CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
With advancements in digital communication technology and the growth of computer power and storage, the difficulties in ensuring individuals’ privacy become increasingly challenging. The degrees to which individuals appreciate privacy differ from one person to another. Various methods have been investigated and developed to protect personal privacy. Encryption is probably the most obvious one, and then comes steganography.
Steganography is an old art which has been in practice since time unknown. Steganography, from the Greek, means covered or secret writing and is thus the art of hiding messages inside innocuous cover carriers, e.g. images, audio, video, text, or any other digitally represented code or transmission, in such a manner that the existence of the embedded messages is undetectable. The hidden message may be plaintext, ciphertext, or anything that can be represented as a bit stream. Encryption lends itself to noise and is generally observed while steganography is not observable.
Steganography and cryptography, though closely related, they are not the same. The former has the intent to hide the existence of the message whereas the later scrambles a message to absolute illegibility.
The goal of steganography is to avoid drawing suspicion to the transmission of a hidden message. It hide messages inside other harmless messages in a way that does not allow any enemy to even detect that there is a second secret message present. If suspicion is raised, then this goal is defeated. Discovering and rendering useless such covert messages is another art form known as steganalysis.
This approach of information hiding technique has recently become important in a number of application areas. Digital audio, video, and pictures are increasingly furnished with distinguishing but
imperceptible marks, which may contain a hiding copyright notice or serial number or even help to prevent unauthorized copying directly.
Military communications system make increasing use of traffic security technique which, rather than merely concealing the content of a message using encryption, seek to conceal its sender, its receiver or its very existence. Similar techniques are used in some mobile phone systems and schemes proposed for digital elections.
Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity.
Figure: The different embodiment disciplines of Information Hiding. The arrow indicates an extension and bold face indicates the focus of this study. Intuitively, this work makes use of some nomenclature commonly used by steganography and watermarking communities. The term “cover image” is used throughout this thesis to describe the image designated to carry the embedded bits. An image with embedded data, payload, is described as “stego-image” while “steganalysis” or “attacks” refer to different image processing and statistical analysis approaches that aim to break steganography algorithms. People use to confuse steganography with cryptography, which is wrong.
Steganography and cryptography, though closely related, they are altogether different. The former hides the existence of the message, while the latter scrambles a message so that it cannot be understood (Sellars, 1999). But the two techniques must not be perceived as mutually exclusive and if used together can prove more powerful. As we have said of steganography, the embedded data is not necessarily encrypted; hidden message may be plaintext, ciphertext, or anything that can be represented as a bit stream. Embedding encrypted message could be more secure and effective.
Figure 1: General scheme of steganography
1.2 Steganography vs. Cryptography
Basically, the purpose of cryptography and steganography is to provide secret communication. However, steganography is not the same as cryptography. Cryptography hides the contents of a secret message from a malicious people, whereas steganography even conceals the existence of the message. Steganography must not be confused with cryptography, where we transform the message so as to make it meaning obscure to a malicious people who intercept it. Therefore, the definition of breaking the system is different . In cryptography, the system is broken when the attacker can read the secret message. Breaking a steganographic system need the attacker to detect that steganography has been used and he is able to read the embedded message. In cryptography, the structure of a message is scrambled to make it meaningless and unintelligible unless the decryption key is available. It makes no attempt to disguise or hide the encoded message. Basically, cryptography offers the ability of transmitting information between persons in a way that prevents a third party from reading it. Cryptography can also provide authentication for verifying the identity of someone or something.
