Understand the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Synthesise the manufacture of ammonia and its salts. Understand alloys. Evaluate the uses of synthetic polymer. Apply the uses of glass and ceramics. Evaluate the uses of composite materials. Appreciate various synthetic industrial materiala.


(H O4)




1. Sulphuric acid is used to produce chemical fertilizer such as ammonium sulphate and potassium sulphate, which are highly soluble in water and can be easily obsorbed by plant. 2. Car batteries contain sulphuric acid which is used as the electrolyte. 3. Sulphuric acid also used in the making of artificial silk-like fibres and rayon. 4. Chemical like paints, dyes and drug use sulphuric acid as one of their component materials.


1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured in industry though contact process 2. The process contain three stage STAGE1: Production Of Sulphur Dioxide From Sulphur i. Combustion of sulphur or sulphide ores in the air produce sulphur dioxide SO2. S(s)+O2(g)SO2(g)


sulphur dioxide is dried and purified.

STAGE2: Production Of Sulphur Trioxide From Sulphur Dioxide i. The purified sulphur dioxide SO2 and excess air are passed over vanadium(V) oxide V2O5 at controlled optimum condition optimum condition to produce sulphur trioxide SO3. 2SO2(g)+O2(g) 2SO3(g) ii. The optimum used are a) Temperature:450-500°C b) Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres c) Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide



Under controlled optimum conditions, 98% conversion is possible. Sulphur dioxide and oxygen that have not reacted are allowed to flow back again over the catalyst in the converter.

STAGE3: Conversion of trioxide to sulphuric acid i. Sulphur trioxide SO2 is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4 to form oleum H2S2O7 which is then diluted with water to form sulphuric acid H2SO4. SO3(g)+H2SO4(l)H2S2O7(l)

H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l)2H2SO4(aq) ii. The two reactions in stage3 are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide directly into water. SO3(g)+H2O(l)H2SO4(aq) iii. The addition of sulphur trioxide directly into is not carried out because the reaction is vary vigorous; a lot of heat is given off. As a result, alarge cloud of sulphuric acid fumes is produced, which is corrosive and causes severe air pollution.

The Contact Process Sulphu r Oxyge n In the converter S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) Oxyge 2SO(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) Temperature: 450-500°C Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide

Unreacted 2%so2 is flowed back to converter together with oxygen 4

SO2(g) + H2SO4(aq) H2S2O7(l) H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)



Outline Of Contact process


1.Sulphur dioxide is one of the by-product of contact process. It is a colourless and poisonous gas with a vary pungent smell. 2.Sulphur dioxide which escape into the air causes air pollution. 3.Sulphur dioxide is an acidic which dissolves in water to form sulphurous acidic, H2SO3. In the atmosphere, sulphur dioxide dissolve in water droplets to form sulphurous acidic. SO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO3(aq) 4.Oxidation of sulphur acid by oxygen produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4, which falls to the earth as acid rain. Sulphur trioxide is also easily oxidised in the air to form sulphur trioxide. Sulphur trioxide dissolve in rainwater to produce sulphuric acid. SO3(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO4(aq)


Acid rain and environmental pollution

1.Ammonia that is produce commercially has many uses. 2.It uses: i.In the manufacture of chemical fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, ammonia nitric, ammonia phosphate and urea. ii.To manufacture nitric acid and explosive. iii.In the making of synthetic fibre and nylon. iv.As a degreasing agent in aqueous form to remove greasy stains in the kitchen.

1.The physical properties of ammonia gas include the following: i.It colourless and has a pungent odour. ii.It is vary soluble in water and form a weak alkaline solution. iii.It less dense then water. iv.It easily liquified (at about 35.5°C) when cool. 2.The chemical properties of ammonia gas: a) Ammonia gas dissolves in water to form a weak alkali. NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

b) The presence of hydroxide icon causes the aqueous solution to become alkaline. Thus aqueous ammonia solution: i. urns red litmus paper blue. ii. eacts with acid to form only salt and waterin neutralization reaction. NH3(aq) + HCI(aq)  NH4CI(aq) 2NH3 + H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq) 6 R T

iii. eacts with solution of metallic cations to produce precipitates. Fe²+(aq) + 2OH(aq)  Fe (OH)2(s)
(Form ammonia solution) Dirty green precipitate


