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Chevron U.S.A. Inc.

Western Region EL & P

Chevron
STORAGE TANKS

TANK SELECTION - (JAC)


A, GENERAL
B , BASIC DATA
REQUIREDCAPACITY
SEEVICEAND USE
LIQUIDPROPERTIES
SITE CONDITIONS
FIREPROTECTIONREQUI~EMENTS
GOYERNMENTAL REGULATIONS
C, TANK DIMENSIONS
CONE ROOF TANKS
SHELL THICKNESSLIMITATIONS
SEISMICDESIGNLIMITATIONS
D, ROOF SELECTION
GENERAL
VAPOR EMIssI ON CONTROL (EVAPORATIONLOSSES)
FIRE PROTECTION
EXPLOSIONH A Z A ~ B
VAPOR SPACE CORROSION
E, GONE WOOFS
F , BOTTOM GONFIGU2ATION

11, TANK DESIGN - (JAC)


A, GENERAL
BPI STANDARD 650
A$ I IBt4OGRkY
SPEC IFHCATIBNS E6-967 AND E6-968
AVAILABLE COMPUTER PROGWMS
BASIC DATA
DESZGPJMETAL TEHPEXATURE
M ~ x z i d u nFILLIHG AND EHPTYINGRATES
DESIGN ~ H N VELQCISY
D
%ARTHQUAKE ZONE
ROOF LOADING
OVERALL DESHGfl CONSIDERATIONS
C ~ ~ R O S I ALLO~~ANCE
ON
BRITTLE FRACTURE
AND QUALITY OF STEEL
SULFIDE CRACKINGAND TANKSSTEELS
BOWOPI DESIGN
!~ATER~ALS
ANF~ULWRBOTTOMPLATES AND SKETCH PLATES
PERHISSHBLE SETVLEHENT
CATHODIC PROTECTION
SHELL DESIGN
SELECTIO~I OF DESIGNBASIS
W I N D S s a s r ~ ~ rOFv BANK SHELLS
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE OF TANKS
CONE ROOF DESIGN
\ATE~IALS
1BLE ROOF JOINT
FRANG
K MISCELLANEOUS
PREPRIMINGOF TANK STEEL

111, SELECTION O f APPURTENANCES - (JRS)


A, IrdTRODUCTHBa
B, FORMS EF-33C3 AND EF-3SFR
C, COMPA!iY DRAW IIGS
D, API STWblDAWDS
E, MAtiUFACTURERS' STANDARDS
F, ECOtiOMY I M SELECTIOj

IV, TAMK OPENINGS - (JRS)


A. BPI SHELL 14AflWOLES
B, LARGER ACCESSWAY
C, SMELL NOZZLES
D, SWELL CLEANOUTS
FLUSH-TYPECLEANOUTS
3oow SWEETCLEANBUTS
E, ELBOW 6UTiEB
F, SIPHOf4-TYPE WATER DRAWOFF
G, WATER DRAWOFF SUF4PS
H, UtiDER-BO$TOH COliFiECTIOr4
HATER D ~ A H O F ELBOWS
F
COMB I ~ ~ A T I O M CLEANOUT AND WATER DRAW
LARGE
BOTTOM? ~ Q Z Z L E S
BQTTOWSUMP
I, ROOF MANHOLES
FUNCTION
STANDARDAPI ROOF ~YANHOLE
RECTANGULARWOOF ?!ANHOLE
J, WINDOW SHEETS
K, GAGE FLOAT I N INSPECTION HATCH
L, API ROOF NOZZLES

V, GAGING AND SAPIPLING DEVICES - (JRS)


A, VAPOR-TIGHT GAGE HATCH
8, FUMNEL-TYPE THIEF AND GAGE HATCH
C, MULTIPLE USE HATCH
D, GAGE WELLS
FIXED RQOF TANKS
E, TANK GAGING

VI, OPERATING DEVICES - (JRS)


A, SWING PIPES
GENERAL
ELBOW
SY IM G $0 INTS
CABLES
W~~cts~s
CABLE SHEAVESFOR COME ROOF TANKS
B, TANK HEATERS AND HEAT LOSSES
GENERAL
INTERNAL
HEATERS
EXTERNAL HEATERS
TANK MIXERS
PROPELLERTYPE
TANK 1 4 1 x 1 ~YOZZLES
~
THEUIAL CtOS i NG HANK VALVES
GENE~AL
USES
MA 1 NTENANCE
TYPES OF VALVES

VII, VAPOR RELIEF - FIXED ROOF - (JWSI


A, GENERAL
B, VEMTIYG CAPACITY At49 PRESSURES
OPEN VEHTS
BREATHERVALYES
EMERGENCYVENTS

VIII, ACCESS - (JRS)


A, LADDERS
B, STAIRS
C, HANDRAILS
D, SPEC IA t NALKYAY%

IX, ORDERING DATA - (JWC)


A, GENERAL
B, TANK 8 APPURTENANCE SCHEDULE
C, REFERENCE DRAidIdGS
D, TANK SPECIFICATIBHS
En PLANT REGULATIONS
F, OTHER DOCUIENTS
G, L I S T SHEETS

TANK LOCATIOM - (JAC)


A, CONSIDERATIONS
OPERATING REQUIRE~IENTS
TOPOGZAPHY
FIRE PRBTECTHONREQUI REPENTS
UTILIZATION OF PROPERTY
B, LOCAT IOf4 AdD SPAC IMG
GENERAL
DISTANCE FWO:4 ~ % ? O P E ~ T LINES
Y AND PUBLIC
Ways
SHELL-TO-SWELL SPACING
SPACING FROM OPERATING FACILITIES
C, IMPOUNDING AND D R A I ~ A G E
DRAINAGE
TAMK YARD WALLS
DIKE ENCLOSURE CAPACITY
INTERMEDIATE CURBS OR DRAINAGE CHANNELS
TANK FOUNDATIONS - (JAC)
A, SCOPE
B, PURPOSE
C, INTRODUCTIOII
D. BACMGROUl\aT)
SOIL PROPERTIES
SETTLEMNT
EDGE SETTLEWENT
E, BES IGi4 GUIDELINES
F, SITE COiiDITIO3IS
SOIL TYPE
SMALL TANKS
6, CORROSION
H, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK
I, APPURTE?iANCES
J, ADDITIONAL IMFORl4ATION

XII, CONNECTING LINES (JAC)


A, PURPOSE AND SCOPE
B, REQUIZEFIEflTS FOR FLEXIBILITY
C, METHODS OF PROVIDING FLEXIBILITY
D, PIPING BENDS
E, VALVES AND FITTINGS
F, FLEXIBLE JOINTS
G, FLEXIBLE METAL HOSE
H, FLEXIBLE RUBBER HOSE
XIII, TANK MAINTEMANCE - (MWM)
A, SCOPE
B, CLEAN I NG
GENERAL
ACCESS DOOR SHEETS AND ROOF ~INDOWS

@, SHELL
GENERAL
RERATING AND RETIRING STRESSES
FREQUENCY OF INSPECTI ON
INSPECTION OF SHELL
LAMINATED PLATE
REFERENCES
D, BOT'TOPIS
GENERAL
STRESSES
EVIDENCE OF FAILURE
INSPECTION AFTER CLEANING
SANPLES
SHELL TO BOTTOM CONNECTION
UPPER SURFACE CORROSION
REPAIR OF DEFECTS BY WELDING
NAJQRBOTTOM REPAIR HETHQBS
REFERENCES
FIBERGLASS WE INFORCED POLYESTER COATINGS
UNREINFORCED PLASTIC COATINGS
METAL-BEAR ING COAT INGS
CONCRETE FILL
GEL^ MUD FILLS
CATHODIC PROTECTION
ROOF
GENERAL
FOUIiDAY ION PAD
SETTLEHENT DUE TO CO~I!PRESSION
PROTECTIVE COATI iVGS
INTERNAL
PROTECTION
USE OF GUWITE
?LAST1c COAT1MG AND PATCH1NG
REFERENCES
PAINTING
REFERENCE
H, APROMS ANII GUTTERS
GENERAL

XIV HOT TAPPING OF TAHKS IN SERVICE - (JAC)


A, GENERAL
B, SAFETY PRECAUTIBfiS
C, EQUIPMENT
D8 INSPECTIOf4
E, STAHDARDS
F8 PROCEDURE
SMALL COMNECTIONS UP TO 2 INCHES
OVER 2 INCHES
PIPE CONNECTIONS
G, FIRE PROTECTION

XV DETERMINATION OF INSPECTION INTERVALS - (NWM)


A, SCOPE
B , OBJECTIVE
C , DEFINITIONS
B , INSPECTIONS
E, I MSPECTIBN INTERVAL
F, OTHER FACTORS
G , CORROSION
H, CORRECTIVE WORK
I , REPORTS

XVI , PRODUCTION TANKS - (JRS)


A, I NTRODUCTION
B, CODE AND STAPdDARDS
API STANDARES
OSjA ~ E G U L A T I O M S
OTHER REGULATIONS
C, DESI GM COiiSSDERATIOfiS
SCOPE
GENERAL
COLD ~IEWTHER SERVICE
W I N D STABILITY
EARTHQUAKESTABILITY
I, TANK SELECTIOM

A, GENERAL

THE PURCHASE OF A TANK OR GROUP OF TANKS INVOLVES THREE

PRIMARY PHASES OF E N G I N E E R I N G WORM BEFORE A CONTRACT

COVERING FA3RICATION AND ERECTION CAN BE COMPLETED,

THESE PHASES ARE: SELECT THE TANK DIMENSIONS AND TYPE

OF ROOF APPROPRIATE FOR THE SERVICE CONDITIONS AND

, LOCATION, DESIGN THE TANK, AND FINALLY, SELECT THE

PROPER APPURTENANCES, THIS WORK I S NECESSARY FOR THE

PREPARATION OF THE TANK AND APPURTENANCE SCHEDULE


FORMS, EF-33CR FOR CONE-ROOF TANKS AND EF-33FW FOR

FLOATING-ROOF TANKS, WHICH ARE THE B A S I C DOCUMENTS F O 2

DESCRIBING AND SPECIFYING A TANK, FULL SIZE

TRANSPARENC IES OF EF-33CR AND EF-333 ARE AVAILABLE

FROM CORPOWATIOPI ENGINEERING,

THE INFORMATION AND GUIDANCE PROVIDED IS DIRECTED

TOWARD VERTICAL ABOVE-GROUND WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR

ATMOSPHERIC STORAGE SINCE THEY REPRESENT THE MAJORITY

OF TANKS USED WITHIN THE COMPANY,

THE FOLLOWING BIANUALS OF THE CORPORATION ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT MUST BE CONSULTED I N S E L E C T I N G AND D E S I G N I N S

TANKS :
IN ADDITION, THE FOLLOWING DESIGN PRACTICES OF THE
CORPORATIONENGINEERING DEPARTMENTPROVIDE USEFUL TOOLS
,. AND INFORMATION:

1, D-131-8 FIRE PROTECTIONFOR LARGE TANKS


2, D-131-9 COHPUTEW PROGRAMS,WIND 1" AND WIND 2%
3, D-131-10 COMPUTERPROGRAM,AP165"
"4. D-131-15 COMPUTERPROGRAN,TANKE

B, BASIC DATA

THE NOMINAL CAPACITY IS THE TOTAL VOLUME TO THE TOP OF


THE SHELL EXPRESSED IN ROUND NUHBERS; THE GROSS
CAPACITY IS THE SAME VOLUME ACCURATE STATED, THE
OPERATING CAPACITY IS USABLE VOLUME, THE DIFFERENCE
REPRESENTS DEAD STORAGE WHICH IS UNAVAILABLE BECAUSE OF
LIMITATIONS ON BOTH THE MAXIMUM FILLING HEIGHT AND THE
MI N IMUM w ITHDRAWAL LEVEL. UNAVAILABLE INVENTORY SHOULD

HOLD TO A MINIMUM AND SHOULD NOT BE OVERLOOKED IN

S I Z I N G A TANK,

ROST OPERATING O R G A N I Z A T I O N S HAVE STANDARDS WHIC51

S P E C I F Y THE SAFE F I L L I N G H E I G H T FOR NEW TANKS, AND

T H I S WILL F I X THE UNUSED STORAGE VOLUME AT THE TOP

OF THE TANK,

FOR CONE ROOF TANKS, THIS STOWAGE WILL GENERALLY


,. :5

BE 6" TO 12" OF SHELL HEIGHT,

FOR TANKS LOCATED IN EARTHQUAKE ZONES 3 AND 4,


CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO INCREASING THE

UNUSED VOLUME A T THE TOP OF THE TANK TO ALLOW FOR

SLOSHING OF THE CONTENTS THAT MAY OCCUR D U R I N G Afd

EARTHQUAKE I M ORDER TO AVOID STOCK SPILLAGE AND

DANAGE TO THE ROOF AND UPPER SHELL. GENERALLY, A

FREEBOARD OF 2 FEET WILL BE SUFFICIENT, IN


C O N S I D E R I N G WHETHER TO P R O V I D E T H I S FREEBOARD, THE

P R O B A B I L I T Y OF OCCURRENCE OF AN EARTHQUAKE W I T H A

F U L L TANK AND THE PROBABLE LOSS DUE TO SLOSHING I F

FREEBOARD IS NOT PROVIDED SHOULD BE WEIGHED

A G A I N S T THE VALUE OF THE UNUSED STORAGE C A P A C I T Y ,


IN
THE FINAL DESIGNS EVERY REASONABLE AND ECONOMIC

CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO MINIrUIIZIMG THIS

INVENTORY,

THE MINIMUM OPERATING LEVEL FOR A CONE ROOF TANK

MUST SATISFY THE SUCTION REQUIREMENTS OF THE

L I Q U I D WITHDRAWAL PUMPS,

THERE ARE SITUATIONS IN NHICH SERVICE AND USE CONDITIONS.

BOTH PRESENT AND FUTURE8 WILL D I C T A T E TANK S E L E C T I O N RATHER

THAN THE LIQUID PROPERTIES AND REQUIRED CAPACITY OF THE

F I R S T STOCK TO BE STBREE). MOST OFTEN THESE WILL RELATE TO

THE TYPE OF ROOF SELECTED, FOR EXAMPLE, STORAGE OF FINISHED

JET FUEL MAY REQUIRE A CONE WOOF TANK EQUIPPED WITH AM

INTERNAL FLOATING ROOF IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN PRODUCT

S P E C I F I C A T I O N S W I T H RESPECT 80 WATER CONTENT,

DATA ON THE FOLLOWING LIQUID PROPERTIES IS REQUIRED FOR BOTH

TANK S E L E C T I O N AND TANK D E S I G N :


1, SPECIFIC GRAVITY
2, TRUE VAPOR PRESSURE, PSIA

3, CORROSIVITY
4, FLASHPOINT

KNOWLEDGE OF THE SITE CONDITIONS WILL BE REQUI~ED, THE


ALLOWABLE SOIL BEARING PRESSURE MAY BE THE CONTROLLING

FACTOR IN SELECTING THE TANK HEIGHT, SOME DIFFERENTIAL

SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE TANK P E R I P H E R Y AND THE CENTER OF THE

TANK CAN NORMALLY BE ACCOMMODATED, AND U N I F O R M SETTLEMENT

OVER THE ENTIRE AREA IS SELDOM A PROBLEM EXCEPT IN THE

D E S I G N OF TANK L I N E S ,

IN
SEISMICALLY A C T I V E AREAS, THE S I T E SHOULD B E I N V E S T I G A T E D

TO DETERMINE THE POTENTIAL FOR LIQUEFACTION DURING AM

EARTHQUAKE,

OTHER SITE CONDITIONS WHICH MAY AFFECT TANK DIMENSIONS

INCLUDE :

1, SPACE AVAILABLE MAY BE RESTRICTED REQUIRING HIGHER

TANKS THAN M I G H T OTHERWISE TO ECONOMICAL,


2, TOPOGRAPHYAND REQUIRED EARTHWORK MAY BE SUCH AS TO

LIMIT THE DIAMETER OF THE TANK AND CORRESPONDINGLY

INCREASE THE H E I G H T ,

3, PREVAILING HEIGHT IN AN ESTABLISHED TANK AREA MAY LIMIT

D E V I A T I O N THEREFROM I N ORDER TO M A I N T A I N l l N IFORM ACCESS

BETWEEN TANKS, GENERAL APPEARANCE OF THE GROUP, OR FOR

OTHER REASONS,

THE FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL DEFINES COMPANY, INDUSTR


AND

GOVERNMENTAL REQUIREMENTS THAT w ILL AFFECT THE DETERHINAT ION

OF TANK D I M E N S I O N S AND THE S E L E C T I O N OF THE TYPE OF ROOF,

THESE INCLUDE :

1. SPACING OF TANKS AND MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM PROPERTY

LINES,

2, THE TYPE OF ROOF REQUIRED FOR CERTAIN SERVICES, FOR


EXAMPLE, FLOATING ROOFS ARE REQUIRED ON TANKS OVER 120
FEET DIANETER THAT ARE USED FOR THE STORAGE OF ANY

STOCK H A V I N G A F L A S H P O I N T LOWER THAN 100oF,


ASIDE FROM THE FIRE PROTECTION THE MAIN THRUST OF

GOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS RELATED TO TANK SELECTION I S I N THE

AREA OF A I R Q U A L I T Y CONTROL,

FOR ANY GIVEN CAPACITY THERE WILL BE SEVERAL PRACTICAL

COMBINATIONS OF DIAMETER AND HEIGHT, SITE CONDITIONS

THAT MAY AFFECT TANK DIMENSIONS HAVE BEEN PREVIOUSLY

DISCUSSED, OTHERS ARE : LAND VALUE, FOUNDATIONS COSTS

AND, TO A MINOR EXTENT, TANK PAINTING COSTSm

MINIMIZING DEAD STORAGE FAVORS A SMALLER DIAMETER,

HIGHER TANK,

WITH FEW EXCEPTIONS, TANK HEIGHTS ARE MULTIPLES OF 6 OR

8 FEET, THE LATTER COURSE HEIGHT IS GENERALLY

PREFERRED BY TANK FABRICATORS SINCE IT REDUCES THE

NUMBER OF F I E L D CIRCUMFERENTIAL WELDS,


THE CAPACITY RANGE OF 25,000 TO lOO,OOO BBLS THE

ECONOMIC HEIGHT WILL GENERALLY BE 48 FEET, FOR LARGE


C A P A C I T Y TANKS, OVER 200,000 B B L S t THE ECONOMIC H E I G H T

WILL GENERALLY DROP TO 40 FEET, THIS IS DUE TO THE

E X C E S S I V E COST OF P R O V I D I N G ADEQUATE ROOF SUPPORTS FOR

H I G H E R TANKS,

THE. LIMITATION IN API-650 ON MAXIMUM SHELL THICKNESS

MAY ALSO L I M I T THE H E I G H T OF LARGE TANKS,

INSEISMICALLY A C T I V E AREAS, EARTHQUAKE D E S I G N C R I T E R I A

MAY L I M I T TANKS TO H E I G H T S BELOW WHAT WOULD OTHERWISE

BE ECONOMIC, TANKS IN SEISMIC ZONE 4 WILL GENERALLY BE

LIMITED TO A HEIGHT TO DIAMETER RATIO OF ABOUT 0,5:1


FOR SMALL TANKS ON SOFT SOILS TO 0.6: 1 FOR LARGE TANKS

ON FIRM SOILS. FOR SMALL TAIVKS (UNDER ABOUT 3000 BBL,

CAPACITY) GREATER H E I G H T TO D I A M E T E R R A T I O S CAN B E USED

B Y ANCHOR IFIG THE T,1NK HOWEVER, ANCHOR ING I S GENERALLY

NOT PRACTICAL FOR LARGER TANKS AND NOT RECOMMENDED

BECAUSE OF THE LARGE L O C A L L O A D I N G IMPOSED ON THE TANK

S H E L L B Y THE ANCHORS,
D. ROOF SELECTIOPJ

THE TYPES OF ROOFS TO BE CONSIDERED AIIE: 1) CONE, 2)


FLOATING, 3) A CONE ROOF TANK WITH AN INTERNAL ROOF,

AND 4) COME ROOF TANKS WITH VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEMS,

FLOATING ROOFS CAN BE FURTHER CLASSIFIED AS PAN,

PONTOONS, AND DOUBLE DECK,

CONE ROOF TANKS FILLING LOSSES PROPORTIONAL TO THE

THROUGHPUT AND BREATHING LOSSES ROUGHLY PROPORTIONAL TO

THE VOLUME OF THE VAPOR SPACE IN THE TANK. FLOATING


TANKS W I T H A T I G H T - F I T T I N G PRIWAliY AND SECONDARY SEALS

V I R T U A L L Y E L I M I N A T E THESE EVAPORATION LOOSES,

FIRE PROTECTIONS IS NOT A BASIC CONSIDERATION IN THE

SELECTION OF A ROOF EXCEPT FOR TANKS OVER 120 FEET IN

DIAMETER, FOR THESE LARGE TANKS FLOATING ROOFS ARE

REQUIRED FOR ANY STOCK HAYING A FLASH LOWER THAN lOOOF

AND, FOR HEAVIER STOCKS STORED AT TEMPERATURES W I T H I N

2OoF OF THEIR FLASH POINT,


A MORE DETAILED DISCUSSION OF FIRE PROTECTIOiV

CONS IDERATIONS IS CONTAINED IN THE FIRE PROTECTION


MANUAL AND THE ENGINEERING DEPARTPENT'S DESIGN PRACTICE
D-131-8,

ALL CONE ROOF TANKS C O N T A I N I N G V O L A T I L E STOCKS C O N T A I N

FLAMMABLE M I X T U R E S AT TIMES I N A PORTION OF THE VAPQZ

. SPACE, EVERY PRECAUTION IS TAKEN IN DEALING WITH SUCY

STOCKS IN CONE ROOF TANKAGE, BUT FLOATING ROOFS ARE

SOMETIMES PUT ON SUCH TANKS AS A SAFETY PRECAUTION,

EVEN THOUGH THEY MAY NOT BE WARRANTED BY EVAPORATION

SAVINGS

SHELL CORROSION IN THE VAPOR SPACE OF A CONE ROOF TANK

USED FOR STORAGE OF SOUR CRUDE O I L S AND OTHER STOCKS

HAVING SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS CAN BE A SERIOUS

PROBLEM, THE USE OF A FLOATING ROOF WHICH ELIMINATES

MOST OF THE VAPOR SPACE SHOULD B E CONSIDERED I N THESE

CIRCUMSTANCES,
E, CONE ROOFS

A COME ROOF IS THE LEAST EXPENSIVE AND MOST

MAINTENANCE-FREE METHOD FOR COVERING A TANK, THEY DO


HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR INCURRING EVAPORATION LOSSES.
THIS CHARACTERISTIC GENERALLY LIMITS THEIR USE TO

RELATIVELY LOW VAPOR PRESSURE STOCKS WHERE THE SAVI3iG


IN EVAPORATION LOSS IS NOT ENOUGH TO JUSTIFY THE HIGHER
INVESTMENT OF A FLOATING WOOF,

CONE ROOFS CAN EASILY BE DESIGNED TO SUPPORT


ANTICIPATED SNOW AND ICE LOADINGS, THUS SNOW REHOVAL
IS MOT THE OPERATING CONCERN THAT 16 COULD BE WITH A
FLOATING ROOF, ROOF SUPPORT IS PROVIDED BY INTERIaR
COLUMNS AND ROOF RAFTERS,

THE HIGH POTENTIAL FOR EVAPORATION LOSS FROM A CONE


ROOF DOES NOT NECESSARILY PRECLUDE THEIR USE WHERE A

GROUP OF TANKS IS INVOLVED, IT MAY BE MORE ECONOMICAL


TO INTERCONNECT THE VAPOR SPACES TO A COMMON VAPOR
RECOVERY SYSTEM THAN TO PROVIDE SEPARATE FLOATING
ROOFS,
F, BOTTOM CONFIGURATION

DRAWI NG GB-12474 1, ATTACHED, SUMMARIZES BASIC


CONFIGURATIONS FO3 TANK BOTTOMS AND ARRANGEMENTS FQQ
PlPING AND DRAIN COMNECTIOMSm ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF THE DIFFERENT DESIGNS ARE LISTED,
CHOICE OF DESIGN BEST SUITED FOR A PARTICULAR S E R V I C E
IS INFLUENCED BY: (1) OPERATING REQUIREHENTS FOR THE
PRODUCT TO BE STORED: ( 2 ) MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS:
AND (3) CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUPPORTING SOIL,
TANK MANUAL TANK SELECTON
II, TANK DESIGN

A, GENERAL

ONCE THE DIHENSIOHS AMD TYPE OF ROOF HAVE BEEN SELECTED


FOR A TANK, THE ENGINEER HUST DESSGId AND/OR SPECIFY
VARIOUS ELEMENTS OF THE TANK I N ORDER TO CQHPLETE THE
"TANK DATA" FORMSEF-33CR OR EF-33FR, TANK
PORTION QF

AND APPURTENANCE SCHEDULE, REFERENCE COPIES OF THESE


FORMS ARE I N SECTION I X OF T H I S MANUAL,

THE REQUI~EMENTS AND DETAILS COVERED BY API-050


REPRESENT MINIHUM STANDARDS, THERE ARE AREAS WHERE THE
CO:~PANY ' S EXPERIENCE AND TECHNICAL JUDGMENT 2EQUIRES
THAT A P I STANDARDS BE MODIFIED OR EXCEEDED, THESE
AREAS ARE SPECIFICALLY SET FORTH IN SPECIFICATION EG-
967 AND €6-968,