In contrast, steganography does not alter the structure of the secret message, but hides it inside a cover-image so it cannot be seen. A message in ciphertext, for instance, might arouse suspicion on the part of the recipient while an “invisible” message created with steganographic methods will not. In other word, steganography prevents an unintended recipient from suspecting that the data exists. In addition, the security of classical steganography system relies on secrecy of the data encoding system. Once the encoding system is known, the steganography system is defeated. It is possible to combine the techniques by encrypting message using cryptography and then hiding the encrypted message using steganography. The resulting stego-image can be transmitted without revealing that secret information is being exchanged. Furthermore, even if an attacker were to defeat the steganographic technique and detect the message from the stego-object, he would still require the cryptographic decoding key to decipher the encrypted message. Table below shows a comparision between the three techniques. Criterion/ Method
Carrier Steganography Watermarking Cryptography
any digital media
mostly image/audio files
usually text based, with some extensions to image files plain text changes the structure necessary blind
no changes to the structure Key Detection blind optional usually
informative, i.e., original cover or watermark is needed for recovery Authentication full retrieval of data usually achieved by cross correlation Copyright preserving watermarkedfile robustness image processing sometimes It is removed/ replaced usually becomes an attribute of the cover image. The cover is more important than the message. cover choice is restricted modern era full retrieval of data
Objective Result Concern Type of attacks Visibility Fails when Relation to cover
secrete communication stego-file delectability/ capacity steganalysis never it is detected not necessarily related to the cover. The message is more important than the cover.
data protection cipher-text robustness cryptanalysis Always de-ciphered N/A
free to choose any suitable cover very ancient except its digital version
N/A modern era
Figure 2: Different steganography fields Our work is Data Hiding (protection against detection). We have used the cover object as digital image and stego object(secret data) as the text file.
CHAPTER 2 DIGITAL IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY
Steganography can also be classified a on the basis of carrier media. The most commonly used media are text, image, audio and video. So here Digital Images are used as the carrier media.
A digital image is defined for the purposes of this document as
a raster based, 2-dimensional, rectangular array of static data elements called pixels, intended for display on a computer monitor or for transformation into another format, such as a printed page. To a computer, an image is an array of numbers that represent light intensities at various points, or pixels. These pixels make up the image's raster data. Digital images are typically stored in 32-, 24- or 8-bit per pixel files. In 8-bit color images, (such as GIF files), each pixel is represented as a single byte. A typical 32 bit picture of width=n pixels and height = m pixels can be represented by an m x n matrix of pixels.
Figure 3: Matrix and bits representation of an image file. The three 8 bit parts - red-R, blue-B and green-G - constitute 24 bits which means that a pixel should have 24 bits. 32 bit refers to the image having an "alpha channel". An alpha channel is like an extra color, although instead of displaying it as a color, it is rendered translucently (see-through) with the background.
There are several image formats in use nowadays. Since raw image files are quite large, some suitable compression technique is applied to reduce the size. Based on the kind of compression employed a given image format can be classified as lossy or lossless. Lossy compression is used mostly with JPEG files and may not maintain the original image's integrity despite providing high
compression. Obviously it would infect any data embedded in the image. Lossless compression does maintain the original image data exactly but does not offer such high compression rates as lossy compression. PNG, BMP, TIFF and GIF etc are example lossless formats. Some commonly used formats are JPEG, BMP, TIFF, GIF and PNG; the last two types of images are also called palette images. We discuss here all these formats briefly: 1. TIFFTagged Im age File Format (TIFF), which was
developed by the Aldus Corp. in the 1980's, stores many different types of images ranging from monochrome to true color. It is a lossless format using LZW (Lempel- Ziv Welch) compression, a form of Huffman Coding. It is not lossless when utilizing the new JPEG tag that allows for JPEG compression. There is no major advantage over JPEG though the quality of original image is retained. It is not as user-controllable as claimed. 2. BMP- This is a system standard graphics file format for Microsoft Windows and hence proprietary and platform dependent. It is capable of storing truecolor bitmap images and used in MS Paint and Windows wallpapers etc. Being an uncompressed file format, it requires high storage. 3. GIF . The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a lossless format that uses the LZW algorithm which is modified slightly for image scan line packets (line grouping of pixels). UNISYS Corp. and CompuServe introduced this format for transmitting graphical images over phone lines via modems. It is limited to only 8-bit (256) color images, suitable for images with few distinctive colors (e.g., graphics drawing). GIF format is also used for nonphotographic type images, e.g. buttons, borders etc. It supports simple animation.
