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org/details/cu31924021743517 .The tine original of tiiis book is in Cornell University Library.archive. the United States on the use of the http://www. There are no known copyright restrictions in text.

. DITSON & LYON & HEALY KB . AND DIRECTIONS AS TO THE SYSTEMATIC ACQUIREMENT OF THE VARIOUS BOWINGS. BOTH FIRM AND BOUNDING BY BENJAMIN CUTTER BOSTON OLIVEE DITSON COMPANY NEW YOBK C. CHICAGO CO. H.HOW TO STUDY KEEUTZEE A EANDBOOK FOB THE DAILY USE OF VIOLIN TEACHERS ANB VIOLIN 8TUBENTS CONTAINING EXPLANATIONS OF THE LEFT HAND DIFFICULTIES AND OP THEIR SOLUTION.

By OLIVEB DITSON OOMPANY. mcmiii. .copybight. HOW TO STUDY KKBUTZER.

For to play Kreutzer well. . and that are carried on with a : and inspiring end in view. But. necessitating tedious and costly repetitions. regardless of his inattention and apathy. This fact teachers have frequently noticed listless they have. to put in black the learner passes. apparently. refreshing the recollection. seen that even the playing of a study will benefit the student. is mechanical and how much more good may all be drawn from efforts the acquirement of that are at definite times conscious. obliged to and white what every teacher discusses and shows in the lesson-room. unlike the spoken word. as confirmations of what the teacher himself has said and done. The shall purpose of the writer is to present a hand-book which is make clear the mechanical procedures which the student if of Kreutzer. they may not go in at one ear and out at the other. and fixing their facts on the memory. technique fingers. with mastery of the bowings and finto say nothing of those down by Kreutzer himself means three things down by many subsequent revisers laid gerings laid — — . To the fitness of the technical material this is probably due — a fitness that brings about rily in the best its result. though not necessaand most satisfactory way. he would study Kreutzer properly. anyhow. namely the foundation technique needed in solo. but may be referred to in the privacy of the study-room. and orchestral playing ? And the possession of this is the result of a proper study of Kreutzer. skill is acquired unconsciously. The grow deft over night and the amount of possessed is not realized until by some chance an account of stock is taken.PREFACE. It is often the case that in the long struggle through which consider. quartet. indeed. and to so fasten these principles on paper that. if good may be gained from a playing of these studies that perfunctory.

good double stopskill in octaves. without stiffness in crossing the strings. a very considerable left-hand tech- nique. the numbering. but 42. 1884. ' t> p Boston. . which contains. 8. light. here followed. is that made by the author * and based on the revision of of Edmund studies. undue attention. and by skips. and ever ready. however. and the edition of studies revised by Emil Kross. flexible.IV PREFACE. First : On all four strings. Aug. the successful solution of some of whose problems may be attempted. and in arpeggios cuted by fingers held at Second : — of these exe- all times quietly over the finger-board A bow arm. VArt de travailler les Miules de Kreutzer (The Art of Working-out the Etudes of Kreutzer). Singer. In closing. * For the Violin. and in a little the work of surpassing excellence. Leipzig. 1858. Pobty-Two Studies of Bodolphb Kbeutzee. and yet firm and strong. Kreutzer rarely gives any trouble. Boston. up and down by seconds. readiness in little finger extensions. 1902. it must be remembered that it is in these For the last part of very studies that the hardest work is done. 1897. Edition based on the Revision of Edmund Singer. in all ping in the four lower shifts. the revision The arrangement. comprising skill in shifting both by thirds. only by the virtuoso. Mayence. with Additional Bow Variants by Emil Kross and Lambert— Joseph Massart. Oliver Ditson Company. Edited by Benjamin Cutter. all well-trained and habituated in the principal bowings. and some diminished seventh chords. In preparing this work it has been the writer's aim to describe as explicitly as he was able the various mechanical applications of the hands and fingers involved in playing these If it would seem that the first studies had received studies. smooth and rapid cadenza playing. not the customary 40. to play these studies with an independent stroke in which neither bow arm nor finger hand knoweth what the other doeth Third : A full even tone in all the registers of the violin. the author would acknowledge gratefully Ueber aid he has found in consulting Carl Hering's Rudolph Kreutzer's JEtueden. an even strong trill. Paris. Lambert-Joseph Massart.

'6 to 1 . The finger last used in a shift is the one by done for the sake of precision we call liie finger involved the Shifting Finger. represent four planes through which the when played bow must pass three intermediate planes are used according to the strings played upon. 5. act of shifting : Furthermore Shifts may thus require may be made one or two fingers. Shifts or. directly. these last may be called Guided Skip Shifts if if a shifting finger be used. or 2. in double string The four playing. shifts a shifts 1. 3. the following. 3. up or down. 4. . We lay down. or. strings the violin. Sometimes one finger may act as both the shifting and of shift is . singly. The Fingers. as in all ordinary scale playing — the so- shifts 1. leap. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND REMARKS. made this act is the playing finger. of stroke demand that the bones of 1 Freedom and uniformity the fore-arm maintain the same . 2. using 8 — — Second parts the by —1 — Skip remote board more or called Scale Shift 6. : Unless the shifting finger he also the playing finger. . and Free Skip Shifts no shifting finger be used. then. 7. 4. which a change . to of finger less Shifts to 5. — Rule finger. the Playing Finger. and the finger first used in a new shift. the shifting finger must take its place in the new shift before the playing The third. over the interval of a — moving over the may be made up or down second.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. of The Bow. up or down. 9.

No. A r:e Minor— ^—Adagio Sostenuto. and the bouncing or bounding bow- In either class wrist action is ever present. "on all whatsoever plane the the bow may travel. regardless slurrings. 1 . 23. to cross the two bones of the fore-arm und'ily. 1. predominating. and to exchange a position in which the muscles have all the freedom possible for one in which the wrist movements are cramped and means lowing.^£^=t^^ Original Edition. one to the other. This study belongs well along in the set paratory to No. thfi No. two the firm bowings. arm may he in the plane of the An exception in the case of a single short note on a neighbor- ing string will often occur . in the bounding bowings. Sohroeder. however. Its purpose is to give a legato. Kress. and the elements of this stroke may not be studied with the best success at this point in any ordinary violin course. so that the whole string or strings played upon. 1. four strings and in For instance. to play on relative position. will set this fully before student. the cadenza study — — before it is and pre- for in no way a proper No. Massart. 2. 5. — the power of pressure is perceptibly lessened. No. into Bowings ings. 25 . i W^^^^^^^^EE. The two essentials . involving a movement of of the wrist. the famous long singing-bow of the classical school of violin playing. G string with the elbow held down in the E string position. STUDY No. divide.2 EOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. (omitted) . No. Hence the fol- Rule : Raise or lower the upper arm from the shoulder at a change of string. its position. at such a time only the bow hand great changes classes. described in Study The Fundamental Bowings.

although little volume may be possible in the slurs over three and four measures. Kistner. after some skill in all ordinary singing passages. Schott Schroeder. of which a discussion is is hardly necessary. at all times. and will a fitting slowness in the stroke itself. tain either forty or forty-two studies. David. 3 in the stroke are. . Edition Peters BlumenLitoUf Massart. beginning. . . . 2 have been considered and practiced thoroughly and the latter element depends on a tension in the upper arm which counteracts the pulling or pushing of the bow. The tone may be the safe side of a scratch. and in heightened command It is advisable. Finally: observe the Rule as to the shifting finger. has been gained. with the countless reprints of the Forty Studies. — be over zealous in this respect. for. must be told by personal observation alone. Still the student must not see . . As already mentioned. still the benefit of the effort in playing them will soon show itself in increased purity and power. and. movement be up or beyond the thin and puny To given : increase the usefulness of this hand-book the numbering of the studies as stengel. Exactly how much of these two elements is needed. Edition SenfE . to use a swell and a diminish in each stroke. our numbering that of Forty-two Studies. Of these the first three follow absolutely in numerical succession and in number of studies the original "Forty Studies " by Kreutzer.HOW TO STUDY KBEUTZER. It should be remembered. The former element — be understood and will be easy after the Fundamental Bowings Study No. for a serious stiffening of the fingers is apt to follow attempts at too much tone through this means. shown by the following standard revisions has been Hermann. and a swell in one stroke and a diminish in the next. up or down. with certain differences in their numerical order. whether the down and do not despair of getting sound which beginners always produce . that the finger pressure on the strings must exceed that of the bow. pressure upon the string through the bow. Economize the stroke at the . are summed up under the head of Original the other revisions mentioned con. Leduc Kross.

shift finger with the whole hand . C major — x ~ Allegro a. Kross. No. No. that if From the large number and great variety of bowings invented for this exercise by different revisers.sow TO STUDY KREUTZER. and after finding the new shifting. 'Schroeder. Fingers. No. that move the hand with the other It is a fundamental principle in any finger must be in place to play in tune tiie instant the shift is made. Scholars often play- sharp as they cross the finger hoard downward well to know before beginning beginning i keep the fingers to fit S f=£ ^ shift practice. do not push the up or down. first Furthermore. moderato. 2 . 1 . But the skUl which may be drawn from these five and twenty measures And may it is not be had at once. for this reason we devote to this really remarkable exercise an attention out of proportion to its apparent value. Experience confirms this amply. this study of may serve as the medium in acquiring a very respectable and comprehensive bow technique. accordingly be taken as a secondary act in the procedure. the places of the fingers must this first finger. would appear itself studied long enough and properly. this study is difficult of intonation. Massart. is For. No. Bow. STUDY No. With =F=P= ^ the it —a fact it is measures fingers together over the strings. and if the fingers lag behind the shifting finger this cannot be done. Although in C major and containing few acci- dentals. 1 . first well to divide the attention at between the fingers and . 3. except in those rare cases in which no trouble met with at this point as to the intonation. Original.