THE INFORMATIQN IN THIS SECTION AND THE FOLLOWING


SECTION ON TANK APPURTENANCES WILL PERMIT THE ENGINEER
TO SPECIFY THE TANK ON FORMEF-33CR on EF-33FR m I o n TO
REQUESTING QUOTATIONS,

B, API STANDARD 550

I S THE RECOGNIZED INDUSTZY STANDARD USED THROUGHOUT THE


COMPANY, A COPY OF THE LATEST E D I T I O N AND 'SUP?LE#ENT
I S MAINTAINED I N SECTION 300 OF THE TANK MANUAL,
C I A Q I MONOGRAM

THE A Q I MONOGRAM FOR API-650 AND API-628 TANKS WAS

WITHDRAWN WITH REVISION 2 OF THE SIXTH EDITION OF BOT#

STANDARDS, ITWAS REPLACED B Y A REQUIREMENT THAT THE

MANUFACTFJRER SUBMIT A C E R T I F I C A T I O N THAT THE TANK HAS

BEEN FURNISHED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE APPLICASLE

STANDARD,

D, . SPECIFICATIONS EG-967 AND EG-968

SPECIFICATION EG-967 COVERS CONE ROOF TANKS DESIGNED

AND FABRICATED IN ACCORDANCE WITH API-650 AND HAS BEEN

PREPARED TO ALLOW THE E N S I N E E R OR FABRICATOR TO SELECT

THE D E S I G N B A S I S AND S H E L L M A T E R I A L BASED UPON ECONOMIC

CONSIDERATIONS, IT HAS BEEN PREPARED TO CLEARLY DEFINE

WHERE MINI MUPI COMPANY STANDARDS EXCEED API -650, MOST


OF THESE ADDED REQUIREMENTS PROVIDE FOR INCREASED

P R O T E C T I O N A G A I N S T B R I T T L E FRACTURE AND REQUIRE THE USE

OF HIGHER Q U A L I T Y M A T E R I A L S AND WELDING PROCEDURES AS

WELL AS MORE E X T E N S I V E R A D I O G R A P H I C E X A M I N A T I O N ,

E, AVAILABLE COMPUTER PROGRAMS

THE FOLLOWING TIMESHARE COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO PERFORM

VARIOUS DESIGN CALCULATIONS ARE AVAILABLE TH40UGY ?YE

CORPORATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT,


API-65 - A COHPUTER PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING SHELL
THICKNESS SEQUIRED FOR HYDROSTATIC LOADS IN ACCORDANCE
WITH API-658 REQUIREMENTS, DESIGNPRACTICED-131-18,

WIND1 AND WIND2 - THESE ARE TWO COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR


DETERMINING THE RESISTANCE OF STORAGE TANKS TO BUCKLING
FOR WIND LOADING, DESIGN PRACTICED-131-9,

BOTH PROGRAMS USE THE CRITERIA OF API-650, SECTION3,gc


FOR CHECKING TANK SHELL FOR STABILITY AGAINST WIND
LOADING. DESIGN PRACTICED-831-9,

THE PROGRAM WIND1 DETERMINES THE MAXIP~UM WIND VELOCITY


AN UNSTIFFEMED TANK CAN WITHSTAND WITHOUT BUCKLING AS
THE SHELL THICKNESS IS REDUCED BY CORROSION1

THE PROGRAM WIND2 ALSO DETERMINES THE MAXIMUM WIMa


VELOCITY AN UNSTIFFENED TANK CAN WITHSTAND WITHOUT
BUCKLING, IF THE CALCULATED VALUE IS BELOW THE DESIGN
WIND VELOCITY THE SHELL THICKNESS IS INCREASED SO IT
CAN WITHSTAND THE DESIGN WIND VELOCITY,

TANKE - A COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CHECK I NG NON-ANCHORED


TANKS FOR SEISMIC LOADING COMPLIANCE WITH API-650
APPENDIX E, DESIGN PRACTICED-831-15,
F, BASIC DATA

THE DESIGN METAL TEMPERATURE IS THE LOWEST ONE-DAY MEAN

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE I N THE L O C A L I T Y WHERE THE TANK IS

TO BE INSTALLED, PLUS 15F, DESIGN METAL TE~YPERATURES

USED A S MAJOR COMPANY INSTALLATIONS ARE TABULATED OH

FIGURE 1 OF THIS SECTION, THE LOWEST ONE-DAY MEAR

TEMPERATURE FOR OTHER LOCATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES


AND SOUTHERN CANADA CAN BE OBTAINED FROM FIGURE 2-1 IN

AP 1-658,

THE DESIGN METAL TEMPERATURE IS AN IWPORTAMT FACTOR IN

THE SPECIFICATION OF MATERIAL, DRAWING GD-D1047,


STANDARD MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKS CONSTRUCTED TO
~ P E C I F I C A T ~ ~ NNO, EG-967, D E F I N E S ~ O M P A N Y REQUIREMENTS
I N T H I S REGARD,

THE MAXIMUM FILLING AND EMPTYING RATES MUST BE

SPECIFIED, FOR COME ROOF TANKS THESE RATES WILL


DETERMINE THE NUMBER AND S I Z E OF BREATHER V A L V E S ,
THE DESIGN WIND VELOCITY USED AT MAJOR COHPANY
INSTALLATIONS IS TABULATED ON FIGURE 1 OF THIS SECTION,

FOR OTHER LOCATIOHS THE USE OF A DESIGN WIND VELOCITY

EQUAL TO THE ANNUAL EXTREME M I L E VELOCITY AT 30 FEET

ABOVE GROUND, 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 4S

RECOMMENDED UNDER MOST CIRCUMSTANCES,

CHARTS OF FIGURE 2 SHOW THE 50-YEAR AND 108-YEARANNUAL


EXTREME MILE VELOCITIES FOR THE UNITED STATES,

THE APPROPRIATE EARTHQUAKE ZONE FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF

TANKS SHOULD BE DETERMINED FOR THE SPECIFIC TANK

LOCATION, THE SEISMIC ZONE MAPS INCLUDED IN APPENDIX E


OF API-658 SHOW EARTHQUAKE ZONE DESIGNATIONS FOR THE

UNITED ALSO,
STATES, SEE APPENDIX V I OF RECOMMENDED
PRACTICE NO. 11. THE ZONE DESIGNATION APPLICABLE AT

MAJOR COMPANY INSTALLATIONS IS TABULATED ON FIG, 1 OF

THIS SECTION,

THE BASIC DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THE LIVE LOAD ON THE ROOF

IS 25 PSF, INADDITION, P R O V I S I O N S MUST BE MADE FO2

OTHER LOADS THAT MAY BE IMPOSED ON THE ROOF,


G, OVERALL DESIGN CONSIDERATION

C O ~ R OISO N ALLOWANCE

THE CORROSION ALLOWANCE USED FOR NEW TANKAGE SHOULD BE

BASED ON THE S E R V I C E AND L O C A T I O N FOR WHICH THE TANKAGE

IS BEING REFERENCE
BUILT, SHOULD ALSO BE MADE TO THE

CORROSION PREVENTION MANUAL, TANKAGE SECTION 240,


# FOR

A C O M P I L A T I O N AND D I S C U S S I O N OF CORROSION RATE DATA FOR

- TANKAGE I N T Y P I C A L S E R V I C E S , IF
ADDITIOIVAL GUIDANCE I S

REQUIRED, THE CORPORATION ENGINEERING'S MATERIALS


DIVISION SHOULD BE CONSULTED,

DESIGN OF TANKAGE IN ACCORDANCE WITH API-650 PROVIDES

FOR MOST SERVICES A BUILT-IN, OR INHERENT, CORROSION

ALLOWANCE, VALUES FOR TYPICAL TANKS ARE PRESENTED IN

FIGURES3 AND 4 ,

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 20 DEFINES THE MATERIAL

REQUIREMENTS FOR PREVENTING BRITTLE FRACTURE IN COMPANY


DESIGNS, ITALSO INCLUDES A SUMMARY OF BASIC FRACTURE

MECHANICS AND SUGGESTS TECHNIQUES BY WHICH FRACTURE-

SAFE D E S I G N S CAN BE DEVELOPED,


GENERALLY, THE HISTORY OF API TANKS HAS BEEN eooD

CONCERNING PROTECTION AGAINST BRITTLE FRACTURE,

HOWEVER, IN 1954. AN API COHMITTEE COMPLETED A SURVEY

WHICH RECORDED 28 WELDED API 12C (PREDECESSOR TO API-


650) TANK FAILURES WHICH OCCURRED UNDER COLD WINTER

CONDITIONS, AS A RESULT OF THIS API SURVEY AND OTHER

MORE FUNDAHENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF BRITTLE FRACTURE,

MINIMUM COMPANY STANDARDS EXCEEDING API STANDARDS IN

THIS AREA WERE ADOPTED IN 1955,

SPECIFICATION EG-967 INCLUDES PROVI s IONS TO PROVIDE

APPROXIMATELY EQUAL PROTECTION A G A I N S T BRITTLE FAILURE

FOR ALL TANKS, WITH CONSIDERATION GIVEN TO MATERIAL,

D E S I G N B A S I S AND R I S K INHERENT I N PROBABLE TANK SIZE,

MATERIALS HAVE BEEN SORTEQ INTO QUALITY GROUPINGS ON

DRAWING GD-Dl047 (REFER TO SEC, 1x1.

FOR MANY DESIGNS, IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO PURCHASE

HIGHER QUALITY M A T E R I A L S OW TO QUALIFY LOWER Q U A L I T Y

MATERIALS BY IMPACT TESTING, APPROXIMATE COSTS OF TANK

STEELS ARE PRESENTED IN FIGURES5 AND 6.


ITIS CONCLUDED THAT GROUPS I V . IVA, V AND VI STEEL

SHOULD GENERALLY NOT BE USED FOR THE INTERMEDIATE

STORAGE OF SOUR F L U I D S SIlVCE THERE I S L I T T L E ECONBWIC

INCENTIVE TO DO SO, AND BECAUSE A RISK OF SULFIDE

C R A C K I N G E X I S T S I N SOME SERVICESw

H, BOTTOM DESIGN

REFER TO DRAWING GD-Dl047 FOR ACCEPTABLE MATERIAL

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE BOTTOM PLATES ASTM A-283 GRADE C


I S THE MOST COMMONLY USED M A T E R I A L ,

ANNULAR BOTTOMPLATES AND SKETCH PLATES

TANK BOTTOMS ARE FABRICATED OF I/~-INCH


P L A T E EXCEPT

WHEN THE BOTTOM SHELL COURSE IS GROUPS IV, IVA, V OR VI


MATERIAL, T H E S E T A N KBOTTOMS ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE A

BUTT-WELDED OUTER C I R C L E OF P L A T E S TO WHICH THE S H E L L

IS ATTACHED (ANNULAR BOTTOM PLATES),

TO PROVIDE EARTHQUAKE STABILITY UNDER THE DESIGW

PROVISIONS OF APPENDIX E, TANKS SMALLEQ THAN 100,000


BARRELS MAY REQUIRE ANNULAR BOTTOM PLATES AND THE

ANNULAR P L A T E S FOR LARGER TANKS MAY NEED TO BE T H I C K E 9

THAN R E Q U I R E D OTHERWISE,
THE BOTTOM PLATE WHICH COVERS THE CATCH BASIS AND TO

WHICH THE WATER DRAW-OFF NOZZLE I S ATTACHED I S CALLED A

SKETCH PLATE, SPECIFICATION EG-967 REQUIRES THAT THIS

P L A T E HAVE A MINIPIUM T H I C K N E S S OF 1/2 INCH,

TANK BOTTOC~SCAN TOLERATE APPRECIABLE SETTLEMENT, AN


A N A L Y S I S OF MAXIMUM P E R M I S S I B L E TANK BOTTOM SETTLEMENT

IS INCLUDED IN SECTION X I , FOUNDATIONS,

THE USE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION MAY BE CONSIDERED.

REFER TO SECTION X I FOUNDATIONS,

I, SHELL DESIGN

IN
THE ~ T HEDITION OF API-650 APPENDICES D, G, AND PART

OF K, OF THE ~ T HEDITION OF API-650, HAVE BEEN D E L E T E D

AND T H E I R A P P L I C A B L E REQUIREMENTS ARE INCORPORATED I N T O

THE B A S I C STANDARD, THE B A S I C TANK OF THE ~ T HEDITION

OF API 650 IS NOW COVERED BY APPENDIX A, THE BASIC

D E S I G N NOW P E R M I T S A D E S I G N BASED ON PRODUCT SPECIFIC

GRAVITY AND A HIGHER STRESS DURING THE HYDROTEST. THE


APPENDIX A DESIGN USES A MAXIMUM STRESS OF 21,000 PSI,

A JOINT E F F I C I E N C Y OF ,85, A SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF NOT

L E S S THAN 1.0, AND THE ONE FOOT T H I C K N E S S METHOD. IN


OTHER WORDS, HYDROSTATIC STRESSES CANNOT EXCEED DESSGlhd

STRESSES,

THE GOAL IN DESIGNING THE TANK SHELL IS TO ACHIEVE THE

LOWEST ERECTED COST. THIS IS NOT ALWAYS ACHIEVED BY

MINIMIZING THE TONNAGE OF STEEL REQUIRED SINCE THE

. HIGHER QUALITY STEELS COMMAND A PREMIUM PRICE, THE


FOLLOWING GUIDELINES ARE BASED ON EXPERIENCE AS OF 1975
AND MAY NOT BE V A L I D FOR A L L S I T U A T I O N S ,

1, TANKS OF LESS THAN ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ - B A RC AwPE


A CLI T Y WILE-

GENERALLY BY APPENDIX A DESIGN, WAXIMUM PLATE

THICKNESS ALLOWED IN APPENDIX A IS 1/2 INCH WHICH

L I M I T S THE MAXIMUM S I Z E TO ABOUT 30,000 BARRELS,

2, TANKS FROM 30,000 BARRELS TO 150,000 C A P A C I T Y WILL

GENERALLY BE CONSTRUCTED WITH MATERIAL WITH AN

ALLOWABLE STRESS LESS THAN 21,000 PSI. (FORMERLY


APPENDIX D DESIGN),

3, HIGHER STRENGTH MATERIAL GROUPS IV, Iva, v AND VI


WILL GENERALLY RE USED ON THE LOWER COURSES OF

TANKS OF 2000000 BARRELS OW MORE CAPACITY,

(FORMERLYAPPENDIX G DESIGN),
4, THE HIGHER STRENGTH STEELS WILL ALMOST NEVER BE

USED ON A L L COURSES OF THE TANK,

5, THE THICKNESS OF "VARIABLE DESIGN POINT ~ETHOD"

WILL GENERALLY BE USED ON TANKS OF lOO,OOO BARRELS

OR MORE CAPACITY, (FORMERLYAPPENDIX K DES 1 ~ ~ 4 )


COMPUTER PROGRAM API-65 IS AVAILABLE TO CHECK

S H E L L T H I C K N E S S E S QUOTED B Y S U P P L I E R S .

TANK SHELLS MAY BE SUBJECT TO BUCKLING UNDER WIND

PRESSURE, APH-650 SECTION 3.9 PROVIDES A FORMULA FOR

D E T E R M I N I N G THE MAXIMUM H E I G H T OF U N S T I F F E N E D S H E L L FOR

A WIND VELOCITY OF 1QQ MPH,

BACKGROUND
ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF API-658 REQUIREMENTS

MAY BE FOUND IN A PAPER, "STABILITY OF API-650 TANK


SHELLS, R, V. MCGRATH: PROCEEDI~GSOF THE A P I DIVISION
OF REFINING, VOL. 43 (111) (1963). COMPUTER PROGRAMS
WIND1 AND WIND2 ARE AVAILABLE TO PERFORM THESE

CALCULATIONS,
TANKS WAS MADE BY CORPORATION ENGINEERING TO

EVALUATE TANK DESIGNS FOR WIND STABILITY,

GENERALIZED COWCLUSIOMS OF THIS STUDY WERE:

A, THE API-658 EQUATIONS APPEAR TO PROVIDE AN

APPROPRIATE BASIS FOR WIND RESISTANCE

PROVIDED THAT THE "TRANSPOSED wIDTH~ METHOD

I S USED,

B, USE OF A DESIGN WIND VELOCITY EQUAL TO THE

ANNUAL EXTREME-MILE VELOCITY AT 30 FT, ABOVE

GROUND) 50-YEAR MEAN RECUISRENCE INTERVAL IS

RECOMMENDED UNDER MOST CIRCUMSTANCES,

C8 AS EXPECTED) TANKS FILLED TO A SUBSTANTIAL

LEVEL (AT LEAST HALF FULL) DEMONSTRATED A

SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN WIND RESISTANCE

COHPARED TO TANKS FILLED TO LOWER LEVELS,

GENERALLY A SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN WIND

RESISTANCE WILL NOT BE OBTAINED UNTIL THE

LIQUID LEVEL REACHES ABOUT HALF HEIGHT,

OTHER FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN DESIGN FOR WIND

R E S I S T A N C E OF TANKS ARE AS FOLLOWS:


A, 11'4 GENERAL* B U C K L I N G DUE TO WIND RESULTS IN

DAMAGE TO THE TANK THAT CAN VARY FROM VERY

MODEST TO DAMAGE REQUIRING EXTENS % V E

R E B U I L D I N G O R t R A R E L Y * SCRAPPING,

£3, HOW TO HANDLE CORROSION ALLOWANCE IS A

DIFFERENT QUESTION SINCE:

1) THE CORROSION RATE THAT WILL ACTUALLY

OCCUR IS DIFFICULT TO PREDICT AND IT

WOULD B E U N D E S I R A B L E TO FURTHER I N C R E A S E

THE I N I T I A L COST B Y R E Q U I R I N G D E S I G N FOR

FULL WIND RESISTANCE IN THE CORRODED

CONDITION,

2) NON-UNIFORM CORROSION SUCH AS LOCAL

P I T T I N G WILL NOT APPRECIABLY REDUCE THE

W I N D R E S I S T A N C E STRENGTH OF S H E L L S ,

3) THE API RULES FOR WIND RESISTANCE APPEAR

TO PROVIDE SOME MARGIN OF SAFETY ABOVE

THE DESIGN WIND VELOCITY WHICH MAY

PARTIALLY COMPENSATE FOR LOSS OF METAL

DUE TO CORROSION,
4) ALTHOUGH AT A HIGHER COST, WIND GIRDERS

CAN B E ADDED IN THE FUTURE WHEN THEIR

NEED I S KNOWN FROM T H I C K N E S S SURVEYS,

IN SUMMARY, THE FOLLOWING PRACTICES ARE

RECOMHENDED AS A MINIMUM IN CONSIDERING WIND

S T A B I L I T Y OF TANKS,

A, NEWTANKS

2) CHECK MAXIMUM DESIGN WIND VELOCITY IN

THE CORRODED C O N D I T I O N ,

3) CORROSION ALLOWANCE CONSIDERED IN

ACCORDANCE w ITH "OTHER RELATED FACTORS"


S E C T I O N ABOVE,

4) USE 50-YEAR EXTREME MILE WIND VELOCITY

EXCEPT WHERE BUCKLING OF A TANK WOULD

RESULT IN A CRITICAL LOSS SUCH AS

S H U T T I N G DOWN A R E F I N E R Y OR P I P E L I N E IN

WHICH CASE USE OF THE 100-YEAR WIND

SHOULD B E CONSIDERED,
5) USE "TRANSPOSED WIDTH" METHOD FOR
CALCULATING TANK SHELL STABILITY,

1) ESTABLISH WIND RESISTANCE CRITERIA AS A


PART OF TANK INSPECTION RECORDS,

2) ESTABLISH OPERATING PROCEDURES TO BE


. .
FOLLOWED UPON RECEIPT OF WARNINGS OF
HIGH (HURRICANE VELOCITY) WINDS, WHICH
SHOULD INCLUDE:

A) CONSIDERATION OF FILLING OF TANKS


IN CRITICAL SERVICE AND TANKS WITH
LOW SHELL STABILITY,

B) SECURING OF MATERIAL WHICH COULD


BECOME AIRBORNE,

C) TURNINGOFF UNESSENTIAL POWER TO


TANKFIELD LIGHTING, TANK MIXERS AND
SIMILAR EQUI PMENT TO REDUCE
POTENTIAL SOURCES OF IGNITION IN
CASE OF LEAKAGE FROM BUCKLED OR
SPLIT TANK SHELLS,
EXPERIENCE IN PAST EARTHQUAKES HAS SHOWN THAT

STORAGE TANKS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO LOWER COURSE

SHELL BUCKLING AND, I N RARE OCCASIONS, TO BUCKLING

IN THE UPPER COURSES, NEW TANKS SHALL BE DESIGNEE

FOR EA9THQUAKE GROUND MOTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH

APPENDIX E OF API-650 AND THE SUPPLEMENTAL

PROVI s IONS OF RECOMMENDED PRACTICE NO, 11,

ITIS GENERALLY NOT INTENDED TO UPGRADE EXISTING

TANKS TO MEET THE CRITERIA FOR NEW TANKS, FOR


SOME TANKS I N EXTREMELY CRITICAL SERVICE, I T MAY

BE JUSTIFIED TO REDUCE THE RISK OF EARTHQUAKE

DAMAGE (SEE RP-111,

SEE APPENDIX E OF API-650 AND SECTION XI1


CONNECTING LINES, FOR REQUIREMENTS OF FLEXIBILITY

IN TANK LINES AND DETAILS OF TANK VALVES AND

FITTINGS,
TANK ROOF SUPPORTS COLUMNS I N SEI SMICALLY ACTIVE
AREAS PREFERABLY SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED OF PIPE AND
SHOULD BE DESIGNED FOR EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION IN
ACCORDANCE WITH APPENDIX VI OF RP-11,

THERE ARE OTHER KINDS OF DAMAGE TO TANK DETAILS


WHICH HAVE BEEN SUSTAINED IN PAST EARTHQUAKES,
MODIFICATIONS I N DETAILS TO AVOID THESE RISKS
EITHER INTERFERE WITH NORMAL OPERATHHG TANK
FUNCTIO#S OR ARE MORE CCISTLY THAN REPAIRING OF
CONVENTIONAL DETAILS,

J, CONE ROOF DESIGN

ROOF PLATES ARE NORMALLY 3/16 INCH, REFER ORAWING


TO
GD-Dl047 FOR ACCEPTABLE MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS, ASTM
CONE ROOF TANKS WHICH DO NOT HAVE A ROOF-TO-SHELL.
CONNECTION THAT FAILS PREFERENTIALLY TO THE SHELL-TO-
SHELL AND SHELL-TO-BOTTOM CONNECTIONS SHALL BE EQUIPFEE
WITH ADEQUATE EMERGENCY VENTING, (REFER TO SECTION
VII),

K, MISCELLANEOUS

PREPRIMINGOF THE STEEL PLATES I N THE FABRICATOR'S SHOP


PRIOR TO SHIPMENT TO THE JOB SITE IS RECOMMENDED,
APPLICATION OF THE FINISH PAINT COATS IS GENERALLY DONE
BY A CONTRACTOROTHER THAN THE TANK FABRICATOR AFTER
THE TANK IS TESTED AND PUT IN SERVICE,
TANK MANUAL T.4NK 9ESIGN

FIGURE 1

TYPICAL TANK DESIGN CRITERIA


FOR VARIOUS COMPANY LOCATIONS

Design Metal Design Wind


Temperature Velocity Seismic Zane
F (MPH) Desig narion

* Richmond

El Segundo
Pascaqou la

P e n h Amboy

Salt Lake 5
Alaska ( K e m i Area) -25
Burnaby (Vancouver) 25
Baltimore 10

Note: This d a t a for other localities can frequently be ascertained by referring to


t h e Basic Design Data Sheets f o r t h e particular project.
T A N K MANUAL T A N K DESIGN

EXTREME WIND VELOCITIES

Charts from lVew Disnibulion of Exrrerne Winds in the U.S. by H.C.S. Thorn. Copyright Arnencan Society of
Civil Engineers 1968. Reproduced by special permiss~on.
4/8 1 100- 17
FIGURE 3
APPENDIX A T.WiS
INHERENT CORROSION ALLCJWANCX