1. Ammonia is manufacture on a large scale in industry through the haber process. In this process, ammonia is formed form direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen gas in the volume ratio 1:3. 2. The gas nitrogen obtain form the fractional distillation of liquefied air. The hydrogen gas is obtained form the cracking of petroleum or from the catalysed reaction of natural gas, CH4, with steam. CH4(g) + H2O(g)  CO(g) + 3H2(g) 3.The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gases is passed over an iron catalyst under controlled optimum condition as below to form ammonia gas. i.Temperature: 450-500°C ii.Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres iii.Catalyst used: Iron fillings N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

4.Under these control optimum condition, only 15% of the gas mixture turn into ammonia gas. The nitrogen and hydrogen that have not reacted are then flow back over the catalyst again in the reactor chamber. 5.The ammonia product is then cooled at a low temperature so that it condenses into a liquid in the cooling chamber.


The Haber Process



N2 and H2 are mixed in the proportion of In the reactor chamber 1:3 In cooling chamber N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH (g) Temperature: 450-500°C Liquid Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres Outline Of Habert process Catalyst used: Iron fillings

Unreacted N2 and H2 gases

1. Nitrogen is required in large amount by plant to make proteins which are necessary for growth and cell repair. 2. Most plant are not able to get a nitrogen supply directly from the air although it is abundant in the air (78%). Plants can only absorb soluble nitrogen compounds from soil through their roots. 3. The nitrogen compounds are usually soluble nitric salt, ammonia and ammonia salt which are manufacture as chemical fertilizer. 4. Reactions of ammonia with acids produce ammonium fertilizers. NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq)  NH4NO3(aq)
Ammonium nitrate

3NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq)  (NH4)3PO4(aq)
Ammonium phosphate

2NH3(aq) +H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq)
Ammonium sulphate


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The atom of pure metals are packed together closely. This causes the metal to have a hight density The forces of attraction between atoms (metallic bonds) are strong. More heat energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond so that the atoms are further apart during the melting. This is why metals usually have hight melting point. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by vibration. This make metal good conduct of heat. The freely moving outermost electrons within the metal’s structure are able to conduct electricity. Metal are, therefore, good electrical conductors. Since atoms of pure metal are of the same size, they are arranged orderly in a regular layered pattern. When a force is applied to metal, layer of atom slide easily over one another. This make pure metals soft, malleable and ductile. Layer of atom slide


Metals are ductile


The shape of the metal change

Matel are malleable


1. Pure metal are usually too soft for most uses. They also have a low resistance to corrosion. They rush and tarnish easily. 2. To improve the physical properties of metal, a small amount of another element (usually metal) is added to form another an alloy. 3. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals (something non-metal) in a specific proportion. For example: a. Bronze (90% of copper and 10% of tin) b. Steel (99% of iron and 1% of carbon) 4.The purposes of making alloys include the following: a) Increase the strength i. Pure iron is soft and vary malleable. When a small amount of carbon is added to iron, an alloy, steal is formed. The more carbon is added, the stronger the steel becomes. ii. Pure aluminium is light but not strong. With a small amount of copper and magnesium are added to aluminium, a strong, light and durable alloy call duralumin is produced. b) Improving the resistance to corrosion i. Iron rust easily but stainless steel which contains 80.6% of iron, 0.4% of carbon, 18% of chromium and 1% of nickel does not rush. These properties make stainless steel suitable for making surgical instrument and cutlery. ii. Pure copper tarnish easily. When zinc (30%) is added, the yellow alloy which is known as brass develops a high resistance to corrosion. c) Enhancing the appearance i. Pewter, an alloy of tin (97%), antimony and copper is not only hard but also has a more beautiful white silvery appearance. ii. When copper is mixed with nickel to form cupronickel, an alloy that has an attractive silvery, bright appearance is formed which is suitable for making coins.


