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Unit 4. Example problems

Problem 1. Short-term and long-term stresses

The figure shows how an extensive layer of fill will be placed on a certain site.

The unit weights are:

clay and sand == 20 kN/mJ , rolled fill 18 kN/m3 , assume water = 10 kN/m3,

Calculations are made for the total and effective stress at the mid-depth of the sand and the mid-depth of the clay for the following conditions:

0) Initially, before construction (ii) Immediately after construction (iii) Many years after construction

._} ~ )n<0 ("IJ'~ ~ ! l.' ., l (J f

<.' , ~ !IJ r' .

I (,J i Ie'!'

'c'

!)

~ 00)

III

\

c/v:c: ." A

0\1 ~ (1'.._

"'.' 0 '\

\ II . nl \ / o)

17 z.

\/

Unit .f.. EW1111p/e problems ~ Page /

Geotechnics 3 - lO j()

Problem 2. Consolidation test in oedometer

The following compression readings were obtained in an ocdomctcr lest on a specimen or saturated clay (Gs=2.73).

Pressure (kPa) 0 54 107 214 429 858 1716 3432 ()
"__'~~~"""'_'_"__'~~T'~~~_~~~"'__~_'_' ___ '~~_~L·~~~_~~_.r'_w"
Dial gauge*(mm) 5.000 4.747 4.493 4.108 3.449 2.608 1.676 0.737 1.48
*each reading was taken after 24hol1l'S If the initial thickness of the specimen was 19mm and at the end of the test the water content was 19.8%:

(i) Plot the e-logo curve and determine the preconsolidation pressure.

(ii) Determine the value of m, (coefficient of compressibility) for the stress increment 100-200 and 1000-1500kPa.

(iii) What is the value of C, (compression index) for the latter increment?

Solution:

Void ratio at the end of test= el' '"" Wf G, = 0.198 x 2.73 = n.541 Void ratio at the start of test = eo = er +- 6,e

we have 6,e 1 + eo

=

,6,H n,

i.e.

1.541 + 6e

=

3.520 19

,6,e "" 0.35

6e

eo = 0.541 +- 0.35 = 0.891

In general the relationship between i\e and 6,H is given by:

6e 1.891

--

,6,H 19

i.e. ;\e=0.0996 i\I-I. and can be used to obtain the void ratio at the end of each i ncrearnent period (see til e table).

The e-logc' curve using these values can now be plotted.

Usi ng Casagrande's construction, the value of the preconsolidatiou pressure is ......... kPa.

Unit I Example problem» .. Page }

6e

e

3432

~;,-~>(& ('1'('('55 f~fc \·-(\:5 (Jr"E

1.··,;(1 1)(,

("":1, \.~ F/'"

o

(j) o

.~

'o

g

10

100

~OQO

10000

Effective pressure. id"i:\

GelJlec'/l}1ic's 3 - }I)/ IJ

Determining the value of 111" I eo - e1

In :oo--,-~~

v l+ e o -G'

I 0

For 0'0 = 100 kN/m2 and cr'l = 200 kN/n/ = ~l_, 0,037 = 2 X J.0-4 1112 IkN ==

111\,

1,845 100

and therefore

11l" I MN

1 0.055 6 . 0'" ) I'

111 v = --- . --- = ).7 Xl' m - to\! ==

1.632 500

1112 I MN

and

C. = 0.632 - 0,577 = _°.052 = 0.31

c log(l SOO/l 000) 0.176

(;(\s\(;"l

Note that C, will be the ~-,-(!mt for any stress range on the linear part ofthe e-logo' curve; my will vary according to the stress range, even for ranges on the I inear pan of the curve.

fin i / -/. {Yomj)/ e probl e ins - !' age 3

Geotechnics 3 -]OJ()

Problem 3. Consolidation settlement - OC clay

An 8.5 111 deep compacted fill is to be placed over the soil profile shown in the figure. Consolidation tests on samples from points A and B produced the following results:

Property Sample A Sample B
-- -- ~-'-~'- ,.".'-,.,-., .. , ... -. ,-_ •• _,_ ••••• __ 0_ •• - .
Cc 0.25 0.20
Cr 0.08 0.06
80 0.66 0.45
O'p , 101 kPa 510 kPa .~:.! . t- :k ! -/ . () .: -, ~ j

" 6;;(;1+ _b ((; n y k fi:~ <.~- C:2~ 1 (

IT?,()

.s: --=-~ \

Unit -f. Example problems - ruge i

C,,'OfeC/III!C\ .) - :i(),' 0

(Cu "" c _!!-~ lou (. -~!~~ J' -1- C, .u. 10 o [ ()."'!'f/~?:l:'l

c vul: 'lL b , c 1 b ,

-,- e (J -1- C o

0,0 I) I'

Initinl /

Layer B - very stiff clay (Fig. B)

e

Recompression curve

Initial

O'[Of

/.Ie

(J;,O' o:.l D'r

0-,' (log scale)

H (m)

A midpoint of layer

Layer

C'IIII ./. Example problen,« - roge .5

Geotechnics 3 - ]0/ ()

Problem 4. The 2: 1 method

Two metres of fill (p = 2.04 Mg/m") are compacted over large area. On top of the compacted Iii I, <1 :\ X 4 m spread footing loaded with 1400 kN is placed. Assume that the average density or the soil prior to placement of the fill is 1.68 Mg/rn '. The water table is very deep.

1) Compute and plot the effective vertical stress profile with depth prior to fill placement.

2) Compute and plot the added stress ,0,() due (0 the 1~11.

3) Compute the additional stress with depth due to D.0 due to the foot i Ill!, when the Iooti II g base is placed I m below' the filled ground surface. Use the 2: 1 method. Assume weight of j()olillg plus backfill equals weight of soil removed.

Solution.~

./. c.

/

y\

~,r'7 ,U I Jf ')'.21

~ ,. '{o VIC,,{r ( .• (It

(illif.f. Example problems .. Page ()

(/\', ;.:/

{::i)

2 ] ,;;

5

• ~ ,. '.~." ~_'~'.' .• ' ~ •• , •. , ., .••• 'A.'~ _. ~'·_~"_"_~_A" •• ,._~~_ .•
Y", L
~] ,1 I;) III I) IS
·4 b ;:0 70 ? ( ... \:i·;~··(L,·~ t)
;J " ]0 I) /
0
0 7 41 JJ
7 a liG "-H'
.-'_ ~)
8 n 72 19
9 10 90 1(-)
10 1 1 110 13
11 12 1:32 11
12 13 1 ~';G l'
.,
P 14 IH; {',~
,) f5 7 s o

1O

fiil

"luo. t.: (.,,,~ i,.,'!.

"

'f2 "j o

tr

(\

I J+ Me

1'\0'; 'ie

::s /.r,:c:s .It· I"~

)! r ( .~ .rte ,\c< !It<f

,,j t : .... ; V'. ;::h. (,;..5' elf' Jrl (,j 0. .• !Ilh

(ftc;.;/Y ,

"

.. '

Unit ./. Example problems - Pag« ::'

Geotechuics 3 - JOf()

Problem 5. Boussinesq s solution - circular area

A circular tank 5 m in diameter is uniformly loaded with 100 kPLI.

1) Compute the stress under the centre of the tank at a depth of 2 111 below the tank.

2) Compute the stress under the edge of the tank, also at a depth of 2 m.:

I 2r:;: 5 111 '

~ ... ,. ,. ,_ .. 'C C _" , ... , ... !

Solution: i p '2"' r -.. [; /2

?/r" -x: 0·3 xl, "'" 0

.)1..: <''"1 ,~,'.~ (-~,?

~T)

z/r

'10-2

I = G /0

Ci "l t

1

2

.... , - .. -.,- , .. ~ _ ,_ - _._ _,._ .. _ .. , "._ _\

i i

t.init I Example problems .. Page 8

Geolec/rl1ic·.i 3 .. l011J

Problem 6. Boussinesq's solution ,~_ rectangular area l~,'l ·,1· ,~( r'\\' ,j, :; y" Ij \",'

\b \U:\'(\i( I H,,' Vi'l I j r /(' d r'~"

The 3 x 4 m rectangular footing of Problem 4 is loaded uni formly by i 17 k l'a. . " ("I \1.(,. ,'). \ ,", ,ojl.t,A

........ ..__... /]("(-()(r1\n J_t \.\ ~I" ~'- .'

.!.. C~ r-::,J..-./ .: '" o>,""V !J t

\ ('''''(d, (I'J V\ '.' \. "" »r., " !

1) F~ncl vertical ,stress under the corner of th~ foot! ng ." a depth 0 r 2 l~l. 'J':l ! H,' <r,: d «(/~ IAt' .,\I('I,y:",

2) Fmc! the vertical stress under the centre ot the tooting at a depth of 2m ... hl._ \/1':",'( r·.It.;I·(t.~ ,F

3) Compare the results with those from Problem /1 :5 I (r":..c 1(!)J~ Jle (,L I)' (J.

. 1\

SolutIOn: (3 ~ 3,-,

fY1" evz t'\ z: L /'T

L ~«(yv)

'i)

L~ 0 0,22

b~>. --- (> ') ~ y. (II s: 2 J:; ,i '{

/. .iii ~C'~O·7 ,,',

('l2d(H"~vk-,,· k)~1(l.fl1 02 cT M "Bh ,,. 0:'5

!/" r fhc

" / -' .. _",'

( /

? . I /i (. /f.'.1 ·:1

r ,., ,./O{P ," ) ,-v

L.J f ~ - '-:_ _ _ ~ c

? I v,::,~'; D{ /{, .. {!'r.\, r r=:

2}

6(

n ~ I..../;e i: 1-,,0 Ikx~ I 0' zr 0 ,\66

)'

\

0,25

- Values on cut'ves

r''':

o.