if performed often through the motor nerves alone. words as to the philosophy of practicing. for instance. The slowness with which an act that has become automatic. practice slowly. Let the Student ponder sufficient. in oorreot impressions on the sensitive the making of right and and tenacious cells. would soon reduce nerve impulses. lies the point we would here emphasize. A few tance. Any act done for the first time is done through a more or less intense effort of the Any repeated act. closely or somewhat resembling it. For experience before his fingers have habituated themselves to playing in tune. to physical ruin. and the wisdom of the oft-repeated inganction. through a volitional nerve impulse. and to discontinue and resume these bowings several times until their habits are confirmed. matter always attended with difiSculty. — to prove the weight of our words. a habit . we divide the various strokes of the bow all arbitrarily into Five Bowings. the world over. in changing the position of the hand. The quickness with which an act becomes automatic. while the habitual act means a minimum of wear and tear. howwill. Herein is shown the wise provision of the Creator. act means more or less nerve wear and tear. axe here of impor- wise provision of his Creator Man is a creature of habits. and also with the intensity of the brain willed act in the beginning. varies with different individuaJg. well prolonged. insist on slow and attentive practice. this. our peculiar purpose. from distraction of his attention he will play false for a long time. is automatic. that has become a habit. In the formation of the habit. is a matter a thing far beyond dispiite or discussion. From these Fundamental the manifold modifications which . 5 the Fundamental Bowings. For many of the complicated acts man is called on to perform. has shown that if. A word to the wise should be To serve our purpose. The volitional. the beginner in Kreutzer launches out into a variety of bowings. is changed for a better or other habit. and their performance has become habitual. is the affair of automatic ever. and for a long time will suffer from the harm received just here. soon becomes automatic. has caused all his acts to originate in so-called nerve impulses of two kinds that play into and aid the one the other. A new. or him to distraction.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZEB. goes of It is a common knowledge. in other words a JiabiL. and the fact that teachers.

and no slackening of the pressure on the stick. where the hair of the bow rests. The Forearm Bowing.asters. sideration purity and volume of tone should be the aim. stroke reaching the point Speed is of no con- Fix and see that at these points there be no diminution in the amount of tone produced. and forearm.* Adjusting the whole arm to each string by a proper raising or lowering of the upper arm. Through the thumb as a fulcrum. or of that gauzy or whistling tone which comes when the hair does not bite. We believe that we are right in asserting that little or no tone is made by the upper arm. clear.6 HOW TO STUDY KSEUTZEB: show the master player may be developed. draw the bow along so vigorously from the elbow that the string. Imagine the bow divided into three equal parts. Studied properly. especially. the opposite of that scratch tone due to an excess of pressure and a lack of movement. it is To avoid any misunis necessary to say right here that there no sign kind of save the printed word which shows absolutely which is stroke shall be used in a given passage. emits a full. and no break during the change of tones. in that stiff-arm slurred staccato for which Wieniawski was so famous. Quite the contrary. and even tone. quite like the matter of touch in piano playing. the affair of taste alone. Hardly anything in Kreutzer will repay one better than assiduous * As to pressure It should be remembered tbat tbis is not made by bearing down witb tbe right arm and hand. This. mind on the beginning and end Play measures nine to fourteen. — — . of each stroke. hand. First Fundamental Bowing. giving attention to crossing the strings without any breaks. possibly. in the point third. derstanding. at each the down . the detach^ trains of the French m. and. a leverage toward the left is made upon the stick by the fingers. the foundation stroke used in all ordinary passage playing. except in chord playing. swinging sidewise. improvement in quality and volume of tone will soon become apparent. a steady twist of the bowhand and forearm toward that point on the string where the force is expended. and draw the bow itself.

this indispensable point of technique. Rigid attention will soon make the attack. the bow starting a form in the air before the hair strikes or touches the string of stroke which is yifrequent. or solo. the gramde d6tach6 of the French. and will lessen very appreciably stroke . This attack must be made at each end of the bow. so-called. Second Fundamental Bowing. For.EOW TO STUDY KREUTZEE. or the wrist becomes This. 7 and attentive practice of this bold and vigorous bowing. It is often noticed tliat about the middle of the stroke the stiff. It must be made a habit. — the all brilliant passage playing. the attack being commonly regarded the matter of learning certain other strokes. Let the student apply so much pressure in the first place that. The quick Whole-Arm Play each note with stroke. sound. — student should not underesti- mate importance. Once confirmed as such. Each stroke should begin with an attack. and on producing a clean-cut and full tone. quartet. without moving the bow arm. As its a leading factor in orchestral. peculiarly biting. he may shake his violin through holding the violin loosely meanthis pressure on the string and let him then relax the pressure while with chin and hand enough to allow the string to vibrate under the starting of the — — him how much pressure to employ. on holding the bow still during the pauses. To do this the bow must grip the string to such an extent that full vibration begins with the start- ing of each stroke. nor relax his efforts toward greater and ever greater mastery. in many cases. his judgment will soon tell This grande detach6 an attack. just how although opinions vary as to the holding of the wrist — . pausing long enough between the strokes to fix the mind on carrying both arm and bow properly. the performance of the many slurrings which use it as their basis is comparatively easy. bow may swerves. and should be audible —a sharp. full bow at the utmost speed of stroke. a habit. also be played without bowing may — as an indispensable element. be laid to an exaggerated bending of the wrist.

high or low — still the best players do not it hump the wrist to breaking at the butt nor depress to a letter V at the point. the tone effect a legato. Third Pundamental Begin If the wrist be stiff Bowing. at the point third. harmful. free. be quick. clean start cannot be made. movemerut from the wrist alone. is The Hand Bowing. ance. starting always with the forearm and the top of the hand in a straight line which is the normal position. is possible with fairly firm fingers — a very little bow in the hand is not bad. An excess however. Without proper tension a quick. But. and lengthen them gradually until the middle of the stick has been passed. to make a constant legato. much to its endur- Persevere until the habit of this stroke be formed. not a staccato. sure. the forearm must be immovable. like the First Fundamental Bowing. with the effort loosens the bones of the wrist. in doing 9. Make as sustained as possible. wrist bending ends. and ready. until and the movement may be made without any participation of the arm. be it said. somewhat in the demands of the positions at the The element is. the whole arm acting only in changing the string. and by many never acquired to their great loss this stroke. The tone will not be loud.8 ffOW TO STUDY KBEVTZER. repeat the stroke farther along the stick until easy anywhere. and tough. short strokes. of tension should not be forgotten. although no play is it the stroke may use one and a half inch of hair. on — — which so many things ia good violin playing depend. then. if there be trouble. Begin the strokes. Go slowly until a fairly ample stroke play of the better . or the bones of the wrist yield any immovable upright. and practice The movement should will make the arm Ught. — which. at the butt. Lengthen the strokes until each end of the bow be reached. often the case — the arm should be held against the door frame. adding. may soon be played with ease and surety in a slow tempo.11 this. is This peculiar stroke. . Although regarded by many students as difficult. the . However. When it these are loose.

may loosened by beginning at the then. the Bouncing or Springing bow. of the 9 sometimes had in certain parts bow . in which be easy case even the most perverse wrist. position of the Bear in mind that the action here is a lateral one. so In this. this that with most hands the fore- second. and at last beginning . the player may gradually work along the stick. is the be reached where the wrist tight. the hair clinging to the stiing. bowing. being the more important. which changes are constant instance — the —A is easy to understand. making the until up strokes shorter than the down. one most unyielding. E string. both hand and bow play a part. the bow bounces naturally and gives the well-known Spiccato bowing. better this pecu- It is never wise to attempt to play this stroke fast in the some time and quite a number of studies with Wait until the wrist has become flexible and it in slow tempo. the pure lateral move- ment is modified. as written. describes a figure ellipse. the butt where the stroke is movement once place started. Play each note four times. Driven at a fast rate with lightened pressure and shortened stroke. singly. but high. the axis of if the wrist must be parallel to the stick of the bow. enduring. and ready to respond to any change of string. the genuine motion may be produced. E string for hand. approximating an liar Subse- quent studies will offer ample opportunity to develop and valuable feature of technique. and at about one third of the bow length from the butt. tiiat of the hand called. A string. then three times. not on its that the big knuckle be not low formed by the forefinger and the the pure motion . Where the string. but on its first crease. since a skillful player with a poor bow . one would make means finger touches the bow. and that by laying the forearm and hand flat on a table and with still forearm moving the hand from side to side. then two times. the French Sautille.sow trouble is TO STUDY EBEUTZER. taking pains the while to maintain the same relative parts of the arm. In actual playing. and that the angle In changing strings with this ^ick be near to a right angle. viewed from the front.

the sauor. in is the hand stroke making changes of moves and one fine day he will find automatically let him persevere that he has the two strokes. we say. in cer- tain cases. Let him learn the Third let him tarry with it. indeed its possessor son for this. half hand. but may combine both hand and arm. string with a closely clinging pressure. wholly hand. while the saitato is not only limited in speed. . and with a lightness will also and an ease not permitted by the forearm stroke he see. as usually taught. trick. always requires a long time for at all . the The Saitato. comes. There is Fundamental Bowing no use for the student to try to " catch the no trick to catch. of which a natural way. . he will see soft and rapid non-staccato passages thrown off by the hand alone. This spiccato stroke. if not the most rapid. and differs also in the touch on the string. for the spiccato is a hand stroke and one of. This springing bow. the spiccato bow. of all bowings. saitato and spiccato. With and the wrist made free and supple this is a necessity — play the whole study with by the hand bowing up strokes^ — ." It is hand stroke — and we speak. until the wrist . and is is often never mastered wont to be regarded with envy by The writer can see no just reathe unclever and unsuccessful. although France the two terms. this spiccato. even half way between the middle and will not this stroke where the bow bound easily and naturally unless used in a flying staccato stroke with the arm. seem to bear the same geheral name. how great a r51e this hand stroke . its mastery. In . Fourth Fundamental Bowing. Not to be mistaken for the savMIU. saviilU not to be mistaken. ting niod6r6. as he studies on. half arm. — If he will observe first-rate players.But let him not underestimate the higb value of the pure hand bowing. from the readily learned. the so-called staccato volant. HOW TO STUDY KREUTZEB. that without the bounce.10 can produce the point. plays in all the complicated slurrings the revisers of Kreutzer have employed — and he will probably be willing to master it as one of the indispensables. thrown stroke.

