal of toxins from the body. Although one laboratory study showed potential ability for dandelion to increase the production of insulin.
12. The root functions differently. stimulates or tones the stomach. Mode of Action:Mechanism or How Dandelion Works in the Body?
The leaves contain a high amount of potassium. 10. which need a potassium supplement to balance the requirements of the body. 3. Its beneficial action is best obtained when combined with other agents. swollen. Some studies have indicated a hypoglycemic effect of Dandelion. useful with a diuretic. quite big doses of its preparations may be taken. the Chinese use it where there are firm or hard abscesses.Stomachic:an agent that strengthens. Dandelion is said to afford very marked relief. This is in contrast to orthodox diuretics. dandelion is used to promote lactation.Sudorific:an agent that promotes or increases perspiration. tonic and slightly aperient. a mild purgative. In women who are breastfeeding. where there are red. and for damp-heat jaundice. 7. which include osteoarthritis and gout.Astringent:a binding agent that contracts organic tissue.Tonic:an agent that strengthens or invigorates organs or the entire organism. In addition. For these dandelion can be used internally and topically. taken daily for some months. 4. dandelion is indicated for heat disorders. especially involving the breast and digestive system. reducing secretions or discharges of mucous and fluid from the body. 8. and cold. Dandelion root is known to be an excellent blood cleanser. Even though this plant is extremely common and was once an official drug. 5. 9. Dandelion leaves have diuretic and saluretic action better than the root. A broth of Dandelion roots. In Chinese usage. being used to treat the liver to improve its function. and is chiefly used in kidney and liver disorders.Diuretic.(an ideally balanced diuretic that may be safely used with great frequency) 6.laxative:an agent promoting evacuation of the bowels. Inulin is also used to strengthen the kidneys and as a pancreatic aid. which balances their function as a powerful diuretic.Aperient:a mild stimulant for the bowels.This may explain the Chinese use of Dandelion for breast cancer over thousands of years. is currently being studied extensively for its immunostimulatory function (see Echinacea). sliced and stewed in boiling water with some leaves of Sorrel and the yolk of an egg. In the hepatic complaints of persons long resident in warm climates. Both leaf and root act as a tonic to the gallbladder. Inulin.Cholagogue:an agent that increases the secretion and expulsion of urine.Detergent:an agent that cleanses wounds and sores of diseased or dead matter. The Chinese properties are those of bitter. a gentle purgative.
Medicinal Action and Function of Dandelion:
1. Its detoxifying properties are thought to have a beneficial effect on removing the effects of pollution on the body. Not being poisonous.Anti-rheumatic:eases the symptoms of rheumatism. sweet. as well as the alterative properties European herbalists attribute to this
. as well as a mild laxative. It is active against two tumor systems and stimulates macrophage action. one of the major chemicals in Dandelion.conditions. Dandelion is not only official but is used in many patent medicines. They also deliver a good supply of potassium. and painful eyes. In Chinese terms dandelion resolves painful urinary ailments. and as a mild laxative. 11. has been known to cure seemingly intractable cases of chronic liver congestion.Blood purifier:an agent to purify the blood. little information is available on its mode of action. specifically for the liver. It is a general stimulant to the system.Stimulant:an agent that excites or quickens the functional activity of the tissues giving more energy. but especially to the urinary organs. 2. especially in the liver.
They detoxify the blood.Weight Loss: In one study.Help Protect liver. are eaten in salads. 7. Functions: Clears away heat.insomnia 10. high-fiber diet and regular aerobic excercise. treating urinary disorders and fluid retention without depleting body potassium as much as other diuretics. The roots yeild a magenta dye. Use dandelion in consultation with your physician.to promote the formation of bile 2. it is related to the liver and stomach channels.. Properties: Bitter and sweet in flavor. The leaf nutritionally supports kidney function. 4. Bitter sesquiterpenes increase bile secretions in rats by more than 40%.The flowers are made into wine. 5. 6.
Some particularly important uses of Dandelion:
1.Blood Conditions:purifies the blood 9..protect brain and good for Nervous System Conditions:hypochondria.Cardiovascular Conditions:healthy function of the heart muscle. cold in nature. The Chinese use the seeds as a strong antibiotic in the cases of lung infections. rich in vitamins A and C and minerals. Dandelion root benefits all functions of the liver and especially affects all forms of secretion and excretion from the body. it acts as a tonic and stimulant and is helpful for: 8.to remove excess water from the body in edemous conditions resulting from liver and/or gallbladder problems 3. but authorities do not recommend diuretics for permanent weight control..High Blood Pressure: Physicians often prescribe diuretics to treat high blood pressure. Dandelion has a long tradition of being used for rheumatic conditions and to reduceinflamations.brightens the eyes
. so are given for acne and eczema. The roots reduces inflammation and is an important liver stimulant used for jaundice. They advocate a lowfat. and rheumatic joints. good remedy to make phoromene. removes toxic substances. animals fed dandelions lost up to 30% of their weight.The latex is known to be phototoxic with a weak antibiotic effect against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.herb. and the leaves. Diuretics may help releive the bloated feeling of premenstual syndrome. relieves boils. dandelion might help. The latex has also been shown to be very effective for removing warts and is presently under study for its effects on eczema and psoriasis. The white sap treats warts and corns. High blood pressure is a serious condition requiring professional treatment. Try some before your period and see if it works for you.act as Secretion Stimulator. The leaves are a powerful diuretic. resolves masses and induces diuresis to relieve strangury (slow and painful discharge of urine). The root nutritionally supports gall-bladder and liver function and enhances the flow of bile. the buds are pickled. gallstones.promotes healthy circulation
Internally and Externally use of Dandelion:
Dandelion use Tips in brief:
1. By acting to remove poisons from the body.Premenstrual Syndrome: Animal studies show that dandelion does have diuretic action.