CALCULATIONS DEC. 1970


r EZZ-0 ' ELZ'O ZOZ'O L6L'O 081'0 691'0 SLE'O OSZ L
8
660.0 9LO'O 250'0 6ZO'O 900'0 000'0 ilZil'0 9L OSZ 9
ZS!'O 911.0 080'0 SilO'O 600'0 000'0 OS9'0 trZ 0 sZ S
1 nOZ-0 9SL'O 8OL.O 090'0 ELO'O 000'0 9LB.O ZE 0 SZ il
/ LSZ'O L6L'O 9EL.O 9LO-0 910'0 000'0 201 ' L Oil OSZ E
j OLE-0 LEZ'O tr9L'O 260'0 610'0 000'0 BZE' o 8tl OSZ 2
i E9E.O 8LZ'O 261'0 LOL'O 220'0 000'0 trSS ' L 95 OSZ L
/ OOL'O OSL'O OOp'O 058'0 006'0 OS6'0=3(
i iiiZ'0 6ZZ.0 612.0 602' 0 OOZ'O 061'0 I SLE'O 8 SZZ
1 680'0 890'0 LtrO'O 920'0 500'0 000'0 9L Szz
/ LEL-0 trOL'0 ZLO'O OilO' 0 800'0 000'0 ttz szz
1 tr8L'O LilL'O 860'0 ilSO'0 110'0 000'0 ZE SZZ
/ LEZ.0 LLL'O EZL'O 890'0 trl0'0 000'0 Oil SZZ
' 6LZ'O ELZ'O Rill'O ERO'O LLO'O 000'0 Bh SZZ
9s szz
1 ~ii:-o 2 8 ~ ~ 0E L L ' o 591-0 951'0 Lill-o ZLE'O
1 6L0'0 190.0 ZilO'O EZO- 0 SOO'O 000'0 6EE'O
I LZL'O E6O'O t90'0 9E0'0 LOO'O 000'0 OZS'O
I hgL-o szL-o LBO-o etro' o 010-o 000'0 LOL'O
1 902'0 LSL'O 601'0 190'0 ELO"0 000'0 288 ' 0
BilZ.0 061'0 Zil'O ELO'O SLO'O 000'0 E90' L
I 062'0 ZZZ'O trSL ' 0 980'0 810'0 000'0 EtrZ' L
j OOL-0 CSL-o 00s-o ose-o 006-o os6'0=3i
I 902-o 86~*0 L ~ L - o EBL-o 9~1.0 ~ 9 i~ ~ 0
ZLE'O 91 SLL 9
SSil' 0 bZ SL L S
ZilO'O 600'0 000'0 €19'0 ZE SLL il
081'0 960' 0 ESO'O 110'0 000'0 ZL'O Oil SL L E
LLZ'O OE6'0 8il SLL 2
880' 1 95 SL L L
1 ooi-0 OSL-o ooe-o
202' 0 561'0 681'0 ZLE'O 8 05 1 L
SLO'O 190'0 LtrO'O ZLE'O 9 051 9
LZO' 0 900"O 000'0 06E ' 0 ttZ 0s L S
9E0.0 800'0 000'0 925'0 ZE OSL tl
9ilO'O 600'0 000'0 199'0 Otl 05 1 E
SSO'O 110'0 000'0 L6L'O 8il 0sL 2
€66'0 95 05 L L
7 7 - 1
Z.2" C LL- C ZL?.C ZLS'C 2cZ.U 60Z'C 1 ZiE'G E I 521 5 I 1
@;!'C QE.'C 521°C 51 . ' O EOL'O L60'0 2LC.C g! SZL 5
, n
>&l rL * C esc.0 O~C'G ZZC' C SO0"C 000'0 i7Z 5
, SZL
ZOL'O 8L0'0 trS0'0 OEO'O 900'0 000'0 ZE SZ L il
1 6SL.O 860' 0 P9O'O 8E0-0 800'0 000'0 LSS'O Oil SZ L E
t CS!'0 6L!'O 280'0 9ilO'O 600'0 000'0 tr99'0 8i7
I !g:O 6E:o 96c.c trS0' 0 LLC'O 000'0 95
00, C - OSL'O OOF'C 0SF.C 006'C 056'C=f 1 I
OS:C os:'o 0 s ~ " ~ O;L'C OSI'O OSL'O 1 osa-o 8 I 00: I L
0Z!'G . LO!-@ 26C.0 ~80-o +,LO-o I osz-o 91 I OOL I s
1 lgc-o gtrG.0 Zic.0 BLC-o i70c.o OOO'O 092" o tlz I O O L c
ZBC'C E9C'G itrC'0 trZC' C SOG'O 000"O 051.0 ZE 1 001 il
E3. ' 0 6LC.C' SSC"C OED-c 90C'C 000'0 j Li7ti.C Oti 00 L E I
?ZLaC S6C'@ yC'C LEC'C 80C'O OOC'G 1 LES'O i 8h I 001
S c . 'C L C LLC'G EtiCa c 60C'Cl 000'0 1 ZF'O 95 1 001 I 1
I
I I
CL--C OL'C OOE'G PSF'L oot-c o S ~ ' G = ~66JLIXs7U 3 4 5 ~ ~
~ 2aa, I (XUP, - qz 91)
1 16230JPXk I j JaaneTt asJncg
TANK MANUAL TANK DESISN
FIGURE 5

A U,S. P r o d u c e s r s 2an. 7975 P r i c e s f o r St.?el P l a t e s by Q u a l i t y G r ~ u p i n q

AS%M S p e c i f i c a t i o n Thickness C o s t , $ / t o n (Note 1 ) j

Rimmed 43/4"
1-1/2" Max
1/2" i%x
1-1/2" Max

Semi-Kill & 3/4" t o 1-1/2"


1 'I Fax
i ~ n

FuUy-Killed, FGP 1-l/ZR Max


41
1-1/ZW Max

Normalized

* AM-DH
** AES-EH

0 Pressure vessel quality s t e e L Normany not used f o r tankage e x c e p t where


required f o r toughness.
* k g e n e r a l , b , e r e b ~ t l e n e e d f o r u s e o f Amerriran B u s e a u o f S h i p p i n q S t e e l s .
They are not readily aMilable in t h e U.S.
** Price includes mandatory i m p a c t testing to C v = 50 R-lb a t 14F.
1. Except as noted below, t h e s e costa are base pr5ces. They do not include many
e m s , such as odd thickness, tonnage, e t c .
2, C osts do include an e x t r a f o r width and thickness of 1d/ #. Actual e x t r a varies
fYu m 0.55d to 2,70d/#.

Comparison o f U.S. and J a p a n e s e S t e e l P r i c e s

r U.S. - $/ton Japanese - S / ton 1


S t e e l Base P r i c e
Semi-Killed P l a t e
225.
237.
~
iI
Fine g r a i n practice, f u l l y k i l l e d 271. 247.
N o r n a l i z e d , impact t e s t on h e a t l o s t b a s i s 336 257.
Normalized, Three impact t e s t s p e r p l a t e 35 1 (Note 4 )

3. Normalizing c o s t s v a r y w i t h t h . i c k n e s s .
4. By s p e c i a l r e q u e s t .
1
TANK MANUAL ?.WK 3ESISN

Cost o f Impact T e s t i n g ( $ / T e s t )

I I
I
I. Heat l o t b a s i s - Longitudinal Transverse 30th j
(If a v a i l a b l e - s e e Note 1)

St r u c t u s a l S t e e l s
Temperature t o be agreed upon

II. P l a t e - a s - r o l l e d b a s i s 2

i Structural Steels

T e s t +40 F o r above
T e s t below +40 F

/ Pressure Vessel S t e e l s

T e s t +40 F o r above
T e s t below +40 F

NOTE 1: It appears t h a t obtaining guaranteed impacts on e i t h e r a h e a t l o t basis cr f o r


steels which are not h e a t t r e a t e d is diffScult o r i m p k b l e in t h e U .S.

Discusdons with two U.S. steel suppliem indicates they w i l l conduct


guaranteed i m p a c t tests only on h e a t t r e a t e d material3 and only on a plate-s-
rolled basis. On individual cases they may conduct t e s t s on non-heat t m a t e d ,
plate, cr on a h e a t Pot basis, f o r information only.
I
NOTE 2: Costs do not include an e x t r a f a - normallzing. When normalizing is not I

included in t h e applicable materiala specification an additional $35 per %n


must be added to t h e above costs. ,
I

I
I I I, SELECT1ON OF APPURTENANCES

A, INTRODUCTION

THIS SECTION HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOW5NG

CATEGORIES OF APPURTENANCES:

B, GAGING AND SAMPLING DEVICES

B, FORMS EF-33 CR 8 EF-33 FR

THESE FORMS, WHICH ARE INCLUDED I N SECTION V I , CONTAINS

A LIST OF ALL COMMONLY USED TANK APPURTENANCES. THEY


SERVE BOTH AS A CHECK L I S T WHEN SELECTING APPURTENANCES

AND AS A SCHEDULE BY WHICH THESE APPURTENANCES CAN BE

S P E C I F I E D I N A TANK PURCHASE CONTACT,

C, COMPANY DRAWINGS

ALTHOUGH THE DISCUSSION OF APPURTENANCES WILL COVER ALL


COHMONLY USED APPURTENANCES FOR TANKS, DRAWINGS ARE

INCLUDED ONLY FOR APPURTENANCES NHICH HAVE BEEN


DEVELOPED BY CORPORATE DEPARTMENTS AND OPERATIPIG

COMPANIES AS A RESULT OF NOT HAVING SUITABLE API OR


MANUFACTURER' s STANDARDS A V W ILABLE, THESE DRAW1NGS
AUGWENT API OR MANUFACTURER'S STANDARDS TO SUIT

PART1 CULAR REQUIi?EMENTS,

D, APH STANDARDS

THE API HAS STANDARDS FOR APPURTENANCES IN SECTION 3 OF

SHELL MANHOLES (3,7,5>


SWELL NOZZLES AND FLANGES (3,7,6>
FLUSHTYPE CLEANOUT FITTINGS (3,7.7>
FLUSHTYPE SHELL CONNECTIONS (3,7,8>
ROOF MANHOLES (3,8,4>
ROOF NOZZLES (FLANGED AND SCREWED), THE FLANGE3
ROOF NOZZLE IS NOT SATISFACTORY FOR VENTING
(3,8,5>
DRAW-OFF SUMP ( 3 8 6 a

SCAFFOLD CABLE SUPPORT (3,8,7>


UNDER-BOTTOM CONNECTIONS (APPENDIX 0-CONTAINS
RECOMHENDED PRACTICES ONLY, )
E, MNUFACTURERS' STANDARDS

MANUFACTURERS HAVE DEVELOPED AP$UETENANCES I N CERTAIN


CATEGORIES THAT AXE ACCEPTED AS " S T W M D A R D S ~ BY THE
INDUSTRY. EXAHPLES OF THESE APPURTENANCES ARE GAGING

DEVICES (GAGE HATCHES OF VARIOUS TYPES, AUTOF~ATIC


GAGING), BEATHER VALVES, AND FLOATING ROOFS AND

FITTINGS#

F, ECONOMY I N SELECTION

THREE GOOD RULES FQR ECONOMY IN THE SELECTION OF

APPURTENANCES ARE:

A, USE AN APPURTENANCE ONLY IF THERE IS A KNOWN


REQUIREMENT,

B, DOUBLE UP OW THE USE OF AN APPURTENANCE WHEZEVER


POSSIBLE ( Ia E . , A ROOF MANHOLE MAY ALSO SERVE AS A
GAGE INSPECTION HATCH OR AM EMERGENCY VENT HATCH) I

C, SPECIFY HANUFACTURER'S S T A N D A ~ D DESIGN, WHEREVER

USABLE, RATHEi? THAN OUR OWN DESIGN,


A I 6 I C I D I -E
CONSTRUCTION NOTES
1-7" 3'-0'1 a ' . ~ "5'. 0"
--
/! sK vS2'-4" C-I) M A T E R I A L S AND F A B R I C A I I O N SUALL LOHFORH TO 5 P E L I F I C A T I O N
31-b" 6'.9" 5'. 3' d' 2'. /" E G - 9 6 7 AN0 TO A P I STAHDARD 6 5 0 . LATEST E O I T I O N .

- 2 /4' /I.
--- ~.
Tan& s h e / / - 3 - /&.,I 4,. 0" To"
5'.6** /'- 7. 2' 7~4. /(I (-1) THE s u n p AHO NOZIIE ASSERULY SIIALL n t IHERMLLY STRESL-
R E L I E V E D A T A T E W E M T U R E OF 1.100'F 1 0 I.100.f fOR A
4 /B" 4'.6* 7'3'' 5'. 9
' . /'. 8- 2'-q;/i /y4* PERIOD OF ONE HOUR PER INCH OF r H I c m E s S OF THE B o T T o n
---- -- -
.. - ---- - -.....
P L A r E , U l T H A n l H l n W PERIOD OF ONE HOUR FOR U1) T H I C U I E L S .
9'' 2 , . , / q
5 20" 5 7:6" 6'.0' /I-
/y+"-
6'.0"
"
8'0" 6'.6" / ' . / / " 3'.3v/g L-3) GASKET SUHFALE OH M l S L D FACE F L h l l C t TO UE C O M L K I A L L Y
smorn ( 5 0 0 RHS MXIRW R O U G ~ N E S S ) .
C-4) FLAHCE BOLT I l O L L S SHALL L T M U D L L C i N T E h L l n E .

(-5) THE EXTERNAL SUHFACtS OF THC S M P , ' N U I I L f ASSEMBLY ANU TAHK


BOTTOR R E l N i D R C l H G PLATE SHALL B t SANOBLASTED TO A COnnER-
C l A L NEAR-WHITE F I N I S H (SSPC S P - 1 0 ) AND P A I H T E O WITH 3 H I L S
(DRY T H I C U E S S ) OF IHOHLAHIC Z I H C R I C H COATING; HAPKO 51
( 1 1 3 7 8 ) . AHEROR D l n f T c o T E D-6. CAHBOLINE CARBOZIHC II OR
N O B l L C H t H l C A L H O B I L - Z I N C I. THE W T A L LOGES TO BE F I E L D
Y E L L 0 SHALL BE THOROUGHLY CLEANED OF COATIHG BEFORE U E L D I Y C
TO PREVENT Z l H C CONTPAINATION OF UELO RETAL,

(-6) THE suw TO u u T r d n R ~ I N F O R C I N C PLAIE F I ~ L Ou t ~ uSIIALL BE


COHPLETELY O I L C H E C U O AFTER TrlE R3OT PASS A l l 0 AFTER THE
COVER PASS.

(-7) T l l l C U l E S S E S OF S U W UALL, SunP BOTTOH P L A T E PdlU RElNFORCllIG


P L A T E INCLUDE 1 / 1 6 " CORROLIOH ALLOUAIICE.

'-8) THE TRnK SUPPORT U t M 5 dUST bE PI.ACEU AND CHOUIEO BEFORE


F I E L D u E ~ O l l r GTHE SUI1P TO TllE d D l T O H REINFORCIIIG PLATE.
SEE STANDARD UKAUlNG GC-QIOIS.

PLAN

o f t a n k she// fo SU/?
rejoforr/oy p/aCe.

REFERENCE D R A W I N G S

. ~ - . .. .... .. . . . . - - ~ . ... ...... ~. ~~ -.


. .. . . ..-. .--
.. ... . -.
-
Field n o t e : W h e n A i s less t h a n DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION NOTES
Sqmrnetrical about 40 - h o l e s for i . 9 bolts, - --. p~ --

t qrind c o r n e r s r o u n d , all I. L e l t e r d i r n e n s i o r ~ s~ r e f e rt o v a l u e s g i v e n i n Table 3-2


equally spaced - s t r a d d l e
around, after weldinq
Permissable ~ l t e r n a t e flanqe 4 7 2 0 " s h e l l m a n h o l e , a n d a r e ttre same a s tlrose s h o w n

\ square cut in Fig.3.6 of API S t a n d a r d 6 5 0 c u l - r e n t e d i t i o n .


Cover plaie - min. thick.
X-I u e r T a b l e 3 - I API 5td 650
2. N o t e s g i v e n ill API L t a r ~ d a r d6 5 0 c u r r e n t e d i t i o n ,
f o r 2 0 " c i r c u l a r s h e l l rnanlnolr d r s i q r l a n d c o n b t l - u r t i o n
slbrll b e applicable t o t h i s drawinq.
-
,

I 5 . E d g e o f cower t o be f i n i s h e d bnrooth and


outside corner o f piale l o L e slightly rounded.

SHOWING COVER
KwJ COVER --R -
E-MO V.E- -
D
to suit curvature of thnkJ
- --

ELEVATION
p
,
1159
.
- -
I

DETAIL OF GASKET

--

v
0 -I A?C-,'c/<d
REVISIONS
-
Chtulan
Stal~dardOil Co~npany01 Cal~lo~n~a
L I , ~ " ' . " " ~ ~ UIY.IIII~LIII s111tr*"cll'"
.-
S.[Ab$Jfil?r) 30' X 36''I,!: ! I bIL\!4!I ~ ) I . E ..
I!
. ......
.....

Noh 4 . I / + / . '%/
..
.
rid
ACT
- -~ -

SCALE-NYUE . .. DATE ..3: 10:1314 . .. .. .. . ..r:o!i larj~ci, . . . ..~ ~~ ~

I%z<A
-. - . ..~
- . -- -- .--
Added S e a l plate and ~
;*;
- - -
DH D L I ( LIB CH G C U DR. APP - ENGR. EL- ..-. --.
.
up dated Flg ( T r r b l r
r e r e r e n C e 6 l o rnntch l o t c a t
-Er(nfApl650 [6:$Y7i ..
- .
STAHDARD DRAWING I
I
9 E 1 N r 0 4 C I N G SL.4TE 3 5 2
Y A P \ STANDARD ;50 2 V 1
I
5 C H 80 L O N G R A D I U S I
W E L D I N G ELSOW
i L A H G E i 3 i 4 O Z I L S SiiALL ;
3E :50;3 LlSAS S T 3 r k 3 I
R F UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTE? /
I

I
SCH 80 S E A M L E S S STEEL
PIPE, A P I 5 1 O R AS 1

SEAMLESS STEEL
I 5 1 OR A S T M A-53
n -
3
\

-el
>I

NOTE : F A B R I C A T I O N A N D A T T A C H M E N T OF NOZZLES SHALL CONFORM T 3


THE A P I S T A N D A R D 6 5 0 LATEST EDIT_ION n I
REDRAWN

EN61WEERIWG DEPARTMEWT SAW FRANCISCO

T A N K W A T E R DRAWOFF
PntNrso IN u.s.A. STANDARD D R A W I N G
IV, TANK OPENINGS

A, A P I SHELL MANHOLES

API STANDARDS SPECIFY MANHOLES I N SIZES OF 20". 24",


30" AND 36' (SEE FIG, 3-4A, A P I 650,) THE 24" R O U N D
MANHOLE IS MOST COMMONLY USED, HOWEVER, LARGrR

MANHOLES MAY BE J U S T I F I E D FOR I N S T A L L A T I O N OF HEATERS,

ACCESS FOR CLEANING, R E P A I R M A T E R I A L S AND INSTALLATIOR

- OF HEATERS. USUAL PRACTICE IS TO PROVIDE ONE MANHCLE

FOR TANKS UP TO 40' OR 50' DIAMETER, TWO MANHOLES F O R

TANKS RANGING FROM 40'-50' TO 100'-110' DIAMETER, AND

TWO OR THREE MANHOLES FOR LARGER TANKS, DEPENDING a?!


THEIR SERVICE,

B, LARGER ACCESSWAY - DWG, GC-D99761

SOME OPERATORS REQUIRE ONE 20" x 36" MANHOLE ON EACH

F L O A T I N G ROOF TANK TO P E R M I T MOVING EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS

THROUGH THE SHELL, ESPECIALLY DRAIN-PIPE JOINTS, ITIS

SOMETIMES USED ALSO FOR CONE ROOF TANKS WHEN A LARGER

S H E L L ACCESSWAY I S REQUIRED,

SHELL NOZZLES

API STANDARDS ARE USED FOR SHELL NOZZLES AND PROVIDE

1
FOR TWO NOZZLE HEIGHTS, ~ ~ E G U L A RAND FLUSH, GENERALLY~
NOZZLES SHOULD BE PLACED AS LOW AS POSSIBLE TO ALLOW

MAXIMUM TANK OPEWING CAPACITY AND YET FULFILL THE

REQUIREMENTS OF SUFFICIENT HEIGHT TO ALLOW FOX

REINFORCING PADS, SHELL NOZZLES FLUSH WITH THE TANK

BOTTOM ARE P R I M A R l L Y USED W I T H F L O A T I N G ROOF TANKS TO

PERHIT HAXIHUM LOWERING OF ROOFS, STANDARD DRAWING GG-


D 1069 PROVIDES DETAILS TO DESIGN FLUSH NOZZLES AND HAS

EDITION
BEEN INCLUDED I N THE ~ T H OF A P I 650,

D. SHELL CLEANOUTS

GENERALLY. THE COMB IMAT ION CLEANOUT AND WATER DRAW-OFF

AS SHOWN ON DRAWING GA-099765 WILL SERVE AS WELL AS

STANDARD A P I 8" x 16" AND 24" x 24" SIZES AND IS MORE


ECONOMICAL, LARGEFLUSH-TYPE CLEANOUTS ARE EXPENSIVE
AND SHOULD BE I N S T A L L E D ONLY WHEN FREQUENT C L E A N I N G OF

HEAVY SLUDGE DEPOSITS IS ANTICIPATED, FOR THIS PURPOSE

EITHER STANDARD APH 36" x 48" OR 48" x 48" CLEANOUT

SHOULD BE USED,

A DOOR SHEET I S USED WHEN LARGE EQUIPMENT I S REQII;?ED

FOR C L E A N I N G OPERATIONS, I[T C O N S I S T S OF A LARGE i C - E


I N THE BOTTOM COURSE OF A TANK COVERED BY A LARGE SHEET

OF THE SAME THICKNESS AS THE BOTTOM COURSE AND BOLTED

I N PLACE,

INLARGE TANKS DESIGN OF THE V E R T I C A L J O I N T BETWEEN THE

DOOR SHEET AND SMELL IS DIFFICULT. ITMAY INVOLYE

SEVERAL ROWS OF BOLTS AND I T I S D I F F I C U L T TO M A I N T A I N A

TIGHT J O I N T ,

E, ELBOW OUTLET - DWG, GC-D39627


THIS OUTLET PERMITS WITHDRAWAL OF TANK CONTENTS TO A

LOWER LEVEL AND CHECKS VORTEX FORMATION AT HIGH FLOW

RATES

F, SIPHON-TYPE WATER DRAW-OFF-DWG, GE-931732

THIS IS USED WHERE IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO HAVE A

PERMANENT COHNECTION I N THE TANK BOTTOM FOR WATER DRAlPE

OR CLEANING (MARKETING TANKS AND CONE DOWN BOTTOM TANKS

ARE AN EXAMPLE),

6, WATER DRAW-OFF SUPIPS

API-650 FIG, 3-15 PROVIDES A STANDARD FOR DRAW-OFF

SUMPS LOCATED NEAR THE EDGE OF THE TANKS,


UNDER-BOTTOfl CONNECTIONS

API-658. APPENDIX 0, "RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR UNDER-


I1
BOTTOM CONNECTIONS, CONTAINS BASIC RECOMMENDATIONS TO
BE CONSIDERED FOR THE D E S I G N AND CONSTRUCTION OF UNDER-

BOTTOM CONNECTIONS FOR STORAGE TANKS,

THESE INLET/OUTLET NOZZLES PERMIT VERY HIGH FLOW RATES. ,

AND WITHDRAWING AT LOW L I Q U I D LEVELS WITHOUT VORTEX

FORMBTION,
I, ROOF MANHOLES

THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF ROOF MANHOLES IS TO PROVIDE A

MEANS FOR V E N T I L A T I N G A TANK BEFORE ENTRY B Y WORKERS

AND TO P R O V I D E NATURAL L I G H T W H I L E WORK I S B E I N G DONE,

THEY MAY ALSO BE USED A S AN ACCESS TO END OF SWING

LINES, A N I N S P E C T I O N HATCH FOR TANK GAGE, OR A B A S E F @ 2

EMERGENCY VENT ATTACHMENTS,

STANDARDAPI WOOF MANHOLE

API 650, FIG. 3-12, PROVIDES 20" AND 24" DIAMETER ROOF

MANHOLES, SOME OPERATORS PREFER THE 20" MANHOLE AND IT

I S Q U I T E S A T I S F A C T O R Y FOR SMALLER TANKS,

FOR LARGER TANKS A 24" x 36" MANHOLE IS PREFERRED

BECAUSE IT PROVIDES A GREATER AMOUNT OF L I G H T I N G AND

VENTILATION, AND AN EASIER ACCESS DURING MAINTENANCE

OPERATIONS, THE HIGHER MANHOLE SHOULD BE USED FOR

INSULATED TANKS, FROMONE TO THREE OF THESE MANHOLES ;

ARE U S U A L L Y I N S T A L L E D DEPENDING ON TANK D I A M E T E R ,


WINDOW SHEETS

A LARGE ROOF OPENING (UP TO 5' x 8' DIPIEIUSIONS) CALLED

A WINDOW SHEET IS SOMETIMES USED, ITPERMITS LOWERING

OF LARGE EQUIPMENT THROUGH THE ROOF AND ALLOWS A LARGE

AMOUNT OF NATURAL LIGHTING AND VENTILATION, ITS


CONSTRUCTION I S SIMILAR TO THE 24" x 3611 ROOF NANHOLE

WITH A gN ANGLE FRAMEl ON TANKS THAT ARE SELDOR

OPENED, COLD CUTTING AND PATCHING THE ROOF IS

ECONOMICAL,

GAGE FLOAT INSPECTION HATCH

A GAGE F L O A T I N S P E C T I O N HATCH I S REQUIRED FOR INTERIOR

I N S P E C T I O N OF TANK GAGE AND FLOAT ONLY I F AN OPENING I S

NOT OTHERWISE P R O V I D E D FOR THE PURPOSE,

APH ROOF NOZZLES

API-650. FIG. 3-13 AND 3 4 ROOF NOZZLE HEIGHTS ARE

NOT SATISFACTORY FOR MOUNTIIVG VENTING EQUIPMENT, WHEN


ROOF NOZZLES ARE INTENDED FOR USE WITH VENTING

MACHINES, THE H E I G H T OF THE NOZZLES S H A L L BE INCREASED


V, GAGING AND SAMPLING DEVICES

A, VAPOR-TIGHT GAGE HATCH

THESE ARE NEEDED ONLY ON VAPOR-TIGHT T A ~ ~ KAND


S SYOULD

BE PLACED ON ALL VAPOR-TIGHT TATiKS EQUIPPED WITH


BREATHER V A L V E S , SEVERAL MAWUFACTUDE?S HAKES S T A N D i l 2 3

EQUIPMENT WHICH I S S A T I S F A C T O R Y ,

B, . FUIMEL-TYPE THIEF AND GAGE HATCH

THIS IS A NON-GAS-TIGHT HATCH USEE ON TANKS HOLDING

DIRTY, LO%-VAPOR-PRESSURE STOCK, IT IS USED FOR

C A T C H I N G D R I P S FROM SAMPLE B O T T L E S AND GAGE TAPES AND

ALSO P R O V I D E S A RACK FOR S A M P L I N G EQUIPMENT,

C, MULTIPLE USE HATCH

THE COMBINED GAGE HATCH, BREATHER, AND MANHOLE FOR NOM-

GAS-TIGHT TANKS SERVES A T R I P L E FUlVCTION ON SMALL NON-

GAS-TIGHT TANKS, ITHAS BEEN USED FOR SMALL GREASE AND

SLUDGE TANKS,
D. GAGE WELLS

SLOTTED GAGE WELLS FOR FIXED ROOF TANKS ARE USED TO

GUARD AGAINST STATIC HAZARD I N TANKS STORING REFINED

PRODUCTS WHERE VAPOR SPACE MAY BE I N E X P L O S I V E RANGE,

E, TANK GAGING

TANK LEVEL GAGING IS DEFINED BY THE API AS "A PROCESS


:I
OF MEASURING THE H E I G H T OF A L I Q U I D I N A STORAGE TANK,

FOR PROCESS LEVEL MEASU~EMENT ACCURACY REBU IREHEHBS

(8.1X TO 1%) CAN BE MET WITH MECHANICAL GAGES* DIP


CELLS, TORQUE TUBE D I S P L A C E R S , OR A V A R I E T Y OF OTHER,

UNCONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS,
A B C D E F G ti
I I I I 1 I I
O R D E R IC.\JG D A T A
<R WHEN O R D E R I N G C O M B I P I A T I O N H A T C H b WEATHER
FROPA THLS D W G . , S P E C l F Y : -
I. R O O F S L O P E
2. DIMEI\ISI~N'~," I

-
C.2) 4 i 4 r l " L ~ BP~S5.FINI511ED
.
HEX t i E A 0 B O L T WITH HEX

CONSTRUCTION NOTES
I: A L L S T E E L S H A L L EE A S T M A - 36.E A C E P T A 5 NOTED.
2:AL L W E L D I N G S H A L L BE EL€ C T R l C , I J 5 I I - I G
C O A T E D R O D C O b I F O F i W l l h l G T O A.W.S. l - Y P S k-6010.
HATCH LONG S E A M SHALL e t A FULL PEI<ETRPTION WLLR

3
ShC DETAIL

A'sr .I
7;'s~. 0 R A 5 5
BLOCKS. 0 K A Z E
TO cove*. 2 R ~ O D . RILL FOR ~/B"LI..LG.
-16 GA. 5 T L . C O V E R -... COTTER P I N . ( 0 O T l i ENDS). -

Yi'b STL. H A M O L E

' 4
REFERENCE D R A W I N G S

. -~ . ~~ ~~.
..- . . ~. . ... ... .

