DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL POWER, COMPUTER & TELECOMMUNICATIONS SECTION
Higher College of Technology, P O BOX 74, A L-KHUWAIR, CODE 133 24473600 fax 24485364

EETE 2210 P
Telecommunications 1 - Practical

Experiment No. 3

AMPLITUDE DEMODULATION

Name ID# Specialization

Prepared by Richel N. Robles References: EV Analog Mod. Manual, Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E. Frenzel

are circuits that accept modulated signals and recover the original modulating information.2). The most common envelope detector consists in a diode followed by an RC filter (fig.probes calculator 10.Experiment # 3 ² Amplitude Demodulation Diploma Level EETE 2210 P OBJECTIVES a. In fact. The amplitude of the carrier is variable & by properly choosing R and C. c. To analyze the operation of the AM synchronous detector. MATERIALS 11oscilloscope & 2 . Envelope Detector The extraction of the modulating signal from an AM signal can be carried out using an envelope detector. To measure the detection efficiency. To check the distortions of the detected signal: ripple and distortion by diagonal cutting. The demodulator circuit is the key circuit in any radio receiver.connecting wires 11T10 A. T10 C EV Modules power supply ± 12V dc BRIEF THEORY Demodulators. demodulator circuits can be used alone as simple radio receiv ers. b. figure 3. T10 B. Frenzel .3. Manual. or detectors. d.1 AM Signal figure 3. output of the detector can be reproduced. Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E.2 Envelope Detector or Diode Detector Circuit 2 Prepared by Richel N. To examine the operation of the envelope detector. Robles Department of Engineering ± ECT Section References: EV Analog Mod.

4). 3 Prepared by Richel N. figure 3. 3.C must be smaller or equal to a value which depends on the modulating frequency and the modulation index. the detected signal always follows the behavior of the envelope.Experiment # 3 ² Amplitude Demodulation Diploma Level EETE 2210 P Distortions of the Detected Signal The demodulated signal can have two kinds of distortions: y if the time constant R.3) y if the time constant R.4 Distortion by diagonal cutting Detection Efficiency The efficiency n of the diode envelope detector is defined as the ratio between the amplitude of the output signal of the detector and the amplitude of the envelope of the input AM signal. fig. Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E.C is too small in respect to the period of the carrier. Manual. . Frenzel . Robles Department of Engineering ± ECT Section References: EV Analog Mod. Last considerations on the choice of R‡C in the envelope detector  To obtain a high detection efficiency the resistance R must be much higher than the differential resistance rd of the diode (R»rd) to minimize the ripple in the detected signal the product R·C must be much higher than the period T of the carrier (R·C»T)  To avoid distortion by diagonal cutting the product R. but sometimes it takes an exponential decreasing law (distortion by diagonal cutting.3. the envelope is approximated to a waveform affected by ripple ( fig.C is too high in respect to the period of the modulating signal. The efficiency n practically depends on the ratio between R and the differential resistance rd of the diode.3 Ripple figure 3.

5 Vpp.5 Diode detector circuit ² wiring connections 2. LEVEL = 0. VCO2: LEVEL about 200mVpp. FREQ. Manual. PROCEDURE 1. Robles Department of Engineering ± ECT Section References: EV Analog Mod. a. Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E. about 450 kHz c. carrier signal and the result then passes across a low pass filter which supplies the desired demodulated signal. Frenzel 4 . BALANCED MODULATOR 1: CARRIER NULL ² maximum. Turn ON the ±12V power. 3.Experiment # 3 ² Amplitude Demodulation Diploma Level EETE 2210 P Synchronous AM Detector Also known as Coherent AM Detector. the signal modulated in amplitude is mixed to a coherent. FREQ. . Carry out the connections below. Insert the following jumpers in the module T10C: J3. FUNCTION GENERATOR: sine (J1). J10 and J12. OUT LEVEL ² adjust to obtain an AM signal with amplitude of about l5mVpp Prepared by Richel N. J6. J 9. 4. Carry out the following presetting: Use oscilloscope to obtain exact values. figure 3. = 1 kHz b. J5. Connect the indicated supply voltage for the 3 modules.

0. Use the oscilloscope channel 1 and 2 Dual Mode: to observe the signal before and after the detector diode (points 15 and 17).2 ms/div. Draw the observed signal. Amplitude Vpp = _________ Settings: Volt/div = ________________ Time/ div = _______________ TP 3 ( T10B) II. Frenzel .5 V/div Channel 2 TP 15 (T10 C) before the detector diode TP 17 (T10 C) after the detector diode Vpp = _________________ Vpp=_________________ 5 Prepared by Richel N. Manual.Experiment # 3 ² Amplitude Demodulation Diploma Level EETE 2210 P DATA & RESULTS I. Use oscilloscope to determine the exact waveform of the AM signal (test point 3) at the Balanced Modulator 1. Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E. Channel 1 Settings: 0. Robles Department of Engineering ± ECT Section References: EV Analog Mod.