helps eczema 4. (B) Acute mastitis: This herb can be decocted alone until thick for oral ingestion or the fresh herb can be blended into juice for drinking. The dried root taken in the form of a decoction is a powerful liver tonic . It openeth the passages of the urine both in young and old and will cleanse ulcers in the urinary tract. etc. The diuretic effect of Dandelion is helpful in the treatment of a number of other conditions. tree peony root-bark. This common herb hath many virtues. scaly rashes 5. so as to enhance the effects of inducing diuresis and relieving strangury. not only for hypertension but also for cardiac oedema. it is superior to many produced synthetically by pharmaceutical companies.1 oz (28 g) of the root is boiled in 2 pt (1. For this purpose the decoction of the roots or leaves in white wine.helps clear skin eruptions 3. therefore. etc. etc. acute mastitis (inflammation of the mammary gland) and abscess of internal organs: (A) Skin and external diseases: Used with such herbs as mother chrysanthemum (Flos Chrysanthemi Indici). or the leaves used as pot herbs are very effectual. It can also be used together with such herbs as Mongolian snake gourd (Fructus Trichosanthis). (B) Jaundice due to damp-heat: Used with capillary artemisia (Herba Artemisiae
.1 l) of water until the mixture is reduced to 1 pt (568 rnl). loosestrife (Herba Lysimachiae). particularly chronic disorders like rheumatisrn. have a safe. etc. The distilled water can be drunk in pestilential fever and he used as a wash for the sores. clean young leaves can be added to salads in spring. A fluid extract is available from herbalists and the recommended dose is between one and two teaspoonfuls three times a day. which is why the French and Dutch eat them so often in the spring. honeysuckle flower (Flos Lonicerae).helps itchy. hepatogenic dropsy and water retention. Classical Applications:
1.2. such as jaundice.. e. the severe wasting condition in severe illness.For treating carbuncles and furuncles. 2. Chinese violet (Herba Violae)... (D) Pulmonary abscess with pus in sputum: Used with houttuynia.clears yellow skin Medicinal virtues: It has an opening and cleansing quality and. etc. etc. very effectual for removing obstructions of the liver. a drug used to treat hypertension. The fresh. As a diuretic. (F) Snake bite: The fresh herb is applied onto the affected part. A Dandelion coffee made from the roasted roots is available from health stores. Zhejiang figwort root (Radix Scrophularias). common reed rhizome (Rhizoma Phargmitis). (E) Sore throat: Used with dyers woad root (Radix Isatidis). honeysuckle flower (Flos Lonicerae). with its residue to be applied onto the affected part. Asiatic plantain seed (Semen Plantaginis). therefore. gall bladder and spleen and diseases arising from them. Modern uses: Bile production by the liver and urinary output from the kidneys is increased with the use of this herb. The dried herb contains significant amounts of potassium. Chinese waxgourd seed. It also procures rest and sleep in those with fever. The leaves are particularly strong. which people on long-term diuretic therapy need. Wuwei Xiaodu Yin. The dose is two to four teaspoonfuls three or four times a day. but powerful remedy. (C) Abdominal pain: Used with rhubarb root (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei). It is of wonderful help in cachexia. For treating strangury due to heat and jaundice due to damp-heat: (A) Strangury due to heat: Used with cogongrass Rhizome (Rhizoma Imperatae). great burdock achene (Fructus Arctii). being equivalent to frusemide. Modern herbalists. due to stasis or congestion in the blood vessels serving the liver. gout and eczema.g. peach kernels.
e. Gallstones. Viral Conditions. etc. and gall bladder. Beneficial to menopausal women Chronic rheumatism. Gentle diuretic Habitual constipation. Premenstrual fluid retention. bitter. spleen.Arthritis. Improves digestion. and stomach Metabolic disturbances. Yiwei Pugongying Tang in the book 'Records of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine in Combination. cholagogue. Dandelion leaves can be used for:stiff joints Dadelion Stems are used for:Glandular swellings.