devoid of marks of any kind. lower. As already mentioned. An expert will play this bowing with considerable rapidity by the preponderance of the hand stroke or the arm stroke. arm still. When mastered singly. . the following arm stroke. or at the poor tone able. raise the bow from the string after each stroke. too almost a legato. without the silent strokes. of the player is called upon. make light legato strokes. it may be made very staccato or The beginner must not expect. may be studied — with and elbow brought forward to allow of free play of forearm and wrist.HOW hand TO STUDY KREOTZEB. and may be awkward and a little wild at first. blows on the string. producing a sustained rather than a staccato effect. may be played with the hand bowing at any rate of speed from Adagio to Presto. and. strokes still bow It will now be easy to shorten the more and to make them more or less staccato at will. 11 alone. say two or three inches in extent. These are thrown strokes. up and down. though first made by the hand alone. these are at first unavoid- While learning in the middle this factor. are always dry and somewhat cutting in tone. has now become the union of the two elements. combine up and down. . : which is also a factor in the complete stroke. however. They should be as long as the side play of the wrist will allow. or with the saltato . that these bowings are used without any indicative sign. or better. at about the middle of the bow. he should strive much speed . When the forearm travels easily and the wrist is free. It is well to say at this point. the Thus taste. this is wholly a matter of growth . because of the short touch of hair on the string. sounding down strokes. the Saltato Bowing itself. lifting the stroke. the judgment. holding the hair on the string. an inch oi so toward the butt. for lightness of touch and for absolute freedom of arm. and shortening a little the former length of stroke. both hand and bow now participating in the act which. bow from the string for the down arm still repeat with silent up strokes. upper and . Do not hesitate at the whipping of the string.

however. the shorter the stroke with the hand and the more firm the grip on It must. to improve the arm surprisingly. toughening and stretching the wrist. usually. basis of the slurred staccato and The Hand staccato. lifting the three. from by bow from the has become easy to make two or more firmly in the same direction. as is often supposed. but as a spicoato stroke only best and most easily at a rapid or very i>apid Moditioations by . that is the more staccato. quickly. later on. and to fit it for an easy mastery of the much prized and valuable rests down. not one of the string. be a hand movement. the student may combine them at any point of the bow and may produce a firm clean-cut tone. At the extreme point of the bow until the wrist is strong this stroke shoijld be studied especially. arm. It will take but little of this bowing to tire the beginner's loose. notice. and enduring. or more. the of the martele strokes. may be gained the bouncing or bounding Slurred Staccato. The first . requisite is the Third is Fundamental Bowing. and at the same time. . and. all of which depend for their foundation not on the unaided spring of the stick. or i t t may mean either saltato or spicoato saltato. a sufficiency of From or it this stroke be learned. The whole thing ! with a sufficiency of pressure endurance — and. the arm. stroke from a reasonably slow rate up to a moderate Allegro. and it will take also but a few weeks' practice. but on the spring of the stick governed by the movements from the wrist. take may now it. two. Slurred Staccato. which will be the shorter and the more clean cut. articulated strokes . With these two elements at command. Amplitude of stroke rather than speed should at first be striven for.. both up and on the movement from the wrist. the hand stroke the other requisite that grip of the hair on the string his which we have called the Attack. It is. however. Fundamental Bowing. four. or a clinging Fifth. and may mean ths pure hand stroke.12 EOW TO STUDY KEEUTZEB. near the middle of the bow and. notes in slurred staccato in all parts of the bow and up string when down . the Ricochet and Arpeggio strokes. • • • rate.

profit. and one of the most characteristic. one by one. Sarasate. and in preparing his own edition. the student will now many rough places made smooth. find all With tliis stock in trade at his command.. Massart. possibly because of the exertion is it requires . at. 13 advisable not to attempt too much at first in developing these possibilities. martele. and then one hundred and thirteen there varieties of slurring which depend on the forearm stroke self to those strokes players of all kinds. forearm bow. in its place butt.sow many and alluring They will all come. which busy the fingers. and this of itself is a matter of some time Furthermore. is easy to acquire. . for of bowings used in vigorous playing this is one of the most useful and general. and gives one hundred and fifty bowings and variants: legato. The author has never known any one who has undertaken it with success. the Martel6. whole bow. etc. iv. the Hammered Stroke. — however easy they may seem. sautille. by combining this hand staccato with a forearm stroke. before mentioned. 1 See p. have been learned TO STUDY KREUTZER. and pieces of various characters may be Whether or not it is advisable to play all fastened to this celebrated the bowings various revisers have is an open question. and to resume. and should be practised with diligence . it is employed a modification of the saltato stroke near the whose effect is much different and which is used because easy. It may be all said here that this last stroke rarely receives the development it deserves. grande d^tache.^ he limited him- which come into the general experience of It will be noticed that he has laid stress on the Fundamental Bowings. and other studies. in his masterly little work. however. so called. . should be worked played with study. goes into great detail. whose eminent success as a pedagogue was shown by such pupils as Wieniawski. It will take time to learn these bowings. or what we prefer to call the Forearm Staccato. Sauret. after the Fundamental Bowings and effort. and has never ventured to require it .

and in the course of an extended experience. confirmed by experience. perhaps a fourth of this number may be called for. many : of them Finally. the temwhich the group may be acceleris ated untU a high rate of speed gained. dissipated to such an extent that the is relationship of the tones not caught as they pass by the Just herein the greatest difficulty Qf the violin — the to temis pering of the tones. the adjusting of their relationships. follow twenty-nine varieties of slurs and of slurred staccato. . of all the tones after and to the adjustment. acquiring speed — It is our impression. a subsidy from the government places the school in a position to any course of study. pering. But it does not seem adapted to the wants and conditions of this country. But the powers of . consider the study of all these bowings necessary. or into a variant of the nine note group in which the bow takes up its motion before the fingers begin. as in Example No. In actual playing. schooling. where octaves. are only a matter of reading. This shown when a pianist of experience and and his judgment apparently established and often the violin. his ear settled. Cut the exercise into groups of nine notes. The trouble lies in the adjustment of pitch. as to Workiug-Up-to-Time. We do not. however severe. and finally two versions in This may do well for the Paris Conservatoire. ft—»- i==fe=fad= d-g:±^-3g=L=ba=r^ =t=!t The tempo brevity of such a group allows close attention in a slow to the pitch of each tone. consecutive measures lies . 2. 1. then. that time and effort are wasted in attempts to play fast. employing the bow in different parts. Prodictate vided one has acquired a certain amount of skUl.14 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. because the powers of attention and of observation are dissipated by the playing of too many ear. takes up Students of this class have been known do as badly as the boy who plays his first scale on the violin. as in Example No.

HOW
criticism

TO STUDY KREUTZER.

15

may not be allowed to flag. After several groups have been treated in this way and each goes in tune, put two, then three, together at the increased rate of speed, starting the
bow beforehand on
study in
tihe

the reiterated note and straining the attention

keenly as to the pitch.

Follow
;

this

out

;

go through the whole

same way

begin to play habitually in tune in a fast

tempo.

STUDY

No.

3.

C major— ^ —Allegro moderate.

r~r i ^
Original, No. 3.
;

/—

-^

—• —-—^—
r
|

•'

ii

T7
;

r

I

I

r
;

r+f^
ris-

Massart, No. 2

Kress, No. 5

Schroeder, No. 4.

Fingers.
figures.*

A

sequence exercise, containing three different
one of four notes, falling by seconds
is

The

first figure,

through twelve repetitions,
shift in

easy.

In measure 4 begins a

ing eight note figure, moving by seconds and quitting the

first

measure

10.

The Rule

:

Unless the shifting finger be

also the playing finger, the shifting finger takes its place in the

new

shift before the playing finger

finds application here in

measure 10, and from this point on. The shifting finger, 2, which plays the two lined g,^ must move to a" before the playing This act is repeated until the finger, -4, seizes its own note, c'".
descending figure
the string,
is

reached, the hand in shifting

upward meas-

uring the distance taken by the touch of the shifting finger on

and by the drawing away of the hand from the finger and around the corner of the violin. An excellent means of learning this necessary and fundamental procedure, is as follows
tips
* sequence is the transposition, more or less regular, of any group of notes. Such a group of notes is called a motive or figure. t For the sake of accuracy, the total scale has heen dirided into octaves, so-called. Each octave begins with a C. The lowest tones of the violin belong to the small octave^ j7, a, h; then follow the one lined octave, (/ to V, and, in natm*al consequence, the two, three, and four lined octaves— c" to 6", etc.

A

16

HOW

TO STUDY KREUTZER.

the shift note being used as an appoggiatura.

When

mastered,

omit the appoggiatura.

Two

things must also be emphasized here.
it is

higher than the fourth shift

In shifting no customary to keep the thumb
;

about opposite the
higher, then the

first

or second finger

but, if the shift be

thumb should be drawn back

in season to allow

swing naturally and easily around the comer of the "vioUri, and, by causing the four large knuckles, the roots of the fingers, to assume a line as nearly parallel as possible with an
the
to

hand

imaginary line drawn down the centre of the finger board, to

make
the

it

easy to place the fourth finger cleanly and accurately on
string.

A

Furthermore,

it

is

necessary to

preserve

the

volume of tone as one climbs up the finger board, and this can best be done when the position just mentioned is assumed for only this position seems to allow the finger tips to maintain an undiminished pressure on the strings when the fingers themselves from being bent sharply, become extended and lose their sharp
;

angles.

In the falling sequ^ce, the four note figure presents
difficulty.

less

Hold

the

first

finger firm in shifting.

13, 14, 15, instead of using the first shift

In measures and the open string,

preserve the sequence by taking the fourth
It
is

shift.

often beneficial to play the rising and falling shift notes
shifting fingers
a
;

by themselves with the
a 2

thus

a

-•-

3

1

1

i
This seems to impress the measurements, the spacings, on the sense and to make their performance more sure. In closing we

would lay

stress

on the fact that this study

is

about as important

for the fingers as

was

its

predecessor for the bow.

Master

it.

HOW
Bow.
and the

TO STUDY KREUTZER.
in No. 2
is

17
it

Anything done

may

be done here, but

should be remembered that as this
the bow, the

essentially a finger study

finger difficulties are considerably greater than those of

bow

requirements should be moderate.

STUDY No. 4. C major — 4 — (no time sign given).

P%^^^^^"^^ J ffl^ 1 *~Y
'

-

Original, No. 4

;

Massart, No. 3

;

Kross, No. 3

;

Schroeder, No.

2.

nothing to do.