4. JPEG - A creation of Joint Photographic Expert Group was voted as international standard in 1992. It takes advantage of limitations in the human vision system (HVS) to achieve high rates of compression. It is a lossy type of format which allows user to set the desired level of quality/compression. By far one of the most common image formats, it is primarily used for photographs. JPEGs are extremely popular since they compress into a small file size and retain excellent image quality. 5. PNG - (Portable Network Graphic) is a lossless image format, properly pronounced "ping". The PNG format was created in December 1994 and was endorsed by The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for its faster loading, and enhanced quality platform-independent Web graphics. It was designed to replace the older and simpler GIF format. Like GIF you can make transparent images for buttons and icons, but it does not support animation. The compression is asymmetric; reading is faster than writing. We have choosen PNG image file format as our carrier media because of the following advantages: 1. PNG is the most flexible image format for web because it can save images in 8-bit, 24-bit and 32-bit colours which is not possible with GIF and JPEG file formats. For example, GIF can only store only 8-bit or lower bit depths. Similarly, JPEGs must be stored in 24-bit and no lower while PNG.s can be stored in 8-bit, 24-bit, or 32-bit. 2. PNG uses a lossless compression method, which means that an image can be compressed and decompressed without any loss of the image quality. PNG is compressed using any number of pre-compressed filters and is then decompressed when viewed similar to JPEG format, except the PNG format is
.lossless.. PNG.s compression engine typically compresses images 5-25% better than GIF. 3. PNG can store a variable transparency value known as alpha channel transparency. This allows an image to have up to 256 different levels of partial transparency. While, JPEG does not support transparency, PNG can also store the gamma value of an image on the platform it was created which can enable a display system to present the image on its correct gamma value, if it has been specified. Correct gamma value enables a picture to display properly on different platform without losing its quality during transformation. 4. Metadata for Searching and Indexing as keywords and other text strings (compressed or otherwise) can be incorporated to enable search engines to locate the image on web.
2.2 STEGANOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
The following restrictions and features should be kept in mind during the embedding process: It is important that the embedding occur without significant degradation or loss of perceptual quality of the cover. For data consistency, original data of the cover rather than header or wrapper must be used for embedding. Intelligent attacks or anticipated manipulations such as filtering and resampling should not mutilate the embedded data.
Four main factors that characterize the data hiding techniques in steganography: Hiding Capacity: the size of information that can be hidden relative to the size of the cover.
Perceptual Transparency: It is important that the embedding occur without significant degradation or loss of perceptual quality of the cover.
Robustness: the ability of embedded data to remain intact if the stego-image undergoes transformations. Tamper Resistance: refers to the difficulty for an attacker to alter or forge a message once it has been embedded.
Digital data can be embedded in many ways into the images, e.g. sequential, random, non-random (looking for .noisy. areas of the image, that will attract less attention), redundant etc. Each one of these has its own merits and demerits. The most common techniques of data hiding in images are: 1. Appending data bytes at the end of carrier: The secret data bytes are appended at the end of the carrier media such as image and the carrier media is then compressed to its original size to reduce the suspects of having secret data. Advantage is that it is very easy to implement. Disadvantage is it is very easy to detect and get the message. 2. Least significant bit (LSB) insertion: LSB techniques embed the message bits directly into the leastsignificant bit plane of the cover image in a deterministic sequence. This results in a change with too low an amplitude to be human-perceptible. LSB embedding is simple, popular and many techniques use these methods. The problem is its vulnerability to image manipulation. 3. Public Key Steganography This method requires the pre-existence of a shared secret key to designate pixels which should be tweaked. Thus both the sender and the receiver must have this secret. The idea of
private/public key pair doesn.t work since the eavesdropper can use the public key to sabotage the whole affair. 4. Transform domain based embedding: Transform Embedding Techniques embed the data by modulating coefficients in a transform domain, such as Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) (used in JPEG compression), or Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Modifying the transform coefficients
provides more robustness to the compression (especially to lossy), cropping, or some image processing, than LSB techniques. The Spread-Spectrum Image Steganography (SSIS) hides the data within noise which is then added to the cover. The noise is of the type usually incurred during the image acquisition process. Such a noise is imperceptible to humans if kept to limited extent. The decoding process involves image restoration techniques and error control coding. 5. Masking and filtering techniques: This techniques embed information to perceptually significant areas of the image. The use of significant parts make these techniques very robust. Masking refers to the phenomenon were a signal can be imperceptible to an observer in the presence of another signal - referred to as the masker (Lin & Delp, 1999). The phenomenon of camouflage is manifestation of this human weakness. The image must be analyzed in advance for the information to determine appropriate regions to place the message data so that it is camouflaged in the environment.