1/4"5TL. b P A C K E T
%G"THK. ST L . - - ..
HATCH

REINFORCING RI~IG. DETAIL OF HINGE


-. ---
€LEVA1-IOI\j ~

Chavlon
REVISIONS S ~ a i ~ d d011 ~ dC o ~ ~ l p aol~Calilornia
~y
~ l l Y , l l ~ r , , . l~
. i i . ~bill
.~ ~,~,~,,~
tldlillli~ F ~....l j Pp J O a l .~
- (.i t - . ? - - r I c i t i T TPil'1tc.S
~~~

-
SCALE_!!C!?.!E . . . . OATE 31 !Z If: ~.

OH I'_B.!:CtiC.!FL 011, A P P . C . E e - _ tNGHJ;McQ 4.!3


APPROVED
LNG. UCPT. ii.A.R 4 2!, E ?! 4!? %~&5/i)n
Pfi,,,,,,$. ,>
5. *,
5IAIiUAUO ORAWING
F L A N G E 0 SAMPLE F U N N E L B COVER.
FOR FLOATING ROOF TANKS I
STANDARD D R A W I N G
V I , OPERATING DEVICES

SWING PIPES AWE USED WHEN IT IS DESIRED TO FILL OR

WITHDRAW FROM TANKS AT SPECIFIC LEVELS# OR FOR SOME

SPECIAL PURPOSE SUCH AS SKIMMING, BLENDING# OR

C I RCLILAT ING ,

SWING PIPES ARE EXPENSIVE TO MAINTAIN AND SHOULD NOT BE

INSTALLED UNLESS THERE I S A D E F I N I T E OPERATING NEED FOR

THEM n

ELBOWS ON ENDS OF SWING PIPES SHOULD BE TURNED UPWARD

I F DISTURBANCE OF BOTTOM WATER LAYER OR SLUDGE I S TO BE

AVO IDED a

BALANCEDOR CENTRAL TYPE OF "STAY TITE" SWING JOINT IS

STANDARD AND SHOULD BE USED ON A L L SWING P I P E S 4" AND

LARGER,
CABLE SHOULD 9ESIST CORROSION AND WEAR SO AS TO BE

SERVICEABLE EEYOND THE PERIOD BETWEEN CLEANOUTS (AT

LEAST SEVEN TO TEN YEARS), IIV MOST CASES, GALVANIZED

PLOW-STEEL CABLE SHOULD B E ADEQUATE,

, A WINCH SHOULD NOT B E S E L E C T E D TOO CLOSE TO I T S WORKING

LIMIT,

NECESSARY FOR I N S U L A T E D TANKS,

B, TANK HEATERS AN0 HEAT LOSSES

SELECTION AND S I Z I ~ ~ G OF HEATERS DEPENDS UPON TANK SIZE,

AMOUNT AND PRESSUTE OF STEAM AVAILABLE, ATMOSPHERIC

TEMPERATURE, INITIAL AND FINAL OIL TEMPERATURES,

HEATING TIME, AND R A D I A T I O N FACTORS WHICH VARY OVER A

WIDE
RANGE, BECAUSE OF THE MANY VARIABLES, EACH HEATING
PROBLEM IS AN :INDIVIDUAL ONE AND IS NOT ADAPTED TO
STANDARDIZATION, ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DESIGN
PRACTICED-131-4 PROVIDES BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON THE
DETERMINATION OF TANK HEAT LOSSES AND THE SIZING OF
HEATERS,

EARLIER TANK HEATERS CONSISTED OF A NUMBER OF HAIRPIN


COILS FORMING A GRID OVER THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK 1 COST
PER SQUARE FOOT OF EFFECTIVE HEATING SURFACE WAS HIGH
AND MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR PROVE EXPENSIVE. THISLEADS
TO BUNDLE-TYPE HEATER AND, FINALLY, TO MANHOLE HEATERS,
HEATERS SHOWN ON THE DRAWINGS REQUIRE NO PIPING
CONNECTIONS INSIDE THE TANK AND CAN BE REMOVED AND
REPAIRED WITHOUT GOING INSIDE THE TANK, DESIGN SHOWN
ON THE DRAWING PERMITS REMOVAL OF THE HEAD WITHOUT
EMPTYING THE TANK,

APPLICATIONS, THEY CAN BE EITHER SHOP OR FIELD

EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF HEAT OVER THE BOTTOM 3F A TANK,


MOST APPARENT DISADVANTAGE IS THAT THE TANK HAS TO BE

TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE AND CLEANED FOR MAINTENANCE AND

R E P A I R S TO THE HEATER,

SUCTION HEATERS SIMILAR TO MANHOLE TYPE HEATERS,

WITH A SHEATH PLACED AROUND THE BUNDLE, BASICALLY,


ONLY STOCK WITHDRAWN FROM THE TANK IS HEATED, SUCTION
HEATERS ARE FREQUENTLY EMPLOYED TO REDUCE V I S C O S I T Y OF

HEAVY STOCKS AND THEREBY TO REDUCE PUMPING COSTS.

COMPARTMENT HEATERS A9E I N S T A L L E D I N TANK COMPARTMENTS

AND ARE DESIGNED TO HEAT ONLY STOCK TO BE PUMPED OUT,

PIPE COIL. MANHOLE TYPE, OR VERTICAL FINNED-TUBE

HEATERS MAY BE USED IN THIS SERVICE, USUALLY THERE ARE

ONLY TWO SUCH COMPARTMENTS W I T H A HEATER I N EACH,

EACH COMPARTMENT HAS A SWING DOOR TO THE INTERIOR OF

THE TANK AND TANK SUCTION IS MANIFOLDED TO EACH

COMPARTMENT,
SUCH HEATERS ARE USUALLY USED ONLY WHEN PREHEATING

STOCKS B E I N G PUHPED FROM A F E E D TANK TO A PROCESS U N I T

AND ARE GENERALLY USED TO OBTAIN HIGHER TEMPERATURES

THAN WOULD B E P R A C T I C A L W I T H OTHER TYPES OF HEATERS,

AN EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER MAY BE AN ECONOMICAL CHOICE

FOR TANK H E A T I N G I N SOME I N S T A N C E S E S P E C I A L L Y I F I T CAN

B E M A N I F O L D E D TO SEVERAL TANKS,

TANK MIXERS

PROPELLER-TYPE TANK MIXERS, GENERALLY MANUFACTURER'S

STANDARD U N I T S , ARE USED FOR B L E N D I N G O P E R A T I O N S ,

ANOTHER SOLUTION TO TANK MIXING PROBLEMS, IS THE USE OF

THIS METHOD I S COVERED


M I X I N G NOZZLES. IN ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT DESIGN PRACTICE K134-1, SIMPLY, THE
METHOD USES A JET OF PRODUCT TO PRODUCE DESIRED

AGITATION,

D, THERMAL CLOS I NG TANK VALVES

GENERAL

INTHE OIL INDUSTRY'S MORE SERIOUS FIRES. DAHAGE WAS

GREATLY INCREASED BY OIL RELEASED THROUGH RUPTURED

, P~PING, GENERALLY. THIS OIL CAME FROM TANKS ON WHICH

THE OUTLET VALVES WERE OPEN AND COULD NOT BE REACHED

FOR CLOSING AFTER THE FIRE STARTED, THE USE OF

AUTOMATIC THERMAL CLOSING TANK VALVES OR REMOTE-

OPERATED VALVES COULD MINIMIZE OR AVOID THIS HAZARD,

THEY ARE AN EXCELLENT D E V I C E FOR SELECTED LOCATIONS,

USES

THERMALCLOSING VALVES OR REMOTE-OPERATED VALVES MIGHT

B E D E S I R A B L E ON TANKS WHERE PUMPOUT DURING A FIRE IS

NOT P O S S I B L E BECAUSE OF L I N E OR EQUIPMENT FAILURES: OR

AS BOUNDARY BLOCKS AT MANIFOLDS I N C R I T I C A L LOCATIONS.

CONDITIONS NORMALLY NOT JUSTIFYING USE OF THESE VALVES

INCLUDE ISOLATED TANKS OR TANKS LOCATED SO THAT S P I L L S

D R A I N AWAY FROM THE TANKS AND AREAS OF H I G H VALUE I N T O

IMPOUNDING AREAS WHERE F I R E WOULD NOT BE HAZARDOUS,


MA INTENAMCE

MAINTENANCE THAN ORDINARY V A L V E S ,

TYPES OF VALVES

SEVERAL TYPES OF THERMAL CLOSING VALVES ARE AVAILABLE

FOR PROTECTION A G A I N S T F I R E HAZARD, RELATIVE COSTS FOR

DIFFERENT TYPE INSTALLATIONS ARE SHOWN IN TA:BLES 1 AND

2 ATTACHED,

A S P R I N G LOADED LEVER OPERATED VALVE WHICH CAN B E H E L D

IN OPEN POSITION BY A FUSIBLE LINK ATTACHED TO THE

HANDLE, ITCLOSES AUTOMATICALLY WHEN FIRE MELTS THE

LINK a THIS VALVE MAY BE INSTALLED IN THE TANK,

E L I M I N A T I N G THE NEED FOR AN O P E R A T I N G GATE V A L V E ,

A S P R I N G LOADED LEVER OPERATED VALVE WHICH CAN BE H E L D


I N THE OPEN P O S I T I O N B Y A F U S I B L E L I N K ATTACHED TO THE

HANDLE. ITCLOSES AUTOMATICALLY WHEN FIRE MELTS THE

LINK,

THIS TYPE OF VALVE IS CONSIDERED AS EMERGENCY FATHER

THAN OPERATING SINCE THE LOW DISC SEAT PRESSURE

(EQUIVALENT TO ONLY 3 PSI BACK PRESSURE) DOES NOT

P R O V I D E B O T T L E T I G H T CLOSURE.

THIS VALVE IS PRIMARILY INTENDED AS A THERMAL SAFETY

VALVE THAT I S NORMALLY OPEN, IT


REQUIRES BACK UP B Y AN

O P E R A T I N G VALVES

AN INTERNAL CHECK VALVE USING A DISC MOUNTED ON A

COUNTERWEIGHT ARM THAT IS HELD IN THE "OPEN" POSITION

BY A CABLE ATTACHED TO A FUSIBLE LINK AT A SUITABLE

POINT OUTSIDE THE TANK SHELL, MELTING OF THE FUSIBLE

L I N K B Y F I R E R E L I E V E S THE CABLE, AND THE COUNTERWEIGHT

CLOSES THE VALVES

THIS VALVE IS SUITABLE ONLY AS AN E~MERGENCY THERMAL

SAFETY SHUT-OFF VALVE s ITIS NOT AN OPERATING V A L V E ,


IN A TANK INSTALLATION THE VALVE IS MOUNTED IN THE

DISCHARGE OPENING AND, EXCEPT FOR I T S BASE FLANGE, IS

E N T I R E L Y W I T H I N THE TANK, ITNORMALLY I S HELD CLOSED

BY A SPRING AND OPENS ONLY WHEN HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IS

A P P L I E D BY A SMALL H I G H PRESSURE HAND PUMP MOUNTED NEAR

THE VALVE OR AT A REMOTE LOCATION AS DESIRED, RELEASE


, OF T H I S PRESSURE WILL IMMEDIATELY CLOSE THE VALVE AND

SHUT OFF FLOW,

THIS VALVES IS SIMILAR TO TYPE (4) EXCEPT THAT IT IS

DESIGNED TO REMAIN CLOSED AGAINST ANY TANK OR LINE

PRESSURE, ITI S , THEREFORE, SUITABLE FOR USE AS AN

OPEqATING VALVE,
A FULL FLOW VALVE FOR USE IN LINES TO TANKS JUST

OUTSIDE THE REGULAR SHUT-OFF VALVE WHERE IT IS

NECESSARY FOR A VALVE TO CLOSE AUTOMATICALLY AND

INSTANTANEOUSLY DUE TO EXCESSIVE TEMPERATURE IN THE

TMMEDIATE AREA OF THE V A L V E ,

THIS VALVE CAN BE PROVIDED WITH AN AUXILIARY CIRCUIT OF

FUSIBLE WIRE WHICH, UPON EXPOSURE TO FIRE, CLOSES A

RELAY IN THE MAIN CIRCUIT AND THUS CLOSES THE VALVE

SHOULD I T B E OPEN,

A 450 BODY REMOTE OPERATING VALVE HELD IN NORMALLY

CLOSED P O S I T I O N B Y THE S P R I N G UNLESS A C T I V A T E D B Y THE

P ILOT VALVE, ELECTRIC, PNEUMATIC, OR HYDRAUL Ic P ILOT

V A L V E S MAY BE USED FOR OPENING THE M A I N V A L V E C Y L I N D E R ,

THIS VALVE IS IDEAL WHERE MINIMUM PRESSURE DROP IS

REQUIRED OR FOR A P P L I C A T I O N S WHERE I T I S NOT P R A C T I C A L

TO USE THE FLOWING STREAM AS THE POWER MEDIUM TO

OPERATE A V A L V E ,
March 1962
M P)
43 3m2r iCC, >o
ado2
1~5s-
March 1962
NOTES
L SuPp/;cr ,n~y umc his J/JNO!!IJ S ~ C J I S . ~v~i'h
mod'fii.al/Ms
shown by O ! ~ / J / %on D/awiny GB-D78trt3/
2. fdycs o f 1'10/cr pr-ov/ddd f o r f i s s ~ y col' % - &6/e
thru SIuff,r/y Box, W ~ s h c rdlid Cdp to Lc I oulldcd
off on bolh rid<,.

/ ? , E f f / ? , k M ~ f D R AW / N G S

c11.",0"
Srindacd 011CUIII~UIIY III C~IIIUIIIIA
t,,",~,, lir,l~,l,,,l.,l
S.,~Il*,l~,liU
- - ~ ~~ . .-
SCALC. 32 6'.: !-'<?- .. oxr t 2 4'.I22-.
DM JILL ~ CII.LG4C*? -rht ~ - m u~
1 . 1 E ~I J L , R . L ~ L U < L
MIXER sUMBts
.DATA
n l x t n I r s r r L L t o ir ( v t s s t ~ ) ( l r r r ) r u n e t a
COMPANY (CONTINUED) . NOTES
I. l l f H > I I P l i b l l , '.'
I 1 1 V l l l l t l 1 1 < 1 1 < 1 < ,IN I I A I 1 11111 I
iuli,l1:,~110 b l 1 1 6 l i l 8 ' l ll'l 01 111<121 11. AII 11l11111 111 ~i
COMPANY'S D A T A E. wAT!,L_ REQUIREMENTS h~ y u ~ l ; l l u~ l l n ~ O O l a iInI I A I
(vGUG?Gil*oii*~~ MICUYIIIUIO WIIHIAI PKOPCIIIR 011 l n P t L l r R -~-

DH I1~II;lYIILIlUN CU1 I l l * 1101 S P L c I t 1 1 0 . ) : i l 1 1 I I I I I C Uua A110 n O I I m l lnc FIAIIGL . . _ ... _...


?111*1 1 - - - . ..
lllnll ~lllt1~;l~G 511AFl I l l R U 51111 f 1111; 1 0 x 7
W~IIAIIILAL b t -
~5 1 ~ 1PING-. . - - _~ .
W I l l l t G 5 t A l Y l l l L . ....
5wINl;>--. ... ~ .- .---
ClllLAPS. C A L I S. CIC. -

C A b K C I S -. . ~ -
> I l l 1 I, H U I 3 l l U I U t - C O L I I H 011 S l l A t I - ..
-CA5IC 1 .. ~ --

-SILL FATI u* S111FI. UUl .

...

. .........-
-
VENDOR'S D A T A 1511 NUII 11
MOM 1 IIUMIM ~ -

.LIHlAl h'llHULW -. ~
. . ... .

- ..
S K I I C H Of VESSEL S l l w l l G CLIILIAL DIIAPE. I:UI~ICAL
L- -
DIHCUSIOUS. A I D IIICUVALS.
VLNOOR I 0 S11W P R L f t U R t D L O C A I IUN. U H l E I l ~ 1 1 0 1 . AND
. ~

I r v t ,,I . , P t t n HIIJICIU (I;IAY) Iv-UIII~(IIIPICI


UWIVI~ I I I L Y N A I CLCAPAICC M t Q U I n l O .
r w w l AI I &UHF AMII null 1 W 5 Y l 1 il It1 llll t H
r.c.14~ 1 1 H v 1 . l I ~ l l l k
I'WIII'I IIIII u l r M IIY -. - .-.. ... .... .. .
- - ~
-

I I I ~KI nuural IN,. I ILI;~ -S 1 1 1 IHAI IIU,. .. _ 16 11~1, !


I M I ~ I 11 .,urlwnl 11 11 u c u ~ l I, I~AIIII I .. . 23 I ::-I
I ,I111111 , l ~ t l ~ l 1 * 1 . . I I P L _, ~ -
V)

I H I I I I H I I t I 1 l l l l l r l i ; l l l LU O H l l l l t l l I t l PAZS I ' I ? ~ I I ' I I ~ I M _I# ! :\&


l ' l l h l l < l l - l l O l l l l l H U HIIII;>> Ill I
I . ~~ l'.~:.~.-I
I

.. . . ~~ -.
LIIbU. ~ . .. -. - .
OI'H'LUfl'l.. . .
fMC. OfI'I. _ . ~

~-

D. ConsiuucTIw I ( E Q U I R E H E N I S
b l z , l < ~ ! ~ , ~ ~ l l l( l lIl A~' , l l l ~~ ~~ ~ l l l ~ ~l , I l 1f 1 )~ l l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i
,,,,I,.,! f l ~ ~.,A1 l l ~ l
I 8 ,I, ,,,,<,,I , , I I, I,, (4 ~ ~ l ~ l ' ~ l r I ~ >,,4,.
I , . ill I11 I 1 '.ill I I I I l l l l l l I(
1 1 1 i i i i , , i l i i l ,l,.I [,I'l~l,l/"i.I liilii, )I,,",,, 1
'I., r Ill, I ,llllll >ill ll Ill 11 ,1111.111 J I d 1 11111.1.1
,,I I.,'I 1111 .I./
, 1 1 1 1, I " , , , . l l i i i , I . I,.. I , , , , < \ A ll ,,1(,1II11.
I ',I ,, I,,,,., 4 I ,I, I I t t,, ,I,, ',l,ll \:Al,#,,<84 I,, ( 1 , .,t,.l.'
1,'. .I { I '"I, l"',~"''."'~.""''~ I I Ill i
V I I , VAPOR RELIEF FIXED ROOF

A, GENERAL

ALLOW FOR:

A) OUTBREATHING OF TANK VAPOR DUE TO EXPANSION

RESULTING FROM ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE INCREASE

AND F I L L I N G THE TANK, AND

B) INBREATHING
OF AIS DUE TO CONTRACTION OF TANK

VAPORS RESULTING FROM TEMPERATURE DECREASE AND

EMPTYING THE TANKm

B. VENTING CAPACITY AND PRESSURES

THE MAXIMUM PRESSURE WHICH A TANK WITH A ROOF STRUCTURE

SHOULD O R D I N A R I L Y BE SUBJECTED I S THE PRESSURE AT WHICH

THE ROOF PLATES ARE LIFTED OFF THE ROOF RAFTERS. (FOR
A ROOF CONSTRUCTED OF 3/16-IN, PLATE, T H I S PRESSURE I S

EQUAL TO 1 1/2 I N . OF WATER, )

THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VACCUM IS DETERMINED FROM THE

RESISTANCE OF THE EMPTY TANK TO COLLAPSE. THE MAXIMUM

VAPOR SPACE VACUUM NORMALLY ALLOWED I S 3 I N , OF WATER,


THE API VENTING GUIDE RP 2000 PERMITS THE USE OF OPEN

VENTS FOR TANKS IIV WHICH O I L W I T H A FLASH P O I N T OF lOOF


AND ABOVE I S STORED,

A S I N G L E OPEN VENT THAT MAY BE HOODED TO KEEP OUT R A I N

IS USUALLY PROVIDED, THE VENT NIPPLE SHOULD BE SIZED

U S I N G THE LOWER SET OF CURVES ON THE PRESSURE VENTING

CHART, DRAWING GB-87390,

A BREATHER VALVE I S A PRESSURE R E L I E F VALVE WHICH OPENS

TO ALLOW TANK VENTING ONLY WHEN THE INTERNAL PRESSURE

OR VACUUM EXCEED THE VALVE OPERATING PRESSURES, THEREBY

MINIMIZING TANK BREATHING AND REOUCING EVAPORATIOPl

LOSSES n

BREATHER VALVES ARE GENERALLY PLACED ON TANKS STORING

O I L S W I T H A FLASH P O I N T BELOW 100F,

AS DISCUSSED IN THE FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL, THE

INSTALLATION OF FLAME ARRESTORS ON TANK VENTS YO

ATMOSPHERE I S NOT RECOMMENDED,


BREATHERVALVES SHOULD NORMALLY BE SIZED IN ACCORDANCE

w ITH DRAWING GB-87398, "CHART FOR SELECT ION OF BREATHER


VALVES," WHICH IS BASED ON THE API VENTING GUIDE RP
-
2800 AND PERFORMANCE DATA OF COMMERICALLY AVAILABLE

BREATHE8 V A L V E S ,

THE API VENTING GUIDE RP 2800 REQUIRES THAT IN ADDITION

TO NORMAL V E N T I N G CAPACITY, ALL TANKS S H A L L HAVE SOME

DEVICE OR FORM OF CONSTRUCTION THAT WILL RELIEVE

EXCESSIVE I N T E R N A L PRESSURE I F THE TANK I S EXPOSED TO

FIRE, AN EMERGENCY V E N T I N G D E V I C E I S MOT R E 3 U I R E D B Y


A P I RP 2880, IF r T CAN BE SHOWN THAT THE ROOF-TO-SHELL
JOINT IS WEAKER THAN THE SHELL-TO-SHELL OR SHELL-TO-

BOTTOM J O I N T S ,

PROBABLY MORE THAN HALF OF THE TANKS THAT HAVE BEEH

DAMAGED FROM EXCESSIVE PRESSURE OR VACUUM FROM ANY

CAUSE HAVE BEEN DAMAGED BECAUSE OF FROZEN BREATHER

V A L V E S OR VENTS,
TABLE I
COMPARATIVE COSTS OF VENTING AND ACCESS
FOR SMALL VERTICAL STORAGE TANKS WITH F I X E D ROOFS

-
TANKS WITH FRANGIBLE ROOF-SHELL JOINT
(1)
TANKS WITIIOUT FRANGI BLE
(2
ROOF-SHELL
JOI NT
1
I BREATHER V A L V E PI

TANK
D lAMETER
( FT)
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
5!

NOTES:
( 1 ) V E N T I N G REQUIRED FOR 5 0 0 GPM F I L L I N G AND EMPTY I N 0 HATE
( 2 ) V E N T I N G FOR a) NORMAL F I L L I N G AN0 EMPTY I N G AND/OR b ) T O T A L PRESSURE R E L I E F PER A P I R P - 2 0 0 0 .
( 3 ) RECOMMENDED M I N I M U M BREATllER VALVE S I Z E I S $-IN.
(11) ABOVE T A B L E I S BASED ON THE USE OF SllAHD h J U R S BREATllER VALVES AND V E N T I N G MANHOLES, OR L Q U I V A L E N T .
( 5 ) T l l E PRESSURE-VACUUM V E H T I H G MANII0I.E (s. h J. 5 1 - 5 4 5 5 P - V ) MEETS V E N T I N G REQUIREMENTS FOR A L L [AUKS AND CAN BE U S E 0 1011 TANK
ACCESS AHD L I G I I r . IT HAS A TEFLON DIAPHRAGM.
( 6 ) BHEATllEll VALVE COSTS INCLUDE NOZZLE.
!:;
... :;
.
- a
> *.
p;; ::
5; .-
1::- :;
i:
I:". -. 0
- j3
.. .. - ...
1 m IM mc >Ian, a rarcnmi -..
...
m - -
,. -.. -i
5 t
I , ,
?
, I .
!
I ,
1
! / I
--.
-.-
-..-
..- -. -'
1,
..:<".: - :
-:
".-
3 -
,- :
i s : i4
a!;- - 3 :
: - -- -
i i i ;:
.--,!
. - I -. <,
32:
::
..-
' 5 ; iii
--.
:a<
..
. A
5 : ;
.- - -, - .
3 - - .
- - .
-z;: =:-
i z - ::;
PI-
a:-?
z:35 -:*
-.-.
t a 4 :
--..
+-:
:3:
..-.::-
:a;-
::z
I

-'i---
I I

v, E::- , ,
- --
4PI qOOF NOZZLE I
I

I ( \ I

CONE

I NOTES
I . D I M E N S I O N S F O R N O Z Z L E SH4LL BE R E F E R R E D TO 15 A N D FIG- 16
T ~ L E
O F Pg l S T A M D A U 650,CURRENT E D I T I O N .
2.N O T E S G I V E N I N 4 P \ STkNDARD 6501 CURRENT EDtTION ) F O R ROOF
TQ
N O Z Z L E OESlGH 4 N D CONSTRUCTION S H A L L 51 ~ P P L I C ~ B L E : THIS
DRAWlNC.

L I f
PRINTED IN US.,4. USAS STANDARD DRAWiNG
4;

&-.
. n

I , . - .
I- I !--
:
i ') I
kv
r!1
VI I I, ACCESS AND MISCELLANEOUS

A, LADDERS

8, STAIRS

C, HANDRAILS

D l SPECIAL WALKWAYS

E, SCAFFOLD CABLE SUPPORT

THIS P I N SUPPORTS A PAINTER'S BOSUNS CHAIR OR STAGING


FOR FIXED ROOF TANKS, THE DETAILS AS SHOWN I N API-650
FIG,3-16 IS ACCEPTABLE,

F, THERMAL EXPANSION RELIEF SYSTEM

RELIEF SYST,EMSARE REQUIRED TO RELIEVE INCREASED LIQUID


VOLUME DUE TO THERMAL EXPANSION IN SECTION OF LINE WITH
TIGHTLY CLOSED ENDSa ENGINEERI MG DEPARTMENT
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE NO, 21 GIVES GUIDE LINES TO HELP
DETERMINE WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO PROVIDE RELIEF,
DRAWI NG GC-L99584 COVERS TYP I CAL I NSTALLATI OM DETAILS,
G, THERMOHETER ASSEMBLY

THEWIOMETERS ARE USUALLY REQUIRED ON HEATED OR CRUDE

SALES TANKS, THIS DRAWING SHOWS USUAL TYPE


-

INSTALLATION,

H, TANK INSULATION

INSULATION
OF TANKS IS DISCUSSED IN ENGINEERIHG
. DEPARTMENT RECOMMIENDED PRACTICE No, 12. THIS PRACTICE

D I SCUSSES TYPES OF INSULATION AVAILABLE,

WEATHERPROOFING AND ECONOMICS OF P R O V I D I N G I N S U L A T I O N ,


ORDERING DATA
Specification BF-S-1328
MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
T A N K QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 1 of 15

INSTRUCTIONS Oi\J USE OF THIS MODEL SPECIFICATION

This specification provides guidance for preparing quotation requests to solicit bids
for the fabrication and erection of new tanks. Engineers are encouraged to prepare
quotations that a r e clear, concise and , above all, complete. Failure to make the
extra e f f o r t to achieve this will generally result in receiving incomplete bids and
give rise, a t a later date, to extra costs for charges or additions that must be
negotiated under noncompetitive conditions.

The following paragraphs discuss the various elements of a quotation request that
must be prepared by the engineer, as well a s other documents to complete the
quotation request that are added by the Purchasing Department.

TANK & APPURTENANCE, SC14EL)ULE

The Tank and A ~ ~ u r t e n a n cSchedule


e Form. BDC-33. is the basic document for
describing and specifying a tank. The form should be cdmpletely filled out.

The availability of computer programs for calculating shell plate thickness and
checking a tank for wind and earthquake stability makes it possible to design a tank
very quickly and using the guidance provided in the Tank Manual, select the
economical design basis. If the choice is not clearcut, the bidders should be asked
to quote an alternate design basis if that results in a lower bid.

When specifying appurtenances, include all the appurtenances that may be


required. If the size of a nozzle is not firm, specify several sizes. It is more
important to specify the type and size of appurtenances than the exact number of
each required. Those appurtenances which may be subject to changes a s the
project develops should be designated with a "QR" in the column provided on form
BDC-33 for this purpose. The list sheets require the bidder to submit unit prices
for the addition and deletion of these appurtenances. Finally, each appurtenance
should be designated a s "S", Contractor-furnished and installed; or "CS", Company-
furnished and Contractor-installed.

Drawing GD-D-1086, "Instructions for Use of Form EF-33CR, include references to


appropriate sections of the Tank Nlanual for discussion on the use of each
appurtenance. Reproducible transparencies of BDC-33 may be obtained from
Drafting.

As mentioned previously, the extra effort spent in completing the Tank and
Appurtenance Schedule in all respects will save the Company money and the
engineer many future problems.
Speeifica tion BF-S-1320
MODEL SPEClFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 2 of 15

REFERENCE DHAFVIN GS

The reference drawings listed on form BDC-33 for the appurtenances selected
should be sent to bidders with the quotation request, and, when the order is placed,
these drawings should be included a s a part of the Purchase Order Contract.

TAN K SPECIFIC-!?'IONS

S ~ e c i f i c aion
t EG-967

The specification applies to cone roof or open-top, welded steel tanks. It covers
Company requirements that are in addition to, or modify, the requirements of API
Standard 650.

Section 7.0 covers supplemental requirements. It is necessary to specify in the


project specification which of these requirements will be applicable to the
contract.

Additional comments regarding these supplemental requirements are a s follows:

1. Note that Section 22.4 of EG-967 requires that such supplemental


requirements be included a s separate items in the bid.

For priming of plates, note that Section 7.2 requires that the COMPANY
specify whether the primer is to be LZI or inorganic zinc. Specification
SF-1011 calls for LZI if priming/painting is required. Both SF-1011 and
EG967 are out-dated regarding selection of primer and topcoats for external
painting. LZI (Lead-Zinc-Iron) primers are difficult to find now. Because of
the lead components, they have been restricted to industrial uses, and few
companies still manufacture them. SF-1011 is currently being revised. It
will present primer topcoat and surface preparation codes to be able to
identify painting requirements.

The ultrasonic examination requirements of Section 7.3 of EG-967 can be an


effective technique to obtain higher quality welds, but it must be applied
with caution. Since ultrasonic examination often will locate discontinuities
that might be missed by radiography, application of Section 7.3 a s written
requires higher quality and more costly welding. The CONTRACTOR may
decline to bid on this requirement or may bid a price that does not appear
justified. (In such cases, it is suggested that consideration be given to
mod~fyingSection 7.3, so that the CONIP4NY pays on a unit price basis for
any radiographs and for any resulting repairs).

4. The field testing requirements of this Section 7.5 are to provide further
assurance that the hardness (and strength) of welds is not too high. This is to
provide protection against sul fide stress corrosion cracking. It is. believed
that tank CONTKACTOKS will strongly resist application of Section 7.5,
although similar requirements are routinely applied to pressure vessels.
Specification BF-S-1326)
MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND bjATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 3 of 15

It is recommended that Section 7.5 be applied to all tanks handling crude oil or any
sour product or sour intermediate product. It is not necessary for known non-sour
services such as gasoline, or sweet fuel oil. Future tank use should also be
considered. Iuote that hardness checks do not apply to butt or groove welds known
to be made with shielded metal arc (manual) electrodes of the E70XX or EGOXX
series. Consult the Engineering Department, Materials Division if further
definition is needed. Dependent on CONTRACTOR'S reaction, it may be
appropriate to modify the requirements of Section 7.5 so that the tests are for
information only and any repairs are paid for by the COMPANY on a unit price
basis.

PLANT REGULATIONS

During the erection of the tanks, the Contractor will be required to conform to a
variety of plant regulations applicable to the particular location. He must know
the details of these when preparing his bid. Our plant regulations are available in a
form which can be included with the quotation request.

OTHER DOCUMENTS

When the bidders prepare their quotations, they need to know the contractual
terms and conditions that will apply to the contract if they are awarded the work.
Therefore, sample forms defining the terms and conditions must be attached to the
quotation request. This is done by the Purchasing Department. The following
forms are typical of those used by Chevron U.S.A.

P D-5 2 Form of Contract


P D-5 2 -1 Terms and Conditions
GO-279-2 Certificate of Nonsegregated Facilities
GO-279-3 Equal Opportunity Clause .
GO-279-16 Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers
PD-302 Sub-order Clause
PD-37 lV1 Inspection Clause

SPECIFICATION

?'he following Model Specification shows a suggested forrnat for a typical tank