The values of R and C connected after the detector diode are respectively R7=22K and C7=4. There is no detected signal III. Compute for the Revelation Efficiency. d. IV. Decrease the modulation depth (by reducing the amplitude of the modulating signal).7nF. Robles Department of Engineering ± ECT Section References: EV Analog Mod. d. describe the behavior of the detected signal with respect to the AM signal envelope. Ripple is observed. Keep the dual oscilloscope connected to 15 and 17 and change the frequency of the modulating signal to 10 kHz. b. c. The detected signal follows the behavior of the AM signal. The detected signal is completely different with the AM signal envelope. The detected signal is very small compared to the AM signal envelope.Experiment # 3 ² Amplitude Demodulation Diploma Level EETE 2210 P Observation: From page 5-II waveforms. 6 Prepared by Richel N. Manual. 2. Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E. b. a. c. There is no effect. c. There is no detected signal at the output. The detected signal is very small compared to the AM signal envelope. Effect of the Time Constant RC 1. Show your solution. a. The detected signal follows the behavior of the AM signal d. Check the detected signal. Frenzel . There is diagonal cutting distortion on the detected signal. The detected signal is completely different with the AM signal envelope. What can you observe at the output 17 (detected signal)? a. There is no detected signal. b.

FUNCTION GENERATOR: sine (J1). Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E. Carry out the following presetting: Use oscilloscope to obtain exact values. Robles Department of Engineering ± ECT Section References: EV Analog Mod. Manual.5 V pp. c. Frenzel . There is no detected signal. The diagonal cutting distortion increases. LEVEL = 0. 2. d.7nF) with C6 (1nF). the ripple decreases.Experiment # 3 ² Amplitude Demodulation Diploma Level EETE 2210 P 3. the ripple increases. Take the modulation depth to about 50% and change C7 (4. Synchronous AM Detector 1. iii. What can you observe at the output? a. FREQ. i. ii. The diagonal cutting distortion decreases. Carry out the connections below. There is no change V. = 10 kHz VCO2: LEVEL about 1Vpp. about 450 kHz BALANCED MODULATOR 1: CARRIER NULL ² maximum. b. OUT LEVEL ² central position 7 Prepared by Richel N. FREQ.

Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E.2 ms/div. What is the carrier frequency of the demodulator?_____________________ viii. (Dual Mode). 8 Prepared by Richel N. OUT LEVEL ² central position v. Use the oscilloscope channel 1 and 2. d. Use the oscilloscope channel 1 and 2. Increase the modulation depth of the AM signal. Manual. 50 mV/div Channel 2 TP 16 (T10 B) INPUT TP 17 (T10 B) OUTPUT Vpp = _________________ Vpp=_________________ vi. What is the output frequency of the low-pass filter? _________________ x. There is no diagonal cutting distortion.What is the modulating signal frequency of the demodulator?_______________ ix. c. BALANCED MODULATOR 2: CARRIER NULL ² central position ( so that the circuit operates as frequency converter . What is the frequency of the signal at the OUTPUT? ________________________ vii. ( Dual Mode). There is no ripple. There is ripple. What can you observe at the output? a. to observe the signal at input of the demodulator TP 16 ( balanced Modulator 2) & 17 (output) Channel 1 Settings: 0. to observe the signal at input of the demodulator TP 16 (balanced Modulator 2) & 17 (output). Distortion by diagonal cutting is observed. Frenzel .Experiment # 3 ² Amplitude Demodulation Diploma Level EETE 2210 P iv. The waveform detected across the output is the result of the product between the AM signal and the carrier. b. Robles Department of Engineering ± ECT Section References: EV Analog Mod.

Principles of Electronic Communication Systems by Louis E.Experiment # 3 ² Amplitude Demodulation Diploma Level EETE 2210 P Laboratory Grading System Basis Total Laboratory Mark Final Practical Exam Laboratory Experiments Mark 30 15 15 Evaluation of Laboratory Experiments Outcome Basis Questions Accuracy of Data & Results Maximum Mark 3 8 Marks Obtained Neatness of the Lab Sheet 1 Promptness 3 TOTAL 15 To be filled-up and signed by the Lab Instructor as proof of student¶s performance and completion of experiment. only those with valid reasons are allowed to repeat the experiment. Robles Department of Engineering ± ECT Section References: EV Analog Mod. Date Performed: ________________________ ________________ Date Completed: ________________________________________ Date Submitted: ________________________________________ Note:  Experiment should be accomplished on a 2-hour session only. Failure to complete will reflect deductions on above ´Promptnessµ Outcome Basis. 9 Prepared by Richel N. Failure to submit will reflect ´0µ on above ´Promptnessµ Outcome Basis.  Laboratory papers are accepted until the day before next class. Manual. Deduction will be imposed for not following instructions.  Use black or blue pen only.  During absence. Frenzel .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful