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An aptitude is an innate component of a competency to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. It is inherent or acquired ability of an individual which ease in learning or understanding. It is acquired or natural ability (usually measurable with aptitude tests), for learning and proficiency in a specific area or discipline. Aptitude is expressed in interest, and is reflected in current performance which is expected to improve over time with training. According to Bingham, ³Aptitude refers to those qualities characterizing person¶s ways of behavior which serve to indicate how well he can learn to meet and solve certain specified kinds of problems." Freeman defines, ³an aptitude is a combination of characteristics indicative of an individual¶s capacity to acquire (with training) some specific knowledge, skills, or set of organized response, such as the ability to speak a language, to become a musician, to do mechanical work.´ It can also be defined as a natural or acquired disposition or capacity for a particular purpose, or tendency to a particular action or effect. In addition to general intelligence, man has aptitudes or special abilities or capacities which make him successful in spite of mediocre intelligence.
Different people have different aptitudes for different things. A ptitude is neither completely inborn nor acquired. It is the outcome of both heredity and environment. Aptitudes are talent potentials but can be improved by training in environment.
A person who has aptitude for a particular skill needs only a minimum training for development.
APTITUDE AND IQ TESTING :
Aptitude and intelligence quotient are related views of human mental ability, and in some ways opposite. Whereas intelligence quotient sees intelligence as being a single measurable characteristic affecting all mental ability, aptitude refers to one of many
different characteristics which can be independent of each other, such as aptitude for military flight or computer programming. This is more similar to the theory of multiple intelligences. While intelligence is a measure of general ability, aptitude is a special ability. It is the capacity to achieve on special lines. It is the special aptness or fitness for a special ability, such as mechanical, musical, artistic, scholastic or religious.
Like intelligence tests, aptitude tests measure a student's overall performance across a broad range of mental capabilities. It is a standardized test designed to measure the ability of a person to develop skills or acquire knowledge. Aptitude tests are based on the multiple -factor theory of Thurstone and others, who defined intelligence as combination of different abilities. Aptitude test measures ability and they are designed to identify specific strengths in different areas.
PURPOSES OF APTITUDE TEST:
Testing of aptitude is needed to achieve the following purposes i.
Help in the proper choice of courses and careers - aptitude are related to
educational and vocational success as intelligence is related to success in educational and vocational fields as als o in life in general. Individuals differ in potential abilities and interests which enable them to become competent in some type of art or work. If we could identify this prophecies, and gifts or talent which distinguish them for certain courses of study, occupation or areas of occupation can help them in proper choice of both the courses and carriers. ii.
Predict future success-Researchers have shown that differences in
potential abilities are relatively stable .They tend to persist .Any changes which occurs subsequently in an individual¶s potentialities occur within limits imposed by the present constitution .that way prediction regarding future success can be made on the basis of present aptitudes with the help of aptitude tests. iii.
Help the students in the development of social traits- The aptitude testing
can help both the teachers and counselors to know the profile pattern which distinguish the future science studen ts from the future arts student, the future
engineers from the future doctors .This knowledge w ill enable them to help students in the development of special traits .They are endowed with by guiding them first to see that possess those traits and then to direct t heir energies in the proper way. iv.
Supplement other psychological tes t± Aptitude is considered to be a very
important characteristic of an individual which can predict success in a course of study or carrier. The information regarding aptitude will supplement other information regarding intelligence, interest , personality traits etc, to give a complete picture of an individual .
TYPES OF APTITUDE TEST:
Like intelligence tests various aptitude tests have been devised to measure aptitude of the individuals in various fields or activities. Generally these tests can be classified into the following types according to the specific nature of the aptitude teste d by them: i. The General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) developed by the United States employment services belong to this category. ii. Differential aptitude test ± They measure multiple aptitude .Differen tial Aptitude Test Battery (DATB) developed by Georget, Bennett, Harold G. Seashore and Alexender G. Wesman. This batteries yield an overall profile of a person¶s abilities. iii. Special aptitude test ± They attempt to concentrate in particular areas .They reveal aptitude in smaller areas or specific areas. Among these are Mechanical Aptitude tests, Clerical Aptitude test, Musical Aptitude test, Art aptitude test, Military aptitude test, Teaching aptitude test etc. they are most often used for vocational guidance.
GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY (GATB):
The General Aptitude Test Battery or G.A.T.B. was developed by the U.S. Employment Service from 1942 to 1945 and used through to the 1990's for both job screening and career guidance. This bettery developed by the united states of employment services has p roved occupationally very significant. It consists of 12 tests which measures 9 aptitudes important for success in a wide variety of occupations. 8 of the tests are paper pencil test and are issued in 3 booklets. The other 4 are apparatus test. The tests a re 1) Name comparison 2) Computation 3) Three dimensional space 4) Vocabulary 5) Tool matching 6) Arithmetic reasoning 7) Form Matching 8) Mark Making 9) Place 10) Turn 11) Assemble 12) Disassemble. The factors covered by the GATB are as under:G. Intelligence-General learning ability, ability to grasp instructions and underlined principles. It is often referred to as scholastic aptitude and is measured by adding the scores of three tests also used to measure other factors (Vocabulary, arithmetic reasoning, and three dimensional spaces). V. Verbal aptitude ± ability to understand the meaning of words and paragraph, to grasp concept presented in verbal form and to present ideas clearly. It is
measured by a vocabulary test requiring the subject to indicate which t wo words in each set have either the same or opposite meaning. N. Numerical aptitude: ability to perform arithmetic operation quickly and accurately. It is measured by Computation and Arithmetic Reasoning Test. The computation test involves speed and accuracy in simple computation with whole numbers. S. Spatial aptitude - ability to visualize object in space and to understand the relationship between plans and solid forms. It is measured by Three Dimensional Space Test, involving the ability to comprehend two dimensional objects and to visualize effects of movement in three dimensions. P. Form Perception- Ability to perceive pertinent detail in objects or in graphic material, to make visual comparisons and discriminations in shapes and shadings. It is measured by two tests requiring the subject to match identical drawings of tools in one test and of geographic forms in the order. Q. Clerical Perception- ability to perceive pertinent detail in verbal or numerical material to observe difference in coping. Tables, lists,etc. It might also be called proof reading. It is similar to P but requires the matching of names. K. Motor Coordination- Ability to coordinate hand movement with judgments made visually speed and precision. It is measured by a simp le paper pencil test requiring the subjects to make specified pencil marks in a series of squares. F. Finger Dexterity- Ability to move the finger and to manipulate small objects rapidly and accurately. It is measured by two tests requiring the assembling and disassembling, respectively of rivets and washers. M. Manual Dexterity: ability to move the hands easily and skillfully involve a gross type of movement than finger dexterity. It is measured by two tests requiring the subject to transfer and reverse pages in a board.
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY:
It is an integrated battery of guidance tests. It was developed by George K. Bennett , Harold G. Seashore and Alexander G. Wesman in 1947 to provide an integrated , scientific and well standardized procedure for measuring the abilities of boys and girls in grades it through 12 for purposes of educational and vocational guidance.
Theory Behind Differential Aptitude Tests
The Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) battery follows the theory that different individuals have varying levels of interest and intelligence in different fields. You may be good at math but bad in verbal reasoning. Some may architect language excellently but may be very bad in calculations. The variety of human society in aptitudes generates a balance. However, total score of general aptitude tests can¶t make a true calculation of your different kinds of aptitudes. On the other hand the aptitude tests offered by the individual employers are too s pecific to measure you all out potentials. The battery includes 8 test s1) Verbal reasoning 2) Numerical ability 3) Abstract reasoning 4) Clerical speed and accuracy 5) Mechanical reasoning 6) Space relations 7) Language usage I: Spelling 8) Language usage II: sente nces
Verbal Differential Ability Scale
Verbal Reasoning Test measures your ability to find relations amongst words. How do you view a concept? How do you manipulate abstract ideas? Etc are the topics on which various verbal analogies are framed.
Numerical Differential Ability Scale
This differential aptitude test measures your capability to interpret numerical relationships between different figures. One¶s mathematical reasoning is also tested. One can improve your performance by going through basic mathematical manual s and science hand books.
Abstract Reasoning Differential Ability Scale
It is intended as a non-verbal measure of the student¶s reasoning ability. The series presented in each problem require the perception of an operating principle in a changing
diagram. In each instant the student must discover the principle or principles governing the change of the figures and give evidence of his understanding by designing the diagrams which should logically follow. This differential aptitude test measures your reasonin g when you solve problems in terms of size, shape, position, quantity or other geometric figures and shapes. Logical thinking is involved.
Mechanical Reasoning Differential Ability Scale
Mechanical Reasoning (MR) measures your ability to understand mechani cal principles of machines, motion and devices. It is an important test for engineering and machine operation jobs. It involves logic with motion. However, specialized knowledge is not required.
Space Relations Differential Ability Scale
Space Relations (SP) measures your capability to analyze three dimensional figures. How do you see 2D or 3D drawings? The items require mental manipulation of objects in three dimensional objects. When one is looking for some job in engineering, architecture or designing on e can expect such kind of aptitude test.
Spelling Differential Ability Scale
Spelling test measures your capability to recognize correct or incorrect spelled common English words. This differential aptitude test is used for English and writing courses.
Language Differential Ability Scale
Language Usage Test is used to measure one¶s ability to detect grammatical and other language errors (using present/past tense, direct/indirect speech, capitalization etc). This test is mainly used to screen candidates for jobs in journalism, review writing and management courses. One must have basic knowledge of grammar, punctuation, and capitalization of English language to score better in this test.
Speed and Accuracy Differential Ability Scales
Perceptual Speed and A ccuracy (PS&A) measures one¶s quickness and accuracy in performing your jobs. And one must know it is impossible to succeed with office working without making and implementing right decisions quickly.
SPECIAL APTITUDE TEST MECHANICAL APTITUDE TEST:
Mechanical ability is an ability involved in manipulating concrete objects such as tools and in dealing mentally with mechanical movement . mechanical aptitude infact is a matter of scale ranging from the lower end of the abilities of a machinist or a technic ian to the higher range of skills of an enginee r .persons possessing high degree of this aptitude are likely to make more than average progress in mechanical occupation .
Tests Of Mechanical Aptitude
1 ) Minnesota mechanical assembly test :- this test measures a person¶s ability to put together the parts of mechanical device .it has been considered as a indication of aptitudes for such traders as wood worker , iron worker , machinist, tool maker , sheet metal worker and auto mechanic . 2) Minnesota special relation test:-this test is used to measure speed and accuracy in discriminating size and shape. It is suitable for testing adults as well as pupils in the upper elementary and secondary school. 3) Minnesota paper form board :- this test is available from the psychologica l corporation 757 .the test furnishes an indication of ability to discriminate geometrical patterns in two dimension and to manipulate such figures mentally. 4) Jhonson O Connors Wiggly blocks :-This test is used for such occupation as machinist tool and dye-markers, Draftman , engineers and architect . 5) L.J.O.rourkeeµs mechanical aptitude test:- this tests are based on assumption . This test has two parts . part 1 is pictorial , 2 nd part is entirely verbal -60 mechanical information questions are presente d in a aptitude choice form .
6) Standquist mechanical test 1 and 2 :-this test resemble part 1 of O. Rourkee mechanical aptitude test in the use of pictorial materials . they presumably call for keen perception of mechanical relation and ability to reason about them . 7) Sharma mechanical aptitude test battery:-this battery measures the mechanical aptitude of the students from 8 to 12 grade s. The battery can be used for adults outside schools and for candidates seeking employment. It consists of 5 test of mechanical aptitude a) Mechanical knowledge test b) Mechanical comprehension test c) Space relation test d) Form relation test e) Mechanical adaptability test 8) A battery of mechanical aptitude tests for the selection of craftsman training by the directorate general of employment and training : - This tests consists of two subtest, verbal and non-verbal and it is administered in group , candidate between 16 to 25 years . 9) Bennett mechanical comprehension tests : - The test is available in two equivalent forms S and T . This forms are suitable for high school students , industrial and mechanical job applicants , employees and candidate for engineering school .
CLERICAL APTITUDE TEST
This test refers to the ability of routine clerical work
Test Of Clerical Aptitude
1 ) Minnesota clerical aptitude test : -it is used for industry and for guidance purposes 2) General clerical aptitude test:-this type has been designed as a general differential test for use withal types of clerical workers . 3 ) Detroit clerical aptitude examination :- this test is designed to predict the success of students in commercial courses in high school . 4) R.R.W test:- this is a verbal clerical aptitude test and administered in group .
5) Clerical aptitude test by institute of vocational guidanc e , Bombay :- this test is verbal in nature and is administered in group . It is for student of class 10 and onwards . 6) A test of clerical aptitude by T.P lele and others . This test is also verbal in nature and administered in group
MEDICAL APTITUDE TEST :
Medical aptitude can be thought of a combination of traits or pattern of traits indicative of potential success in medical work or activities . some of these traits are largely inherent as basic intellectuall ability , some are largely acquired as k nowledge in the signs of chemistry , physics and biology .
Test Of Medical Aptitude :-
1 ) The association of American medical college, scholastic Aptitude test for medica school :-this test as a whole measures general intellectual ability , premedical background and interest in the direction of medical , biological things . 2) Medical aptitude tests , armed forces medical college , poona : - This test is used for admission into the armed forces medical college , poona . 3) Scholastic aptitude test for medical schools by institute of vocational guidance , government of Maharashtra .
TECHNICAL APTITUDE TEST :
Engineering aptitude includes abstract reasoning , spatial relations, quick perception , mechanical comprehension , mathematical ability .some tests are available which can be used to test engineering aptitude , I. II. Scholastic aptitude test by institute of vocational guidance Restandardization of D.A.T . Abstract reasoning test by institute of vocational guidance ,Government of Maharahtra .
A battery of aptitute test of selection of craftsma , trainees in the industrial training institute by directorate general of employment and training , ministry of labour and employment , govt . of india .
SCIENTIFIC APTITUDE TEST
Scientific aptitude includes ability to suspend judgement , to detect fallacies , and inconsistencies , to reason logically and originaly and to draw correct induction and deductions.
MANUAL APTITUDE TESTS
Manual aptitude include various types of dextrous movement ± the simplest dextrous movements, such as those made in packing cotton , which only requires controlof only the larger muscele of hand ad arn in picking up objects ad placing them in postion .
ART APTITUDE TEST
Art aptitude eis acomplex of interests , abilities , energies , perseverance traits and other uncommon factors . manual skills plus intelligence , plus insight , plinventiveness and projective contemplation are necessary component of art aptitude .
MUSICAL APITUDE TEST
Musical talent is not one thing but a hierarchy of talents , quite varied , interrelated , and dependent upon soil , environment and inherited traits .For musical success, a number of traits as manual skill , energy , output and perseverance , creative imagination , emotional sensitivity , intelligence , physical capacity etc, are required .
LITERACY APTITUDE TEST
Literacy aptitude test represent a number of skills , the most important among which are literary information , literary composition , and literary appreciation .
APPLICATION OF APPTITUDE TEST
In general, aptitude test results have three major uses: Instructional
Teachers can use aptitude test results to adapt their curricula to match the level of their students, or to design assignments for students who differ widely. Aptitude test scores
can also help teachers form realistic expectations of students. Knowing something about the aptitude level of students in a given class can help a teacher identify which students are not learning as much as could be predicted on the basis of aptitude scores. For instance, if a whole class were performing less well than would be predicted from aptitude test results, then curriculum, objectives, teaching methods, or student characteristics might be investigated.
Aptitude test scores can identify the general aptitude level of a high school, for example. This can be helpful in determining how much emphasis should be given to college preparatory programs. Aptitude tests can be used to help identify students to be accelerated or given extra attention, fo r grouping, and in predicting job training performance.
Guidance counsellors use aptitude tests to help parents develop realistic expectations for their child's school performance and to help students understand their own strengths and weaknesses.
APTITUDE AND THE NURSE:
Nursing requires a certain number of special aptitudes. Manual dexterity is useful in practical bedside nursing: speed is useful in all nursing tasks. Linguistic ability makes examination easier. Musical aptitude is useful in nu rses home life. Some special aptitudes in sports, music or art may be of great value to psychiatric nurses in the rehabilitation of patients. A knowledge of the aptitudes, their measurement conditions will be helpful to the nurse to develop a proper aptitu de for her profession and to guide those around her in entering profession according to their aptitudes. This will also give her an optimism in her own future success.
A person who has aptitude for a particular skill needs only a mi nimum training for development. Thus , the use of aptitude test is important for vocational guidance selection of jobs.Like intelligence tests, aptitude tests measure a student's overall performance across a broad range of mental capabilities. But aptitude tests also often include items which measure more specialized abilities --such as verbal and numerical skills--that predict scholastic performance in educational programs.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:y y y
Anthikad Jacob Cdr.Wg.Psychology for graduate nursing.4 th ed.New Delhi: Jaypee.2009.p.154-6. Kochhar SK.Guidance and counselling in college and university.New Delhi: sterling publisher ltd;p.296 -336 Internet sources.
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