0.01

10

l }"II .J, Example problems - Page 9

Geotechnics 3 - 20}O

Problem 7. Boussinesq's solution·- rectangular area 2

Aft" .. _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G

A 5 x 10111 area uniformly loaded with toO k l'a is shown in the 5 m figure. Find the vertical stress at a depth of 5 III under point A.

Solution:

In

.j-t'·I('

"j

;',.,.

<:

---_)

/

v (

Unit .J Example problems .. Pag« J I!

/

/

f)

/:

. .. J

I

/

I

1

, I

....

Geotcchnics 3 ]0;0

I = 0z D

q

o 2 5 .-"---.-,~~~~. ~. T"""'"'~''''''~'-''''''!''' ) j

, ...... :·Values·on curves .: '

'-1 _, J_. J

. are values of rn=Bzz .+

0,26 T······r .... ··:··-T··T~JT.Eli ...........j ..

o 15~1¥lllf .... ·1-

-+-! Note m & n are

.;_ ••••.•• _ •.• .L

······!-i interchangeable

0.1 n=Lz

................. l j ...

I . j

I

0.05 i J.

, ,

····'-----~·--·,··i··-·,-·~-j··

1-----~-

, I

~ .. ---:· .. -··-T

O.OO=~=:::-

0.01

17.5

-20.4

Area

1 __ ~lt~em __ ~+~A_C __ E_G_~'"[=!~jJT~+""_'=_A_B_FG_"""~~_-A __ C_D_'_!

B I 15 l' 5 15 10

L 10 5 5 5

Z 5 5 5 5

m ::: Biz 3 1 3 2

n = LIz 2 1 1 1

ICi 0.238

23.8

-20.0

Unit -I. E.\"({IIIJ)/e problems .. Page J J

Gcotechnics J . ](J} ()

Problem 8. Boussinesq's solution -~. rectangular area 3

Three uniformly distributeclloacls of 100 kPa each are applied to 10 x 10 m square areas on the soil profile shown in the figure. Undisturbed samples ofthe clay were taken prior to construction, and consolidation tests indicated that the average preconsolidation stress is about 110 k l'a, the average compression index is 0.50, and the average recompression index is 0.02. Estimate the total consolidation settlement for the clay layer olllym.1_(JQLthG._g_QnJIQ.Q.L~hqmi5hlJ<:JQ'JdQ~L.'II9'\' Assume that initial void ratio of the clay is 0.80.

Plan:

.. 10,,,

Profile:

Solution:

0.01

0.1 ni~Lj;~

2

10

Unit ·f Exampl« problenrs - Page II

Geotechnics 3 - }O! 0

6"",<'" \ I Z ' l{ [) j{ (''c,

'" /-Idif;;::fl() { c; J.(e,~':; ,cel'it lu ()t! (~~({') /c"A tI"}; '"

I) r~,Jclte fOQclf'cl C(Al (>/11//,1(,4 i(ll, 1)" 'f 5",

ec. If

C: , I,: ) .,It . C"j i"

025 ~I=li~:~~~I~~J-fll, Ilj,].JI~~3;~.f:,i,r,:,J;.~~~~

020 -c-------1 . liilll!~('-Ie'--'r:'r, ..;

"-'i" ,,_~!~~~!._~~:,~~g~~5'_!~J+ii:,i '" /;;--(-_':: :~:FE 0 8

r =-?~

o

0,01 0,1 n=Uz 2 10

t- ne:cD sr

v'C\ ~e Bit _c r Iff. ,G 0-'/'1
0; "
n ~ L /7 " SD ((/5 '~_ ct
z.. l

\ 1 '6' ~, 0, I 2 "2

J

- !l C I- D"::. L "'_ 2,;;> r- I t: '::: J?;;, c"" :z __ '~, II- 5 ,(.-"1

/'

/ I

h '''' L Ix

/'

i1l- (~)

A c_,'::,

f] _

, if;<

!

Uni! -I. Example problems - Pag« ) 3

c, '//

Geotechuics 3, ]OiIJ

«» 1·,11 f,p" (',I I, '

J v,

,

62 "" c- /1 ?~, I{ 5:

!. I:::

! ! C ;:, i .: ",_= I> 67 ,:,

Unit 5. Example Problems

Problem 1. Solution of the 1-D consolidation equation

A 12 ill thick layer of Chicago clay is doubly drained. The coefficient of consolidation c, zz: Ex 1008 m2/s. Find the degree of consolidation (in %) for the clay 5 years after loading at depths of3, 6, 9, and 12 m.