Aside from one or two extensions, the fingers have almost The bow has the work. This study is generally begun too soon and without proper preparation, which we may
attribute to a desire to learn this special bowing, a desire inherent

in all violin players

;

for the stroke is justly prized as an orna-

ment

of great value.
of

But studied
unavailing

too soon,
toil.

it

has cost

many and

many long hours
tered, the

If,

however, the Fifth

Fundamental Bowing, with all that goes with it, has been masway is clear, and one may attack this stroke without For at the bottom of the whole thing lies a simple loss of time. mechanical procedure, and although special aptitude when possessed does help, still the power to articulate staccato notes Hence strongly and clearly from the wrist, is the main thing. Furthermore, the importance of the bowing just mentioned. under favorable circumstances (we would emphasize the word, favorable), the student will have played and learned a dozen other studies and a number of pieces before mastering the staccato stroke.

Those who find the up staccato stroke difficult, often find the easy ; which they may learn by first playing with the stick turned toward the face, then held straight over the string, then

down

in other words. naturally stubborn. taught the whole trick in a short time — provided bow by this means the hand staccato. Nos. until the middle as the butt. 10. 18. Kross. Bow. 19. much indeed. in the normal position. The long accented note the accented first at the end of each slur should be . Use all parts and point are as free from difficulty Then reverse things. away from the face. No. 17. 9. STUDY No. 5. contain exceptions the fingers soon become stretched out over the finger board in a natural and excellent position. Massart. played scrupulously in time. 19. as as possible . Aside from a drill in flats. No.18 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. 9. restrained. Schroedor. the Fifth Fundamental Bowing. . B flat major— ^ — Allegrof moderato. No. this seems to be the point of the study. of our revised edition (Oliver Ditson S. 21. has been well practiced. an excellent exercise is that of playing with an immovable forearm while the after each bow is carried back by the up stroke . and the gain in one. FiNGEES. 2 . able. No 5 . When played perseveringly. Drive to a rapid tempo strings — — — eventually. 13. 1. without the open measures 6. and try the up stroke. 20. and with plenty of note in each measure. likewise. Company). m Original. The' forearm must be held back. many is cases a great Very often a hand. 12. 11. 4 . 5. the slight sound that the recoil hand makes disis appears in the real stroke. turned of the bow. A great variety of would recommend strokes is both possible and valu- We as special strokes.

No. with the firm or hand staccato. Nos. Original. 19 ^^ ^i^^s^i^ 17. — Moderato. the staccato volant. 17. In measure 17 begins a sequence. and 12 may be played -with the flying staccato. a derivation of the saltato . will be the better bowings to laid first practice. which should be taken up after Study No. Schroeder. 6 has been mastered. 6. No. Grand diiacM. saltato. Spiccato.3. 6 . the bow being used at about its middle and leaving the string partly by means of the hand stroke. No. these. No. ^ E.£j f#^?^jy-^-^ . 7. 6 . passing through the shifts 1. 17 and 18. TO STUDY KREUTZER. Kross.4: & Meas. IS. Massajrt. 10. ^^^^^^^ f f f f f f 20. Too great stress cannot be on Nos.HOW 10. STUDY C major — -4 No. 5 . 5. ^^f f iEE W 19.

by the first measure 25. and the first finger being about It opposite the thumb. 29. The outside fingers.. ^ e" d^.g"'. was done with a passage in Study No. . o. a'".^= uM^ — tone. as profitably. In measure 29 Meas.d"'. measure 21.f"'. the thirds h". of the the thumb falling vertically against the butt neck in taking the shift. d'". They may be played very fingers. Learn to place the hand in position with- out stopping the fingers. and should be in place for the octave e". f". and fifth. — without touching them with the 4.20 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. third. scales is a clear highest note. root. 1 e'". E string stopped Namely : measure 23. Hold elbow the open E is played. forgetting that In measure 19 beginners are apt to reach too far for the it is only a minor second above the high E. of three triads (a triad is a three c"'. and in measure 20 the shift of only a major second down to d" is often exaggerated by a half Very helpful in playing the three octave — mental picture of the tones on the finger. These are the successive members. 3 -•- ^^ a. tone chord) formed on three rising and consecutive scale steps. 8va. w=^ a free skip shift is made while strings well under the vioUn. with the shifting 3. thus acting as a guide to the hand. e"'. alone.

which the thumb strikes between its tip and its first joint. In using the E string. provided that the liand goes no higher. however. : : . places. Measure 30 the — In taking the skip to the fifth position. or comparatively little.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. and the thumb is drawn laterally under the neck until its tip. demands that the violin be held firmly by the chin and shoulder. the position which made easy his indescribable flourishes on the G string. with the hand well around the corner of the violin. until the butt of the neck itself is reached. is seen on the G string side. somewhat complicated. in this connection. so bent back from the large knuckle that it serves as the only support of the neck the hand thus approaches the neck when the lower strings are used. to compensate for the greater thinness of string. the fingers should be found over their This procedure. ing. nor do we censure it but we consider it worthy mention. The higher the note. the This is up stroke. falls back behind the finger and following the hand the hand. Furthermore. the thumb passes along the G string side of the neck just around the swell. especially as we have seen it employed by violinists of recognized standing and of the best schoolIt may is thumb not fixed and inalterable. the thumb projecting considerably beyond the G string side of the neck itself. that it known may as a martele study. the opposite thing obtains the hand qviits the neck. the violin be rightly built. while first arm swings to the right. and that in position the touch of the all shifts if to the fourth thumb is a sure help. 21 should be remembered that as a general thing the position of the thumb in the four lower shifts remains the same. Bow. We do not advocate this holding. be said. to be the position used by Faganini. on good authority. the longer the stroke. Massart gives a number of useful bowings. goes to the right. at this point in the act. moves both upward and outward. ready for use. be equal in vigor to the Lay stress on down stroke. the as thumb it. the best being . that the place of the Some excellent players hold it invariably behind the fingers. it is said.

. — T =P=P= :*c:p:: I I =P=F »^ -•. string before starting the stroke. 7 .22 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. and gives them a good shape cipally . perhaps not altogether so and must assume.""-•--•-• . i ?--i--?-rrj^m tcz^t:^ STUDY No. will care. 7. 37. No. Qrand (UtachL Spiccato or saltato. need special Bow. Profit may be had if this be Draw bow to extreme point place it cleanly on the reversed. The fingers should be held down as much as possible which stretches them over the finger board a matter not all done at once. . g -3 " I 1 I I I I 1 I m—s I I I -. iairly The upper arm should be immovable. Schroeder. . 7 . prinbut its value for the fingers is almost as great as that of any of the Kreutzer studies. D major— ^ —Allegro =3F Massart. It As is a martele. . 6 Kross.study this is one of the finest in exis- customary to play the high notes with an up bow. the low notes with a down. No. 36. tence. This study has been regarded as a bow study. No. FiNGEES. assai. The fourth finger extensions in measures 35. No. ^ Original.-•- —^ -4. 38. . 6. — but which once done will well repay the student for all his pains. if .

10. the position — as the case may be for the plane of an imaginary or actual intermediate string. Fingers. It has its difficulties — the sharp key. and the readiness. the saltato. Schroeder. o -F- -• Original. Use a bold and sharp stroke with neat beginning and ending. Massart recommends as the first bowing. STUDY No. 8 (! . all the time keeping the fingers where they When mastered. Mastery means. 8 . B major— -f — Allegto non troppo. No. 7 . a fair speed means the acquirement of a light and ready running bowing. For vigor of right hand and forearm enters To gain this. a very vigorous. No. but most useful in point. But the main thing is to first get the intonation correct. also control The upper arm should by a proper amount of ten- sion the amplitude of the stroke. this one brings the hand out over the finger board. a vigorous. then one may drive the tempo. of the right hand will be apparent. Practised at the extreme point of the bow. it is given up too soon. hand throughout. Bow. of great value. 23 — so express ourselves. No. general playing is this light running stroke at the In crossing the strings the hand must move freely from the wrist.BOW we may TO STUDY KREUTZER. never half learned . a pretty good rate of speed. and as a general thing tliis study is. . however. 8. which must become the shorter . Kross. Also. The slurrings are useful. and lastly into all brilliant playing. Like Studies 5 and 7. a marked improvement in the shaping belong. slow practice and the keenest watching of the tone are required. in this respect. No. and its real good is never enjoyed by the pupil. the higher the rate of speed. Massart. the grand ditachS. and some extensions and contractions of the fourth finger. then the martelS.

8 . and clean . exceedingly neat enough. is spacing of the The element fingers. this in the the mind. and in the second degree on the For.24 If practiced HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. it finely with a miserable bow. regardless of the changes of string. STUDY No. the staccato volant will not prove difi&cult. 4 . the whole piece may be played profitably without the bow. this stroke will become nimble. not a stroke depending in the degree elasticity of the stick. as in the case an adept will perform elasticity. recommended by Massart. a great ornament in one's playing. of these. indeed is . To fix of first importance. 9. devoid of is necessary at first — firmly articulated slurred staccato in playing which the wrist must cause the the wrist performs its hair to cling to the string when functions. also different The spiccato . make highest order. FiNGEKS. The . to our mind. an intonation study of the then. — but just the reverse. 9. forms of staccato useful. P major— ^ —Allegro moderato. 9 . Sohroeder. Kross. No. No. often at each alternation of stroke. the staccato volant is the most and in the following form The on the part played by the right It is hand in this bowing must not first be overlooked. No. function of the hand of the spiccato. Massart. No. sense the tice that this first of Although preparatory to the trill studies and in a them. it is evident from the results of its pracstudy was written with more than one purpose in it view . I -n — ^i=t 1 Original. simply by placing the . the frequent changes in the place of the half tone.

Aside from the prescribed slur. to play simply the shift note of each with its proper finger. will i i e § I ^^^^^ six shifts. 5. but avoiding any cramp the other is to play the study with the bow. the attention may be given undividedly to relaxing the hand and to gaining in the shortest time that speed. Furthermore. these preparatory exercises save time. the intonation in the many shifts being assured. or good right away. the spiccato and the . striking the fingers audibly on the finger board. that this study. which does most work. may not be learned in a short time. simultaneously on the give this i 25 string. Of the former method much may be made of the . 3. and endurance which are some hand of the aims of this study. gratifying success has attended the use of two other methods.HOW fingers for each figure TO STUDY KREUTZER. in order to further emphasize first this important detail of shifting. There are places where the where it does not seem to fit the strings Take these slowly and with a relaxed hand. . will cramp. Bow. and remember easily. For. Thus : Practiced faithfully. The one is to play the study without the bow. in taldng jf the which shifts the first finger. with all the good stored up in it. Thus: measures 1. as written. fiexibility. 10. a little will suffice. must be firm and sure. 9. 7. and that the fingers will not feel all the Persevere until the fingers go. and to hold down the unused finger in each slur on a neighboring string. It has also been found useful. latter.