quotation request. The scope may be reduced or expanded a s appropriate for the
particular circumstances by marking up the Model. Do not "cut and paste1'. The
Engineer is to obtain a unique specification number and name for hislher project.
Engineers should be careful not to include requirements in the specification which
are already contained in API Standard 650, Specification EG-967, or other
CORIPAN Y specifications.
Specificat ion BFS-1320
IMODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 4 of 15

1-he primary purpose of the specification is t o tie together and reference all the
documents, specifications and drawings which describe and specify the tanks
covered by the quotation request. They also provide a location for additional or
modifying requirements. Finally, they clearly s t a t e the informat ion that is
required to be submitted with the Contractor's bid and set forth his obligations
with respect t o further in for mat ion a f t e r a contract is awarded.
S p e c i f i c a t i o n BF-S-1320
MODEL S P E C I F I C A T I O N F O R
T A N K QUOTATION REQUESTS
AN D MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 5 o f 15

IVIODEL SPECIFIC.4TION F O R 1 - 4 N K QUOTATION REQUESTS ANL) MATERIAL REQUISITIONS

CONTENT

1.0 S C O P E A N D INTRODUCTION

2.0 S C H E D U L E O F WORK

3.0 LIST O F APPURTENA4NC'ES

4.0 SPECIFICATIONS

5.0 C O h S T R U C T I O N REQUIREMENTS

6.0 GUARANTEE

7.0 TEKB'IS O F P A Y MENT

8.0 QUOTATION KEQUIKEMEN'IS

9.0 INFORMATION REQUIKED F R O M C O N T R A C T O R A F T E R A W l R D O F


CONTRACT
Specificat ion BFS-13269
MODEL SPECIFICATlOM FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 6 of 1 5

SECTlOiv 1 - SCOPE -4ND INTRODUCTION

1.1. CONTRACTOR shal.1. furnish all. labor, material, and equipment to design,
fabricate, transport, and erect the fo1.lowing tanks a t COMPANY'S

Tank Nominal.
u 7 w
Indicate Location

Dia. x Ht.
.

N o. Capacity, Bb1.s. F t. Type of Roof Service

55 x 24 Cone Freewater Knockout


11 11 II

10 x 24 11 Pu mp Suction Reservoir
55 x 16 11
Wash Tank
11 II 11

1.2 Refer to the following Tank and Appurtenances Schedules for a detailed

1.3 COMTKACTOK shall visit the site and ascertain the conditions under which
the work will be done. Arrangements to do so can be made by contacting:

Include name, address and telephone

a plot plan or map


showing location of tanks with respect to
other facilities.

Note: Include site entry qualifications


here or ensure contact person
advises bidders.
Specification BFS-1329
MODEL SPECHFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND NATERHAL REQUISHTIONS
P a g e 7' o f 15

SECTION 2 - SCHEDULE OF WORK

2.1 CONTR4CTOK shall e r e c t the tanks in accordance with t h e following


schedule.

ude pertinent information, such a s


d a t e s on which tank foundations will be
available t o contractor. Include required
completion d a t e s if t h e s e a r e bidding
\
For multiple tank
p r o j e c t s and critical, d i f f i c u l t schedules
milestone d a t e s should be included.

SECTION 3 - LIST OF APPURTENANCES

3.1 T h e appurtenances included in t h e b a s e price o f e a c h tank a r e shown on each


Tank -and -4ppurtenance Schedule by "S" for appurtenances furnished and
installed by CONTRACTOR, "CS" for appurtenances furnished by COMPPiN Y
and installed by CONTRACTOR, and "C" for appurtenances furnished and
installed by COMPANY.

3.2 CONTK.4CTOR shall q u o t e unit p r i c e s for additions or deletions o f


appurtenances for i t e m s marked "QK" on t h e Tank and Appurtenance
Schedule; t h e s e p r i c e s shall incl.ude furnishing and installing the appurtenance
on t h e applicable tank.

SECTION 4 - SPECIFICATIONS

4.1 Tanks shall, conform t o COMPANY Specification EG-967. In c a s e of conflict,


t h e order in which t h e documents of this c o n t r a c t shall govern shall. be a s
fol.lows:

a) This Specificat ion


b) Tank and Appurtenance Drawings
c) COMP4NY Specifications EG-967
d) API Standard 650
e) Other A t t a c h e d Standard Specifications a n d Drawings

4.2 COlMP-4NY intends t o inspect tank e r e c t i o n and r e s e r v e s t h e right t o inspect


shop fabrication.

4.3 The a t t a c h e d Inspection Clause PII-37M is p a r t o f t h i s contract.


Specification BFS-1320
MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND MATERL4L REQUISITIONS
P a g e S of 15

4.4 CONTRACTOR shall comply with the plant regulations under paragraph 2.01
of Specification SF-1000 and the attached Safe Practices Guidelines.

regulations for the construction location.


Emphasize H2S and hot work permit

4.5 Tank construction shall comply with the California Occupational Safety and
Health Requirements (OSHA).

These apply to tanks erected in

4.6 The following provisions are modifications to Specification EG-967.

4.61 Radiography w i l l be by COMP-ANY.

Include here any other deletions,


additions, or modifications to EG-967
that are appropriate. For clarity, state
the specific paragraph of EG-967 to be
changed and then set forth the new

Supplementary Requirements of Section


Specification BF-S-1320
MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND MATERE4L REQUISITIONS
Page 9 of 15

SEC'TION 5 - CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS


5.1 COMPANY reserves the right to let other contracts or perform other duties
concurrently in or near the site of the work to be done under this contract. It
shall be the responsibility of the CONTRACTOH to coordinate operations
with those other contractors to avoid interferences and delays to the project
a s a whole.

5.2 CONIPANY will have the right to use CONTRACTOll's staging, both fixed
and mo-vable for inspections, provided COMPANY repairs any damage caused
by COMPANY, and returns the staging including all cables and equipment
attached to them to the locations in which they were left by CONTRACTOR.

5.3 COMP4NY will designate a Construction Representative who will administer


the contract a t the erection sites.

5.4 CONTKACTOK shall obtain a written permit a t least 2 4 hours in advance


through the COMPANY'S Construct icn Representative before working in
areas other than those areas predesignated by COMPANY a s working areas.

5.5 CONTKACrIOR shall hydrostatically test tank shells in accordance with


Paragraph 2.8 of Specification EG-967. Prior to hydrotest CONTRACTOR
shall clean tanks of all debris to a broom-clean condition and shall close tanks
for hydrotest after interior acceptance inspection. Tanks shall be
hydrotested after mixers, valves and other appurtenances are installed.

5.6 CONTK-ACTOR shall vacuum test tank bottoms in accordance with Paragraph
2.7 of Specification EG-967. CONTlLACTOR shall test the tank roof by
applying external vacuum to the seams using a soap film.
Specification BFS-1320
MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 10 of 15

Sections 5.5, and 5.6, above yepresent


the usual test arrangement. Modify if
necessary to suit the particular project
and site conditions. If there a r e
limitations on water pressure, water
temperature, supplies, quantity, or
availability, these should be stated.
Sornet~mes produced water at
1700- 1'300 has to be used for testing.
With temperature change volumetric
shrinkage of water will appear a s a
sgnificant leak. -Accurate volume and
temperature reading must be taken up to
one week t o ensure the tank bottom is

5.7 COMP-4NY will design piping tank fittings to permit reasonable movement of
tank shell.

5.8 Tank foundations will be constructed by COMPANY to the tolerances


specified in Paragraph 5.5.5 of API Standard 650.

5.9 CONrI'RACTOR will prepare the tank surface for internal coating in
accordance with Section 2.0 Specification BF-S-1497.

5.10 CONTKACTOR will. internally coat tank with in accordance with


Specification BF-S-1497.

5.11 The tanks shall be insulated by others.

5.12 CONTKACTOR shall externally coat tank in accordance with Specificat ion
BF-S-1632.

5.13 CONTIIACTOR shall remove mill scale from the bottom plate (foundation
side) by sandblasting to steel structures paint council (SSPC) Specification
SSPC-SF6 (Commercial Blast Cleaning) or by wheel abrating to the same
degree of cleanliness.
Specification BFS-1320
MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
A N D MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 11 o f 15

SECTION 6 - GU4R-4NTEE

6.1 Guarantee requirements are stated in Paragraph 27.0 of Specifiction EG-967.

SECTION 7 - TERMS OF P-4YMENT

Contractor shall submit payment terms with the Q.R.

Conditions (GO-2791, Paragraph 2.4


covers terms of payment in detail, and is
consistantly used for all construction
contracts. Purchase Order Contract
Terms and Conditions (PD 52-I),
Paragraph 2.4 indicates "Terms of
Payments: a s set out on the attached
sheets." Western Region Purchasing
(Bakersfield) nor rnally ask suppliers,
fabricators, or contractors to quote on
their terms of payments. The quoted
terms are a starting point for
negotiations by Purchasing and the
bidder selected to perform the work.
Purchasing normally attempts to elimate
progressive payments, i.e. monthly
invoices, and are successful for projects

<{
taking a few months. On larger projects
the agreed terms normally involve
paying Contractor 30 days after receipt
I
of invoice 85% of the value of the
material received and the work
accomplished during the preceding
calendar month. The invoice for such I
payments shall include signed
verification of progress by Company
Construct ion Representative. The
balance of the contract price is normally
to be p a ~ dupon test or inspection and :,
Specification BF-S-1320
MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION RkQUESTS
AN D MATEKJAL KEQUISITIONS
Page 12 of 15

SECTION 8 - QUOTA'I'ION HEQUIRELYIENTS

8.2 CONTRACTOK shall submit a firm price quotation for each tank complete in
accordance with this Specification BF-S- , references and attachments.
8.2 CONTRACTOR may submit alternate quotations for other design bases
within the scope of 4PI Standard 650 if this enhances the delivery of steel
and/or results in a 1.ower tank cost. However, the tank diameters and heights
may not be chariged.

8.3 CONTRACTOK shall. submit unit price quotations for the addition or deletion
of the appurtenances on the Tank and Appurtenance Schedules that are
marked "QR".

8.4 If CONTRACTOR cannot meet schedule dates specified in Section 2, he shall


include with his quotation the schedule under which he can perform the work,
including the earliest date for receipt of steel a t his fabricating plant.

8.5 CONTRACTOK shall clearly state in the quotation any exceptions to this
contract specification. The use of CONT7RACTOR's standard forms will not
be construed to be a clearly stated exception.

8.6 COMPANY reserves the right to accept or reject all. or any portion of the
quotation.

8.7 As an alternate to reverse shingling a s specified in EG-967, paragraph 2.2


(d)(l), CONTRACTOR shall quote normal roof shingling with seal welding of
plates inside tank.

8.8 As an alternate to internal rafters, CONTRACTOK shall quote external


rafters.

8.9 As provided in Section 7 of the Terms and Conditions, CONl'RACTORS


proposed subcontract I ist follows:

Category of Work Subcontractors Name Calif. License No.


S p e c i f i c a t ion BFS-1320
MODEL SPECIFICATION F O R
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
AND MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 1 3 of 15

SECTION 9 - INFORiVI-4TION REQUIRED FZiORil CONTK-ACTOR -4F'IER AWARD

9.1 CONTHACTOE", shall comply with t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of S e c t i o n 23.0 o f


S p e c i f i c a t i o n EG-967.

schedule. D e l e t e i t e m s which a r e n o t

9.2 COMPAW Y will furnish CONTRACTOK with revised drawings showing


a p p u r t e n a n c e l o c a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n within t h i r t y ( 3 0 ) d a y s p r i o r t o s t a r t o f
fabrication.

9.3 CONTRACTOR shall s u b m i t for COMPANY r e c o r d s o n e c o m p l e t e


reproducible t r a n s p a r e n c y set of all drawings f o r e a c h tank c o r r e c t e d f o r t h e
as-built condition within t h i r t y (30) d a y s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f e r e c t i o n of e a c h
tank.
Specification BFS-1320
MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUEST'S
AND MATERIAL HEQ UISITIONS
Page 14 of 15

SECTION 10 - ATTACHMENTS iginator is to add revision chara

10.1 Specifications

Oil Storage Tanks, of welded construction with


Cone Hoof or Open Top with Wind Girder.
Steel Fabrication
General Contract Specificat ion
Internal Tank and Vessel Coating
Thermal Insulation for Hot Storage Tanks

( GT-F-27216 Schedules and site plan.


.>
These are the required Tank and Appurtenance

GT-F-27217
GT-F-27 2 18

10.3 Standard Drawings

Standara Tank Details


Standard Baffle Plan for use with Breather
Valves
Standard Materials for Tanks Constructed
to EG-967
Standard Tank Bottom Down off Elbow
Standard Flush Type ?ank Shell Muzzle
Standard Tank Bottom Combination Inlet/Outlet
Nozzle
Standard Tank Bottom Snap
Circumferential Stairways and Platforms
for Tanks
Standard Insulation and Weatherproofing
-4ssembly Details for Hot Tanks
Steel Stairs (PL)
Standard Ladders and Guards
Details and Installation of Standard Welded
Bosser and 11Iiscellaneous Connections
Siphon Type Tank Water Dowoff
Standard Stairs and Platforms
Specification B F S - 1 3 2 0
MODEL SPECIFICA'I'ION FOR
TANK QUOTATION REQUESTS
A N D MATERIAL REQUISITIONS
Page 1 5 of 1 5

Funnel Type Thief and Gage Hatch


24" x 36" Roof Manhole
Standard Swing Pipe
Thermometer Assernbly for Oil Storage Tanlts
Combined Hatch and Breather for Non-Gas Type
Tanks
Elbow Outlet for Standard Shell Nozzles
Handrails
Standard 20" x 36" Shell Manhole for tanks
Gager's Shelter
6" or 8'' Slotted Gage Well for Fixed Roof Tanks
Combination Clearout and Water Draw
Tank Swing Joint Support
Swing Joint Supports
Standard Insulation Item Numbers
Standard Insulation and Aluminum Weather-
proofing Details for Hot Tanks
Standard Ladders and Guards (2 Sheets)

10.4 Other -Attachments

Safe Practices (Northern Calif. Div.)


Form of Contract
Terms and Conditions
Certificate on Nonsegregated
Facilities
Equal Opportunity Clause
Affirmative Action for
Handicapped Workers
Sub-Order Clause
Inspection Clause
Bakersfield, California
1987

QUOTATION REQUEST
SPECIFICATION NO.

E-FILE NO.

MR. L. M. MOORE, PURCHASING


ATTENTION: A. E. BRAMLET:

P l e a s e d b t a i n q u o t a t i o n s for tanks for t h e p l a n t in


A r e a in a c c o r d a n c e with S p e c i f i c a t i o n BF-S- dated
attached.

P l e a s e a d v i s e b i d d e r s t h a t t h e proposed work will b e shown in t h e field b y t h e


P r o j e c t Engineer .
Bidders a r e a s k e d t o a t t e n d t h e b i d walk
and meet at (Time) (Date) . D i r e c t i o n s t o t h e bid walk a r e shown on t h e
a t t a c h e d map.

ngineer Furnish Ma

I t is understood t h a t b e f o r e bidders s u b m i t a q u o t a t i o n , t h e y must visit t h e job s i t e


o f t h e work a n d a p p r a i s e t h e conditions t o b e e n c o u n t e r e d during construction.
Questions regarding t h e work involved o r a t t a c h m e n t s to t h i s l e t t e r should b e
directed to the Project Engineer, , telephone
(805) at t h e office.

I t is desired t h a t t h i s work b e s t a r t e d by ,and t h a t all work b e


c o m p l e t e d by

P l e a s e i n s t r u c t bidders to use t h e e n t i r e enclosed P r o p o s a l F o r m for s u b m i t t i n g


bids. T h e proposed p r i c e for t h e work s h a l l b e in s t r i c t a c c o r d a n c e with t h e
Specification, P r o p o s a l F o r m , F o r m o f C o n t r a c t , F o r m o f S u r e t y Bond, F o r m o f
Acord C e r t i f i c a t e o f Insurance a n d F o r m o f C e r t i f i c a t e o f Nonsegregated
Facilities. If b i d d e r s wish to t a k e e x c e p t i o n or propose a l t e r n a t e s t o t h e s e papers,
p l e a s e h a v e t h e m d e s c r i b e in a s e p a r a t e proposal l e t t e r t h e d e v i a t i o n s proposed a n d
i n d i c a t e t h e a d j u s t m e n t t o proposed p r i c e applicable t o e a c h deviation should w e
e l e c t t o a c c e p t individual deviations. Deviations n o t described in a s e p a r a t e
proposal l e t t e r will b e considered invalid.
Quotations shall be prepared on the enclosed Proposal Form in Section of
the specification and submitted in an envelope using the enclosed "Sealed Bid Do
Not Open" label. All documents in Section must be completed and
returned with the Proposal Form. Quotations shall be marked "Confidential
Quotation No. .I1 ~ u o t a t i d n s must be received a t 4800 Stockdale
Highway in Bakersfield, CA by p.m. on to receive
considera tion.

Please advise bidders that due to the possible presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) a t
or near the construction location, all Coiltractor personnel working on Chevron
property must maintain the ability to use supplied air breathing apparatus (i.e., be
clean shaven) a t all times. This policy will stay in effect until a more defined
procedure can be developed.

Please indicate your standard words on handling of California sales and use taxes,
and use of materials of domestic manufacture only.

JAC/srg

Attachments
SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
. .
. \
I L "STORAGE .TZUXS OF.:WELDED-CONSTRUCT I ON
.. .1.0
.. . ; ' . .'.-. '

WITH FIXED ROOF OR OPEN TOP WITH'WIND GIRDER

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
CHEVRON CORPORATION
SAPJ W O N , CALIFORNIA

MAY 1, 1986
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-9674
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 1 OF 38

SPECIFICATION NO. EG-9674


OIL STORAGE TANKS OF WELDED CONSTRUCTION -
WITH FIXED ROOF OR OPEN TOP WITH WIND GIRDER

CONTENTS

SECTION A
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

GENERAL..........O.........ee.aa........s..e..a......e2
REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL TANKS.........,......,..........4
REQUIaEMENTS FOR APPENDIX A TANKS.......,.,,........,.18
'REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKS OF MODERATE
STRENGTH MATERIALS..,......,,,..,...,..,,,..,.,.....18
REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKS OF HIGHER
STRENGTH MATERIALS..................................l9
REQUIREWTS FOR LOCATIONS OR MATERIALS PRODUCED
OUTSIDE OF U.S......................................Zl
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS WHEN SPECIFIED..............22
REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKS TO BE LOCATED IN
SEISMICALLY ACTIVE AREAS............................27

SECTION B
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

21.0 SCOPE.................................................33
22.0 INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH BID.........................33
23.0 INFORMATION REQUIRED AFTER AWARD OF CONTRACT..........34
24.0 CONTRACTOR .REQUIREMENTS...............................35
25.0 WORK AND MATERIAL BY COMPANY..........................36
26.0 UTILITIES DURING CONSTRUCTION.........................37
27.0 GUARANTEE.............................................37
28.0 COMPANY REFERENCES....................................38
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 2 OF 38

SPECIFICATION NO. EG-9674


OIL STORAGE TANKS OF WELDED CONSTRUCTION -
WITH FIXED ROOF OR OPEN TOP WITH WIND GIRDER
SECTION A
TECHNICAL REOUIREMENTS
-

GENERAL
1.1 Scope
This Specification covers requirements for material,
design, fabrication, erection and testing for vertical,
cylindrical, aboveground, welded steel storage tanks
for internal pressures approximating atmospheric.
Tanks are for operation under the conditions and for
the performance of the functions specified herein and
on the drawings and schedules attached to, and
incorporated by reference in, the Contract to which
this Specificaton is attached.
Conformance -
to -
API Standard
Tanks shall conform to API Standard 650 - Welded Steel
Tanks for Oil Storage (API-650), latest edition; to all
legal requirements in effect at the tank locatiow' and
to the additional requirements of this Specification.
Supplements to API-650 issued through the date of the
Agreement referenced in Par. 1.1 shall apply.
All tanks shall be marked, certified and provided with
a data sheet as required by API-650.
1.3 Desiqn
Based on economic study, tank shells may be designed in
accordance with the requirements of Appendix A within
its limitations or may be designed for "moderate
strength materials" (Groups I, 11, I11 or IIIA of API-
650, Table 2-3) or for "higher strength materials"
Groups IV, IVA, V or VI of API-650, Table 2-3). The
"variable design point method" of API-650, Par. 3.6.4
may be used except where prohibited by API-658.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 3 OF 38

When metal temperatures exceed 200F, the additional


requirements of Appendix M of API-650 shall be applied
in accordance with Par. 1.1.11. -

All shop assembled tanks shall be designed and


fabricated in accordance with the additional
requirements of Appendix J of API-650. The provisions
of Par. 5.4.1 for elimination of spot radiography and
for alternate test methods shall not be applied unless
specifically approved in writing by COMPANY.
1.4 Specification Orqanization
This Specification is divided into Section A, Technical
Requirements, and Section B, General Requirements.
Section A is subdivided into eight sections, which
contain the following requirements:
Section 2.0: Requirements applicable to all tanks,
regardless of API-650 design basis;
Section 3.0: Requirements applicable only to tanks
designed and constructed to Appendix A
of API-650;
Section 4.0: Requirements applicable only to tanks
designed and constructed of "moderate
strength materials";
Section 5.0: Requirements appliczble only to tanks
desiqned and constructed of "higher
strength materials";
Section 6.0: Requirements applicable to all tanks,
when the steel for such tanks is from
mills located outside the United
States;
Section 7.0: Requirements which are applicable only
when specified in the Agreement to
which this Specification is attached
or where required by Par. 5.3;
Section 8.0: Requirements for tanks to be located
in seismically active areas.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 4 OF 38

2.0 REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL TANKS


2-1 Materials -

2.l(a) All materials for tanks shall be in accordance


with the ASTM or API Specifications listed in
API-650 and any further limitations of this
Specification or shall require written approval
from the COMPANY under the provisions of
Section 6.0. ASTM-A537, Grade 2 and A-678,
Grade B materials shall not be used.
2.l(b) When required by -1-650, or when required by
attached Drawing GD-Dl047 or when otherwise
specified by COMPANY, impact tests shall be
made in accordance with the requirements of
Pars. 2.2.8, 2.2.9 and 2.2.10 of API-650
modified as follows:
1) Test specimens transverse to the direction
of major working axis shail be used.
2) The maximum test temperature shall be the
tank design metal temperature specified on
the Tank and Appurtenance Schedule (Form
EF-33).
3) Lateral expansion and percent shear shall
be reported for information only.
4) Unless the procedures of Pars. 2.2.10.2 or
2.2.10.3 of API-650 are specifically
accepted in writing by the COMPANY, each
plate as-rolled shall be tested in
accordance with Par. 2.2.10.1 of API-650.
2.l(c) Controlled roiled plates (see Par. 2.2.7.4 of
API-650) shall not be used without specific
written COMPANY authorization.
2.1(d) Each steel plate shall be inspected for
thickness. Six measurements are required; one
at each corner of plate two inches from the
edge, and two at center along length sides.
Measurements shall be taken immediately upon
arrival of plate from mill to the construction
site or CONTRACTOR'S shop. Measurements shall
be reported promptly in writing showing a
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 5 OF 38

sketch and both plste and sketch shall be


