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for Cambridge IGCSE
Complete Biology, Chemistry and Physics are now comprehensive science courses – complete with teaching support and revision materials.
New edi t with tea ions ching support
What do you get with the new Complete Science?
✓ A challenging IGCSE programme that will stretch your students and develop their critical thinking skills, while still supporting your lower-ability pupils ✓ Brand new teaching support – in print and digital – that you can easily customise to make sure you teach exactly what you want ✓ Flexible learning options with a free student CD-ROM designed to strengthen exam preparedness ✓ Up-to-date and internationally-focused content endorsed for the newest Cambridge IGCSE syllabus ✓ Support for your EAL students with page-by-page vocabulary support
Look inside to see how you can use the new Complete Science
Ways to teach with Complete Science
We’ve developed Complete Science for international science teachers and it’s designed to meet your core priorities:
✓ Quick and easy planning which doesn’t compromise lesson quality ✓ Flexible, straightforward resources that let you choose how you use them ✓ Thorough and comprehensive material that will fully prepare students for exams ✓ Clear, uncomplicated language with support for EAL students ✓ Exact match to the most recent Cambridge IGCSE syllabus
Step 2 – Exploit the digital resources
Download a ready-made PowerPoint and customise it with your own data, images and web links for an effective and hassle-free lesson
Find the digitised version of any of the print worksheets in the Teacher’s book and adapt it so it works exactly how you want
Refer to the syllabus matching grid to make sure you’re covering everything in the most recent Cambridge syllabus
Step 1 – Use the Student Books
Clear, uncomplicated language ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT with highlighted keywords to support your EAL 4.3 Feeding relationships: pyramids of students
ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
Distribute the mock IGCSE questions, so students get used to answering real questions taken from past exams
Complete Chemistry for Cambridge IGCSE Teacher’s Resource Kit CD-ROM
numbers, biomass and energy
To be able to describe pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy To understand how data can be gathered to make ecological pyramids
Pyramids of numbers
Look at the food chain on page 248. Two things should be clear: ■ The organisms tend to get bigger moving along the food chain. Predators, such as the cat, need to be large enough to overcome their prey, such as the mouse. ■ Energy is ‘lost’ as heat on moving from one trophic level to the next, so an animal to the right of a food chain needs to eat several organisms ‘below’ it in order to obtain enough energy. For example, a rabbit eats many blades of grass.
Pyramid of numbers – a diagrammatic representation of the number of different organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem at any one time Note 1 The number of organisms at any trophic level is represented by the length (or the area) of a rectangle. 2 Moving up the pyramid, the number of organisms generally decreases, but the size of each individual increases.
Food chains and food webs provide qualitative information about an ecosystem – they show which organism feeds on which other organism. How do we show quantitative information, for example how many predators can be supported by a certain number of plants at the start of the chain? We can use a pyramid of numbers or a pyramid of biomass, as shown in the diagram below.
biomass’ and the pyramid would be inverted. To overcome this difﬁculty a pyramid of energy can be constructed. This measures the amount of energy ﬂowing through an ecosystem over a period of time. The time period is usually a year, since this takes into account the changing rates of growth and reproduction in different seasons. It is even possible to add an extra base layer to the pyramid of energy representing the solar energy entering that particular ecosystem. GATHERING DATA FOR ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
To construct a pyramid of numbers or of biomass, organisms must be captured, counted and (perhaps) weighed. This is done on a sample (a small number) of the organisms in an ecosystem. Counting every individual organism in a habitat would be extremely time-consuming and could considerably damage the environment. The sample should give an accurate estimate of the total population size. To do this:
■ The sampling must be random to avoid any bias. For
Step 3 – Help students revise
Pyramid of energy: energy values are expressed as units of energy per unit area per unit time (e.g. kJ per m2 per year)
IGCSE Revision guide: Physics
Metals also have free electrons in their structure which gain kinetic energy at the hot end of the bar. These free electrons pass on their kinetic energy through collisions with other electrons and metal atoms as they randomly diffuse through the metal. In this way, energy (heat) is conducted from the hot end of the bar to the cold end.
Pyramids of energy
A pyramid of biomass describes how much biomass is present in a habitat at the time the sample is taken. This can be misleading, because different feeding levels may contain organisms that reproduce, and so replace themselves, at different rates. For example, grass in a ﬁeld would replace itself more quickly than cattle feeding on the grass, so when the pyramid of biomass is constructed there would be more ‘cattle biomass’ than ‘grass
Top carnivore Small carnivore Herbivore Producers But wait!
20 cm 20 cm
example, it is tempting to collect a large number of organisms, by looking for the areas where they are most common. To avoid this, the possible sampling sites can each be given a number and then chosen using random number generators on a computer.
■ The sample must be the right size so that any 1m
Metal or wooden frame
Refresh students’ memories and focus their attention with the clearly outlined learning objectives
2.3 Transfer of thermal energy
✓ Heat is transferred in solids by the vibrations of the molecules. This is conduction ✓ Heat is transferred in liquids and gases by the movement of the molecules. This is ✓ ✓ ✓
convection All objects emit and absorb heat through infrared radiation Black surfaces are the best emitters and the best absorbers of infrared radiation Silver surfaces are the worst emitters and the worst absorbers of infrared radiation
An experiment to show that water is a poor conductor of heat
boiling tube boiling water
An experiment to show that copper is a good conductor of heat
copper bar blob of wax drawing pin ice Bunsen ﬂame
Use the diagrams and visual aids to make sure that everyone understands, supporting all types of learners
A quadrat is a square frame made of wood or metal. It is simply laid on the ground and the number of organisms inside it is counted. A quadrat is used most commonly for estimating the size of plant populations, but may also be valuable for the study of populations of sessile or slow-moving animals (e.g. limpets).
‘rogue’ results can be eliminated. For example, a single sample might be taken from a bare patch of earth, whereas all other sites are covered with vegetation. The single sample from the bare patch should not be ignored, but its effects on the results will be lessened if another nine samples are taken. A mean value can then be used.
Problems a The range of numbers may be enormous – 500 000 grass plants may only support a single top carnivore – so that drawing the pyramid to scale may be very difﬁcult. b Pyramids may be inverted, particularly if the producer is very large (e.g. an oak tree) or parasites feed on the consumers (e.g. bird lice on an owl).
Bird lice Tawny owl Blue tits Insect larvae Oak tree So …
Sampling plants and sessile animals
Once the organisms in a sample have been identiﬁed and counted, the population size can be estimated. For example, if 10 quadrats gave a mean of 8 plants per quadrat, and each quadrat is one-hundredth of the area of the total site, then the total plant population in that area is 8 100 800.
Pyramid of biomass – which represents the biomass (number of individuals × mass of each individual) at each trophic level at any one time. This should solve the scale and inversion problems of the pyramid of numbers.
Bird lice Tawny owl Blue tits Insect larvae Oak tree
Biomass expressed as units of mass per unit area (e.g. kg per m2)
Help pupils more effectively absorb information via the concise and focused explanations
Ice is trapped at the bottom of the boiling tube with a piece of metal gauze. When the water at the top of the boiling tube is heated strongly, it boils. The ice at the bottom of the tube does not melt. This shows that water is a poor conductor of heat. However, if the ice is allowed to ﬂoat normally, it melts quickly when the water is heated at the bottom of the test tube. This is because the water molecules can move, so the water heats by convection. If a copper bar is heated at one end with a Bunsen ﬂame, the drawing pins fall off one by one, beginning with the pin closest to the Bunsen ﬂame. This is because as the metal conducts the heat from the hot end of the bar to the cold end, each of the blobs of wax melts in turn. Water, like other liquids and non-metal solids, is a poor conductor of heat energy because its molecules do not have free electrons to easily pass on their kinetic energy to their neighbours, so the heat can only be transmitted through the vibration of the particles. Gases are very poor conductors of heat energy because their molecules are very far apart so kinetic energy cannot be transmitted from one molecule to another. Materials that are poor conductors are called insulators. For example, air is an insulator.
electrons with the lowest vibrational energy metal ions
electrons with the most vibrational energy
Ecological pyramids represent numerical relationships between successive trophic levels. The pyramid of biomass is useful because the biomass gives a good idea of how much energy is passed on to the next trophic level.
Complete Biology for Cambridge IGCSE
Flip to this back of this leaflet to see a linked practical activity from the Teacher’s Resour ce Kit
Case studies aid comprehension and are linked to practicals in the Teacher’s Kits - helping students put theories into practice
253 Flip to the section questions to further consolidate learning and help students measure their progress – these questions are also on the Student CD-ROM
Metal atoms that have lost their free electrons are called ions. Sometimes metals are described as a lattice of metal ions in a “sea” of free electrons. Other solids are not usually good conductors of heat because they do not have free electrons to transfer heat energy from one molecule to another. At the hot end of the metal bar, the ions gain energy and vibrate faster. The ions in a metal are close together and so these ions pass on their vibrations to neighbouring ions, which in turn start to vibrate faster. In this way, heat is transferred from the hot end to the cold end of the solid bar.
Remember to support pupils with the highlighted vocabulary words which could challenge your EAL students
Cambridge Physics IGCSE Revision Guide
Want to help students gauge their learning? Use the summative tests for each unit on the Student CD-ROM for an instant progress-check.
Worried about covering the entire syllabus? Use the grids on the Teacher’s CD-ROMs to map each area of the syllabus to specific pages in the Student Book, to ensure nothing is missed.
Practicals and worksheets to support your lessons
The Teacher’s Resource Kits are loaded with useful practicals and worksheets in print and digital form that are linked to lessons in the Student Books. Plus all the worksheets are fully customisable so you can tweak them however you please, to ensure effective teaching.
Handling experimental observations and data: estimating the size of a population
pen or pencil
bag or small box
You are provided with a bag with some pieces of paper in it� The pieces of paper represent animals in a population, and the bag is the environment in which they live� The investigation looks at a ‘capture-recapture’ technique for estimating their population size� 1 Remove between 15 and 20 ‘animals’ from the habitat (the exact number does not matter) and record this number in the table� 2 Mark all the pieces of paper with a small number 1 and put them back in the bag� Shake for 1 minute to mix up the ‘animals’� 3 Remove 15–20 ‘animals’ from the bag and write down this number in the table� 4 Count how many of this second sample have got a number 1 written on them (remember to look on both sides)� 5 Estimate the size of the population using this formula: No� in first sample 3 no� in second sample ________________________________________ No� in second sample marked with a 1 6 Repeat steps 1–5 a further 4 times but mark the captured ‘animals’ in the second step with a 2 the second time, a 3 the third time, a 4 the fourth time and a 5 the fifth time� Ignore any other numbers from the earlier samples� 7 Display all the readings in the form of a table� Work out a mean value for the estimate of the population using your five sets of results� Record the mean value� 8 Tip out all of the ‘animals’ and count the actual population size� Record this value� 9 Present your results in a bar chart that shows all five of the estimates of the population and the actual value clearly�
Instructions take a step-bystep approach, minimising the potential for confusion
Practicals help students apply their learning and connect it to real-world situations
10 Calculate the percentage error in your estimates compared with the actual value�
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913879 COMPLETE BIOL IGCSE TG.indd 49
Complete Biology for Cambridge IGCSE Teacher’s Resource Kit
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