9 . . and a slurred variant of two down and ten up bow notes. No. /jj" /*'" 4. the octave. 3*F Massart. 1 and To reach for the highest tone with the fourth finger. notably the former stroke also that light running bow at the point. quently as much care must be given to the first as to the fourth finger. . /jj" /tt'". and to then draw the rest of the hand after this finger. being thus seized by the octave fingers. before or with the fourth finger. Scliroeder. or moving along the string as a guided shift from some lower position. recommended for the preceding study. d' d". Measure 4 ^^i^ i Fifth shift taken by skip from the first shift . or from the third shift. • STUDY No. this third shift being taken as a go-between. FiNGEKS. Furthermore. is uncertain position with any finger ready to take in tune. at will. f^ Original. the first finger taking its place by a free skip. as the preceding figure fits the octave. so this figure fits its own octave. Kross.26 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. and viewed in one Conse- light all the free shifts in the study are shifts to octaves. 10. 9 . In either case the first finger takes /|" on the A string. a poor procedure but one that is at times recommended to awkward pupils. and hence wrong the hand should go into a its own tone naturally and . saltato are excellent. ll. . staccato on the up bow. G major— -^ —Moderate. No. 10 . No. No.

the most useful being a slurred staccato of the 16th note groups. in which the go to the octave.HOW Measure 13 TO STUDY KREUTZER. g". however. the first finger clinging to the string and crossing the finger board on the tones d'". on getting the elbow round to the right. it will not be difficult to finger this whole passage. /" /"'. now. in the sixth position. and use a guided skip when it will be easy to place the fourth finger in tune. and on holding the hand sufficiently high. first We first prefer the free skip shift. f. finger board. The special good of this study lies in the broken chord. the fingers 3 and 4 falling as cleanly and firmly on the G string as on any other string this depends. fifth shift. e". 27 finger — Two methods guided skip shift the first moving from d" to g" along the A string or. If. which may be played with a firm or a flying stroke. Hold down the fingers 17 Measure . the procedure. take any but the plainest boAyings. The first finger may pass this shift being taken freely by skip. : — . first finger c"'. Massart gives a few versions. and Only after the fingers are at home is it wise to in the free shift. I Skip to to/". or one up the A string may place the shift to on/" on the E string. free skip shift the hand moving upward without the guidance of any finger The first until the hand and fingers are over the proper place. the elbow be brought well around and the knuckles are in proper line with the Sixth shift taken. method is the better one to begin with. and fourth fingers . some two or more measures.

as may if held thus must be first . but to shift one to without altering the relative holding . E major — 4 — Andante. object here is not only to get a good of legato.28 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. thus To obviate this fault. STUDY No. stays behind the fingers and moves about freely. employ the Rule as to the shifting finger until the fingers have become independent and set . to play in tune. No. This is wrong. No. The hand must be . Sohroeder. Massart. the fingers in other words : to shift with the hand and not with the first One frequently sees a hand which has played the triplet in tune. after gaining the new shift. Kross. 6. No. For. Care must be taken of the thumb. which means unnecessary motion and in the mechanics of the best violin playing. Original. 11 . 11 . be observed. move to the third shift with the fingers 2 and 3 huddled closely together or crowded against the fourth finger. violin tightly by the chin. unnecessary motion in a first class is excluded quite as rigidly as machine or engine. the fingers drawn back to their proper places before they may be used. No. as the rudder of the hand. 10 . The another fingers. Jt* ^^ Hold free. which. U.

and perhaps from their lack of success become fearful and tender of all high tones whenever met. 12 . this is the one. Original (not included in the " Forty Studies ") Massart. STUDY A major— ^ 4 No. all If the ear be dull in measuring the extreme high tones. ^^^ Original.' 12. No. slowness. and a firm long bow and firm steady fingers. No. they hurry. and play out of tune. Massart (omitted) . No. No. first six or ten measures in tune and at an average speed later in the study they become self-conscious and timid. 11 . are earnestly commended. A minor— -^ —Allegro moderato. of mind any sense may be made more sharp and The technical difficulty of getting around the corner must be considered. It is a common thing to find scholars who play the . unless these high tones come in scale order when the measurements are easy. 29 STUDY No. Hence. —Moderato. Schroeder. 13 . . This should not be. Make each group the One bowing is amply sufficient. violin. No. 13. 14 Schroeder. I I 13. If any study in Kreutzer requires slow practice for a long time until the fingers become set and infallible. M ^^ I ^ ^^^ g . weak in tone.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. Eross. the more reason for keen attention — for by concentration discerning. Kross. and confidence is good. No. It is generally the careful but bold player who plays in best tune in the high shifts. 13. and the left elbow be held well under the object of special consideration.

. 4 is guided and made sure of intonation by the touch on finger In those measures where the 3. A great variety of strokes is given by Kross. 32. hand staccato. as in the fifth measure. indeed to play on strings which are not properly" Finally. if one would play in tune. and will be the gainer in the end. Reduce the figures to their lowest terms. and by After learning the original bowing. further. is to do one's self a positive harm. where it fits two strings. while accenting the note in the up stroke until both hand and stick respond. some exacting sized. as usually done. Hold down the fingers extensions occur. figure does not require three strings. the slurred and the stacPlay the staccato cato three string arpeggios may be practiced. and will have the satisfaction of feeling that these studies are little. Bow. of the double stop studies. to the bare chords. finger help the other in finding its place. held down on the next string. the bow held on the string. Studies 1 to 42. Hold down Except where a shift is made. loose wrist with the bow at the point. any more difficult. the two upper tones of each figure may be played. then attempt the bounce. first . thus m -jA- ^ 3 ^ ^- i ^ ^ and play the study through as a pure chord study. which requires a Massart. one finger should the fingers. first of emphasize this fact let — the the double stop studies.0 HOW We have here the TO STUDY KREUTZER. that its instead of playing the book straight is through in the numerical order. after finishing this study. he will save much time.3. Let us first if And us say. than many others in the set. concenta-ating the by avoiding a long bow. But. Thus. bits the pupil. takes up slowly and by much dreaded last ten studies. in measure 3. if FiNGEES. the strings must be well gauged. following the directions given in No. so to speak. until arpeggio with ! the wrist articulates stroke.

and 11 In measure shift (easy) this latter case 9. 13 . A major — ^ — Moderate. after the An intonation study of the first fingers begin to go.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZEB. two from the first (difficult). t Massart. 14. the finger 4 being at the same time extended for the In measures 10. the its taking tone first whole hand must move. No. three extensions occur. the hand in hand after it. and one from the fifth shift swinging around the corner. No. . No. 11. FiNGBKS. Kress. -which. fe & Original. ^^S order. Hold the fingers close to the strings throughout. finger 1 falling over the tone <?"'. No. Measures 10. may serve to develop the bow. 9. 14. 12 . The fourth finger must not reach out into the new shift and draw the high note g"'. 31 STUDY No. the changes of shift are made by sliding the first finger over the tones c" and d" to e". the shifting finger This technical procedure we have of all. -fc^ . 12 Sohroeder.

4 3 l_SZ ^ 1 I I i Measures 40. 1. and a light- . Draw the thumb back before going into the third shift. facilitates the playing of a passage like this one it allows the hand to move freely and with the least hinderance. This difficult jStudy should be played until flexibility has been gained. To perform the given bowing properly. economy of stroke. that many of the best violinists play with the thumb bent freely backward behind the hand.32 already discussed HOW . Such a holding in question . amounts to possessing a good smooth tone. the neck of the violin resting on the thumb instead of being pinched between the thumb and the base of the forefinger. as the shifting finger. some lower finger must be held down to keep the hand in place. considerable are some of the difficulties that to master So them means a decided growth of ear. Bow. we would say that in extensions. Measure 25 The second finger shifts from g" in the fourth : group to (/". in this connection. would mention again. except in those which follow the open string. Furthermore. TO STUDY KREUTZER. 41 ^i=^ ^M^ Swing the hand freely A^tt ^ We around the corner in shifting upward. but the frequency with which one meets with faulty shifting prompts us to again mention it.

by slow practice . play assiduously with the hand stroke. Kress. is of no importance here. As a study for this especial bow- ing. Preparatory to the spiccato. No. STUDY B flat No. Massart. easily and freely made. 15 Sohroeder. do not grasp the result may from this as from too much trilling. bow to the many changes The saltato especially. especially of the following variant So much endurance must be acquired that unjaded at the end of the study. No. causing the hair to cling closely to the string. major— J —Allegro non w vr ^^^ Original. to search it out. Stiffness the fingers remain Furthermore. Study No. string too firmly. as it were. troppo. ^ w^ . rather than a quantity of notes. and the student should never forget . and the student will do well to appreciate its importance. of no consequence for some time. 14 . the 33 of string. and that light running stroke at the point recommended in 8. an act in which the finger springs like a This may be gained only flash to do the command of the will. No. 15. The desideratum is a series of perfectly even beats. This gives the wrist practice in this that elliptical movement without which no one can play spiccato stroke in this study.HOW ness of wrist which fits TO STUDY KREUTZER. Special closeness of beat Rapidity or aim: to develop a third finger trUl. and spiccato strokes are recommended. also. Quality of practice should be striven for. 15. this is one of the first in the literature. No. 13 .

which may be learned very quickly and safely when . 14 .34 that a good takes its trill is HOW own . TO STUDY KREUTZER. We believe. Kross. We cannot see why this study and the following study should be played with short spasmodic trills. We do not advise a short trill at least eight notes in the constrained . No. 16. also. No. triU and turn will repay best. m :*=:t=L: Original. Schroeder. STUDY No. as it were. practice these slowly with a loose hand until they go. 15 . and that all healthy time and cannot be forced. if practised slowly with quite a long as follows ^^^^m ^ ! 1 This method does away with the harmful " cramp trill " of one oi two beats . No. and not with an accent. There are measures where the hand wiU feel tight. 16. No. as is usually the case. it will make a action . Massart. short trill with little study. We have found that this study also yields the best return trill . D major— ^ — Modefato. 16 . that it tends to give many hands a cramp and we have found that when the finger has become free and ready. that the accent hinders the finger and that the too early study of the short trill is injurious. awkward. One charm of the trill is that it may begin its warble insensibly. growth a matter of growth.