Alloy High carbon steel

Composition 99% iron 1% carbon 80.6% iron 0.4% carbon 18%chromium 1% nickel 70% copper 30% zinc

Stainless steel

Properties Uses Strong,hard and high • Making of cutting wear resistance tools, hammers and chisels Do not rust and • Making of surgical tarnish, strong and instrument, knives durable forks and spoons Hard, do not rust, bright appearance






• Making of ornaments, electrical wiring and plug. 90% copper Hard, do not corrode • For casting bells, 10% tin easily and durable medals, swords and statues 90% tin Ductile and • Making of 2.5% copper malleable, white ornaments, 0.5% antimony silvery appearance souvenirs and mugs 95% aluminium Light, strong and • Making part of 4% copper durable aircrafts and racing 1%magnesium cars 75%copper Attractive, silvery • Making of silver 25%nickel appearance, hard and coins tough Composition, properties and uses of alloys


The formation of


1.Molecule that consist of a large number of small identical or similar units joined together repeatedly are called polymer. 2.The smaller molecules that make up the repeating unit in polymer are caller monomer. 3.The process of joining together a large number of monomers to form a long chain polymer is called polymerisation. 4.Polymer can be naturally occurring or man-made (synthetic). Natural polymer are found in plant and in animals for example of natural polymers are starch cellulose, protein and rubber. 5.Two type of polymerisation in producing synthetic polymer are additional polymerisation. 6.Double bonds between two carbon atoms usually undergo addition polymerisation. Some Common Addition Polymers Name(s) Polyethylene low density (LDPE) Polyethylene high density (HDPE) Polypropylene (PP) different grades Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) Poly(vinylidene chloride) (Saran A) Polystyrene (PS) Formula –(CH2-CH2)n– Monomer ethylene CH2=CH2 ethylene CH2=CH2 propylene CH2=CHCH3 vinyl chloride CH2=CHCl vinylidene chloride CH2=CCl2 styrene CH2=CHC6H5 Properties soft, waxy solid rigid, translucent solid Uses film wrap, plastic bags electrical insulation bottles, toys


–[CH2CH(CH3)]n– –(CH2CHCl)n– –(CH2CCl2)n– –[CH2CH(C6H5)]n–

atactic: soft, elastic similar to LDPE solid carpet, isotactic: hard, upholstery strong solid strong rigid solid pipes, siding, flooring

dense, high-melting seat covers, films solid hard, rigid, clear solid soluble in organic solvents toys, cabinets packaging (foamed)


Polyacrylonitrile (PAN, Orlon, Acrilan)


acrylonitrile CH2=CHCN

high-melting solid soluble in organic solvents

rugs, blankets clothing non-stick surfaces electrical insulation lighting covers, signs skylights latex paints, adhesives requires vulcanization for practical use synthetic rubber oil resistant

Polytetrafluoroeth tetrafluoroethyl resistant, smooth ylene –(CF2-CF2)n– ene solid (PTFE, Teflon) CF2=CF2 Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, Lucite, Plexiglas) methyl –[CH2methacrylate C(CH3)CO2C CH2=C(CH3)C H3]n– O2CH3 hard, transparent solid

–(CH2vinyl acetate Poly(vinyl acetate) CHOCOCH3) CH2=CHOCOC soft, sticky solid (PVAc) H3 n– cis-Polyisoprene natural rubber Polychloroprene (cis + trans) (Neoprene) –[CH2isoprene CH=C(CH3)- CH2=CHCH2]n– C(CH3)=CH2 –[CH2CH=CClCH2]n– chloroprene CH2=CHCCl=CH2 soft, sticky solid tough, rubbery solid

Uses of synthetic polymers

1.Synthetic polymers have many advantages over other type of materials: a.They are cheap, light-weight and translucent. b.They are easily coloured, easily moulded and shaped. c.They are non-corrosive, waterproof and good insulator. d.They are durable and long lasting because they are resistant to decay, rusting and chemical attacks. 2.There are disadvantage using synthetic polymer: a.Most of the synthetic polymer are flammable. When a synthetic polymer material catches fire, poisonous fumes are produce causing air pollution. b.Synthetic polymers are non-biodegradable. When there are discharge, they cause litter problem and pollute the environment. c.Plastic container that are left aside in an open area collect rainwater which becomes the breeding ground for mosquitoes. d.There are limitation in recycle have to be separated out as the addition of nonrecyclable polymers in the mixture affect the properties of the recycled polymers.