Common uses and application of Dandelion root:
Acne (good when combined with Stinging Nettle). Premenstrual syndrome. Hepatic complaints in warm climates. pancreas. Genitourinary Conditions:reduces uric acid. Miscellaneous: In addition. etc. A slimming device. Fever. spleen. Inhibits the hepatitis virus. laxative. Decrease the amounts of serum cholesterol and uric acid Detoxifies poisons that have accumulated in the liver. Dyspepsia with constipation.Inflammatory Conditions. boils.urinary infections. Stimulates sluggish digestion. Clears obstructions in the liver and kidneys(such as stones).
. selfheal spica (Spica Prunellae).Glandular Conditions.Liver Conditions. skullcap root (Radix Scutellariae). anti-rheumatic. Gastrointestinal Conditions. Improves appetite. hepatic.' It can be used in compound preparations with chrysanthemum. Gout. rhubarb rhizome (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei).It is effective in treating abscesses. Actions in Brief:Diuretic. Fluid retention due to heart problems. 3. Jaundice. Disorders of the spleen. anemia. so it is used to treat conjunctivitis caused by the flaming-up of liver-fire..g. Female Conditions. and cirrhosis of the liver Maximize the performance of the kidneys. and it can stimulate the manufacture of bile Reduces cholesterol. Purify the bloodstream and liver. gardenia fruit (Fructus Gardeniae). Cholesterol distribution. Liver problems. breast tumors. tonic.Scopariae). this herb can clear heat from the liver and improve eyesight. It can be used alone by dripping its juice into the eyes or decocting it alone until thick for oral ingestion.
sodium and vitamins A. and warts. rheumatism.and vitamin B12. dandelion helps to relieve fluid retention in premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and counteract urine retention in bladder infections. potassium.giving dogs a decoction of fresh dandelion root doubled their bile output. jaundice.:
Unlike many conventional diuretics. and. Herbalists have used dandelion for generations to treat anemia due to deficiencies of folic acid. bladder. gall bladder. high blood pressure. Antimicrobial:Antiviral
In vitro data: Like many herbal extracts. asthma. hypoglycemia. A very nutritive herb with medicinal benefits of stimulating the liver and kidneys while absorbing toxins and soothing the digestive tract. spleen. By increasing potassium levels. psoriasis. liver problems. and E. low blood pressure. Bladder infection and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). bowels. is a rich source of iron and vitamins. Dandelion Root Indications: eczema (combine with Chickweed). Human data:There are no studies in humans evaluating dandelion's effect on bile production or excretion. iron. anemia. diabetes. skin diseases. Abundant in calcium. ounce for ounce.type 1(HHV1) in vitro. acne. Because of its diuretic effect.:
Rich iron content makes it useful for treating anemia. C. dandelion leaves are rich in potassium. stomach. Antineoplastic:Antitumor
In vitro data: Like many herbal extracts.
Animal data: In German studies.Dandelion Root is also higher in beta carotene than what is found in carrots. selenium and silicon with some B-complex. manganese.
. Using the herb as a diuretic results in a net gain of this vital mineral. which cause a loss of potassium. mental fatigue. Cholagogue:Dandelion has long been used to stimulate bile secretion.dandelion leaf extracts increased bile secretion by 40% in rats.dandelion has demonstrated antitumor effects in vitro. leg cramps. low endurance. scurvy.dandelion demonstrated antiviral effects against human herpes virus.In French studies. contains more carotene than carrots. dandelion aids in alleviating muscle spasms and nighttime leg cramps. iron. The leaf of the plant is a powerful diuretic and a delicious salad green in the spring. Anemia. all liver problems. Moderate amounts of phosphorus.Dandelion contains high levels of potassium. aging.
These same sesquiterpene lactones may contribute to dandelion's
. if you have gallstones.plants with strong bitter flavors
have been regarded as digestion and appetite enhancers. Detoxify the body and Purify the blood:
Dandelion root contains a bitter.One animal study indicated a greater diuretic effect achieved from herbal extracts than root extracts and compared the effects of a 50 mL/kg body weight dose (2 g dried herb/kg) to the effects achieved with 80 mg/kg of furosemide. since increasing the flow of bile could increase pressure against the stones. Dandelion Root (Taraxacum officinale) A blood purifier used for liver and kidney disorders.In both normal mice and those with experimentally-induced diabetes. where it also causes contractions and the release of bile from there. Increasing the release of bile also relieves constipation without causing diarrhea and stops spasms of the bile duct. Digestive aid and appetite stimulant: Historically.This study also reported the effects of dandelion to be greater than other plant diuretics. The polysaccharide insulin found in this root is respected for its white blood cell and immune-boosting properties.This diuretic effect. including Equisetum and Juniper berry.Constipation. Bitters of all types activate a reflex that increases the secretion of digestive juices by the lining of the stomach. Diuretic:Animal data
Diuretic effects of dandelion extracts have been documented in mice. hemorrhoids. milky juice that is thought to be capable of energizing the body. however. Diabetes:Endocrine:Dandelion is a traditional European remedy for Type II diabetes. which ultimately results in increased transport of a variety of potentially noxious compounds to the stool.but not those with experimentally induced diabetes.:
German research has shown that dandelion root is a mild bitter. contains nutritive salts to build up the blood. Animal data: In two Chinese studies of animals with gastric ulcers.
Animal data:Dandelion roots in doses of 500 mg per kg body weight exerted moderate hypoglycemic effects in normal rabbits. and indigestion.dandelion-containing herbal combinations led to significant histologic improvement(based on English abstracts). Dandelion root has a significant cleansing effect on the liver by stimulating the production of bile.gastric metaplasia and hyperplasia. Dandelion Root has a mild laxative effect.A later report observed no significant diuretic activity from the plant. or appetite stimulant. It also has properties that can detoxify the body and purify the blood. Dandelion should be avoided.has been used to treat high blood pressure. likely a result of sesquiterpene lactone activity and high potassium content. It increases bile production and stimulates its flow to the gallbladder.dandelion extracts exerted no significant effect on blood sugar levels.
In a case series of 24 adults suffering from chronic colitis. Liver problems and gallstones. This quality makes the plant useful in restoring balance after severe vomiting. largely because of it high potassium content. dandelion root also contains high levels of sodium that help to balance electrolytes in the blood. Excellent diuretic and mild laxative:
In India.diarrhea and intestinal cramping in 96% of patients.there are no in vitro or animal data to evaluate this use. This herbal combination also improved regularity. but you should
. While pharmaceutical diuretics tend to deplete the system of potassium. It is restorative to the liver and helps reduce the risk of developing gallstones.demonstrated mild anti-inflammatory activity.an herbal combination containing dandelion improved constipation. In addition to potassium. and it is widely used as a mild laxative as well. This makes it useful for people with sluggish liver function due to alcohol abuse or poor diet. Irritable bowel syndrome (IRS). Immune modulation:Immunostimulant
Animal data: In Chinese studies of mice with immunosuppression secondary to scald burns. Dandelion root can also help neutralize acids in the blood. Hepatitis B treatment:
The Chinese have relied on an herbal combination including dandelion in the treatment of hepatitis B infections. the mineral's abundance in dandelion root ensures that the body will not suffer the side effect of potassium loss from the use of dandelion as a diuretic.A Chinese case series reported that a herbal combination including dandelion was helpful in treating 96 adults with chronic hepatitis B infection.:
Bulgarian studies of a five-herb combination including dandelion found that more than 95 percent of IBS sufferers were pain-free after fifteen days of treatment. It is considered an excellent diuretic.dandelion and five other herbs enhanced several measures of immune functioning. Laxative:
Dandelion's historical use as a gentle laxative has not been thoroughly evaluated in modern studies.:Liver and gall bladder disorders
The bitter principles in dandelion increase bile production and bile flow in the liver. dandelion root is used as a remedy for liver disorders.
Renal and electrolyte balance. dandelion should only be used for gallstones under a physician's direction. The juice in the stem and root of dandelion can be used as an astringent to dry up warts. blisters.
. Human data: There are no studies evaluating the diuretic effects of dandelion leaves or roots in humans or comparing it to standard diuretic medications. People with liver ailments. Regulation of blood glucose. helping to detoxify the body.The diuretic effect accounted for 100% of the weight loss found in these animal studies. the increase in bile flow stimulated by dandelion helps to improve fat metabolism in the body. It may also help the liver regulate blood sugars to avoid hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).These lactones also increase gastric secretions that can cause gastric discomfort. and in turn helps preserve bone. dandelion is used to lower cholesterol and uric acid levels in the body. Overweight. which helps to raise estrogen levels in the blood. can take dandelion root to help induce the flow of bile from the liver. and it is an excellent tonic for the endocrine system.avoid it if you already have gallstones. such as jaundice and cirrhosis. non-diabetic rabbits with a maximum decrease in blood glucose achieved at a dose of 2 g/kg.dandelion leaf extracts had diuretic effects as potent as furosemide.The maximum effect of dandelion was reported to be 65% of the effect produced by tolbutamide 500 mg/kg.:Diuretic
Animal data: In rats and mice. In addition. Dandelion reduces water weight through its diuretic effect.Inulin. Osteoporosis.:
Animal data:Hypoglycemic effects have been demonstrated in healthy. It may aid gallbladder ailments and help "dissolve" gallstones.Another report found no effect on glucose homeostasis in mice. may contribute to dandelion's glucose regulating properties. frequently an immediate cause of binge eating. working primarily on the liver and gallbladder to remove waste.:
Dandelion is a rich source of boron. animals that were given daily doses of dandelion extract for a month lost up to 30 percent of their body mass.It has greater diuretic effects than other herbs such as equisetum and juniper berry. it is generally contraindicated in bile duct obstruction. It is also a rich source of calcium and a fair source of silicon. reported to have antidiabetic activity. Also. Animal data:Increases of bile secretion in rats (40% or more) have been attributed to activity of bitter sesquiterpene lactones in the root. Dandelion is effective as a detoxifying herb. empyema or ileus. In one laboratory study.:
European herbalists frequently prescribe dandelion tinctures as a weight-loss aid. Dandelion root also aids digestion. which some studies suggest helps strengthen bone. corns and acne.However.