\i -\ C f.,. 0'1'.. /' . -') ()~,

_;f... v "' ".~ '" ,,; j Ie:·" )·,'is ( ·:::..rt:i~{ x- Ie, . ',_ /. , .. \ c~/ '(J:~.

Hr. J_" J) <. -: c_,-OJ

,u,o\(' z

l F':)

2>

z riA \$ \'2 t'f\ 01(')

':0:> //i{ ch

z. , Cr. \

0-1)

1.5

-2_

IcG

00;/

0"/

-:

-,/

/

.: \ 'I

l-ld ~ H/z_ -~ [

C.V::: g 4 '15 ~ rn'</3 U·z~. ((_

o

1M II
II
L"\~':l"b~

0 ~~

) A3
v
..... ;.,~. ~~ ): pF

iL

i
i

0 0.1 '0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 O.E 0.7 0.8 0.9 1. .--

p,'A--

'< g* b-E_~ 'b* 5Gf,,¥ ·211.jI- (0 *' Do q

2

Consolidation ratio, U z

Unit 5. Example problems - Page J

Geotechnics 3 - 2010

L--------

)

o

Problem 2. Time of consolidation and pore water pressure

A 3.5 m fill is to be placed on the soil profile shown in the figure. Develop a plot of lith u., and 1I versus depth at t ;;;::: 10 yr after the placement ofthe fill.

T » C. t. fIt

(~, ~\~:-~ol.::)?(t \ ... {loJr\ (':~ {S A 16 () .:: c(t.'2

( IS .0)'7.

I --
Z Uh Zll Uz 1-Uz ulY U""
.!..L 0
H" u,,+u.
(m) (liPa) (m) (Fig) (IiPa) (kPa)
.·:i~;\ .... ,'> .. ,""",.,'".,.": :'9,':: l'iW9!i;; ,'@i/i;/ :;·;9'.····.·,( i;'i'!'Qij,: !:;'~Qi,
'\i':zN' .,':,t-,:"i
6 30 1 0.2 0.87 0.13 9 39
7 40 2 0.4 0.75 0.25 17 57
8 50 3 0.6 0.65 0.35 24 74
9 60 4 0.8 0.59 0.41 28 88
,,10 70 5 1.0( 0'.56: 0.44 30 100
::~1 80 6 1.2 ._...... . \ 0.41 28 108
0.59
90 7 0.65 I
12 1.4 1\ 0.35 24 114
.. 13 100 8 1.6 0.75 \ 0.25 17 117
14 110 9 1.8 0.87 i 0.13 9 119
15 120 10 2.0 1 1/ 0 0 120 Unit S. Example problems - Page 2

0.6 0.7

Consolid anon ratio. U z

O.B 0.9

1.0

Geotechnics 3 - 2010

o

U, u, U" (kPa)

50 100

150

u, Uh + UO I'

........................ S'. _ , .

~ ""

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

"

,

"

"

,

, ,

... · .. · .. · .. · .. · · ··15· , ~I.\ ..

u

Problem 3. Determination of c., my, and k from a single loading stage in consolidation test

Data obtained from a laboratory consolidation test are shown in the table below:

Time (min) 0.25

Total Ml (mm) 0.622

1 1.244

4 2.468

9 3.400

16 3.838

25 3.970

36 4.000

81 4.051

1440 4.100

0"0 ;::: 100 kN/m2 and cr'l = 200 kN/m2, Ho=23.6 mm. Determine:

(I) c, from the root time plot in m2/year, (ii) c, from the log time plot in m2/year, (iii) m, in m2/kN and then k in rn/s

Unit 5. Example problems .. Page 3

Geotechnics 3 .. 2010

Solution:

- 1.5

E

E

__ 2.0

-

s::::

Q.) 2.5

E

Q.)

~ 3.0

Q.)

U) 3.5 ;.6qu. 4.0

-

E

E 1.5

--

1: 2.0 r

Q.)

E 2.5 Q.)

~ 3.0 a.

,~ 3.5

c

1..\ .f-Q

4.5

I,J -. C":·,

o

2

Sqrt (time) (min1/2)

4 567

10

8

9

1

0.5

1.0

-;

-" \;\$:. ' .. -:

L- __ '-- __ '-- __ '-- __ -'-- __ "-- -'-- __ -'-- __ -'--_----'

1\ --1

, . \ .

)i:" lIfO.

I \,..;

0.01

1000 10000

0.0 0.5

.... ii

t/

-F

\;

-:>

Unit 5. Example problems - Page -4

Geotechnics 3 - 20/0

Problem 4. Time of consolidation and pore water pressure

In a one-dimensional consolidation test the time required for S(Y% consolidation has been measured at 154 seconds (through the observation and measurement of pore water pressure). The settlement of the sample at the end of the test was 2.5 rnrn,

cr'o = 60 kN/m2 and 0"1 = 120 kN/m2, co""0.65, Ho=20 mrn. Determine:

(i) the time required for 90% consolidation,

(ii) the coefficient of permeability in mis,

(iii) the compression index.

Solution:

, ~.

\_.\.

C,I.,1

\

. \ I i

\'! /

( (- i (

./

i'~ r ..,

. (_ ~

1\ 1

(.

( : "

Unit 5. Example problems - Page 5

Geotechnics 3 - 2010

Problem 5. Total consolidation settlement

For a NC clay layer in the field, the following values are given:

• Thickness of layer h = 2.6 m

• Initial void ratio eo = 0.8

• Compression index Cc::: 0.28

• Effective overburden stress O'YO' ::: 265 kPa

• 6,GyO'::: 100 kPa

• Secondary compression index C, = 0.02

What is the total consolidation settlement of the clay layer 5 years after the completion of primary consolidation settlement? Assume the time for completion of primary settlement tp is [.5 years.

Solution:

We can calculate primary consolidation settlement from 0, =c~cS:c I-l and secondary compression I+co

settlement from os:::::: 5...!L._ H log (_2:_J . Thus, in order to calculate total consol idation settlement that is Oc

1 +ep tp

+ Os we need to determine f\.ec and ep.

;/./','

I/i:::

I

\

\C'J (

\.

. .~

/\

~ ... -.-~

t.

\

c ,

. ~. \ f -, '

Unit 5. Example problems - Page 6

Geotechnics 3 - 2010

Problem 6. Time rate of consolidation 1

Soil profile

Depth (111)

10

A 12 III til ick layer of Ch icago clay (NC) shown in the figure is doubly drained. The coefficient of consolidation c, = 8x 10's m2/s and the compression index C, = 0.25. Assume g ~" 9.81 m/s2 .

1) lfthe structure applied an average vertical stress increase of 100 kPa to the clay layer, estimate the excess pore water pressure remaining in the clay after 5 years for the depths 01'3, 6, 9, and 12 111.

2) Calculate the time required for the clay layer to settle 0.25 m.

3) How much time would be required for a settlement of 0.25 m to OCcur if the clay layer were single drained?

--:----:---:-~__:_---"' 0 .. ---

. ". '. ', rz:

" :~ p ~ .1 :8. Mg/m3

:-'.",

15

I ;t'l

. Dense' . sand :

'1

'.

i·l/.

., 1

20

~ '( . ,

U .. ,c:

I .r

"0';

Consolidation raue, u.

\ 0 0 5t 0.238

Q) 20 \ 5 0.002 60 0286

> 10 0.008 65 0.3<2

m 15 om 8 70 0.003

::::> 40 ?O 0.03l ~s 0.477

\! 25 0.0<9 eo 0.561

30 0.0 1\ S~ O.b~4

3~ 0.096 90 oe'8

1"- 40 0.126 90 1.129'

::i------------+--"~ :~=tJ

100 o

(' T U r

-------~

01

04

Co

OR

10

1.2

Unit 5. Example problems - Page 7

Geotechnics 3 - 2010

Problem 7. Time rate of consolidation 2

A 10m thick layer with single drainage settles 9 em in 3.5 yr. The coe fficicnt 0 f con sol idation for th is clay was found to be 0.544 x 10-2 cm2/s.

(l) Compute the ultimate consolidation settlement, and find how long it will take to settle to 90% of this amount.

(2) Find the variation in the degree of consol idation throughout the layer when t zz: 3.5 yr.

o

.----~
u T u T
----
1\ 0 0 55 0.238
\ 5 O.eM 60 0.280
10 0.008 65 0.342
1~ 0.018 70 OA03
20 0.031 75 OA~rl
\' 25 o.o.~ 80 Oc567
30 0.011 es 0.~O4
3~ 0.096 90 0.848
1"-.. 40 0.)2~ 95 1)29
<, 45 0160 ion ,,'
50 0.)96
r-.
!-- r--
60

80

0.2

o.~

C.O

O.S

10

l' ,

2

o 0.1 0.2

ConsoHdiJlion ratfo, U l

Unit 5. Example problems - Page 8

Geotechnics 3 - 20/0

Problem 8. Consolidation settlement

Solution:

son pruli!e

A brown silty sand fill 5 m thick is placed over a 15 m thick layer of compressible gray silty clay. Underlying the clay layer is brown sandy gravel. The soil profile is shown in the figure. Assume for this problem that the settlement of the fill and the sandy gravel is small compared to the settlement of the 511ty clay layer. Properties of the normally consolidated silty clay are: rsat= 1.52 Mg/m:'; eo c., 1.1; Cc:::: 0.36; Ca "" 0.06; c, = 0.858 m2/yr. The density of the silty sand fill p "" 2.0 Mg/m''. Assume g = 9.81 m/s".