1.Glass is one of the most useful but inexpensive materials in the world. Many products are made from glass because of its specials properties. 2.Glass is: a. Transparent, hard but brittle. b. A heat and electric insulator. c. Resistant to corrosion. d. Chemical not reaction and therefore resistant to chemical attack. e. Easy to maintain. Type of glass Fused glass Composition SiO2: 100% Properties • Transparent • High melting point • Good heat insulator • Low melting point, easily molded into desired shape and size • Low resistant to chemical attacks • Brittle • Resistant chemical attack and durable • High melting point • Good insulator to heat • High refractive index • High density • Attractive glittering appearance Uses • Lens • Telescope mirrors • Laboratory apparatus • Drinking glass, bottles • Electric bulbs • Window glass

Soda-lime glass

SiO2: 75% Na2O:15% CaO: 9% Other:1%

Borosilicate glass

SiO2: 78% B2O3: 12% Na2O: 5% CaO: 3% Al2O3:2% SiO2: 70% Pbo/PbO2:20% Na2O: 10%

Lead crystal glass (flint glass)

• Cooking utensils • Laboratory glassware such as conical flaks and boiling tube • Lenses and prisms • Decorative glassware and art object • Imation jewellery


1. Traditional silicate ceramics are made by heating aluminosilicate clay such as kaolin to a vary high temperature. 2. Ceramics have many special properties that make them one of the most useful materials in our everyday life. That: a. Are hard, strong but brittle b. Have high melting point and remain stable at high temperature c. Are heat and electric instrument d. Are resistant to corrosion and wear e. Are chemically not reactive f. Do not readily deform under stress 3. Ceramic play important role in our daily life. They are uses as a. Construction materials i. Ceramic are strong and hard, uses to make roof tiles, bricks cement, sinks, and toilet bowls. ii. They are also used to make refractory bricks because high resistant to heat. b. Decorative items i. To make pottery, china plates, and porcelain vases since they do not tarnish easily and are durable. ii. They are used to make bathroom fixture such as floor and wall tiles. c. Electrical insulator i. Ceramic are used to make electrical insulator in electrical items such as toasters, fridges and electrical plug. Materials Oxide ceramic Alumina,AL2O3 Beryllia, BeO Zirconia, ZiO Non-oxide ceramics Boron carbide,B4C3 Silicon nitride, Si3, n4 Metals Aluminium Steel Melting point/ ° C 2054 2574 2710 2350 2830 1900 660 1515 Density/G cm-3 3.97 3.01 5.68 2.50 3.16 3.17 2.70 7.86 Elastic modulus/ GPa 380 370 210 280 400 310 70 205 Hardness/ mohs 9 8 8 9 9 9 3 5


1. A composite materials (or composite) is a structure of materials that is formed by two or more different substances such as metal, glass, ceramic and polymer. 2. Some common composite materials are: a. Reinforces concrete b. Superconductor c. Fibre optic d. Fibre glass e. Photochromic glass


1. Concrete is hard, fireproof, waterproof, comparatively cheap and easy to maintain. It is more important construction materials. 2. The reinforces is a combination of concrete and steel.

1. Metal such as copper and aluminium are good conductor of electricity, but 20% of the electric energy is lost in the form of heat during transmission. 2. Super conductor are materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity at a particular temperature. Hence, 100% electricity transmission is possible. 3. One of the most dramatic properties of a superconductor is its ability to levitate a magnet. Superconductor are used to build magnetically levitate high-speed train (at about 552 km/h). 4. Superconductor are used to make chips for smaller and faster supercomputer. Superconductor also play an important role in high speed data processing in internet communication.

1. Fibre optic is a composite material that in used to transmit signals for light wave. 2. Fibre optic is used in a. Telecommunicate where the telephone substation are liked by fibre optic cables. b. Domestic cable television network c. Closed circuit television security system. 3. Fibre optic also used in medical fields. It is used in a number of instrument which enable the investigation for internal body part without having to perform surgery.


1. Fibre glass is glass in the form of fine threads. Molten gas is dropped onto a refractory rating disc when the glass flies off the disc glass to form fibre. 2. Fibre glass is strong than steel, do not burnt, stretch or rot, resistant to fire and water but is brittle. 3. When fibre glass added to a plastic, a new composite material fibre glass reinforces plastic is formed. 4. Fibre glass reinforces plastic has more superior properties than glass and plastic. It is a. Extremely strong b. Light weigh c. Resistant to fire and water d. Can be molded, shaped and twisted

1. When 0.01 to 0.1% of silver chloride (a type of photochromic substances) and a small amount of copper (II) chloride are added to molten silicon dioxide, photochromic glass is formed. 2. The photochromic glass has a special properties. It darken when exposed to strong sunlight or ultraviolet. 3. Photochromic glass is suitable for making sunglasses.


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