or acne. Taraxacum root is a gentle liver tonic and may be used to treat inflammation and congestion of the liver and gall bladder. particularly the root. eczema.:
Use for dyspeptic disorders may be attributed to the anti-ulcer and gastric antisecretory activity of taraxerol. Its action comparable to the drug Frusemide.Taraxacum species have been used in China for over 1100 years in treating breast cancer and other breast ailments. Taraxacum is one of the best natural sources of potassium and therefore is a perfectly balanced and safe diuretic. but to a lesser extent. hepatic and post-hepatic jaundice. especially where worsened by the presence of oliguria. gall-stones. are contained in the leaves and appear to be unique to dandelion. three times a day.The bitter principles. particularly when it is of cardiac origin. digestive and hepatic tonic. Actions: Leaf: gentle diuretic. congestive dyspepsia with constipation and other toxic conditions such as chronic joint and skin inflammations. Also use as a gentle liver and digestive stimulant. It also has similar actions to the root. Other uses.In vitro antitumor activity with a mechanism similar to that of lentinan (a tumor polysaccharide) has been reported. cholecystitis. The active principle is taraxacin. which aggravates any existing cardiovascular problem. Take up to 20 ml juice. and stimulates bile
. which is found in the whole herb.Clinical studies using Chinese Taraxacum species also support the use of dandelion to treat hepatitis as well as various respiratory infections. Root Decoction:Use for the same conditions as the tincture. mild laxative. Also prescribed as a liver stimulant in liver disorders and related constipation. Luckily. Root Tincture:Use the fresh root for toxic conditions such as gout. The sesquiterpene lactones may produce the choleretic action. the infusion makes a cleansing remedy for toxic conditions including gout and eczema. one of the terpenoid alcohols also found in the root. diuretic.but is probably a safe and effective as most other home remedies for warts. oliguria. The usual effect of a drug which stimulates kidney function is a loss of potassium from the body. or hepatogenous oedema (ascites). jaundice. A high level of potassium is particularly desirable when digitalis heart drugs are being prescribed. Leaves Fresh:Add to spring salads as a cleansing remedy. Leaves Tincture:Often added to remedies for a failing heart to ensure adequate potassium intake. because if potassium levels fall. antirheumatic Indications: Leaf: oedema. atonic dyspepsia with constipation Therapeutics and Pharmacology: Taraxacum leaf is a very potent diuretic and is an excellent remedy for water retention and oedema. The root contains bitter substances which are beneficial to the digestive process and also have an aperient effect. choleretic. previously known as taraxacin which have recently been identified as eudesmanolides. Taraxacum leaf may be applied to urinary disorders in general. Leaves Infusion:A less effective diuretic than the juice.skin and mucus membranes:Wart remedy
direct application of dandelion juice to the lesion is a popular wart remedy which has not undergone thorough scientific evaluation. It can be applied to gallstones. the drugs will produce irritability of the heart muscle. Root: cholecystitis. Make with freshly dried leaves. Root: Bitter. cholagogue. Leaves Juice:Puree the leaves when a diuretic action is needed.Dandelion is also considered an appetite-stimulating bitter.