DETAILED IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY WORK BASED ON LSB INSERTION
(Embedded within the text message file)
Probably the most popular, LSB embedding techniques embed data bits in the least significant bits of the image under the assumption that the resultant change would be highly imperceptible due to obvious limitations of HVS. A significant amount of information can be embedded without visible loss of quality of the cover image. The overall change to the image is so minor that it can't be seen by the human eye. LSB insertion algorithm can be applied in two ways: 1 First LSB algorithm 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Here only the last bit of the pixel is modified to hide the data. It is implemented highly because of its simplicity and good picture quality. 1 Second LSB algorithm 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Here last two bits are subjected to change to increase the amount of data to be hidden. Eventually the picture quality is less than our first LSB algorithm.
Steps of LSB insertion algorithm (Using java)
Step 1: The carrier image called the cover object is converted to array of bits. This uses the java classes java.awt.image.BufferedImage, javax.imageio.ImageIO, java.awt.Graphics2D,java.awt.image.
WritableRaster and java.awt.image.DataBufferByte. BufferedImage: A bufferedImage is something to be
comfortable with when dealing with images. They are easily used with the newly introduced ImageIO class of Java 1.5.0 as
well as containing methods for accessing the raster and buffer of the image, which makes image editing much easier. ImageIO: A useful class to handle IO operations on images. This class has much to offer, but as far as this program is concerned, the read() and write() methods will be sufficient. Graphics2D: A class which has been around for a long time as far as Java is concerned, and allows access to some of the more in depth aspects of graphics/images. Allows for creating editable areas in a new image or an image which already exists. As well as allowing a way to reach the renderable area of the image. This class also allows for an easy switch from image space to user space, which is necessary when modifying or reading certain bytes of an image. WritableRaster: This by definition is the process of rendering an image pixel by pixel, which comes in handy when you need to access the bytes of an image, that are representing pixels. WritableRaster is a sub-class of Raster itself, which has methods to access the buffer of an image more directly. DataBufferByte: The form of a byte array buffer for an image.
Figure 4: Accessing bits of an image
Step 2: The secret message text file called the stego object is read and its characters/ bytes are converted to ascii values and then to array of bits. For reading the file it uses StringBuffer, BufferedReader and FileReader classes. After reading the file, the file is stored in a String. The String is converted array of bits by converting all characters to ascii value and doing some bit operations.
Figure 5: Accessing the Bits of a Text File. Step 3: Now the text bytes are embedded in the carrier image bytes. Here is a carrier image byte: 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0
The decimal value of this byte is 106 When we change one LSB from 0 to 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
The decimal value changes to 107. This change will affect a little bit in some of the colour of a pixel which cannot be marked with human eye.
But if we change some bits other than LSB, there will be a significant chane in value and can be marked with human eye. That’s why we are replacing the LSB of the image byte with the secret data bytes.
One bit of the secret data bit is inserted to the LSB of the image byte. So one byte of the secret data requires 8 bytes of the image.
The length of the text in binary form is calculated beforehand, and hidden in the image before the text. In other words, the steganographic information (the stego) has two parts: the size of the binary message, followed by the message itself.
Figure 6: Inserting the Text Bits into the Image.
First 32 bytes of the image consists of the size of the secret data. Because size of data is an integer and integer takes 4 bytes or 32 bits in java. So to accommodate 32 bits of the size of data(integer), it require 32 bytes as each bit will be inserted to LSB first 32 bytes of data.