marked for positive identification. If any
readings below minimum required thick-ness are
found, based on API maximum allowable under
run, this shall be reported promptly to COMPANY
Representative by telephone. In addition,
COMPANY reserves the right to inspect tank
plate thicknesses at the mill prior to shipping
to the CONTRACTOR. CONTRACTOR shall allow
COMPANY ample time to make this inspection.
Any plate with a reading below the minimum
required thickness shall not be used without
COMPANY approval. CONTRACTOR shall be
responsible for plate replacement in the event
of rejection by COMPANY.
2.2 Desiqn
2.,2(a) . Shells
2.2(a)(l) Nozzles shall be located as shown on
COMPANY'S Tank and Appurtenance Schedule.
Shell plate layout shall be made such that
shell joints clear all shell openings and
reinforcement by a mininum of 6 inches, or
12 inches where required by API-650.
Manhole locat ions may be changed slightly
if necessary to clear joints.
2.2(a)(2) The top angle shall be fabricated with the
horizontal leg outward for both cone roof
and open-top tanks.
2.2(a) (3) For floating roof tanks, adjacent shell
courses shall be offset to provide nominal
alignment at the inside surfaces.
2.2(a)(4) Open top tanks shall have a wind girder in
accordance with API-650 and additional
requirements as below. (For intermediate
wind girders see Section 4.2(c)). Design
wind velocity shall be 100 mph unless
otherwise specified. The wind girder
shall be installed 3'6" below the top edge
of tank. The wind girder shall be
designed to permit passage of a painter's
trolley.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-963-J
ZNGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 6 OF 38

Further, for tanks greater than 920 feet


in diameter, the top wind girder shall
also be designed as a walkway with a
minimum clear width of 24 inches. The
outboard side shall have a handrail,
midrail and toeboard in accordance with
Drawing GF-M99645, except that when the
wind girder has an appropriate vertical
flange it may serve as a toeboard. Wind
girders, also to function as a walkway,
shall be designed for a vertical live load
of 40 psf. Adequate drainage shall be
provided on all wind girders serving as
walkways or a19 wind girders having turned
up vertical flanges.
2.2(a)(5) The ends of all shell plates which do not
require shaping in accordance with Par.
4 - 1 - 3 of .VI-658 shall be -braken.
2.2(a)(6) COMPANY specified minimum corrosion
allowances are indicated on the Tank
Appurtenance Schedule EF-33. CONTRACTOR
shall determine corrosion allowances
available for (or to be added to) each
shell course in accordance with the
procedure defined below. The principal
purposes of this procedure are:
' TO properly define available corrosion
allowance when the "as built" thickness
is established by the hydrostatic test
thickness, by the minimum thicknesses
of Par. 3.6.1.1 of API-650, or by a
decision to use plate thicker than
otherwise required.
0
For calculating corrosion allowance
only, to recognize the COMPANY'S
special treatment of joint efficiency
and specific gravity for Appendix A
tanks as defined in 2.2(a)(6)(a)(l)
below.
To recognize COMPANY'S minimum retiring
thickness defined in 2.2(a)(6)(a)(2)
below.
CHEVRON CORPORA TION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-96 7-3
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1 , 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 7 OF 38

In no case shall the design corrosion


allowance in a shell course be les than
the COMPAh'Y specified minimum corrosion
allowance.
The "as built" thickness and the design
thickness shall satisfy all other
requirements of API-650 and of this
Specification.
The "as built" thickness is the nominal
thickness or specified thickness of the
plate as ordered and as erected.
For the purpose of this paragraph,
corrosion allowance is not to be added to
the design thickness. Design thickness is
the thickness required for product loads
and earthquake loads with corrosion
allowance equal to zero. Unless otherwise
specified (see Sections 4.2(c) and
5.2(a)), wind loads need not be
considered.
2.2(a)(6)(a) For purposes of determining the
appropriate corrosion allow-
~nce
available for (or to be added to)
each course, CONTRACTOR shall
calculate the difference between the
"as-built", shell course thickness
and the greater of either:
2.2(a)(6)(a)(l) For Appendix A tanks a minimum
design shell course thickness
for product loads for purposes
of determining corrosion
allowance only shall be
calculated as specified in
Appendix A of API-650 except a
0.85 joint efficiency factor
shall not be applied and the
specific gravity may be less
than 1.0, when the heaviest
stock to be stored as specified
by the COMPANY, is less than
1.0, or;
CHEVRON CORPORATIQN SPECIFICATION NO. EG-9674
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN W.MON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 8 OF 38

For all other tanks, the minimum


design shell course thickness
for product loads determined in
accordance with the design rules
of API-650 using the specific
gravity of the heaviest stock to
be stored, as specified by
COMPANY.
2.2(a)(6)(a)(2) a m i n i m retiring shell course
thickness of 0.100-in.
Computed differences shall be compared to COMPANY
specified minimum corrosion allowances.
2,2(a)(6)ib) If the computed difference of
2,2(a)(6)(a) above exceeds the
COMPANY specified minimum corrosion
allowance, the diff.erence computed in
accordance with 2.2(a)(6)(a) above
shall be indicated on the Tank and
Appurtenance Schedule as the
available corrosion allowance for the
particular shell course.
2.2(a)i6)(c) If the computed difference of
2.2(a)(6)(a) above is less than the
COMPANY specified corrosion
allowance, "as built," shell course
thickness shall be increased only to
the extent that the CaWANY specified
corrosion allowance exceeds this
computed difference.
2.2(a)(7) For floating roof tanks, wind skirts or
top-shell extensions and overflow drainage
openings in accordance with Paragraph
6.3.1 of API-650 shall not be provided
unless approved in writing by COMPANY.
2.2(b) Bottoms
2,2(b)(l) The sketch plate over catch basins shall
be 1/2 inch minimum thickness, and shall
extend at least 12 inches beyond the
outside edges of the catch basin.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 9 OF 38

2.2(b)(2) Water draw-off elbows installed in 1/2


inch sketch plates do not require
reinforcement of the bottom plaLe.
2.2(b) (3) Protective plates or clips shall be
installed under swing pipe ends, roof
supports, and any other appurtenances that
could strike bottom. Plates and clips
shall be seal welded to the bottom with
full fillet welds.
2.2(b)(4) Regardless of material group, tanks with
capacities of 100,000 barrels or greater
shall have butt-welded annular bottom
plates that satisfy requirements specified
in Par. 3.5 of API-650. Where erection is
on a concrete ringwall, the CONTRACTOR
shall notch -the ringwall to accommodate
the .backing strip without visible
distortion of Lhe bottom plates.
2.2(b)(5) All flanged connections in tank bottoms,
including water draw-offs, shall be
supported by approximately 1/2-inch thick
bar welded to both the tank bottom and
connection neck. Bar supports shall be
located in vertical line with the bottom
shell course and shall have a width equal
to approximately 50% of the pipe O.D.
2.2(b)(6) When bottom cleanout connections are
specified, sumps associated with these
connections shall be located close to
shell manhoies for easy access.

2.2(c)(l) To prevent rust streaks, all plates, clips


and structural shapes on windgirders,
floating roofs and tank shells shall be
completely seal welded with a 3/16-inch
minimum fillet weld. Unless otherwise
specified, the bottom edge of all
windgirders shall be completely seal
welded to the shell with a 3/16-inch
minimum fillet weld.
CMEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-9674
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
S M RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 10 OF 38

%.2(c)(2) Tank and appurtenances shall be practical


to clean, paint, insulate and maintain.
Appurtenances shall have adequate
clearances for these operations. Bracing
and supports shall be minimized (e.g.,
diagonal bracing shall not be used under
stair treads).
2.2(c)(3) Appurtenances and other details not
covered by COMPANY'S standard drawings may
be of CONTRACTOR'S design, provided they
comply with applicable provisions of this
Specification.
2,2(c)(4) Any tank heaters specified shall be
designed to hold the product at the
minimum storage temperature specified by
COMPANY when the tank is 3/4 full. For
design calculatians, CaMPANY will specify
average wind velocity and minimum average
temperature over an extended period of
time. Tank manway heaters, if specified
by COMPANY, shall be designed for removal
without entry by personnel into the tank.
%.2(d) Fixed Roofs
Unless specifically approved in writing by
COMPANY, fixed roofs shall have a frangible
joint in accordance with Par. 3.5.1 of API-650.
Additional requirements are as follows:
2.%(d)(l) Roof plates may be rectangular and of
uniform width. Plates shall be laid in
reverse-shingle fashion.
2.2(d)(2) Roof support columns shall be firmly
guided to a height of at least 8 inches by
3
1
'
8 inch minimum thickness clips attached
to the tank bottom.
Roof support column loads shall be
adequately distributed where such loads
are transferred to the tank bottom, either
by a 3/8 inch thick plate or by structural
shapes. Either method shall distribute
the load over a square area, the plan
dimensions of which shall be at least
I CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 11 OF 38

twice the major cross-sectional dimension


of the column and shall be large enough to
accommodate the column base where one is
used. These plates or structural shapes
shall be at least 6 times the bottom plate
thickness from any joint in the bottom
plates.
If pipe columns are provided, they shall
be closed at each end by a method using
full thickness welds to prevent fluid from
entering the pipe.
2.2(d)(3) Roof rafters shall be located so as to
clear all appurtenances.
2.2(e) Stairs Platforms
2.2(e)(l) As specified on the Tank ,and Appurtenance
Schedule, stair and floating ladder treads
and platform decking shall be either plain
steel plate (subsequently to be painted
with a non-skid coating by COMPANY - see
Section 25.5) or hot dipped galvanized
steel serrated grating. Checkered steel
plate shall not be used. Only steel
serrated grating shall be used in
locations where there is considerable ice
and snow. Serrated grating shall meet the
requirements of Specification EG-398 and
shall have bearing bars at least 3/16"
thick. Stair stringers shall be
sandblasted and primed in accordance with
Specification EG-398 prior to installation
of stair treads. If stair treads are
bolted to stringers, only galvanized
bolts, rivets, etc. shall be used. Unless
otherwise specified, stair treads and
platforms welded to stringers or tank
shells shall be completely seal welded all
around to minimize rust streaking. The
number of field welds between galvanized
grating and stringers shall be minimized.
All field welds shall be thoroughly
sandblasted or wire brushed where approved
by COMPANY, and primed.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 12 OF 38

2.2(e)(2) A landing in the circumferential stairway


at the wind girder level shall be provided
where wind girders are designed as a
walkway and equipped with a handrail.
2.2(e)(3) All platforms and stairs shall be
constructed in accordance with the design
details shown on Drawings GD-M13966,
GA-D99639 and GF-M99645, and the
requirements listed below. Materials
shall conform to the requirements of
Specification EG-398. Minimum headroom
clearance shall not be less than 7'-0".
2,2(e)(4) All platforms and walkways shall be
designed for a minimum load not less than
40 psf live load or 1000-pound
concentrated load. Deflection under
design loading shall not exceed 1/2 inch.
The unobstructed width shall not be less
than 30 inches normally and 36 inches in
front of manways and similar openings.
Gaps between floor plates resting on
structural members shall be less than 1/2
inch. Adjacent platforms 12 inches or
less apart in plan, or 18 inches or less
apart in elevation shall be
interconnected.
2.2(e)(5) Platform elevations shall be set to permit
the tread and riser dimensions as shown on
Drawing GA-D99639.
Stringers must be sandblasted and primed
before attaching stair treads. The top
flange of the stair channel stringers, at
the base of the stair flight, shall be cut
off at an angle of 45 degrees and ground
smooth. Stairs shall be designed for a
minimum load not less than 60 psf on the
horizontal projected area. Deflection
under design loading shall not be greater
than 1/2 inch. A minimum vertical
clearance of 6 ft. 6 inches plus the
height of the riser shall be maintained as
a minimum over the stairway as measured at
the nose of the tread.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-9674
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 13 OF 38

Stairs supported at grade shall be bolted


to a concrete landing of 2 ft. 6 inches
square minimum size with the bottom of the
concrete a minimum of 6 inches below
grade. In freezing weather climates the
bottom of the concrete landing shall be
located below the frost line. The top of
the concrete shall be considered to be the
first tread. All concrete used, whether
for stair landing or stair support column
foundations, shall be 3500 psi minimum
compressive strength.
2.2(e)(6) Circumferential tank stairs shall have
handrails in accordance with Drawing
GA-D99639. All other stairs and platforms
shall have handrails with midrails and
taeboards in accordance with Drawing
. GA-M99645. Handrsils shall clear all
obstructions by a minimum of 3 inches.
Attachments to handrails should be avoided
but where absolutely necessary they shall
be made in such a manner not to obstruct
proper use of the handrail.
2.2(e)(7) Stair treads on insulated tanks shall be
supported with stringers on both sides and
be spaced away from the tank shell a
distance sufficient to install a full
thickness of insulation. The stair
stringers shall be supported with brackets
that minimize insulation fitup. An inside
stairrail is required, if gap between
inside stair stringer and insulation
exceeds 6 inches.
2.3 Weldinq
2.3(a) Except with specific written approval, welding
processes shall be limited to shielded metal-
arc (SMAW), submerged arc welding (SAW), gas
tungsten-arc (GTAW), gas metal-arc (GMAW) or
gas shielded flux core-arc (FCAW). GTAW, GMAW
and FCAW shall not be used when wind velocities
in the welding area exceed 5mph. Short
circuiting GMAW shall only be used in the
downhand flat and vertical uphill positions.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 14 OF 38

When using the FCAX welding process the


CONTRACTOR must adhere to the following
requirements: -

1. Only E6XT-1, E6XT-5, E7XT-1 and E7XT-


5 electrodes are allowed.
2. Only T-1 electrodes 1/16" diameter
and smaller may be used for all
position welding. Larger T-1 and T-5
electrodes (up to 1/8") are
acceptable for welding in the flat
position and horizontal fillet welds.
3. Short circuiting transfer FCAW is not
acceptable.
4. Only uphill progression shall be used
for vertical FCAW welding.
2.3(b) Weld rod or wire shall be selected so that the
deposited weld metal does not exceed 95,000 psi
tensile strength. When specified by COMPANY,
this requirement shall be verified by hardness
tests of production welds in accordance with
Section 7.5. Unless specifically approved in
writing by COMPANY the nickel content of the
welds shall not exceed 0.6% nor shall silicon,
chromium, molybdenum or vanadium be
intentionally included beyond the limits
established in AWS Spec, A.5.1 for E70 series
electrodes. Alloy weld rods, such as low
nickel rods may be necessary at design
temperatures below O°F. COMPANY must approve
the use of such alloy weld metal.
2.3(c) Unless specifically approved in writing by
COMPANY, single pass butt welds and single pass
bottom plate lap welds are not permitted. In
addition, weld passes exceeding 3/4-inch
nominal thickness are not permitted.
2.3(d) Welding procedure qualifications shall be in
accordance with Par. 7.2 of API-650 and, where
impact tests are required, in accordance with
additional requirements as follows:
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-4
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 15 OF 38

2.3(d)(l) All supplementary essential variable


applicable to the procedure when notch
toughness tests are required shall apply
as specified in Section IX ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code.
2.3(d)(2) When impact tests at the heat-affected
zone are required, the test plate material
shall represent the same grain size
practice and shall be in the same heat-
treated condition as the material to be
used in production.
2.3(dj(3) All automatic or semi-automatic welding
process qualifications shall include
impact tests of the heat-affected zone
regardless of the joint orientation or the
.design metal temperature.
2.3le) When the base metal temperature or the
atmospheric temperature is below 50F, the base
metal shall be preheated in accordance with
Par. 5.2.1.2 of API-650.
2.4 Other Fabrication Requirements
2.4!a) Completed tanks shall meet the dimensional
tolerances set forth in Par. 5.5 of API-650.
2.4(b) In addition for open top tanks, the difference
between the maximum and minimum diameters at
any level shall not exceed 0.2% of the tank
diameter.
2.4(c) All required stress reliefs shall be in
accordance with Par. 3.7.4 of APP-650.
2.5 Radioqraphy
Radiographic requirements shall be in accordance with
API-650 and the following:
2.5(a) Radiography shall be conducted promptly as tank
erection progresses so that it may be used for
quality control, rather than being used as a
basis for acceptance after all welding has been
completed.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT YAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 16 OF 38

2.5(b) The density of all radiographs shall be in the


range of 1.7 to 3.0. Fine grain, high
definition, high contrast film (Kodak Type AA
or equivalent brands) shall be used.
Fluorescent intensifying screens shall not be
used.
2.5(c) The minimum diagnostic length of each
radiograph shall be 7 inches on three-way joint
radiographs. The length of the film shall show
the vertical joint.
2.5(d) Random radiographs in excess of the
requirements of this Specification may be
requested by COMPANY. ~ e f e rto section 22.4.
2,5(e) Location of areas to be radiographed shall be
se1ected.b~COMPANYIS.FieldRepresentative.
2.5(f) In accordance with API-650 examination of welds
by sectioning shall not be performed on any
part of the tank.
2.6 Maqnetic Particle Examination
At least 20% of the length of automatic or
semi-automatic welded vertical welds shall be examined
across the width of the weld plus 3/16 inch on each
side by the magnetic part icle technique in accordan
.
with the requiremsnt.s of Par 6.2 of API-650 except
that brush contacts shall be substituted for solid
prods in the prod technique.
2.7 Testinq Tank Bottoms
Tank bottoms shall be vacuum tested by CONTRACTOR in
accordance with method 1 of Par. 5.3.4 of API-650.
2.8 Testinq Tank Shells
All tanks shall be hydrostatically tested with water to
full height by CONTRACTOR in accordance with method 1
of Par. 5.3.6 of API-658. Major debris shall be
removed from the tank bottom prior to testing. Unless
otherwise specified, COMPANY will furnish test water to
the valve on the first tank to be tested. CONTR4CTOR
shall be responsible for transferring water from one
tank to another for further hydrostatic tests. COMPANY
will furnish make-up water as required by CONTRACTOR.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-969-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 17 OF 38

The method of heating test water, if anticipated by


CONTRACTOR, shall be subject to review by COMPANY (see
Section 22.6). -

COMPANY will dispose of test water in accordance with


CONTRACTOR'S schedule and directions. After
hydrostatic testing, CONTRACTOR shall squeegee
remaining debris, loose mill scale, dirt and other
foreign material from the tank bottom.
Anchor Boltinq Tanks
Tanks shall not be anchor bolted to a concrete
foundation for resistance to earthquakes, overturning
due to wind or, in accordance with Par. F.7 of API-650,
for internal pressures unless specified or accepted in
writing by COMPANY. When permitted, anchor bolts and
attachment brackets shall be designed in accordance
with the foll-owing.~equirements..
Anchor bolts, if permitted, shall be sized to resist
the total overturning moment or uplift force less the
total resisting moment due to the weight of the tank
shell and the portion of the roof supported by the
shell. The following requirements shall be
incorporated into the design of the anchor bolt hold
down system:
2.9(a) Anchor bolts shall not be attached to the tank
bottom.
2.9(b) All loads shall be transmitted from the shell
to the anchor bolts through stiffened chair
type brackets of sufficient size and height.
2.9(c) Brackets shall be designed to carry 150% of the
anchor bolt design load. The brackets shall
also be designed so that stresses in the tank
shell are held to suitable levels under the
bracket design load.
2.9(d) Pretensioning of anchor bolts is not permitted
and shall be prevented by use of compressible
washers under double nuts or by other suitable
means approved by COMPANY.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
FORNIA
SAN RAMON, CAL'I PAGE 18 OF 38

2.9(e) All applicable requirements of API-650, such as


those of Pars. E.6 and F.7, shall be satisfied.
3.0 REQUIREMENTS FOR APPENDIX A TANKS
3.1 Materials
In accordance with Par. 1.1.3 of API-650 the nominal
thickness of stressed components shall not exceed 1/2
inches.
The requirements of Section 2.1 apply to tanks designed
and fabricated to Appendix A of API-650.
3.2 Radiosraphy
The provisions of Par. A.3.4 of MI-650 for the
elimination of spot radiography shall not be applied
unless specifically approved in writing..byCOMPANY.
4.0 REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKS OF MODERATE STRENGTH MATERIALS
4.1 Materials
The requirements of this Section 4.0, apply to tanks or
parts of tanks constructed of the "moderate strength
materialsn which are defined as the materials of Groups
I, 11, I11 and 111-A of Table 2-3 of API-650.
4.2 Drawinqs
4.2(a) All manways and flanged connections with
reinforcing pads which are welded to tank
shells or bottoms shall have full penetration
welds between the connection neck and shell or
bottom plate, and between the connection neck
and reinforcing pad.
All manways and flanged connections with insert
type reinforcement which are welded ta tank
shells or bottoms shall have full penetration
welds between the connection neck and insert
plate.
A11 welds attaching connection necks and
rein%orcing pads shall be inspected by magnetic
particle methods, after stress relief (if any),
in accordance with Par. 5.2.3.6 of API-650.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT KAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 19 OF 38

4.2(b) Flanges for nozzles or manholes shall be either


welding neck or slip-on. Corner welds, such as
shown in -1-650, Figure 3-6, Detail€, shall
not be used.
4.2(c) Intermediate wind girders shall be furnished
when required in the new condition. All
calculations to satisfy the need for
intermediate wind girders shall be made in
accordance with Par. 3.9.7 of API-650. The 't
uniform' used in computing a transposed width
as shown in Par. 3.9.7.4 of API-650, can be any
thickness as long as this same thickness is
used in computing maximum height of unstiffenes
shell as described in Par. 3.9.7.1 of API-050.
he average thickness method of Par. 3.9.7.2
of API-650 shall not be used.) Wind velocities
shall be 100 mph unless otherwise specified.
An additionaltabulation indicating the-maximum
design wind velocity in the corroded condition
