I B dI ploma program m e

Newly published for IB Geography
to help your students get the best results.

Authors
Garrett Nagle Briony Cooke

Our brand new Course Companion for Geography takes a rigorous approach, stretching your students and challenging their perceptions. It aims to foster well-rounded learners with a holistic understanding of the subject material,

Our approach to a lesson on freshwater
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5

Freshwater – issue s and conflicts l injustice and reness of socia raise your awa how such e l Ther may be a time to resources and ble lag between prec uneven access through sustaina98% About ipitation and be overcome of all free wate the eventual runo problems may r on the globe the global to ff. is stored in the practices, from Evaporation oceans. management Potential evapo transpiration (pEVT l. This is the phys )– individual leve the rate of water ical process by loss from an area which a liquid function of: if there were no shorta becomes a gas. ge of water. ● ● ● It is a ● ● ●l ● ● ● vapour pressure ● ● ● ● l air ● ● ● temperature ● ● ● ● l wind ● ● ● l rock surface (e.g. bare To research soils and rock evaporation than s have higher Visit http://geo of moisture surfaces with rates of graphy.about.co – the transferow) a protective tilth are l Precipitation m . the for articles abou , where rates sleet or snow) to t the hydrologic (as dew, hail, rain, al cycle in the phys High atmo of e. ical and cultural be able to: from theratesspher evaporation are ld earth’s surface in A section (water water chapter you shou recorded in hot tbar of raindrops and ice), and capturea (Sudan) the water, and why the end of this By deserts. For of fresh for links to some potential evap Interception – the ical geography water loss ifdirect excellent sites otranspiration example, prevents there were rstand the phys which on l unde hydrology and by plant cover, per – the rate of no shortage of e resource in which rivers. annum, and in water – is 6,25 the land is a scarc and the ways soil. ty on Helwan (Egy 0 millimetres contact with the Try the matching cts on water quali tity and not much lower in pt) it is 2,390 quiz (for the ging the quan the human impa itation that does trop millimetres. Rate l consider nges of mana hydrological cycle Runoff – precip s are (500d but flows over it ical rainforests because of nd to the challe ) at groun–750 millimetres) and the high hum humans respo tive. soak into therate http://highered. in cold climates idity water is positive and nega mcgraw-hill.com s. 330 millimetres such as the UK quality of fresh r management, / per year). into surface water sites/00724024 (London’s equences of wate 66/student_vie cons water held In parts of Egyy l explain the w0/ chapter10/mat Groundwater – pt, s rock, evapotransp ching_quiz.html soil wate or porou iration rates underground in r transfers from – the rates at the earth into s which 250 milliand wells. the atmosphe often feeding spring metres per gical cycle re – are less than the lossyear, beca sea, air – rolo een on use Egypt’s annu 250 milli(EVT) of water betw The global hyd Evapotranspirati metres. How al rainfall is less is the transfer water ever, if Egyp ation ological cycle than water vapour, 2,000 mi and t received, for of water from veget llimetres of The global hydr on from oceans, example, spiration. e. rain each year prises evaporati to the atmospher , the evapotra ater and evapotran surfaces rate would increase and land. It com nspiration runoff, groundw because of the es precipitation, there. Thus, if very high temp age 860 millimetr condensation, there were no eratures ipitation (on aver shortage of wate potential evap esent global prec to the land. r in Egypt, otranspiration s repr ns, 23% on l If 100 unit could be as high millimetres per falls over the ocea oration via the as 2,000 year. 11 per annum), 77% r the atmosphere by evap phere 13 Land precipitation 2.5 ConAtmos sation 84 units ente den Ice meltwater l About zontal there is a hori and Evaporation Condensation oceans; thus s from is the process iration from 385 transp n unit vapo71 becoOceanic precipitation by which a gas (wat plants ur) transfer of seve mes a liquid. er sea. It occurs whe dew point or the land to the  n air cools to Evaporation becomes satu the its rated by ipitation over from rivers, Further cooling l Of prec 71 leads to condensa evaporation into it. lakes and soil are water droplets tion on nuclei, land, 16 units or frost. Precipita to form tion occurs whe water has cond evaporated or ense n so much the water Evaporation d that the air can no longer transpired; 41.5 and rivers 27 falls to 425 Lakes hold it, so Surface runoff from oceans earth as rain, hail, seven units are sleet or snow. Interception Land 35 978 Figure 5.2 Cond runoff to the ensation When raindrop 000 oceans. Oceans 1 350 s fall on plant cover, the plan which prevents r Groundwate ts intercept the its direct cont rain, outflow 12 act with the soil. the retaining capacity of leav If rain is prolonge es will d, drop to the grou thousands nd (throughfall). be exceeded and water will All volumes in branches and tres. Boxed Permanent snow Some will trick of cubic kilome e; all down the stems le along 9,700 years figures are storag r values. or trunk (stemfl retained on the Oceans ow). The wate others are transfe leaves later evap 2,500 years r orates. 101

l themes Part 2 Optiona
● ●

5

ore the rs onal themes expl physical facto The seven opti een human and interaction betw g contemporary case studies usin ents. and processes, ty of environm n from a varie se, each will draw choo the themes you Whichever of

Uniquely developed in partnership with the IB, so you can be confident it takes the right approach.