Size of message 32 bytes
Step 4: The message de-embedded/ extracted from the image. Extracting the text from the modified image involves copying the LSB of the modified image’s bytes and recombining them into bytes in a text file as shown in the figure. After that hidden bytes are constructed by shift left operation and inserting hidden bytes. All those hidden bytes are collected and finally written to a new text file and saved.
Figure 7: Extracting text from modified image
Figure 8: Constructing hidden Bytes array by shift left operation
Here we can see two images. The first image is original image dolphin.png and the second one is outputImage.png which contains the text information. The change in picture cannot be detected with human eye.
Original image- Dolphin.png
Embedded stego image- outputImage.png
ADVANTAGES OF LSB ALGORITHM
The advantages of LSB are its simplicity to embed the bits of
the message directly into the LSB plane of cover-image and many techniques use these methods. Modulating the LSB does not result in a human-perceptible difference because the amplitude of the change is small. Therefore, to the human eye, the resulting stego-image will look identical to the cover-image. This allows high perceptual transparency of LSB.
The advantages of LSB techniques are: Popularity Easy to understand and comprehend High perceptual transparency. Low degradation in the image quality
More and more commercial software available which follow this approach. Examples are WebStego, Stego, S-Tools etc.
However, there are few weaknesses of using LSB. It is very
sensitive to any kind of filtering or manipulation of the stego-image. Scaling, rotation, cropping, addition of noise, or lossy compression to the stego-image will destroy the message. On the other hand, for the hiding capacity, the size of information to be hidden relatively depends to the size of the coverimage. The message size must be smaller than the image. A large capacity allows the use of the smaller cover-image for the message of fixed size, and thus decreases the bandwidth required to transmit the stego-image.
Another weakness is an attacker can easily destruct the message by removing or zeroing the entire LSB plane with very little change in the perceptual quality of the modified stego-image. Therefore, if this method causes someone to suspect something hidden in the stego-image, then the method is not success.
So the disadvantages are: Low robustness to malicious attacks Vulnerable to accidental or environmental noise Low temper resistance
CHAPTER 4 SCREENSHOTS
1. Start Page
It contains a password field to authenticate user. By giving correct password and pressing ENTER BUTTON, a user will be directed to the main page of the application. If password is not known then simply clicking on EXIT BUTTON the application will terminate.
2. Main Interface
This interface contains the functionalities: ENCODE- The secret message file is encoded/ embedded with the image file. DECODE- The message is de-embedded from the modified image file. HELP- To know about the applications. ABOUT US- Contains information about mentor and developer. EXIT- To terminate application.
3. ENCODE INTERFACE
This interface contains A text field with browse button to browse an image cover. This will open filechooser to select a file. Second text Field with browse button to browse the secret message file. Third textbox is for the name of output image which contains the secret message. ENCODE BUTTON to start encoding. CANCEL BUTTON to cancel the encoding operation.
4. Successful encoding information
After successful encoding the dialog box will displayed showing name of the output image and the resultant image will be opened with the windows default image viewer.
5. DECODE INTERFACE
This interface contains First textbox with a browse button to browse the image file containing the secret message. Only the supported file formats will be displayed in the file chooser.
6. Successful decode message
After successful decoding process the information will be displayed in a dialog box showing the output file secret text file name and the size of the file. After the successful decoding of the image the secret text file is saved and the file will be displayed using notepad.
7. About Us screen shot
8. A screenshot of file chooser
CHAPTER 5 STEGANOGRAPHY APPLICATIONS
Steganography is applicable to, but not limited to, the following areas. The area differs in what feature of the steganography is utilized in each system.