without intermediate wind girders shall be
furnished to COMPANY for review and further
instruction before final design (See Section
22.8).
4.3 Radioqraphy
Where the design metal temperature is below -10F:
4.3(a) All vertical joints in plate 3/4" and thicker
shall be 100% radiographed.
4.3(b) All three-way joints in shell courses with a
hydrostatic test stress of 10,000 psi or more
shall be radiographed.
5.0 REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKS OF HIGHER STRENGTB MATERIALS
5.1 Materials
5.l(a) The requirements of this Section 5.0, apply to
tanks or parts of tanks constructed of "higher
strength materialsw which are defined as the
materials of Groups IV, IV-A, V, and VI of
Table 2-3 of API-650.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 20 OF 38

Subject to COMPANY'S specific written approval


of CONTRACTOR'S supplementary specifications
for the material, the minimum specified tensile
strength of the material may be increased to
75,000 psi in accordance with Note 1 of Table
3-2 of API-650.
5.2 Desiqn
5.2(a) The requirements of Section 4.2 above apply.
5.2(b) Upper courses may be moderate strength
materials in accordance with Par. 3.6.1.6 of
API-650 and the additional requirements of
Section 4.0 of this specification.
Stairways intermittently supported from the
tank and/or supported by structures from grade
may be substituted for the circumferential
stairway of Drawing GA-D99639. The
requirements of API-650 Par. 3.8.1.2 and
Section 2.2(e) of this Specification shall
apply. CONTRACTOR shall provide the complete
installation including any support structures
and foundations.
5.3 Weldinq
5.3(a) Unless specifically waived in writing by
COMPANY, based upon previous experience,
supplementary data in accordance with Section
7.4 below shall be furnished for automatic and
semi-automatic procedures for vertical welds.
No vertical welds shall be made in the downhill
direction except for wash passes on vertical
welds on the outside of tanks.
All manual welds on the shell shall be made
with low hydrogen electrodes.
Attachments to shell courses shall be in
accordance with Pars. 3.8.1.2 and 5.2.3.5 of
API-650.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 21 OF 38

5.4 Other Fabrication Requirements


5.4(a) Unless otherwise specified, any openings in
bottom plates shall be prefabricated with any
required reinforcement into the bottom plate.
The prefabricated assembly shall be stress
relieved.
5.4(b) Where design metal temperature is below -10F:
1) All vertical joints in plate 3/4" and
thicker shall be 100% radiographed.
2) All three-way joints in shell courses with
a hydrostatic test stress of 10,000 psi or
more shall be radiographed,
5.5 Appurtenances
All mixers requiring support from tank shells shall
have spring tie rods in order to adequately accommodate
the differential movement between the mixer and the
shell course from which it is supported.
6.0 REQUIREMENTS FOR LOCATIONS OR MATERIALS OUTSIDE THE UNITED
STATES
6.1 General
All requirements of this specification apply including
those of Section 1.2 concerning all legal requirements
in effect at the tank location.
6.2 Materials
6.2(a) For sources of materials outside the United
States, national substitutes for the ASTM or
API material specifications permitted by API-
650 and by this specification may be used, if
approved in writing by COMPANY, providing that:
6.2(a)(l) The upper limit cf their allowable tensile
strength does not exceed 90,000 psi.
6.2(a)(2) The certification requirements of
Paragraph 2.1.1 of API-650 are satisfied.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 22 OF 38

6.2(b) For sources of supply outside the United


States, specification sheets shall be furnished
for all materials and shall include c-hemistry,
mechanical properties, melting practice,
deoxidation practice, deoxidation materials,
heat treatment and grain size practice.
6.2(c) Unless specifically waived in writing by
COMPANY for sources of supply outside the
United States, all plate material, as rolled,
which is 3/4-inch or greater in thickness shall
be impact tested in accordance with Section
2.l(b) of this Specification. For all other
plate material thicknesses, test data to
demonstrate adequate notch toughness in
accordance with Par. 2.2.10.3 of API-650 and
Section 2.l(b) of this Specification based on
past production from the same mill shall be
submitted to COMPANY .for review..
6.2(d) The requirements of Section 6.2(a), (b) and (c)
above do not apply to G40.21 plate material
produced in Canada.
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS WHEN SPECIFIED
The following supplementary requirements apply only where
specified in Section 5.3 or in the Contract to which this
Specification is attached.
7.1 Pickled or Abrasive Blasted Plate
All plate shall be pickled or sandblasted in accordance
with Steel Structures Painting Council Standard
SSPC-SP8 or SSPC-SP6. Where an inorganic zinc primer
is specified, the plate shall be abrasive blasted in
accordance with SSPC-SP10.
7.2 Pickled or Sandblasted and Primed Plate
The picked or abrasive blasted external (convex) plate
surface shall be primed to within 2 inches of the plate
edges after rolling. Primers can be an inhibited alkyd
(code P-7) or an inorganic zinc primer (code P-12) as
specified by the COMPANY (see Drawing GF-S1103). Upon
COMPANY' approval the external surfaces may be primed
with an acceptable inorganic zinc primer before
rolling, provided that the tank diameter exceeds 135
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 23 OF 38

feet and no degradation of the primer (cracking, etc.)


after rolling is evident.
A

7.2(a) Acceptable formulations for inhibited alkyd


primers are Napko 416, Glidden 5210 , Carboline
GP-10 or GP-20, Reliance REL-KYDE 11, Cook 391-
N-083 and International CPA038 or CPA039. If
these are not obtainable, alternates must be
approved by the COMPANY. Minimum dry film
thickness shall be 2 mils.
7.2(b1 Acceptable brands of inorganic zincs for
application prior to rolling are Porter
(Zinc-Lock 3511 or Carboline (Carbozinc-11).
Film thickness shall be 2-1/2 mils minimum to 3
.mils maximum dry film thickness.
Preconstruction inorganic .zinc primers, maximum
dry film thickness 1-mil,-may be provided if
.approved by the COMPANY.
7.2(c) Acceptable brands of inorganic zinc for
application to plate after forming or
application in the field after tank erection
are Porter (Zinc-Lock 3511, Carboline
(Carbozinc-111, Napko (177-521, Cook (GALVA-PAC
1011, Arneron (Dimetcote 6) or International
(QHA 189/188). If these are not obtainable,
alternatives must be approved by the COMPANY.
Film thickness shall be 2-1/2 mils minimum to 5
mils maximum dry film thickness.
Any priming within 1-inch of edges prepared for welding
shall be thoroughly removed.
7.3 Ultrasonic Examination
The COMPANY will make partial Ultrasonic examination of
locations in vertical and circumferential shell welds
which would not normally be radiographed. All
examinations will be made in a manner and time which
will not interfere with CONTRACTOR'S production work.
Ultrasonic examination will be in accordance with Par.
6.3 of API-650. The extent of examination will be
dependent upon results but normally will not be less
than 10% of the length of applicable welds.
Where unacceptable ultrasonic indications are found,
CONTRACTOR shall either examine the indication by
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-3
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 24 OF 38

radiography or make a repair. Final judgment of the


indication for acceptance shall be in accordance with
the applicable requirements for radiography,- Where
additional radiographs result from ultrasonic
indications and the indications are subsequently found
to be acceptable, the COMPANY will pay for such
additional radiographs at the unit cost quoted by
CONTRACTOR.
7.4 Supvlementary Weidinq Procedure Tests
7.4 (a) General
7.4(a)(1) These supplementary tests apply only to
automatic and semi-automatic welding
procedures for verticai welds.
7.4(a)(2) In addition to the requirements for
-procedure qualifications of this
Specification, the plate material used
shall be to the same specification and
from the same plate source as will be used
in the applicable tanks. These
supplementary tests shall be made as soon
as possible after the award of the
contract and in any event before
applicable welding starts.
7.4(a)(3) The test procedures described below are
intended to define the scope of the tests.
Some critical details are omitted or are
subject to modification dependent upon
preliminary results, limitations of test
equipment, design metal temperature,
judgment of the laboratory conducting the
test, etc. Recommendations for improving
the tests are requested. A definition of
the actual test procedure shall be
furnished for COMPANY'S approval.
7.4(b) Hardness, Tensile Impact Tests
The requirements for tensile strength Item (1)
and impact values Item (4) shall be as
specified below. Other data resulting from
these tests is for COMPANY'S information and
there are no contractural quanitative
requirements on the test data furnished.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 25 OF 38

7.4(b)(l) An "all weld metal" tensile test shall be


made with the specimen centered at the 1/4
weld thickness position as thickness
permits. Minimum tensile strength shall
be as specified for the plate material.
Maximum tensile strength shall be 95,000
psi.
7.4(b)(2) Diamond point micro hardness surveys shall
be made of the weld and the heat affected
zone (HAz) cross section to define the
areas of maximum and minimum hardness.
7.4(b)(3) ~hotomicrographsof the weld and weld
heat-affected zone shall be furnished at
sufficient magnification to show structure
and grain size.
7.4(b1(4) Charpy V-notch impact tests shall be made
at design metal temperatures. Minimum
energy requirements for full size specimen
shall satisfy the requirements of Section
2.3. Generally, specimen shall be full
size and shall be located dependent upon
the results of 2) and 3) above and the
following.
7.4(b)(4)(a) A series of specimen centered on each
of two planes parallel to the plate
surface shall be taken with the notch
at 1/8 inch increments from the
center of the weld to 1/4 inch inside
the fusion line and at 1/16 inch
intervals from that point to 1/4 inch
outside the HAZ.
7.4(b)(4)(b) Sets of 3 specimen shall be taken
from 4 locations suspected of
representing minimum toughness. For
example at weld centerline and in the
HA2 near the fusion line and surface.
Two locations shall be in the weld
and two locations shall be in the
HAZ. Reduced size specimen may be
used for half of these locations if
it appears desirable to more
thoroughly investigate a location
closer to the surface.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY I, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 26 OF 38

7.4(b)(4)(c) COMPANY reserves the right to specify


large size toughness tests such as
the British Standard 5762 Crack Tip
Opening Displacement (CTOD) test, the
Wells-BWRA wide plate tests for welds
or the Robertson wide plate test for
base material.
Supplementary Weldinq Test Requirements for All Tanks
Section 2.3(b) requires that weld rod or wire be
selected so that deposited weld metal does not exceed
95,088 psi tensile strength. This requirement shall be
verified by tests of all automatic welds and certain
manual welds as follows. Manual groove and butt welds
made with E68XX or E70XX series electrodes need not be
tested. Manual fillet and lap weIds exposed to the
tank contents shall be tested. Manual fillet and lap
welds not exposed to the tank contents and made with
E60XX or E70XX electrodes need not be tested.
7.5(a) For groove welds at nozzles and manways, and
for butt welds, hardness determinations shall
be made with a Telebrineller, Eiten or
equivalent portable hardness tester. The
hardness determinations shall be made at, or
near, the center of each weld and wherever
practical on the surface of the weld seam that
is exposed to the process environment. When
necessary, the surface on which the impression
is to be made shall be filed, ground, machined,
or polished with abrasive material so that the
edge of the impression shall be defined clearly
enough to permit accurate measurement of the
diameter. Care should be taken to avoid
overheating or cold working the surface.
7.5(b) One hardness determination shall be made for
every third groove weld and for every third
butt weld, if any, at nozzles and manways. One
hardness determination shall be made for every
second vertical butt weld. One hardness
determination shall be made for each 100 ft. of
circumferential butt welds, and at least 25% of
the determination required for vertical and
circumferential butt weld shall be taken at the
"T" joint intersection or at manual repair
locations.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 27 OF 38

7.5(c) All hardness determinations shall be taken


promptly as the work progresses and reported to
the COMPANY. -

All determinations indicating a hardness of 200


BHN or less are acceptable. Should any
determination be in excess of 200 BHN, that
fact shall be reported immediately to the
COMPANY so that its representatives can
participate in further investigations of welds
suspected of high hardness. In such cases,
three additional hardness determinations shall
be made in the suspected area. If the average
of these three determinations exceeds 205 BHN
or if any one of these three determinations
exceeds 215 BIB{, the weld shall be considered
rej ected.
7.5(e) The COWANY -will cansider proposals .by the
CONTRACTOR for further testing of welds
rejected under Item (d) above, such as removal
of samples for laboratory chemical analysis and
hardness tests,. to confirm the suitability of
the weld. However, unless such proposals and
the results of further tests are accepted in
writing by the COMPANY, welds rejected under
Item (dl above shall be removed and replaced.
Fillet and lap welds cannot be tested by the
above procedures. Thus for each fillet or lap
weld procedure used on the inside of the tank
the procedure shall be simulated by preparing a
groove weld test specimen at three times during
the course of production for each tank (i.e.,
at the start and approximately at the 1/3 and
2/3 points of fabrication). Hardness
determinations shall be made and accepted or
rejected on each test specimen in accordance
with Items (a), (c), (d), and (e) above.
8.0 SEISMICDESIGNOFSTORAGETANKS
Tanks to be located in seismically active areas shall be
designed for earthquake ground motion in accordance with
Appendix E of API-650 with the additional requirements
specified below.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 28 OF 38

8.1 Seismic Zone and Factors for Essential Facilities and


Site Amplification -

8.l(a) The seismic zone 1, 2, 3 or 4 to be used shall


be as specified by the COMPANY.
8.l(b) The essential facilities factor, I, shall be
taken as 1.0 except for tanks where the COMPANY
specifies use of a 1.5 factor for emergency
post earthquake services.
8.l(c) The site amplification factor, shall be as
specified by the COMPANY.
.-8.2.Anchored Tanks
Anchorage of tanks.is.not permitted except -in accordance
<with-x7Section
2-53.

8.3 Upper Shell courses-


8.3(a) When the seismic design dominates over
hydrostatic pressure in determining the
thickness of the lowest shell course, each
upper shell course shall be checked for seismic
loading in accordance with this paragraph.
8.3(b) The seismic overturning moment at the bottom of
each upper shell course may be determined as
follows:

Where:
M, = Overturning moment in foot pounds at the
desired elevation, level X.
W,, = Total weight in pounds of the tank shell
above level X.
X, = Height in feet from level X to the center
of gravity of W
,
.
X = Height in feet from the bottom of the tank
shell to level X.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 29 OF 38

XI, and X2, = Multiplying factors measured in feet


determined in accordance wifh
subparagraphs (c) and ( d ) . These
factors are products of the height
from level X to the centroids of the
lateral forces above level X times
the ratio of the lateral forces
above level X to the total lateral
forces, for the impulsive and
convective forces, respectively.
Z,I,Cl,C2, Wr, WI, W2 and H, are as defined in
Appendix E of API-650.
.;;XIx
.~...8,:3.d.c) .may.*be.i.determined
...,b
y..multiplyingH .by the
. : . :;ratio:xi;(~,obtained-by;:the.:f 01-lowing.-f
0rmulas:

DIHt1.333and XIH 1( -0.75DIH:

- 16(1- XIM (DIH)+ 3 (DIH)~


32(1- x/m2
XIx/H=
16(4 -DIH)
DIH(1.333 and XIH >1-0.75DIH:

8.3(d) X2xmay be determined by multiplying H by the


ratio X2,1H obtained by the following formulas:
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 30 OF 38

8.3(e) The maximum longitudinal compression force in


each upper shell course may be determin-ed as
follows:

Where:
b, = Maximum longitudinal shell compressive
force at level X in pounds per foot of
shell circumference.
. .

-+ .-w b a -=.:'Weight\.of X and


::ta~k~:'"sheF~~zabove~~~leve'l
-.;.,~t;,pr
tion-of::roof:?supparte;dby.rshell.in
- :-I ~:.r~mn;ds~pe.r,?2~Eoo
tm'f~i'sheTk~c,ixcumEer
ence,
8.3(f) The maximum allowable longitudinal compressive
stress in each upper shell course, bJlZt,, may be
determined from the formulas in Par. E.5.3 of
API-650 except substituting ( H - X ) for H and t,
for t .

Where:
T , = Thickness in inches, excluding corrosion
allowance, of the shell at level X.
8.4 Roof Columns
8.4(a) Columns supporting the roof of fixed roof tanks
should be designed to resist the lateral forces
caused by sloshing of the liquid contents and
by the acceleration of the mass of the column
and the added mass of the liquid. Columns
designed for seismic loads should preferably be
of pipe closed at each end to prevent fluid
from entering the pipe. Such columns may be
designed in accordance with the following
paragraphs.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERNG DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 31 OF 38

8.4(b) The columns should be designed for a lateral


force which may be taken as a uniform lateral
load along the height of the column as follows:

Where:
q = Total lateral force in pounds per foot of
column height
ql = Lateral force in pounds per foot of column
height due to acceleration of the column
and added mass of the liquid determined in
- . . -.rhaccordance:: ,wikh*subpar+graph-:(c f

- column
. . ~q~?=-:~aterdl.-force.?in:rpaunds~per;-~foot.l.of.-

; :. ;: :-i~'he~t:+&~~~.ta~-sl~~hi
pg.cf ;?l%quidmll.te n t s
- : determined.- i ~mcc0fdanc.e-.w'ith
i .subparagraph

8.4(c) The lateral force q, may be determined as


follows :

Where:
w, = The unit weight of the column in air in
pounds per foot of height.
Dc = Diameter of column in feet.

8.4(d) The lateral force q, is composed of a drag force


q,, and an inertia force q,which are not in
phase. These forces may be approximated and
combined as follows:
qd =(ZIC2)2 GDD, [*I cos2 (nYIDI

ql=ZICzGDc2[25.0 + 125.0 (D/H)/ cos ( n Y / D )


CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 32 OF 38

Where Y = horizontal distance in feet from


the center of the tank to the
center of the column.

When. qi>2qd: q2=qi

- . . ... . 4- . ) ~*~h~::.-~tank:~columns~:~shou9d~~e:,d%si~gned.sfsr
.-.the
- . ;L. vertical7.sgpport.;load;.togetlerxwi th the lateral
'

. . .. - ....:&loaB.+deter&gd;inxacc~~&gwe;~wikh_:the
.rl) abcsv-e,
-. .
d .. . r: ,.:A: ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n g ~ s t r e s s e s ~ - S ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
.. allowable..stresses - specifkedin Par. .3.6.2 6%
API-650 increased by one-third.

THIS PAGE ENDS SECTION A - TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS


CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 33 OF 38

SPECIFICATION EG-967-J
OIL STORAGE TANKS & WELDED CONSTRUCTION -
WITH FIXED ROOF OR OPEN TOP WITH WIND GIRDER

SECTION 11
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

21.0 SCOPE
Section B of this Specification covers supplemental
- requirements relating to purchasing and defines the
- division of work and responsibility between COMPANY and
CONTRACTOR,
--
22.0 INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH BID
22.1 CONTRACTOR shall submit the following information
with quotation:
22.l(a) The ASTM, API or other national
specification of the steel proposed for the
shell courses, the bottom and the roof. If
any materials are to be from sources outside
the United States, the source shall be
stated.
22.l(b) The estimated dates for the start of
erection and completion of erection for the
entire contract.
22.2 CONTRACTOR shall describe the types of automatic or
semiautomatic welding procedures he intends to use.
22.3 CONTRACTOR shall state number of weeks after award of
contract that he (a) will submit the drawings
required by Section 23.2, and (b) will require
receipt of his drawings after COMPANY'S review.
COMPANY will normally require three weeks for review.
22.4 CONTRACTOR shall include, as separate items in his
bid, the costs for these certain items of work under
Section 7.0, Supplemental Requirements, as specified.
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
S m RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 34 OF 38

CONTRACTOR shall include, as separate items in his


bid, the cost of required radiographic inspection and
the unit cost for any additional radiographg
requested by COMPANY under Section 2.5(e). COMPANY
reserves the right to specify in contract the options
of:
(a) Radiographic inspection by CONTRACTOR, or
(b) Radiographic inspection by COMPANY or COMPANY'S
agent.
22.5 CONTRACTOR shall include, with the description of any
extra work necessary under Section 24.1, the cost of
that extra work if performed by CONTRACTOR. Any such
work shall not be performed by CONTRACTOR unless it
is authorized by COMPANY.
22-6 If CONTRACTOR anticipates that-heated water may be
required for hydrostatic tests, he shall include, as
a separate item in his bid, the total cost of heating
this water.
22.7 CONTRACTOR shall submit the additional cost if any,
for wheel-abrading, blasting or pickling all tank
bottom plates to remove mill scale on both sides.
Finished surfaces shall be in accordance with the
Steel Structures Painting Council Standard SSPS-SP8
or SSPS-SP6. COMPANY will specify in contract if
bottom plates are to be cleaned.
22.8 CONTRACTOR shall submit the wind girder tabulation
required by Section 4.2(c).
22.9 CONTRACTOR shall be prepared to submit the data
required by Section 6.2 within two weeks of a
specific request by COMPANY.
23.3 INFORMATION REQUIRED AFTER AWARD OF CONTRACT
23.1 CONTRACTOR shall provide, within four weeks after
award of contract, reproducible transparencies cf
fabricati.on and construction schedule. The schedule
shall be itemized to program sequential steps in the
complete cycle, including:
23.l(a) Preparation of sub-orders;
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 35 OF 38

23.l(b) Dates material and equipment will arrive at


site;
-
23.l(c) Time required for erection;
23.l(d) Date tank will be ready for testing;
23.l(e) Size and number of erection crews proposed.
Monthly progress reports shall be prepared, starting
with the issue of the above schedule.
CONTRACTOR shall submit for COMPANY'S review a
reproducible transparency of drawings showing tank
details. Plate layout, any necessary relocation of
manholes, manhole and nozzle details, appurtenance
details and structural details shall be shown.
COMPANY'S approval of these drawings does not release
CONTRACTOR from its responsibilities,under the
Contract to which this.Specification is attached.
When mate rials are furnished und.er the provisions of
Section 6 . 2 , or when impact test ing is performed,
mill test reports shall be submitted. Reports shall
be submitted concurrent with mat erial shipment.
23.4 Welding procedure specifications and qualification
reports shall be submitted for COMPANY review three
weeks prior to use of the procedure in production
welding.
23.5 Hardness tests on production welds required by
Section 7.5 shall be promptly reported to COMPANY as