Up-to-date statistics help students understand their learning in the context of the real world
Eustatic chan ge refers to a global change sea level. At the in Rese height of glac rvoir ial advance, 18 000 years ago, sea level Ocean was 100–150 metres below current sea leve Atmosphere l. The level of the Land land also varie s in relation to the sea. Land Of which may rise as a result of tectonic uplift l River s or the removal of an ice shee The change in t. l Freshwater lakes the level of the land relative to the level of l Inland seas the sea is kno wn as isostati adjustment, l Soil wate c or isostacy. Part r s of Scandinavia and l Groundwa ter Canada are cont rise at rates of inuing to l Ice caps/ up to 20 millimet glaciers res a year. l Biota As the world’s temperature rises, the Annual exchange amount of wate r stored in the world’s glaciers and ice Evaporation sheets decrease s and global sea levels rise. Of which In addition, ther e is also the Steric effect. l Ocean This is the phen omeneon whereby seaw l Land ater expands with higher temperatures. Precipitation Thus, even if ice sheets and ice caps did not melt, sea leve Of which ls would rise in a warmer wor ld. l Ocea Some scientists l Land have predicted that global worming may Runoff to ocea push the Gree ns nland ice shee over a threshol t Of which d where the enti re ice mass would melt with l River s in a few hundred causing sea leve years, l Groundwa l to rise by 7.2m ter flood many of . This would l Glacial meltwater the world’s coas tal cities and many islands, such as the Mal dives. Table 5.2 Globa
n 5
● Fresh

water – issues and conflicts Percentage of total 97.403 0.00094 2.596 0.00012 0.0072 0.0076 0.0051 0.592 1.984 0.00008

nflicts issues and co Freshwater –

Value (km 3 3 3 10 ) 1 350 000.0 13.0 35 977.8 1.7 100.0 105.0 70.0 8 200.0 27 500.0 1.1 496.0 Values (km3 3 10 3)

Challenging vocabulary is defined, helping all students focus on learning the subject material

Values (km 3 3

10 3)

496.0

425.0 71.0

41.5

385.0 111.0

27.0 12.0 2.5 and exchanges

l water reservoirs

TOK Link
(SY) may be calcu use of a natur lated as the rate al resource, that of increased is, that which depleting the can be exploited original stock or without its potential for maximum susta replenishment. inable yield (MSY Thus, from a resource ) is the largest yield that can over an indefinite be taken resource size period. MSY aims at the point of to maintain the maximum grow amount that woul th rate by harve d normally be sting the replenished, allow continue to be productive indef ing the resource initely. MSY is to often difficult to determine.

What is the max imum sustaina ble yield? The sustainabl e yield

Discuss the cause s and consequences of changes in the balance of water stored in oceans and ice. Maximum susta inable yield (MSY )– the maximum level of extraction of water that can be maintained indefinitely for a region.

To research

Figure 5.1 The

global hydrologica

l cycle

102

IB Course Co

m

raphy panion: Geog

of water store d in the oceans with tempera and in ice varie ture change. s This can be on over millions a long-term scale of years – or on a short-ter – accelerated glob m scale, such al warming. On as with change in conn a long-term scale ection with the , growth and deca sea levels y of ice sheets.

The world’s changing wat er balance The amount

Clear, student-friendly diagrams ease comprehension and build enthusiasm
Lakes Swamp water Soil moisture 17 years 5 years Streams 1 year Atmospheric mois 16 days ture 8 days Table 5.1 Avera ge water renew al cycles for different water bodies

Groundwater

1,400 years

To do:

a Comment on the stores of freshwater Table 5.2. What as shown in are the implicatio ns for human of water resou use rces? b Identify and explain two ways in which wate be temporarily r can stored on the surface. c Identify and explain three ways in which vege influences the tation hydrological cycle .

d Explain the difference in value between evap from oceans and oration precipitation into oceans. e Explain how sea levels may rise without any of ice sheets and melting ice caps.

103

IB Geography Study Guide – for the strongest exam performance
Also from Oxford, focused revision support which covers the entire IB Geography syllabus. The Study Guide is designed to help students revise more effectively and ensure they thoroughly understand the full syllabus.

Lessons point students toward additional issues and sources, helping strengthen independent research skills and offer plenty of extra challenge

3 Suitable for SL and HL, with strong emphasis on globalisation and
international perspectives

3 Complete coverage of the syllabus, for optimum exam preparation 3 Integrated exam practice with material from past papers, so students
are ready for the real thing Find out more online: www.oxfordsecondary.co.uk/ib

I B dI ploma program m e

Environmental Systems and Societies
Uniquely developed with the IB
Designed to help students think laterally around current environmental issues, fostering strong critical thinking skills

Challenging vocabulary is flagged on every page, with definitions at the end of each chapter, to support your EAL students

Up-to-date and internationallyfocused case studies relate learning to real life, helping students apply their learning to the world around them

mpanion IB Course Co

: Environmen

tal Systems an

d Societies

TOK is integrated in every chapter to help students make links between theoretical study and the wider world. And, material for the extended essay is also included to ensure strong performance.

Review questions help solidify important concepts, helping pupils gauge their understanding and prepare for the external assessment

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