Confidential communication and secret data
The "secrecy" of the embedded data is essential in this area. Historically, steganography have been approached in this area. Steganography provides us with: (A) Potential capability to hide the existence of confidential data (B) Hardness of detecting the hidden (i.e., embedded) data (C) Strengthening of the secrecy of the encrypted data In practice, when you use some steganography, you must first select a vessel data according to the size of the embedding data. The vessel should be innocuous. Then, you embed the confidential data by using an embedding program (which is one component of the steganography software) together with some key. When extracting, you (or your party) use an extracting program (another component) to recover the embedded data by the same key ( "common key" in terms of cryptography). In this case you need a "key negotiation" before you start communication. Attaching a stego file to an e-mail message is the simplest example in this application area. But you and your party must do a
"sending-and-receiving" action that could be noticed by a third party. So, e-mailing is not a completely secret communication method. There is an easy method that has no key-negotiation. We have a model of "Anonymous Covert Mailing System." There is some other communication method that uses the Internet Webpage. In this method you don't need to send anything to your party, and no one can detect your communication. Each secrecy based application needs an embedding process which leaves the smallest embedding evidence. You may follow the following. (A) Choose a large vessel, larger the better, compared with the embedding data. (B) Discard the original vessel after embedding. For example, in the case of Qtech Hide & View, it leaves some latent embedding evidence even if the vessel has a very large embedding capacity. You are recommended to embed only 25% or less (for PNG / BMP output) of the maximum capacity, or only 3% of the vessel size (for JPEG output).
Protection of data alteration
We take advantage of the fragility of the embedded data in this
application area. The embedded data can rather be fragile than be very robust." Actually, embedded data are fragile in most steganography programs. Especially, Qtech Hide & View program embeds data in an extremely fragile manner. However, this fragility opens a new direction toward an information-alteration protective system such as a "Digital Certificate Document System." The most novel point among others is
that "no authentication bureau is needed." If it is implemented, people can send their "digital certificate data" to any place in the world through Internet. No one can forge, alter, nor tamper such certificate data. If forged, altered, or tampered, it is easily detected by the extraction program. 5.3
In this area embedded data is "hidden", but is "explained" to publicize the content. Today, digital contents are getting more and more commonly distributed by Internet than ever before. For example, music companies release new albums on their Webpage in a free or charged manner. However, in this case, all the contents are equally distributed to the people who accessed the page. So, an ordinary Web distribution scheme is not suited for a "case-by-case" and "selective" distribution. Of course it is always possible to attach digital content to e-mail messages and send to the customers. But it will takes a lot of cost in time and labor. If you have some valuable content, which you think it is okay to provide others if they really need it, and if it is possible to upload such content on the Web in some covert manner. And if you can issue a special "access key" to extract the content selectively, you will be very happy about it. A steganographic scheme can help realize a this type of system. We have developed a prototype of an "Access Control System" for digital content distribution through Internet. The following steps explain the scheme.
(1) A content owner classify his/her digital contents in a folderby-folder manner, and embed the whole folders in some large vessel according to a steganographic method using folder access keys, and upload the embedded vessel (stego data) on his/her own Webpage. (2) On that Webpage the owner explains the contents in depth and publicize worldwide. The contact information to the owner (post mail address, e-mail address, phone number, etc.) will be posted there. (3) The owner may receive an access-request from a customer who watched that Webpage. In that case, the owner may (or may not) creates an access key and provide it to the customer (free or charged).. In this mechanism the most important point is, a "selective extraction" is possible or not. We have already developed such a selective extraction program to implement the system. We have a downloadable demo program on the other page.
Media Database systems
In this application area of steganography secrecy is not
important, but unifying two types of data into one is the most important. Media data (photo picture, movie, music, etc.) have some association with other information. A photo picture, for instance, may have the following.
(1) The title of the picture and some physical object information (2) The date and the time when the picture was taken (3) The camera and the photographer's information Formerly, these are annotated beside the each picture in the album.
Recently, almost all cameras are digitalized. They are cheap in price, easy to use, quick to shoot. They eventually made people feel reluctant to work on annotating each picture. Now, most home PC's are stuck with the huge amount of photo files. In this situation it is very hard to find a specific shot in the piles of pictures. “Photo album software" may help a little. You can sort the pictures and put a couple of annotation words to each photo. When you want to find a specific picture, you can make a search by keywords for the target picture. However, the annotation data in such software are not unified with the target pictures. Each annotation only has a link to the picture. Therefore, when you transfer the pictures to a different album software, all the annotation data are lost.