Take Method and Dosage of Dandelion related products:
.secretion. swollen breasts. Lung. A diuretic costs as little as $36-$96 annually. requiring another prescription for potassium. The study known as the Allhat study indicated that patients on diuretics had better blood pressure control. they usually eliminate potassium as well. Dandelion is a superior blood purifier for the entire body. Dandelion Root is beneficial for liver problems. In Europe. weight gain. A benefit of dandelion root extract is that it replaces potassium lost through urination instead of depleting potassium like most diuretic drugs. or were helped in the prevention of heart-related deaths. Dandelion is high in the natural good salts the body must have for proper function. It is a very effective natural diuretic (water pill) rich in potassium and a good source of plant protein. Dandelion helps to relieve many menstrual (PMS) problems such as bloating.a 5-year. Dandelion is used in treating diabetes. an ACE inhibitor costs about $470 a year. The study has lasted for 10 years. Getting rid of excess salt and fluid helps lower blood pressure and can makes it easier for your heart to pump. The white sap may be applied directly to warts. and determined that diuretics are the best first option for people suffering from high-blood pressure. The results of the ALLHAT Hypertension Study -. so it is often used for hypertension. The study further determined that those patients who were on calcium channel-blockers had little. fewer strokes and less congestive heart failure than did the other patients who were not on diuretics. water retention. Dandelion as Herbal Diuretic for High Blood Pressure:Compare to Prescription
diuretics Dandelion Root . with Chamaemelum in anorexia and stomach complaints and with Agropyron or Achillea for water retention. Unfortunately.were featured in two articles in the Dec. Combinations: Taraxacum may be combined with Berberis and/or Chelone in gall bladder disease. and detoxifies poisons from the liver (cleansing) which is important for proper liver function. 18.and high blood pressure. which are earlier medications than the ACE inhibitors cost between $240-$667 per year. It can be very helpful by reducing stiffness in the joints. 42. It lowers high blood pressure as a water pill for swollen ankles and feet. 2002 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association. stimulates bile flow.000-patient mortality study conducted by NIH's National Heart. gall stones & PMS. Dandelion root extract also helps normalize kidney function and fluid balance. and Blood Institute -. liver cleanse.herbal diuretic for hypertension. acne and inflammation. while a calcium channel blocker such as Novarsc costs about $724 a year. and Accupril. and helpful in reducing serious cholesterol and uric acid. There has been a loud uproar from the medical profession in regards to this opinion. It is is helpful for edema swollen ankles and feet . Dandelion is an herbal diuretic containing potassium. Prescription diuretics like Lasix (furosemide) or Bumex are often the first choice of doctors in treating high blood pressure. Beta-blockers. to no benefit in lessening the number of heart attacks.
adjust the recommended adult dose to account for the child's weight. 2-3 times daily. if the child weighs 50 lb (20 to 25 kg).2 ml) As a general liver/gallbladder tonic and to stimulate digestion. Dried leaves:4~10 grams daily. 3-5 grams of the dried root or 5-10 ml of a tincture made from the root can be used three times per day. 4-10 grams of dried dandelion's leaves can be added to 250 ml (1 cup) of boiling water and drunk as a decoction.6 . Dandelion juice may be made by chopping or crushing the tops of the plants and then squeezing the juice into a clean container.2 ml) Solid extract BP: 5-15 grains Juice BP: 1-2 drams (3. Typical Dosage:
Provision of dosage information dose NOT constitute a recommendation or endorsement. Some experts recommend the alcohol-based tincture because the bitter principles are more soluble in alcohol.Pediatric:To improve digestion.7. Doses may also vary according to the type and severity of the conditioned treated and individual patient conditions. Adult doses:
There is disagreement on the optimal form and dose of dandelion. Dandelion may be used in a variety of available forms. Therefore. Dandelion is frequently taken three times a day. Doses are given for single herb use and must be adjusted when using herbs in combinations. One or 2 teaspoons of dandelion extract can be taken orally. Infusion: 1 oz.7. dandelion is available as dried flowers and leaves or as a liquid extract made from the whole dandelion plant.Reputable physicians and herbalists recommend a range of doses: Fresh leaves:4~10 grams daily. Usually.
. Dried leaf infusion: 4 to 10 g three times a day Dried root decoction: 2 to 8 g three times a day Herb (stems and leaves): 4 to 10 g three times a day Leaf tincture (1:5) in 30% alcohol: 100 to 150 drops three times a day Powdered extract (4:1) leaf: 500 mg one to three times a day Powdered extract (4:1) root: 500 mg one to three times a day Powdered extract (10:1) root: 250 mg one to three times a day Root tincture (1:2) fresh root in 45% alcohol: 100 to 150 drops three times a day Capsules: 1-2. Either dandelion tea or juice may be applied as often as needed.either in water or alone. Due to its bitter taste. Dried dandelion is brewed into a tea by soaking one or 2 teaspoons of dried dandelion in about 8 ounces of hot water. As a mild diuretic or appetite stimulant. Unsweetened dandelion tea may be cooled and applied as a skin wash. or 5-10 ml of fresh juice from the leaves or 2-5 ml of tincture made from the leaves can be used three times per day. per pint (1 cup) Fluid extract BP: 1/2-2 drams (1.but rather indicates the range of doses commonly used in herbal practice. dandelion tea is usually sweetened or flavored before drinking. the appropriate dose of dandelion for this child would be 1/3 of the adult dosage. Most herbal dosages for adults are calculated on the basis of a 150 lb (70 kg) adult. Fresh leaf juice: 1 tsp(4~8 ml) twice daily. instead -.8 .
A Liver and Kidney Mixture:1 OZ. Broom tops. Long-leaved Plantain.Phytomed Hepato. 1 tablespoonful. Or 1 OZ.Stomach mixture. Celandine ointment to be applied at same time. 1/2 oz. of Dandelion in a pint of boiling water for 10 minutes. Liquorice root. of tincture of Rhubarb. then add 1 OZ. Shepherd's Purse. 1/2 oz. strain. For a young child suffering from jaundice: 1 OZ. Black Horehound herb.Chol-Grandelat.cut root for 15 minutes. Mountain Flax.Bio0Garten Tee. 1/2 oz. sugar in hot liquid. Parsley root. strain. 1/2 oz. Dandelion root. of compound tincture of Horseradish. Sweet Flag root.Kneipp LowenzahnPflanzensaft. from 2 to 4 OZ. decant. 1 OZ. Ginger root. sweeten with honey. Dandelion root. Proprietary names:
Cholaktol TR. boil down to half the quantity.Hepafungin. Tea: Pour 2 cups boiling water over one of fresh leaves and steep for 10 minutes.Waterlex. Fresh roots: 2~8 grams daily. 1/2 oz. 1 OZ. and is also much approved of in the treatment of dropsy. Gently boil in 3 pints of water down to 1 1/2 pint. Dose. and boil in 2 pints of water until it comes to 1 pint.
. Dried powdered extract:250~1000 mg three to four times daily. Ginger root. A Medicine for Piles:1 OZ. and drink several glasses in the course of the day.Cholongal.Fluid Loss. 1/2 OZ. Use in a sluggish state of the liver. Or take 2 OZ. of freshly-sliced Dandelion root. Polypody root. bring to a boil again. Multi-ingreidient preparations containing dandelion:
Agnuchol. Senna leaves. Dandelion root. three times a day.Helalixier.
Dosage of Dandelion Tea:
Infuse 1 OZ. Add 3 pints of water. and give frequently in teaspoonful doses. Dose.Taraleon. 1 OZ.Berberis complex.Agrimonas. strain and take a wineglassful every two hours. 1 OZ. a wineglassful three times a day.Justogen mono.Cool. strain and take a wineglassful after meals for biliousness and dizziness. and add 1 OZ. 1/2 oz. Balm herb. 1/2 OZ. Or. Simmer the whole in 3 pints of water down to 1 1/2 pint.Herbal diuretic complex.Galleb forte.Galleb S.Gallexier. 1 OZ. put on one side to cool.Uva ursi complex.boil 1 cup of water with 2~3 tsp of dried. Boil in gredients for 10 minutes.Uvacin.Cholonsom. 1/4 OZ. Cinnamon bark. 1/4 oz. dissolve 1/2 lb. 1 1/2 pint water.Aristochol N. Dandelion root. skim all impurities that come to the surface when clear. Dandelion root. Place in 2 quarts of water and gently simmer down to 1 quart.Fluid extract: 1~2 teaspoons daily. 1/2 OZ. For Gall Stones:1 OZ. Juniper berries. Caraway seed. Dose. then strain and adda small quantity of cayenne. The use of this tea is efficacious in bilious affections.
such as cimetidine (Tagamet). 1174 ESCOP .Commission E . dandelion should not be taken at the same time as these antibiotics. Interaction with Prescription Drugs:
Because dandelion may have a lowering effect on blood sugar. a medication commonly used to treat manic depression. famotidine (Pepcid).S.Accepted for specific indications No 90/22 German .1984 PDR for Herbal Medicine . you should not use dandelion preparations without first talking to your healthcare provider. As a precaution. ofloxacin. may decrease the absorption of quinolone antibiotics (such as ciprofloxacin. nizatidine (Axid). should talk to their doctors or pharmacists before using dandelion. also called Chinese dandelion. Martindale UK . it may increase the production of stomach acid.P. would interact with these antibiotics in the same way. or common dandelion. Table A France . and Protonix. Schedule 1. Quinolone: One species of dandelion. taking it may increase the effectiveness of medications used for the treatment of diabetes.General Sales List. If dandelion is taken by mouth. Dandelion possible diuretic effect could increase the effectiveness of ater pills? Individuals who take diuretic drugs. and levofloxacin) from the digestive tract. Prevacid. Taraxacum mongolicum. should discuss the use of dandelion with a doctor or pharmacist before beginning to take it.Official Regulations and
Medical References: British Pharmaceutical Codex 1934 U. It is not known whether Taraxacum officinale. Individuals who are using insulin or taking oral medications for diabetes. and ranitidine (Zantac) and proton pump inhibitors such as Nexium.March 1996
Interactions. Antibiotics. Interaction with Non-prescription Drugs:
.p.Side Effects and Precautions of Dandelion:
If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications. Lithium: Animal studies suggest that dandelion may worsen the side effects associated with lithium. potentially interfering with the acid-blocking actions of histamine-2 receptor blockers. omeprazole (Prilosec).