No. or legato with the hand stroke. TO STUDY KREUTZER. p^ EE dutJzJzi: izzti Original. 16 . The union brilliant trill of a bold martel6 stroke with an easy. 16 . 17. 19 . Kross. clear. quickly. Play with The trill figure may be further devigorous hands and fingers. If should be. As in the preceding study there are places . fingers. 17. which bly the may be played spiccato. where the fingers from a certain awkwardPlay such places sepa- Massart gives the following excellent variant. Massart. thus . an interesting and valuable and they these two elements are known beforehand in the nature of things the study may be learned makes this — — Let the trills be equally fluent throughout. major— ^ —Maestoso. go hard not so much from weariness as ness of position of the hand and fingers. No. figure. veloped. and study. which we have found to be unequalled in loosening and strengthening the fourth finger. Sohroeder. rately with i-elaxed hand. No.HOW the long trill is easy. STUDY B flat No. No. unifying admira- bow and the little finger. 35 and without any danger of stiffening the This method also gives beats enough to call for a sustained and even effort.

than those which preceded them. STUDY No. As in the other trill studies. No. Nor does the fact that nearly every subsequent edition presents these ten studies as the end of Kreutzer defend satisfactorily this place at the work must be taken up end of the course. the learner will come across places where his hand will feel helpless. if that these studies are Experience has shown that. Hence a little a day much better than any strenuous it effort to take the trill by storm and to thus learn in a short time. Kross. G major— J— Moderate PW^iP Original. No. Schroeder.36 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. Requires great endurance of finger. No. single stopping. will play them better than if taken at the end of the course and in consequence will life-long be the gainer thereby. tc weariness of finger. 18. must be played slowly and with a loose hand until easy. causes not a few scholars to slight what should be given plenty of time. to recommend what may to many seem a bold innovation. Tlieir position in the original edition does not argue that the double-stop after the other work has been done. If these studies were more difficult. All trUls in the shifts 3 and 4 on the two back strings. the tiring the trills on the G string hand very quickly. The very fact that they come at the end of months — of study in Kreutzer. to our way of thinking there would be all the more reason for beginning them betimes. No. H«-=-^ Massart. or far more difficult. 19. Play slowly. and. aside from the fact no more difftoult than many of the passages in these double-stop studies be begun now. "We take occasion here. 17 . namely: the beginning of the double-stop studies at this point in the course. 20 . very probably ia this study. and. awkward due to position of the hand. and the pupil will in the many more weeks to the consideration of is ordinarily the case. from the element growth thus fostered. 17 . . they will act as a relief to the nature of things devote two-string playing than of gradual many trill studies. We repeat a previous state- ment — a good is trill is a matter of growth.

evenness. 15 . and in using. and that they are less difloult than some single string passages. 22 . Kross. shown that they 37 actual experiment has may be begun and stud- ied with the greatest profit at this point in the course. this study difficulty consists in shifting is very far from easy. although as generally practised they often do harm. No. No. which use the second finger in shifting give so comparatively Any attempt little trouble. this same Those measures without cramping or stiffening either fingers 3 or third finger as the principal finger in the trill. No. which is a sample measure. Massart. 18 . Take pains that in all such cases the To — hand reaches the shift before the finger is put on the and do not strain the finger in an effort to start a quick trill. that we do not consider them at all. . Clearness. D major — -^ — Moderato. trill is return la measure 2. The with the third finger. These places should strengthen fingers 3 and 4. No. Schroeder. 18. which finger trill. ^^m ^^^ms^is^^^^^m Original. 9 do good here. and ease. the taken by a change of shift. should not be will sought for too soon.sow But TO STUDY KREUTZER. 4. 19. come before speed which is a matter of growth and string. at speed will usually produce very quickly^ one or the other of the above faults — stiffness is or cramp — and wiU defeat the is object of the study. Plain in appearance. A thorough review of No. and with the auxiliary (upper) and not the principal (lower) note. to develop a running third or fourth The best means toward this end the following variant: . STUDY No.

and of the finger to its proper is place. No. Through its deprived of that permanent strength and of that freedom which will surely come from study it sufficiently prounifies the longed and continuous. No. Massart. . and to play well in this possess both brilhancy and fluency of a very useful defines its character.38 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. the spiccato When lastly. patiently and slowly. 21. no hurried change of shift. sign). The quiet carriage of the hand. To play without slurs. If fingers remarkably. also Play the variant above given. what one may learn from a study study is this neglected one of the very first in the entire set. the thing of there importance. it bow and the way means to kind. the other variants may be tried. If the fingers are to work well must be no clutching. major— -J —(no time •— '"' -^- • " 'f^ ^ •. and that times.« Original. 18 . No. first with the hand bowing. Schroeder. 24 . Kross. No. it is absolutely necessary. at the point may be tried mentioned so many this variant After and the slur. must ever be borne first in mind . 19 . it goes. is light running stroke this. through the inclination to clutch the the very thing which should be string nervously in shifting — avoided. 20. This very excellent study neglect the hand is is usually neglected. And when easy. STUDY A tt No. the one beginning with the auxiliary note of the trill being for many hands very awkward and troublesome.

they should not chafe against one another. 21. in these high shifts. add the trills. making this a good slurred staccato study by repeating each tone. As to the shifting. STUDY No. Massart. in other words. When the scales go smoothly. The fin- gers should work cleanly and vigorously. Of these bowings a slurred staccato of the sixteenth notes. No. especially if and with a vigorous forearm stroke when mastered. the outside bring measurements are easy.HOW Also one of the trill. in that fingers 3 . a Original. the must both take their hand goes to an octave were to be played. 19 is known. places at each change of shift. Kross. this study will give.shifting and trilling. clearness. boldness and begun with an up bow but the D and trills . we can say nothing better than that the fingers 1 and if 4. 17 . if played without in rapid tempo. 19 . No. and no matter what the position. Play it is it first 39 without lihe best studies in the book. G strings if even must be made to yield their tone one has to force them a little. But the elbow well around to the right that the back strings may be fingered with facility. as a trill and as a scale study. the other — possible. Utilizing it in another way. Also. with various bowings. A companion to No. TO STUDY KREUTZER. If. and hold down the first finger as much as the shift as fingers are in tune. Massart treats it. the so-called octave fingers. 19. this study to do the. 20. No. . and 4 are called on If No. are the most useful. as a plain scale study for as such unrivalled and serves as a fine drill in taking free shifts and in crossing the finger board. and the spiccato stroke. now. Sohroeder. No. 20 . and besides will be easy to play. D major— ^ — Moderato.

this one may be despatched STUDY B flat No. No. No. Schroeder. i p=EEF^h? spiccato. We have never seen any special merit in this study and would it. fel^ EEE fff^-3 Original. nm . No. -^•-^ . 26 . 22 . STUDY No. No. A flat major — -^ —Moderate. much time on going studies have been well learned. Ee h M Original. 21 . 23. 22. 22.40 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. major— ^ —Adagio. triplet variants. ! I I ! -f-fA .^fl I I ^^ Kross. . which aim at lightness and rapidity and represent a phase of technique We recommend these variants as more valuable than any trill practice. 23 Schroeder. No. ^- I I Massart. No. not advise the student to spend very quickly. 21 . 23. ^v-"* m If the fore- Massart. No. No. 20 Kress. Massart gives some exceedingly valuable that the violinist will find indispensable.

-zprf^r^ iEEE^ ^ "^^ No. for instance. But if. because they attempt too great a run at first and in so doing fail to hear what they are playing. £ * i f f: f f f f - -fc and be then put together. 41 Most scholars. 2. the results will be most satisfactory. the first and second cadenzas be broken.4. go to pieces on this study. W=. and often at last regard its successful performance as problematical. which experience has shown to be the quickest way to master them.t it ^m^. Furthermore. although these accents may be hidden in the general sweep of the — to the learner whole thing. and waste both time and strength. For the different elements of these runs will then have been considered in detail.^ ^ 5^"^ 4. ^ -^^^^ g — which may .lt=t ^t* -TT^frrf^ =f: ^• i p *=f=^=fef=fy-^ :t=ti -i-(t -4--*i-•.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. as follows: -- No.-^- -m- iH =sscr=n -I— ^ 1 i lYz SeSeEeEeE ~% -" U-1 -^-. although the general impresis sion prevails that the cadenza in a sense be true a run without time it is not a run without accents. ^^E--^ EE . In many of the runs the first note is tied this tied . 1.

No. No. a diminish in each slur wiU give if Indeed. accented note. 27 . 1 the scholar will then have a long himself.42 note is tihe it HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. without distraction. Schroeder. all It has been found useful and time saving to play this study through as a single finger study as f oUows . No. 23 . notwithstanding. G minor — ^ — Allegro.. 24. 24. ^t ee gg^ g^t££tf f f f ff ^ ^ f^f f itfr r r ^^~F^ 1 . Furthermore. 23 Kross. bow at his command and may devote to his fingers. r r r H Massart. Then play bow at the beginning of each stroke. The accentuation of the triplets In those measures in even notes which begin without a first note. tie. and spare the goes smoothly. i^^P^ Original. :E£ ^?T E^ s s s - . STUDY No. the unaccented note. '^ 4t. the study of a swell and skill. it is well to break the slurs until each run as written. No. accent the As to the bow . this Study should one would extract all its goodness. S^'^h'T . 4. be preceded. consideration of Study No. and the note which follows is plain. by a careful .

Original (not included in "Forty Studies ") . G major — ^ —Allegro moderato. let him take up and finish these even if two studies with the assurance of success.HOW TO STUDY KREUtZER. For the fingers are easily made stiff. slight. 85. too. and the saltato stroke is as good as any. ^ tlie m . are nothing more than Octaves taken by the octave fingers. and then the lower notes in the same manner. 24. 14. to play all the upper notes with the proper if fingers. This method helps many hands to learn the measurements most quickly. No. The who has learned the foregoing studies more than half way. . So. Massart. for the free shifts in Nos. 25. 22 Kross. But we would warn the enthusiastic student against any prolonged practice of this study and warn him earnestly. 6. After the thing goes well. 10. Bow variants are suggested here. plan. No. . No. not sounded. The difficulty of this study is the only safe plan. put the fingers together and play the study as it stands. 21 Schroeder. if played properly. must have unconsciously played octaves for some time . and no extra bowing seems necessary or possible. is slight. 43 This means. and 20. « scholar STUDY No. Difficulty. Study in the same way as No. as octaves were being played. and a little practice at a time is the best and safest .