Required:

(1) The consolidation settlement of the clay layer due to the weight of the 5 m of new fi II.

(2) The time rate of settlement

(3) Plot of cr/ versus depth when Uavg "" 50%.

(4) The secondary compression settlement

o

50

100

?OO

ro

~ 34.4 mid-depth

.... - .. -.,,-' .... --\- .. 4~~~--===:...---

I ~ . __ .~~497 .

--\:. 574

... --,-----\~-.. '.

ovo .... _._~ G5 ~n •

\.~?i ._

76_5 kPa

20

1 r;~l 1 1"10 H

174.6kPa

Unit 5. Example problems - Page 9

Geotechnics 3 - 20} 0

Brown silty sand (SM)

TABLE·1 Time Rate of Settlernent Values of Tv for given
___ • ____ , ____ •• • __ u ••• ~~._~u values of Uavg are
(1 ) (2) (3) (4)
o.; Tv s, substituted into the
equation and solved for t
(m) (yr) (column 4)
'-"~-'--'-"'-'-""""- •••••• , ••• "' "U' ___ "_"~U •• ~-._.__,._--------.,.,_.-+--.- •
0,[ 0,008 0,17 0,52 The settlement in
0.2 0,031 0.34 2.03 column 3 is obtained by
n.} 0.071 0.5l 4.65 multiplying (oc)ulL ;;;
0.4 0.126 0.68 8.26 1.71 m by column 1.
0.5 0.197 0.86 12.92
0.6 0.287 1.03 18.82
0.7 OA03 J .20 26.42
0.8 0.567 1.37 37,[7
OS 0.848 1.54 55.59
0.95 1.163 1.62 76.25
1.00 0:: 1.7J 'Xi
~_ ......... _,' ............ _.n'_~_~_ .. ~ .. _.~,., .... , .. ~_ .. __ .. ~. __ ,._. ____ ._ ... ,_._._._ .. _._,,_,._. ___ .,._.u .... _.~_.~_ (': ;r,

.10

·10

II:

Data from TABLE-1

:i.e'

Unit 5. Example problems - Page I ()

Geotechnics 3 . 20 J 0

0···

(I) Depth (m )

(2) z/ lJ

Isochrone Data for u.,YQ = 50(%,

·-5 0
--6.88 OX)
-8_75 o.s
-10.63 0_75
-[2.5 1.0
···-14.38 1.25
-16.25 J5
-~[8.[J U5
--20 2.0 ._.~._~_._ •• _,._.~ •• '~L"~ • ___ L __ •· _____ c_~· __ •
(3) (<1)
U, .6. a;
(k Pa)
i.oo 98.1
0.70 68.7
0.455 44.6
0.285 28.0
0.23 22.6
0.285 28.0
0.455 41.6
0_70 68.7
1.00 98_1 ~\Oll prolil{t

Q

o '<, <,

. .. ~"~,~ Dn_lin~~~J!~

~;)y!~r

100

l(iO

~Ol)

1 " .•.

10
.~~
"-
0
I b AI ~ ll..'J% 'if.

U" ... .1 !~{)',;;:"

\soc:.t1(ono (>IH~:~j~~~I~ 'lllLl)lJfL~ )1 .:'l<lI,.:WiVl:l'u:d uuc w-v' ,11m how,"; I c-milif1m~) ~\lJ 1U b~~ ~i:;_;;;tp[)!nd.

\.

\. \,

\

/G.b

I) {~11r)(j~tf: lever

25

Unit 5. Example problems - Page 11

Geotechnics 3 - 2010

Unit 5. Example problems - Page 12

Geotechnics 3 - 2010

Problem 9. Land reclamation

The elevation of a proposed reclamation is shown in the figure. The average seabed level is -2 m CD (Chart Datum) at the reclamation site and the final elevation is +5 m CD, Mean sea water level is at + 1.5 m CD. The reclamation is underlain by a 4 m thick normally consolidated (NC) soft clay followed by a dense sand. The soft clay has a natural water content w = 87%, a specific gravity G, = 2.65, a compression index C, = 1,2, and a coefficient of consolidation Cy ,,~ 1 m2/yr.

+5 m CD

-2m CD

Y"" 17 kN/m3

• Rock bund

inal seabed

Mean water level +1.5 m CD

• •

Soft iClay y "" 16 kN/m3

, Cv "" 1.0 m2/yr w '" 87%

Cc = 1.2 Gs = 2.65

level

-6 m CD

Dense Sand

(1) Estimate the settlement of the reclamation due to primary consolidation of the soft clay. (No subdivision of the soft clay layer is required for the settlement calculation).