People with known allergies to related plants. Dandelion should not be used as a substitute for pharmaceutical diuretics for hypertension. or medications that reduce blood-sugar levels. tea. dandelion was found to be mildly irritating to skin. reacted not only to dandelion extracts. each with histories of dandelion dermatitis.A case report of a 9-year-old boy describes positive patch test reactions to dandelion and other compositae-plant oleo resins.These sesquiterpene lactones are believed to be the allergenic principles in dandelion. Dandelion can be taken in tablet. Interaction with Herbal Products:
Although no cases have been reported. or tincture form. you should avoid this herb. If you are taking diuretic drugs. upset stomach is the most reported side effect when dandelion is taken orally. When handled. Precautions:
The safety of oral dandelion preparations for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been studied.Taraxinic acid 1¡ä-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside has also been identified as an allergenic component. but using it in moderate amounts is generally considered to be safe. Possible Side Effects:
Because dandelion can increase the production of stomach acid. but several human case reports of more serious contact dermatitis from handling dandelion plants have been published. or itchy patches) may occur after coming in contact with a dandelion plant.Two out of seven patients.The possibility that dandelion can increase the production of stomach acid could interfere with the effectiveness of antacids and over-the-counter medications such as Pepcid AC and Zantac AR. taking dandelion at the same time as other herbs (such as squill and yarrow) that also promote the loss of water from the body may possibly result in dehydration. the chemicals in dandelion may cause skin irritation in individuals who are sensitive to it. Caution: Taraxacum is contraindicated where there is occlusion of the bile ducts or gall bladder empyema. should use dandelion with caution Dandelion also should be avoided during antibiotic treatment. such as chamomile and yarrow. especially treatment with
. insulin. Skin irritation (red. Individuals who are sensitive to plants in the daisy family may also be sensitive to dandelion. In at least one study conducted in animals. you should use dandelion only under a physician's supervision. If you have gallstones or biliary tract obstructions. raw. dandelions are known to cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. but to a sesquiterpene mix. Dandelion may cause increased stomach acidity and ulcer pain. Adverse Reactions:
Like many plants in this family.
35:207-10. 1996. and enoxacin (Penetrex).taraxinic acid appears to be the most allergic component of the plant.8 g/kg and for herb are 28. Risks:Because it may increase the flow of bile. since it may keep concentrations of these antibiotics from peaking in the bloodstream.Dandelion is one of several vegetables that demonstrate antimutagenic effects. norfloxacin (Noroxin).Dandelion and Taraxacum officinale. Safety during pregnancy. Reference:Chevallier A. Chronic toxicity:None reported. diminishing their ability to fight infection.JPMA J Pak Med Assoc 1985. Acute toxicity:Aside from acute allergic reactions. they should also check their blood sugar levels carefully to make sure they do not develop hypoglycemia.herbalists traditionally recommend that dandelion be avoided by patients with biliary occlusion.No adverse effects have been reported when taken in doses usually consumed as food. Scientific References:
1. ofloxacin (Floxin).no acute toxicity has been observed. dandelion should not be used by individuals with gallstones.Dandelion may be potentially toxic because of the high content of potassium. It was unclear as to which constituents were responsible. Reference:Akhtar MS.
. A case report describes toxicity in a patient taking an herbal combination tablet that included dandelion. New York.Dandelion extract.8 g/kg.ciprofloxacin (Cipro). If individuals with diabetes use it orally.Doses of up to 6 grams per body weight administered daily for seven days to rabbits did not result in measurable toxicity.Khaliq T. LD 50 values in mice for the root are 36.Khan QM.acute cholecystitis and ileus.Carcinogenesis was not observed in rats whose diet contained up to 33% dandelion for several months. lomefloxacin (Maxaquin). Toxicology:
Acute toxicity of dandelion is low. Allergic reactions and contact dermatitis to dandelion have been reported. NY: DK Publishing. gallbladder disease. magnesium and other minerals. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants .lactation and/or childhood: Unknown.Effects of Portulaca oleracae (Kulfa) and Taraxacum officinale (Dhudhal) in normoglycaemic and alloxan-treated hyperglycaemic rabbits. Limitations during other illnesses or in patients with specific organ dysfunction:Unknown.140. or bile duct obstruction.
along with the production of the simulacrum. please note that some info may be outdated by more recent scientific developments. Although every effort has been made to ensure its accurate.Furthermore. Pharmakon Warning: The order of knowledge is not the transparent order of forms and ideas....Claims & Warning:
Claims: Information this web site presented is meant for Nutritional Benefit and as an educational starting point only.Festivals.Plato's Pharmacy..and Paints.or concave and convex..thaumaturgical:.II.. it is the antidote.also 607c). Jacques Derrida..has always been in Plato's eyes manifestly magical. and so do jugglery and many other such contrivances. for use in maintenance and promotion good health in cooperation with a common knowledge base reference..).cf.. And as it happens.the technique of imitation.as one might be tempted retrospectively to interpret it.
.The Ingredients:Phantasms.(Republic X...owing to similar errors of vision about colors..(Dissemination.138cf...602c-d.it based solely on the traditional and historic use or legend of a given herb from the garden of Adonis.And so scene painting (skiagraphia) in its exploitation of this weakness of four nature falls nothing short of witchcraft (thaumatopoia)..and the same things appear bent and straight to those who view them in water and out. and there is obviously every confusion of this sort in our souls.