STUDY No. 24 Massart. play with a bold and vigorous stroke. No. and the firm forearm stroke also. 26. back to allow the change to the sixth shift in the t H^^'-F^ ^ ^ii ^^JE^^r^ may be changed to octaves. guiding the hand. . extensions. elbow well around to the and place fingers 3 and 4 on the strings with especial care fingers and strength. No. No. and Massart gives several bowings. and fingers held down and out In crossing over the finger board. let the thumb strike the butt of the neck. the running point stroke. after which the thumb may be drawn next measure. and are made more easy by bending the first finger backward and sideways from the large knuckle — or the tenths By persistent study learn to drive this at a rapid pace. bring the -right. scales. shifts. No. 28 . . B flat major — -^ — Moderato. for these are the the higher positions. ^ ^ Some of the extensions are awkward. the finger board in high shifts. are the features of this study. of which we would suggest the grande d6tach6. as oi exceeding value. which give most trouble in Measure 20 pj^^g^^^ Skip to fourth shift. 24 . ig^ff Skip ^i^^i^^ . Schroeder. the spiccato and the saltato. Kross. 26.44 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. Original.

27. with or without accent. characterize the study and demand a very quiet hand with unusual side play from the large knuckles of the first and fourth fingers. No. the long slurs with constant changes of string. as much as anything. No. 27. be moderate but to play it in — at this point. STUDY B minor— No. The difficulty lies in the frequent contractions and extensions. fe / Original. An may intonation study. 25 . Original. i^^ \=^_ jS: / / . requires a very ready and expert set of fingers which are not often possessed little in this study that will give . 45 STUDY No. and from the whole measure slur. 27 . If the preceding studies have been well learned there is any trouble. These. Although this is a violin solo of a high order. Massart. No. No. 18 Schroeder. Although Massart all gives nine bowings. No. yet to the writer that Kreutzer aimed. 25 Kross. for which Massart calls. provided the tempo good tune at a rate rapid enough to fit the spiccato stroke. 26 . 29 . Massart. Schroeder. No. No. 28. first has always seemed to furnish a study of all. D minor — ^ — Moderate. in the legato . pure and simple.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. from the light running point stroke. 4- 4 — Grave. No. it and is not to be regarded as a purely technical study. experience shows that reasonable profit be gained from the given slurring. 28. the . Kross. X / .

. so to speak. Schroeder. To apply some of the bowings is. the On account of the constant change from it. when hand stroke may be studied with great benefit. has been given the tenth place in the Kross edition. 29. and quick. however. 29.first bite the string unless a supple wrist has caused the hair. study ing it may be played goodness. slurred leaps to high notes. 4 D major — -^ — Moderato ^ig Original. and cites twenty-nine modes of playing. . and the wrist has become limber. string is necessary. STUDY No. the hand travelling freely upward until. to search out the string. No. and the bow will not . No. which diffi- we prefer. highly profitable. No. the posiIn all extensions tion being found. 10 . Patient persistence is may be gained a clear spiccato. The saltato and the light running forearm stroke are recommended. The bounce on one string. 27 .46 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. the under finger must be held down firmly. with the like transpositions of other of these studies. Kross. — but surely not with the hope Massart gives it And as the tenth of extract- all its the regular place. the many extensions that must be made so neatly that they are unnoticeable. the last of the single stop legato studies. all going to prove this. is the affair of one with an established and considerable technique. No. of string. who reconsiders these studies when a mature player. 26 . it is the constant change of which the wrist must fit itself. strong. that forms the difficulty. to easy . Massart. This study. the finger seizes the string. which. the most cult being a transposition an octave higher. in which the Rule as to the shifting jBnger loses its force. There are few things that require discussion unless possibly the long rising leaps.

if in the this and in the change . No. and four-string chords broken into arpeggio figures. Kross. major — | — Moderate. in this study. as in No. 27. No. clinging. means work. 28 . requires a clever and very ready left hand. 28 . goes into the air. 14 i W fc ii -s- s tr: fi r^ t»-5- \^ i= No. the point throughout. Keep at The broken chords may be played in two ways . the of the bow hand have making of tone this to care for. and tries to share of string. thumb and fingers and not the elbow which tightens. last but not least. and biting stroke. STUDY O minor— ^ —Allegro. . this. beneficial to the arm. 30. wrist — endurance. some extensions. certainly calls for and is from easy — although a very clean. clearness of tone in the fourth position. And to acquire this. Sohroeder. and. thus in measures 13.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. 31. often. to play this study in a rapid tempo. ^^^^^^^^m Original. 30. No. No. To three- be gained a brilliant forearm stroke. fulness of tone all across the violin. Massart. STUDY B flat No. 47 — But. Massart gives study altogether without slurs far one would play clearly. The bow should take firm hold of the stnng throughout. 30 .

is the backbone of measure 1. and a Tigorous and especially tough and enduring forearm stroke. Massart. very simple and apparent. Schroeder. The points here are : the half tone. each its being preceded by — Hence it is advisable to go over the whole study several times. Passages without these appoggiaturas found. when these tones are in its the fingers. this figure member of this C minor chord minor under second as a foreign tone what some theorists call an appoggiatura. Thus. are easy to play. 29 ^t^^^. rapid trill. -^i±w=^ :p=t:i i^ ^- Only diligent work will make the fingers quick and ready. as in measure 42. the appoggiaturas. even when the chords are known and the intonation is estab- . 31 . No. play well in a slow tempo ought to give play if To For. trills taken up to time. 31. a short. playing only these principal tones. means a great deal. It may help the matter of intonation if the student is knows that the chord structure. it will be easier to learn the study in entirety. second tone in each two-note slur . for instance may be omitted when ^E lished. generally minor seconds throughout. but to it only fairly well at a rapid rate. tm Original. the not major. If the chord tones are known. almost throughout. No. 29 . Kross. little trouble . No.48 HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. No. then. both the half tones and the are very difficult.

No. the preparatory exercise for ali-eady discussed. No. f~J~. the nicely and naturally. for the fingers. a tough. Eross. attention to the part played by the fourth finger. true. a piece fine legato study . new — . 13. StUl. 32. which a secondary element.Andante. 32. 34 . f. the third finger. and. 32 may be taken No. S Massart. the under finger in the shift. Schroeder. 34 . and we would lay stress on our words. a master- m is extensions. we fit may all so express ourselves. But we may call From the very its beginning this finger must go firmly and boldly to the place in and the third finger must measure from the fourth finger its major or minor sixth . and ready fourth finger. From this study should be gained increased volume and if purity of tone. 30 . very which No. 80 . For the bow. not to mention the double-string work. We must say again. it is accordingly the fourth finger that takes the new position not as is often done by scholars. we indeed.HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER. This allows one to get the fingers in is shape before thinking of the study of a legato. after may follow. 34 . =t ^ Original. to the finger-board. There nothing new to say about shifting. strokes in the measure. the best way to study this at first is to use eight shift. No. No. believe that this study should be preceded by No. 13 . easy. an adaptability of the fingers to themselves to the strings. No. 49 STUDY P major- No. in a measure. two or more strings was No. which will make the following double-stop studies. all that these double-stop studies should not be put off until single-stop studies have been taken. The slur may be broken indeed.

If this book is played through according finger the violin. No. 31 Massart. 31 Kross. is the only way to which is. and often paralyzing in its effect. again an imperfect fingers. HOW and if TO STUDY KREUTZER. ConPlay this . and that is needless and unpedagogical. No. The chromatic pushing up and drawing back of the fingers is also a The bow has nothing to say. down on the strings. gsE E^ A study a sequence # . a dread unfounded and useless. F major — 4. perhaps. No.60 with success . requiring one finger.— Andante. and the learner will not look forward to the end of Kreutzer with dread. ^^^^^^^m the third chord in each group is =i= a fifth. fifth. be it said. sometimes a perfect fifth. essentially for thirds. and. Original. 38. with many extensions. We base this stateto hold ment on the supposition that the student has been trained his fingers properly over the finger board. No. time will be saved. the non-observance of to the numerical order of its exercises. In measure 21 begins feature. requiring two is This it is is the interval by which the shift made. STUDY So. a loss of time ensues that at the least may be called. in greater part responsible for the trouble some students have here with double stopping. in certain passages. these double-stop studies are then carried on little by little.unfortunate. -|g-r- ^M^ . 35 . 33. Schroeder. sequently the interval most needful of attention. which. These last studies are easier than much that precedes them.

34. not in the Play this first as a chord study. No. last but not least. TO STUDY KREUTZER. 34. 32 . Original. the goodness of the study may be namely: double strings with expansions and and independent fingers. ^^ . all trans- positions octave. No. that this great teacher. D major— -^ — Moderato. measures 61 before — some — an six — with detached bows. =1=1- HH^ ^^_ Massart. No. STUDY No. We believe that the ordinary student will be satisfied to play the original as it stands. ^ The simple. moderation. and persistence are highly recommended. patience. a perfect fourth. a good legato. is and we are sure that it aU that he should attempt. his. especially it is striking. all-round endurance. Massart gives a number of bowings and variants. higher. Of this difficult study Massart gives four variants. too. 32 .HOW sequence slurring. a relaxed hand. 32 Schroeder. difficulty middle of the figure. sautill^ . and a major seventh. throughout . =d=Ei "ZJ-25*- b^S*- mastered in this way. and. No. those places where the fingers go hard. pure and ^ W When easily extracted. strong a flexible wrist. EEJEEB^^^ Kross. a major sixth. It is striking that the first and second are the grand d6tach6 and the contractions. and needed in seizing the back strings with For the up-bow. comes here at the chord changes.

to their may be well to reduce some passages lowest terms. This . radically different strokes on Kreutzer. in this piece. technically. 34 . 32 finger. No. No. 33 ^^^^^Hi . 34 Kross. No. first What is it is seen at a playing. B minor — 4 — Allegretto. 35. No. the third finger measuring from the fourth. — — STUDY No. Sohroeder. will give . 33 . Effi Original. of firmness of tone. 19. and then on the acquirement of clearness and lightness. f 'f Sohroeder. 33 . first. B flat major — -J —Allegro moderate. lays so much emphasis on these two so on the acquirement. f . 36. seizes the string. 20. Kross. No. No. : Measures 17. and of accuracy of finger. No. 18. 36 We have here the same thing that we found in No. „ -»- iEE w &=i ^^=:p= i STUDY No. To return one will find useful here the saltato. No. and a spiccato variant of twice-repeated notes. f Original. 35. Massart. this triple stop figure 4. There required is Uttle to explain. As has been done before. Massart. —a is change of position in which the fourth by free skip.62 his treatise HOW TO STUDY KREUTZER.