(2) Assuming instantaneous loading, determine the average degree of consolidation of the soft clay after 3 years.

(3) Determine the excess pore water pressure measured by a pneumatic piezometer installed at -4 m CD in the soft clay one year after load application. What would the elevation of the water level be in a standpipe piezometer installed at -4 m CD.

(4) If, in part (3), the soft clay is underlain by impermeable stiff clay instead of the dense sand, what would be the excess pore water pressure and the elevation of the water level in the standpipe installed at -4 m CD?

Note. Assume Yw = 10 kN/m3 in all your calculation.

bvr:) I
1) 0: :2'1 (;- \2 hi-c<
~ .b 0<' ; ;).1) ;¥ l-} ") [ t' "i--.
+ C" j
CJ \ .{ I c:-'(

",j

(

j .

I .,

, _- ~

(\ ~) DC, (

,-.J

Unit 5. Example problems - Page J 3

Geotechnics 3· 20JO

z ~H 10 mtt:ss~ .. ~. "' ... __ .. _ ... _ .. .. . . ... _ .... ..

(;«('<;.;, eO({:"'v-!()/r"f;:.t/''::StJI'", (-

::.

\_.?> ~J '-.

~ .. ~.-~____.-""

(JellV

Z --:--; .z: .-
/-/d 5& x .r £., . ~. . ~~ ({ I. C}' I / . ',,, \

.. '. ,'-"':.. \--'-DX~ &W, Q.( prE"~-u c. l.'e_ z: /)'1 \ I-(_) .~'/- 1

Ck\.Jo\i(.:Vl 0\' ""f.J([oc I,SIY' CD -1- 6.712 VY,

.- 7.2 n;

-: .. f-.

2"-:~::"i~=:~'_·'~:'~'~::"_"L.JII_

o 0.10.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 o.e

Consolidation ratio, U z

0,7

0.6

1.0

0.9

I ~jCr.( ,

1\ L.

J

i

'. r ..

I

} -.

Unit 5. Example problems .. Page 14

i If

Geotechnics 3 .. 201 (J

Unit 6~ Example Problems

Design a temporary surcharge to obtain Or ii.c, final consolidation settlement) in I year,

7m

Embankment y::: 20 kN/m3

I--£__-------------~-'''-

Cv::::: 3m2/year

mv::::: 0,Q004m2/kN

Soft clay

6m

permeable

.'

Solution:

A ,\

"L.'l6 v

? C {

~.-.--.~.~-.-~.~

~(

r d

:5 * \

611 I

(,/

u -: f.

;11 2;,J(c l1(rp I I,e

I '

,,' f\

ktM!:.].;'? k~'.-1,,:~·~J )

(;,1 f( j

I I f /
f ! / (
! /'/ /~ 1

:.

.... J, ,I ..l.

~, i

,c-" ~ •

)' /'

/

il(

iV. It

! ;.

/J

Unit 6. Example problems ~ Page 1

Geotechuics 3 - 2()} ()

Problem 2. Vertical drains

An 8m thick layer of saturated clay is drained at the top. The lower boundary is impermeable. Prefabricated vertical drains (70mm diameter) are to be installed at 2 rn centres in a square pattern to increase the rate of consolidation settlement. Find time required for 90% consolidation of the clay layer as a result of an extensive fill if c, = 2 m2/year and Cil = 3 m2/year.

.~_ (:U:~jH)n /", ~(""efi'· uSc: chc"rL "'..,

Solution:

de .: 1.12, )(2 Yn < J.)[ m

J 'It"

h = . /..;- ?t. O.e-l r-» .~:

r'"(y!):. In (,), 'j) ~ o'-iS }_ 7 J

r~ ." ('112.73) 1(.(3/2.2((?) /(21?') ,55

Ct\ leI I:,trtrl LJI,}A 1'''\;, 65 c/;'/(/ L~ /1':' 10 X f)cI- '~::. 0, 0 :s 'l

\1

/ 11 (:J.x'r:~~>/'-.--""

\ I

.... t.

{ r

/ ::'(

I .: ! i

r ';

Unit 6 Example problems .. Pogo' ::

Geotcchnic« 3 - ]0 J(i

Unit 7. Example Problems

Problem 1. Constructing flow net under a concrete dam

The following figure shows the cross section of a concrete dam founded on slightly permeable soi l, below which there is an impermeable stratum.