This problem is technically referred to as "Metadata (e.g., annotation data) in a media database system (a photo album software) are separated from the media data (photo data) in the database managing system (DBMS)." This is a big problem.
steganography program unifies two types of data into one by way of embedding operation. So, metadata can easily be transferred from one system to another without hitch. Specifically, you can embed all your good/bad memory (of your sight-seeing trip) in each snap shot of the digital photo. You can either send the embedded picture to your
friend to extract your memory on his/her PC, or you may keep it silent in your own PC to enjoy extracting the memory ten years after.
developed in the near future, a keyword based movie-scene retrieving system will be implemented. It will be a step to a "semantic movie retrieval system."
Steganography is also employed in various useful applications, e.g., for human rights organizations, as encryption is prohibited in some countries (Frontline Defenders, 2003), copyright control of materials, enhancing robustness of image search engines and smart IDs, identity cards, where individuals’ details are embedded in their photographs (Jain & Uludag, 2002). Other applications are videoaudio synchronization, companies’ safe circulation of secret data, TV broadcasting, TCP/IP packets, for instance a unique ID can be embedded into an image to analyze the network traffic of particular users (Johnson &Jajodia, 1998), and also checksum embedding (Chang et al., 2006a) and (Bender et al.,2000).
contemporary applications, one of which was in Medical Imaging Systems where a separation was considered necessary for confidentiality between patients’ image data or DNA sequences and their captions, e.g., physician, patient’s name, address and other particulars. A link must be maintained between the image data and the personal information. Thus, embedding the patient’s information in the image could be a useful safety measure and helps in solving such problems. Steganography would provide an ultimate guarantee of authentication that no other security tool may ensure. Miaou (Miaou et al., 2000) present an LSB embedding technique for electronic patient
records based on bi-polar multiple-base data hiding. A pixel value difference between an original image and its JPEG version is taken to be a number conversion base.
Mobile phone and Internet technologies have progressed along each other. The importance of both these technologies has resulted in the creation of a new technology for establishing wireless Internet connection through mobile phone, known as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). However, considering the importance of the issue of data security and especially establishing hidden communications, many methods have been presented. In the meanwhile,
steganography is a relatively new method.In this paper, a method for hidden exchange of data has been presented by using steganography on WML pages (WML stands for Wireless Markup Language, which is a language for creating web pages for the WAP). The main idea in this method is hiding encoded data in the ID attribute of WML document tags. The coder program in this method has been implemented using the Java language. The decoder program to be implemented on the mobile phone has been written with a version of Java language specifically used for small devices, which is called J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition).
Inspired by the notion that steganography can be embedded as part of the normal printing process, the Japanese firm Fujitsu is developing technology to encode data into a printed picture that is invisible to the human eye, but can be decoded by a mobile phone with a camera as exemplified in Figure (BBC News, 2007).
Figure 9: Fujitsu exploitation of steganography (BBC News, 2007) shows a sketch representing the concept
Figure 10: Displays the application of deployment into a mobile phone
The process takes less than one second as the embedded data is merely 12 bytes. Hence, users will be able to use their cellular phones to capture encoded data. Fujitsu charges a small fee for the use of their decoding software which sits on the firm's own servers. The basic idea is to transform the image colour scheme prior to printing to its Hue, Saturation and Value components, HSV, then embed into the Hue domain to which human eyes are not sensitive. Mobile cameras can see the coded data and retrieve it.
This application can be used for “doctor’s prescriptions, food wrappers, billboards, business cards and printed media such as magazines and pamphlets” (Frith, 2007), or to replace barcodes.
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION
Steganography is the art and science of hiding information such that its presence cannot be detected and a communication is happening. Secret information is encoding in a manner such that the very existence of the information is concealed. The past few years have seen an increasing interest in using images as cover media for steganographic communication. There have been a multitude of public domain tools, albeit many being adhoc and naive, available for image based steganography. Given this fact, detection of covert communications that utilize images has become an important issue. In this tutorial we have reviewed some fundamental notions related to steganography and steganalysis.