No. Kross. 35 Kjoss. any trouble or extra work. 35 Massart. No. 37. 36 . 37 . compressed stroke at the extreme end of the bow is recommended. Play at the extreme point. Schroeder. and the remarks on will suffice made in certain preceding studies here. The second of the slurred notes must receive the most bow. The detached sixteenth notes may up and down. ^ As point staccato. The this figures should be studied as chords. 38.—t=^!^^m Ttcri ^^Uj-Uj. No. If never known this excellent legato it study to give any played long enough. 38 . P minor— ^ fe^ . No.HOW met that will cause TO STUDY KREUTZER. A forcible. No. it is quite possible that the in seizing three main object of and four strings study is to train the fingers in high and low positions. 37. No. 36 . No. Massart. No. and also a little farther up the stick. We have trouble. strengthens the tone and . -•—<«Original. at once in the first measures. Tf P- m'm$^^ . Allegro vivace. Schroeder. D major — -r — Moderate ib^ mrnu. also be taken with the slurred STUDY No. 53 There is nothing. 38. otherwise. Original. it is generally most easy for the beginner in double and triple stopping to grasp one tone after the this other. STUDY No. strengthening and making flexible the forearm.

The diminished fifth plays an important part in this the fourth finger. No. —Allegretto. Edition Ditson) In ^ of eF=I^E^rt which frequent use is made. No. Also a legato study. No. measure 40 begins a figure (Letter B. No. fingers. and renders supple the fine results as a saltato study. No. makes smooth. 39 Schroeder. No.^^^ m^h^ -w=W. Although it does not coiitain a single double trill trill. g^ Massart. At any rate. utilizing the first four positions. It may be used with STUDY A major— . 37 . Kross.) major— ^ — (no time m Original. -^ fe»5ES SF-^-4=fOriginal. r-^ _^_j^ — ^^. 40.54 HOW it TO STUDY KREUTZER. Eioss. 41 . 39. 37 . he who can play the whole study through with a . STUDY B flat No. and containing an extension of Play these measures with a specially firm hand. this study has been called one of the best double studies in existence. No. study. 40. Schroeder. No. 38 . Massart. 39. 38 . sign. -r . No.

its general effect. STUDY No. 42.HOW clear TO STUDY KREUTZER. Original. . play in tune and with a is fair tone. — Adagio. 18. No. In this form it may be regarded as a successor of Nos. No. 55 will probably and enduring little it. legitimate and natural outcome of it what has gone . trill. to play too much at a quality. ^ i=l-d^-^ zw=i. and 21. show its reflection. t" 41. should be easy with a fine. D minor— ^ — Moderato. rather than quantity. 40 Kross. however. 41. No. No. ati e=t . 48. Original. g . as a spiccato study. this piece will give and staying power. No. No. 39 Massart. No. 16. im A To it i "•fTT . before. 4 i& w cfiz =P=Cf 5S . the bow problem being a considerable one. 40 Schroeder. ^ ^ ^ and without the slurs. in all sustained playing. then. have time trouble with any double care he In learning — must be taken not trills : may happen to meet. 42 Schroeder. 39 Kross. and without becoming trill stiff. No. brilliancy STUDY P major— No. noble tone the matter of much study — study to play that will. Played with the Massart ite J J 4--iir-d--^-m-^-m I I . Massart. fe^^^ H7 t . 40 .

56 HOW No new element is TO STUDY KREUTZER. is To play this excellent its fugal piece clearly and vigorously. like follows naturally from a clean bow. although. It fingering. introduced here. and clear what has gone before. predecessor. calls for it not easy. and is a worthy ending of this surpassingly useful set of studies. .

as well as the best engraved. the outcome of study. Massart. will give the student command of the light. but has also drawn from "L' Art de travailler les Etudes de Kreutzer. on which subsequent courses of advanced violin-playing. and extant. studied rightly. the world over. and himself the by L. detail.FORTY-TWO STUDIES FOR THE VIOLIN By RODOLPHE KREUTZER Edited by BENJAMIN CUTTER Price." of Kreutzer. and yet unsurpassed. present the that is of solid violin-playing. and this how sum these total Kreutzer Etudes. Careful examination of the works the nature of violin technics of the Italian masters will show how was gradually learned and developed by them. . bowings. post-paid. it In preparing the editor has sought to exclude needless and yet to present those variants which. Hence he has employed not only the two leading German revdsions. this in a manner masterly and as the possession To all play "Kreutzer" well means of the essence of good violin-playing. the most practical. is This edition of the Kreutzer Studies of based on the revision Edmund Singer. — are the direct outcome of the old school of Italian violin-playing. a fevorite pupil teacher of Wieniawski and Sarasate. 50 Cents The celebrated Violin Studies of Rodolphe Kreutzer are founded all (1766- 1831). with additional is bow variants by Emil Kross and Massart. typically modern.

50 1. 124. . widely known among all who are interested in the violin. Foundation Exercises for the Violin In paper.king a veritable encyclopedia of all the chords comprehended in violin technics. All the Positions) . the various positions. Ditson Edition. The most important subjects have been selected for practising material. Ditson Edition. It is thoughtfully planned.00 Ditson Edition. There is a separate chapter of special exercises Such topics as finger exercises and runs.. two. etc. for the staccato. Fritz Kreisler. Violin . (Part II. embellishments. etc. and four strings. .00 1. double stops. three. says of Gruenberg's " Scales and Chords 'for the Violin": t " Your work seems to me not merely the best. 123. receive . mb. and I beg you to do me the honor you of any worth." FRITZ KREISLER. to do this thoroughly and with despatch. The First Position) .Two Indispensable Works by EUGENE GRUENBERG Scales and Chords for (Complete in one volume) (Part I. $1. thorough attention and practice material. but you have also without doubt discovered some hitherto tmknown combinations. shifting. I have derived of making my opinion.. . No. the . . chromatic runs.25 This new work by the author of Scales and Chords for the Violin offers to the student daily exercises intended to aid in solving the various tasks of finger technic. and systematically arranged. Especially admirable are your chord combinations. No. clearly worked out. 122. Not only have you presented all the hitherto known and used simultaneous tonegroups of the violin in a convenient form. if it seems to much pleasure and stimulus from your work. $1. "Wliat the great Violinist. but the only one of its kind. No. on one.

II. $1. III. Die Gebrauchlichscen Kunstausdriicke .50 IV. V. To be had in one volume or in five books with the contents as below. and Enlarged BENJAMIN CUTTER Price. showing finger-board and the position of arm and hand Elements of Music Technical Terms in Die Zeichnung schauca das Giiffbrett und Stelle des Armes und der Hand Die Elemente der Musik Common Use Book I. and enlarged fi-om the original text are given throughout the volume. A edition. complete. bound in paper with an attractive and serviceable cover. CONTENTS Prefatory Remarks Einleitendc Bemerkungen die Diagram. Translated. revised. new edition of tliis standard work. Each 50 cts. HOHMANN Revised. German English and German which contains 144 pages of music.PRACTICAL VIOLIN SCHOOL (PRAKTISCHE VIOLIN-SCHULE) BY CHRISTIAN HEINRICH By Books I. translated.

The text make Mr. thoroughly modern it in its retical student. A." Professor of Music. who has charge of Harmony classes. and therefore that I can Professor of Music. upon a cursory examination. and appease. — — man — quickened and made more of this course — responsive. •* It is an unique book which treats of a phase of the science of music as I have not seen it treated before. Department of Music. primarily. excerpts used as illustration to the text together with the comprehensive and lucid explanatory Cutter's book a valuable adjunct (for both teacher and pupil) in the study of 'Analysis. Ohio. and a valuable ' '*A use it. and shall use it in some of my classes. if possible. whether he act as player. impresses as being eminently practical as a text-book for class use. Jepson. Mo^ scope. book and feel sure of his interest as well. Nebraska.25 have studied Harmony and would apply it in their Furthermore. LEWIS. R. Tufts College^ LEO R. Clewland. cne may learn not only to analyze and to understand anything in the way of harmony that he may chance to meet in musical literature. or as listener. It is a highly excellent I shall work." E. in a/ This book is designed. living in some place inaccessible to the best performances. in their playing and in their teaching. Lincoln. Yale Uni-versity. Louis. KROEGER. . W. that hunger for chords and for things harmonic which ch«racteriz-. BOYLE. for those life j who every-day musical in other words. St. as singer. post-paid. classical or what is &: more important through his heightened powers of comprehension he may but be enabled to hear ivitb greater understanding. ** I am very much pleased with the work and with the clear and concise arrangement." Director. Director. would review what they have learned.s so strongly this present day. to the PARKER. Director. Mr. "I HORATIO me ** The work. first I am glance would indicate that it fills a * long-felt glad to note the excellent typography. would broaden their musical horizon and thus exercise the gift Heaven has given them. and book for the theorecommending it to others. ** The course in harmonic analysis required of the students of the New England Conservatory of Music has demonstrated itself to be one of the most useful and valuable studies in the curriculum." want with me. $1. and for the general student of music most useful highly interesting. it is planned for those who. Benjamin Cutter*s exhaustive treatise on this subject is largely the result of the practical necessities and has been practically tested during the last four school years. to read at sight ivitk more facility j to play and sing those gifts of delight to vjitA more intelligence. It is believed that by a careful study of this book. University School of Music. CHADWlCK. Neiv England Conservatory of Mum ^ Boston. able work.'" WILSON ** G. take pleasure in using myself. As a continuation of the practic^ study of as well as Harmony it is invaluable. SMITH. Mass. G." WILLARD KIMBALL.HARMONIC ANALYSIS A COURSE IN 'the analysis OF THE CHORDS AND OF THE NON-HARMONIC TONES TO BE FOUND IN MUSIC CLASSIC AND MODERN BY BENJAMIN CUTTER Price. CHAS. It ought to prove a valuhave examined your Harmonic j^nalysis with much interest. measure. in a manner other than that of laboriously writing exercises. I have called the attention of Mr. and consequently may have his musical perceptions modem. Kansas State Normal School.

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