, (i) I

·l_ (ii)

(iii) (iv)

Locate the boundary flow lines (longest and shortest) and equipotential lines (water entrance and exit)

By trial and error, make a complete sketch of now net, assuming soil to be isotropic. How many flow channels (Nr) and equipotential drops (Nd) have you made? Determine the loss in the total head between any two adjacent equipotential lines

Give each equipotential line a number (may be numbered from zero at the downstream boundary: this number is denoted by neD. Explain how this number can be used to determine the total head at any points in the soil.

Explain how the flow net can be used to find the Iota [ rate o C seepage of water, irk for the soil is lSx 10.6 111/s.

(v)

+13.5rn

(I) bO'Jf><\("~ F'jt)w h.~e:s

+·1.5m Datum ('<>03'~'" <.md .:s;j",,·r6+)

dn:t ('o(lSfc,tl/1f!oc/l/n,s -fld",o

I; ) sr-dell t:v-Jo i/11et1¥v::.cl,:t,

()~ IiIlf!S

tOrn

'II

\ \

£t.<J: {lOl-C41tl4' clrol .... S .

) .. JJ .~ u

-18m

!

.\te. (NDJ, 1\ JleQ.J io\$) I dn,\:l

h.,·· 1;),\$ ·-15 s: 1)1"

\ V)

v) 1-- :;( ~~ I .LY) {,< h

;; (1 Iii) 'X 15)( I o - e X 12....

Unit ., Example problems - Page 1

Geotechnics 3 - 20/ ()

Problem 2. Pore water pressure/ uplift pressure on the base of darn

Given the coefficient of permeability for the foundation soil k~=I,vcc2 ,6x 10'1 rn/sec and (he now net constructed under the dam (shown in the figure), lind:

(i) the number of flow channels (Nr) and equipotential drops (Nd)

(ii) the overall head loss, then the loss in the total head between any two adjacent equipotentials

(iii) the total flow rate q (in m3/s per unit length)

(iv) the pore water pressure at the points of intersection of the equiporentials with the base of the clam (organize your calculation in table)

(v) Plot the distribution of the uplift pressure (i.e. the pore water pressure) on (he base ofthe clam.

t

Impervious

6.5 In

10.5 rn

Unit '. Example problems .. Pag« ::

Gc'Oiec!lIIlcs 3 - .!() 1 Ii

Problem 3. Total rate of flow around sheet piling

A line sheet piling was driven into a stratum of soil of coefficient or permeability [0-"1 m/s. On one side ofthe piling the depth of water is 4.5111; on the other side the depth 0 f water (reduced by pumping) is O.Sm. The flow net was constructed as shown and the equipotential lines are numbered from zero at the downstream boundary: this number is denoted by I\j. Calculate (i) the total rate of flow, (ii) the total head and pore water pressure at the point P.

O.50m

c .c.~ .... c." ..... Jc .. ~~~t':_Jrn

UJ/i/ ~. [\(1111)/0' problems - 1'oge 3

Geotechnics J - ]() J 0

Problem 4. Factor of safety against downstream heave

The figure below shows the flow net for seepage of water around a single row or sheet piles driven into a permeable layer. Calculate the factor of safety (FS) against downstream heave, given rhat YSill for the permeable layer is 20 kN/m3

}f12 r : If

C1.1 . ..;'~ ,

z ~p _- /'_0

c-" ... --- .. -~~.--

J ~7

l::F ;_- g S M c : yi

;t_;~ 2 '/:;-6/-

{.Jt;e1t (~5-j)cL{:._ ,

Unit 7. Exampl: j)ro/J/elJls - Foge .j

Geotechnic: 3 . }IJ 1 0

Problem 5. Constructing flow net for a given boundary conditions

Consider the saturated, homogeneous, isotropic, rectangular, vertical cross section ABC:!). AD is twice as long as DC. Draw a quantitatively accurate flow ncr if the following arc (rue:

• AD and DC are impermeable

• BC is a constant-head boundary with h = 75 111

• AB is divided into two equal lengths with the right-hand portion impermeable and the left-hand

portion a constant-head boundary with h = 40111.

Clearly label the boundaries, draw in the now lines using solid lines and the equipotential lines using dashed lines. Label the head for each equipotential line. Use 5 equipotential lines and 5 flow lines, and indicate the direction of flow.

i j""l. 0/\, .. ,/ "f.~?

A

R,~ h:.-"J')fi'l" rl'b( h B< z: 75 '"

{i:c)( I tdei\Jq 15 0 C;?, t5 h

D

h ~:" z: '"15 VY'1 =:» h z: T-::rS ~ I A g, 7;;"__-::: 66/ 2S"{'7 h ~ 78 _, 2 If J. 7-j; -c ;;?~ ~'''7 r-:" se ~ ru: /"~

\.,;.: '75 - .:s.;s IJ v~

h '" ;, -'I -« (/ - (,:D,., j,

tP_B

Unit ''. Example IJi"ohlellls . Page 5

Geotechnics 3 - ::01 n