Very fewer techniques have been developed in this field. It is like a modulation technique. We have acquired some basic idea about the steganographic techniques. We mainly used this algorithm for its simplicity and also there is very negligible change in image after embedding text. . So there is a very little chance of suspecting of the presence of hidden message. Also size of hidden data is significant. We can use these techniques along with some modification to enhance this algorithm for more security and versatility. We have used mainly the png file format for the carrier cover image.
This LSB algorithm can be changed in many ways very easily to increase security. LSB algorithm can be changed to random LSB algorithm for better security.
CHAPTER 7 SCOPE FOR THE FUTURE WORK
Steganography is an old art which has been in practice since time unknown. This research has opened new avenues for us and scores of new ideas have now sprouted. of these some are blurred but many pose a clear picture of our future directions. Some of these are outlined below: Four main factors, viz. hiding capacity, perceptual transparency, robustness and tamper resistance, were identified elsewhere to characterize the data hiding techniques in steganography. We mainly concentrated on the hiding capacity. In our technique, it is very difficult to detect or suspect the presence of the secret message because a very little change occurs which cannot be detected by human eye. So no one can suspect the presence of message. But if suspected then the message can be decoded. So we have to apply some more algorithms for the security purpose. The LSB algorithm can also be modified in various ways to increase the security of the data. By tempering the coded image, our secret data may be lost. Tempering can be cropping, blurring of the image or resizing the image. So this operation may lead to the loss of data. So some more work to be done on these so that the stego image will be temper resistant. As far as perceptual transparency is concerned it was beyond the scope of this thesis. Future work should take this into account. This aspect promises greater room for research. In this context we are currently working on a new method that will use random embedding in a novel way. Blue print of the method is almost ready.
We mainly dealt with PNG picture as these were not specifically investigated in any of the works at least known to us. The technique we employed was a sort of worst case, i.e. LSB technique with sequential embedding. Hence the worst-case limit has been set. The future research on the robustness of PNG images should be extended to the more robust embedding techniques like, masking, SSIS, patchwork techniques etc so that the best case is identified.
One interesting java API, the JAI, has made image manipulation a lot easier. The dyadic and monadic image operations are now a lot easier and binary operations of addition subtraction, multiplication and division etc can now be applied to images. Similarly magnifier can now be employed on images
conveniently. All these give rise to scores of new ideas to develop novel steganographic and steganalytic methods. These need to be explored. We have to compress the image so as to decrease the suspect and also for easy send and receive operation. The operations will be faster if we will compress the image without the loss of data and also the quality. We have used only LSB insertion technique in our algorithm. In future the other techniques will be using to enhance security.
CHAPTER 8 REFERENCES
. Java Prog. Techniques for Games. Java Art Chapter 6. Stego Draft #1 (7th June 09) . Steganoflage: A New Image Steganography Algorithm by Abbas Cheddad. . SLSB: Improving the Steganographic Algorithm LSB by Juan Jose Roque, Jesus Maria Minguet, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (Spain). . Information hiding Using steganography by Muhalim Mohamed Amin, Subariah Ibrahim , Mazleena Salleh , Mohd Rozi Katmin. . Image Steganography: Concepts and Practice by Mehdi Kharrazi, Husrev T. Sencar, and Nasir Memon. . New approach in steganography by integrating different LSB algorithms and applying randomization concept to enhance Data security A.Karthic , III CSE Kalasalingam university Krishnankoil. . Investigation of inherent robustness of png images for lsb steganography by Khizar Hayat Khan.
CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX List of Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 General scheme of steganography Different steganography fields Matrix and bits representation of an image file Flow Diagram of PDS Steganography Accessing bits of an image Accessing the Bits of a Text File Inserting the Text Bits into the Image Extracting text from modified image Constructing hidden Bytes array by shift left operation
Fujitsu exploitation of steganography (BBC News, 2007) shows a sketch representing the concept
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Displays the application of deployment into a mobile phone