work progresses.
24.0 CONTRACTOR REOUIREMENTS
24.1 CONTRACTOR shall visit the site of the work, shall
familiarize himself with COMPANY'S safety rules,
shall review COMPANY'S plans for site preparation and
tank foundations, and shall determine whether or not
access to the tank site will be suitable for his
equipment and materials. If access is unsuitable,
CONTRACTOR shall describe work required to make
access suitable. (See Section 22.5).
24.2 The start of tank erection by CONTRACTOR shall
constitute an acceptance of the foundation with
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. 36-967-9
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT W.Y 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 36 OF 38

respect to levelness drainage, and other factors


affecting his work. COMPAN'Y wi 1 be responsible for
the ability of the oundat ions to support khe loads
of the tanks and the r contents without adverse
settlement.
24.3 CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for providing
adequate clearances for all appurtenances and
internals and for the total structural adequacy and
mechanical operation of the completed tanks. (See
Section 25.1)
24.4 CONTRACTOR shall deliver all materials and equipment
to and from site and shall do loading and unloading.
24.5 All welding procedures, operators and welders to be
employed in the fabrication and erection work shall
be qualified as required by API Standard 650 and the
additional provisions of this Specification.
COMPANY'S Field Representative nay specify retesting
if in his opinion a welder's work is unsatisfactory.
Costs of this retesting, if performed satisfactorily,
shall be borne by COMPANY or, if unsatisfactorily,
shall be borne by CONTRACTOR. If a welder's
qualification tests are out of date, costs of retests
shall be borne by CONTRACTOR.
24.6 When CONTRACTOR performs radiographic inspection (see
Section 22.4), CONTRACTOR shall provide, at his own
expense, equipment adequate for viewing and
evaluating radiographic film at the job site.
24.7 CONTRACTOR shall furnish any blinding plates
necessary to temporarily close tank openings for
hydrostatic tests.
24.8 CONTRACTOR shall test all tanks in accordance with
Par. 5.3 of API-650 and Sections 2.7 and 2.8 of this
Specification.
WORK AND MATERIAL BY COMPANY
25.1 COMPANY will furnish drawings showing general layout
of appurtenances and orientation of tanks. Any
necessary modification to agree with plate layout
shall be referred to COMPANY for approval. (See
Sections 2.2(a)(l) and 23.2.)
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 37 OF 38

25.2 COMPANY will furnish permits giving CCNTRACTOR access


to the tank site for delivery of material and
movement of equipment. Access to site and materials
storage area will be designated by COMPANY.-
25.3 COMPANY will furnish and install the tank foundation,
catch basins, and other design features which are
part of the tank grade. COMPANY'S work will include
preparation of surfaces for tank bottom plates.
25.4 COMPANY will furnish and install all valves that are
to be installed on the flanged or screwed shell and
bottom outlets of the tanks.
25.5 COMPANY will prepare all surfaces, except to the
extent that Section 2.2(e), Section 7.1 or 7.2 and
Section 22.7 apply, and paint the tank and
appurtenances after the completion sf work by
CONTRACTOR,
UTILITIES DURING CONSTRUCTION
26.1 CONTRACTOR shall provide chemical toilets or other
similar facilities approved by COMPANY and shall
maintain these for the use of his employees.
Facilities shall be located as directed by COMPANY'S
Field Representative and shall be removed by
CONTRACTOR upon completion of the work.
26.2 CONTRACTOR shall provide drinking water for his
employees.
26.3 CONTRACTOR shall provide all power required to drive
construction equipment. CONTRACTOR will be held
responsible for safe procedures in the use and
fueling of motor-driven equipment and in storage of
fuel.
26.4 CONTRACTOR shall provide any compressed air
facilities that he may require.

VENDOR guarantees that each item provided under the


Agreement to which this Specification is attached (a) will
meet the requirements of the Agreement and (b) will
otherwise be free of defects in design, material and
workmanship. As to the items originally provided, the
CHEVRON CORPORATION SPECIFICATION NO. EG-967-J
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY 1, 1986
SAN RAMON, CALIFORNIA PAGE 38 OF 3 8

gusrantee shall apply to discrepancies and defects that are


discovered within the shorter of 12 months after beina
placed in operction or 18 months after being receiveddat
the jobsite. If corrective work is performed on an item
under this guarantee, the guarantee shall also apply to
discrepancies and defects in the corrective work that are
discovered within the shorter of 12 months after the
corrected item is again placed in operation or 18 months
after completion of the corrective work. These guarantee
terms shall be extended for any period that an item cannot
be operated as a result of discrepancies or defects in any
item provided by VENDOR. The guarantee shall apply whether
or not designs, data or information are provided, reviewed
or approved by COMPANY, but shall not apply to failures
caused by subjecting the item to conditions more severe
than those described in the Agreement.
COMPANY shall notify VlNDOR in writing, or by telephone or
telex confirmed in writing, whenever-COMPANY discovers a
discrepancy or defect covered by this guarantee. VENDOR
shall promptly propose a method of correcting the
discrepancy or defect involving the least loss of operating
time. However, the proposed method need not involve costs
of overtime labor or air freight, except to the extent that
VENDOR was required to incur such costs in providing the
original item. COMPANY, in its sole discretion, may select
VENDOR" proposed method or any other method of correcting
the discrepancy or defect. VENDOR shall perform the
corrective work in accordance with the selected method.
COMPANY shall reimburse VENDOR for any difference in cost
to VENDOR between the selected method and the proposed
method.
28.3 COMPANY REFERENCES
The following drawings referenced herein are a part of this
Specification:

THIS PAGE ENDS SECTION B - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


TANK MANUAL ORDERING DAT.4

SAMPLE LIST SHEETS

PART I - SCOPE AND INTRODUCTION

1.1 CONTRACTOR shall furnish all labor, material, and equipment to design, fabricare,
transport, and e r e c t t h e following tanks a t COMPANY'S

dicate Locati

Tank Nominal Dia. x Fit.


-
No. Capacity, Bbls. Ft. Type of Roof Service

750,800 290 x 64 Double Deck Crude Oil


750,800 290 x 64 Double Deck Crude Oil
750,000 290 x 64 Double Deck Crude Obl
750,000 290 x 64 Double Deck Crude Oil
600,000 260 x 64 Double Deck Crude Oil
600,000 260 x 64 Double Deck Crude Oil
600,000 260 x 64 Double Deck Crude Oil
600,000 260 x 64 Double Deck Crude Oil
600,000 260 x 64 Double Deck Crude 0 il
390,000 210 x 64 Double Deck Crude Oil
250,000 180 x 56 Double Deck Bunker
80,000 - 102 x 56 Double Deck Cutter
80,000 102 x 56 Double Deck Cutter
30,000 67 x 48 Double Deck Heavy Oil
15,000 60 x 30 Cone Fresh Warer
110,000 120 x 56 Pontoon Ball as t
110,000 120 x 56 Pontoon Ballast

1.2 Refer t o t h e following Tank and Appurtenances Schedules for a detailed description
of t h e t a n k s

CT-F-272 15-0 Tanks T 1 through T-10


CT-F-27216-0 Tanks T-11 through T-14
CT-F-272 17-0 Tanks T-15 through T-17

1.3 CONTRACTOR shall visit t h e site and ascertain t h e conditions under which the
work will be done. Arrangements t o do so can be made by contacring
TANK MANUAL ORDERING DAT.\

EXHIBIT A

GENERAL PLANT REGULATIONS

1.0 Prior t o commencement of work, CONTRACTOR shall become familiar with rhe
following plant regulations. CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for cam pliance
with t h e s e regulations.

1.01 Admission O n t o Premises of COMPANY

(a) COMPANY'S Construction Representative will inform CONTRACTOR of


t h e g a t e through which his employees shall e n t e r and leave premises of
COMPANY.

(b) CONTRACTOR's employees shall be a d m i n e d t o COMPANY'S premises only


a f t e r display of either (i) CONTRACTOR's badge whenever CO MPANY's
Construction Representative has approved t h e use of such badge, for
example i n t h e case of major construction jobs, or (ii) COMPANY pzss
badge, in all other cases.

When required, COMPANY pass badge will be issued by t h e G a t e Guard t o


e a c h em ployee of CONTRACTOR upon entering CO MPANY's premises each
day and shall be surrendered upon leaving COMPANY's premises.
CONTRACTOR's f o r e m a n or his delegated representative shall identify
each of CONTRACTOR'S employees t o t h e G a t e Guard at t h e t i m e t h e
passes a r e issued e a c h day representative shall identify e a c h of
CONTRACTOR's employees t o t h e employees. CONTRACTOR shall notii y
COMPAN'fs Construction R e p r e e n t a t i v e of t h e individual responsible for
identifying CONTRACTOR'S em ployees.

(c) Passes f o r vehicles will be issued to d r i v e n of motor v e h i d e s used in con-


nection with CONTRACTOR's work. Limited p a r h n g for privase cars of
CONTRACTOR'S employees will be provided. Access shall be restricted r o
designated routes. CONTRACTOR shall inform COMPANY'S Construcrion
Representative of t h e motor vehicles equipment CONTRACTOR will use
including a n y trucks used for material deliveries from outside of
CO MPAN'fs premises.

(d) CONTRACTOR's drivers shall drive a r e f u l l y over designated routes, ob-


served speed limiis and sto'p signs, and park only in designated areas.
COMPAN'fs Construction Representative will designate routes and parking
area. The COMPANY assumes no responsibility for damages to cars,
trucks, or other vehicles which belong t o t h e CONTRACTOR, s u b
contractors or CONTRACTOR's em plo yees--when driven or parked on
COMPANY'S premises.

(el Mechanical equipment t h a t is not f i t t e d with pneumatic tires will not ke a


allowed t o travel on paved COMPANY roadways. CONTRACTOR mus;
satisfy COMPANY that t h e equipment he proposes t o use is operable over
all COMPANY roadways and bridges. CONTRACTOR shall repair any
damage t o such existing roadways and bridges caused by his operations.
Standard Oil Company af California, Comr tract
Western Operations. Inc.

Forward all correspondence, invoices, and related documents CONTRACT NUMBER AND PREFIX
to F'urchasing Department.
1
-
555 Market Street, h Francisco, CA 94105 I
P.O. Box 743, b Habra, CA 9063 1 r
1
I
STANDARD OIL COMPANY O F CALIFORNIA, WESTERN OPERATIONS, INC., hereafter referred to as COkl-
PANY, and the undersigned CONTRACTOR, hereby mutually agree on 1 9 .
that CONTRACTOR shall perform for COMPANY, at or near
County of State of
the work set forth in the attached cheets dated which bear the above contract
number and prefix and in the specifications and drawings referred to therein and attached thereto as an improvement to
real property by affucing thereto whatever materials are involved therein so as to become an integral part of such real
property, under the Terms and Conditions, pages 2 , 3 , 4 and 5 hereof, and in accordance with said sheets, :pecifications
and drawings, which T m ::nd Conditions and sheets, specifications and drawings are part of this agreement.
COMPANY shall pay CONTRACTOR a compensation of

The work shall be commenced


diligiently prosecuted, and completed
A payment and performance bond in terms and executed by a surety company satisfactory to COMPANY shall be
furnished to COMPANY in the sum of
(NO bond required unless an amount is entered above.)

Standard Oil Company of California,


Western Operations, Inc.
Purchasing Department

CONTRACTOR (See Note)

BY
WITNESS
CONTRACTOR'S State kcense No.
(Where Required B y State Law)

NOTE: If CONTRACTOR is incorporated, execution shall be by an authorized officer of the corporation and corporate
seal affixed and attested to by The Secretary or Assistant Secretary. I f CONTRACTOR :s nor incorporated,
signatures should be witnessed by an employee of COMPANY, if practicable: if not, by a disinterested ?ar:>..
f ERMS A N D C O N D l f IONS
I. PERFORMANCE O f M E WORK
I. 1 Definitions
1.11 The term "work" as used in this Agreement meanr unless the context otherwise requires, all work to be periormed by
CONTRACTOR under this Agrermrnt.
1.12 The term "Facility" as used in this Agreement means the product of h e work, such as an improvement to real p r o p e r r .
designs or data.
1.13 The term "material" or "materials" as iised in this Agreement means all matenal, supplies and equipment to be rncorporzrcc
into the Faciliry.
1.14 The term "affiliate" as used in &is Agreement means Standard Oil Companv of California or any companv in wnrch Standard
Oil Company of California owns direcdy or indirecdy at least 51 percent o i the shares ent~tlcdto vote at a peneral ciection o:
dkcton.
1.15 The terms "indemnitec" and "indemnitees" as used in this Ageement mean respectively COMPANY. one of its ~ i f i l i ~ t or
cs
the w n t or employee of COMPANY or one of its affiliates and all of them.
1.16 The terms ' b b c o n m c t o n " and "vendors" as used in this Agreement mean nrbcontracton or vendors of any tier.
1.2 Independent Contmctor: CONTRACTOR shall be an independent contractor, maintaining complete control over CONTRACTOR'S
men and operations
1.3 Specifications: CONTRACTOR shall perform the work, including the provision of materials, in accordance with :he specificattons
and exhibits (if any) which are a part of this Agreement and such additional drawings and explanations as COhfP.4NY rnav prgvide :O
CONTRACTOR from time to time ta detail and illustrate the work.
1.4 Permits: Unless otherwise prov~dedin this AgrecmenL CONTRACTOR shall secure all permits. make all cash and other de:osirs.
provide aU bon& and give all notices r q u i n d by law in connect~onwith the work.
1.5 Items to Be Provided by CONTRACTOR: Unless othenwlse provided in this Agreement. CONTRACTOR shall provide d l rnatenai..
utlities, consumable ~ ~ p p l i e stools.
, consuuction equipment, and labor, including m p e n ~ s i o n ,necessary for d ~ complet~on
e o i the
work.
1.6 Safety Measures: CONTRACTOR shall perform the work in accordance with safe practices. taking all reasonable precati-ons :o
protect the Faciliry and adjacent facilities. workmen and the public and providing. where reasonably necessary, barners. p a r d s .
temporary bridges, lights and watchmen. Whlle o n the premises of COhlPANY or ~ t affdiates
s all of COMPANY'S safety rules shall k
strictly observed; in particular. snoking shall be limited to such locations and occasions as are specifically authorized in w n t ~ n eby
COMPANY. CONTRACTOR shall not perform or permit any act on the premlses of COMPANY or its affiliates which involves a iin
o r explosion hazard. including welding, torch cutting and disposal of debns by burning, without prior wntten consent of CC:lP.ANY.
1.7 Supptien
1.71 COMPANY may nominate bidden for the supply of certain items of material. CONTRACTOR shall request bids on these
items from the nominees, and may o b m n arch other bids as CONTRACTOR may elect
l.72 COMPANY may have available for sale certain materials not products of COMPANY. COhTRACTOR shall purchase , u i t
materials offered by COMPANY and its des~gnatedaffiliates as long as such material is suitable and 1s comprutively pr~ced.
1.73 When the work inchdes purchasing certain materials. CONTRACTOR shall be fuily responsible for orderine. sxpeditine,
nxeiving and safeguarding (subject to the provisions o f Section 5.3 of these Terms and Conditions) all such rnatenais. ana :'or
conducting all competitive bidding by m d negotiations with the vendors thereof and for paying for materiais and eniorclng o i
warranties. unless otherwise provided in this Agreement.
1.8 Labor
11.81 CCNTRACTOR shall employ labor from that available in the viciniry of work, and in accordance with the terms oiempioy-
ment prevailing in tl13t vicinity, to the extent that it is pract~cableand consistent with the amely and eificiec! prosecuuon o i
Me work.
1.82 CONTRACTOR shall use all reasonable efforu to avoid any disturbances in the ex~stinglabor situation which wlll adversely
affect the business of COhlPANY, its affiliates or other contracton working in the area.
1.9 Carriers: In connection with wansportation of purchased materials. CONTRACTOR shall give consideration to, but shdl not be
limited to. use of carriers recommended by COMPANY.

Z COMPENSATION
2.1 Changes: COMPANY may make "Changes" by adding to, omitting or deviating from the requiremenu of this A g ~ e m e n rIn :he
event COMPANY issues any written directive which is not identified as a Change but which CONTRACTOR considers to be a
Change, CONTRACTOR shall s o notify COMPANY in writing within 10 days after recelpt of such directive. If n o such tunely notlce
is given, CONTRACTOR shall proceed in accordance with such directive without any adjustment in compensation. If C051PANY
originally identrfres the directive as a CY~nge,or if CONTRACTOR gives such timely notice and COMPANY aerees that such direcave
is a Change. CONTRACTTOR shall wiii!;n 10 days after giving such nonce or after receipt of the directive advise C O ~ ~ P A NoYi its
proposed adjustment in compensation and COMPANY and CONTRACTOR shall attempt to agree In ~ v r i t ~ non g an appropnsne
adjustment in compensation resulting from the Change. After such agreement 1s reached, CONTRACTOR shall proceed u ~ t h!he
Change. However. if such notice is given o r if COhlPANY originally idenofied the directive as a Change. and in e ~ t h e rlnsrance
COMPANY and CONTRACTOR fall to agree on whether or not arch directive is a Change or fail to agree on an aopropnate
adjustmr711 in compensation. then COMPANY may issue a wntten request for CONTRACTOR to proceed in accnrdancr w ~ t hsuch
directive without such agrremeni CONTRACTOR shall comply with such written request, but such compliance shall not prejudice
eiMer party's claim that the directive is aChange or, as the case clay be. claim for an appropnate adjusnnen~In sompensatisn. i t e r
the written request to proceed IS issued. anv adjustment which is to be made to the compensation shall be determ~nearn accordazce
with the Exhibit - Compensation Adjustment (GO-279-7).
~axcs:L'UNIKAL'IUK shall pay, and CONTRACTOR's compenu?:on provided for hereunder includes an dlowance for, dI State,
Federal and other payroll taxes, including corlrr~but~ons ind taxes ~ s x s s e dqainsr emolovees on wages earned. In connecrion w ~ r h
the work. and shall make all r-poru rcquired by governmenu1 3uthoritles. CONTRACTOR snail riso pay, and CONTRACTOR':,
compenwtjon provided for hereunder includes an 9ow:ace for, m y and dl other c u e s now or nere~.;'terimposed bv anv Egvern-
m e n d ruthonr). upon. measured by or inc~dentto chc pcrform3ncc o i hi': Agreccnnt or LCI? purchase. ;;crag?, ,lse or consumotlon
by the CONTRACTOR of materials. utilitie3, consumzblt: supplies. tools or consrrucrlon cr. .?merit used in the performance o i rhis
Agreement. uniess L!C applicible Idws ~pecificallyprovide that slch tax be paid by COhlPA?. :
2.3 Acceptance of Facility: When prov~sionis rnadc by [aw ior recording Notice of Completion. COMPANY mav Indicate its ~ c c e p ~ ~ -
of the Facility by recording such Notice: otherwise Acceptance shall be on the date COMPANY aives wntten nouce to
CONTRACTOR that i t u sausfied that the Fac~lity has been completed in accordant: with all requirements contained in this
Ageement. Acceptance by CC!4?AHY or payment hereunder shall in no way relieve CONTRACTOR of any obligat~onor I~ab~ii!y
under this Agrremenr
2.4 Terms of Payment: As set out on the attached d~eets.

3. DELAYS
3.1 Site Readiness: CONTRACTOR shall ascertain from COMPANY that the site is ready before rending rnaterials or workmen thereto.
3.2 Delays. Suspensions and Extensions: COMP.ANY may rcqulre CONTRACTOR to suspend performance hereunder cornpietely or
partially for whatever length of time COMPANY may e l e c ~The time for completion shall be extended by each penod that
CONTRACTOR is delayed by (a) COMPANY or another independent contmctor who is directly responsible to COhiPANY (unless
such delay is due to CONTRACTOR'S default for example, as provided in Sections 4.1 and 4.2 of these Terms and Conditions); (b)
an act of God or the elements; (c) any other cause beyond CONTRACTOR's reasonable c o n e d : or (d) a labor disturbance.
3.3 Damage Due to Delays and Suspensions: COMPA:<Y shall not be liable for any damages, dirctt consequentla1 or otherwise, suffered
by CONTRACTOR due to delays and suspensions. but where CONTRACTOR is not in default CONTRACTOR shall be entitled to
reimbursement for reasonable direct costs caused by delays and supensions to the ex tent such delays and suspensions are caused by
COMPANY and orher independent contractors who are directly responsible to COMPANY. CONTRACTOR shall be obligated to
proceed with the work notwithstanding a dispute on reimbursement: such action shall not prejudice either party's claim with respect
to r c i m b u m e n L

4. INSPECTION, CONDEMNATION, STOPPING WORK


4.1 Inspection
4.11 Inspe~tionby COMPANY: COMPANY may visit and inspect the work and mater.als. or any part thereof. at all times, and
CONTRACTOR shall provide safe and proper facil~tiestherefor. CONTRACTOR shall at all times during working hours keep a
competent man in the immediate vicinity of the work areas to receive communicanons from COMPANY and to supervise the
pd'ormance of this Agreement When COMPANY dctermines that a work area is unsafe, COMPANY may stop the part of the
work affected u n d the unsafe condition is comcted.
4.12 Inspection by CONTRACTOR: Whenever any part of CONTRACTOR'S work depends on existing work or work or material
provided by C O Y P A F or o h e n , CONTRACTOR shall inspect and measure such other work or material and promptly
notify COMPANY of each defect or discrepancy in such other work or material which may render it unsuitable for proper
execution of CONTRACTOR's work or proper functioning of the Facility. If CONTRACTOR fails to notify COMPANY'S
representative of any such defect or discrepancy before performing CONTRACTOR'S dependent work, and such defect or
d k r r p a n c y w w l d have been discovered in the course of a reasonably thorou* visual inspection and measurement
COMPANY may condemn the work or rnatenal involved and CONTRACTOR shali correct such defect or discrepancy on the
u m e basis as if it were defective work by CONTRACTOR under Section 4.2 of thew Terms and Conditions.
4.2 Condemnation: COMPANY may condemn materials provided by CONTRACTOR and all parts of CONTRACTOR's work which are
unsound or d e f e c a c or fad in any way to conform with the requiremenu of this A g e e m e n r CONTRACTOR shall begin to remove
and replace such materials or work within 24 hours after receiving notice thenof from COMPANY. CONTRACTOR shall bear all
costs involved in the removal and replacement of such materials and work and in the repur and replacemcnt of any other rnaterials
and work nccessuily damaged by such removal and nplacrment. If CONTRACTOR is requested by COMPANY to uncover m y part
of the Facility for inspect~on,me cost of uncovering and covering any such part not specifically requiring inspection under this
Agreement shall be borne by COMPANY unless the part so uncovered is not in compliance with the rcquir-menu of this Agreement.
4.3 Taking Over and Stopping Work
4.31 Should CONTRACTOR default in any way in the performance of this Agreement, including failing. refusing or neglecting to
supply sufficient material to be suppiied by CONTRACTOR hereunder, or tools, o: properly skilled workmen to complete the
work with reasonable diligence, for 5 days after written notice of such default to CONTRACTOR, COMPANY may, at any
time thereafter, take over and complete the work. The cost to COMPANY of completing the work shall be deducted from Lhe
unpaid part of CONTRACTOR's compensation. If such cost exceeds any such amount, CONTRACTOR shall reimburse
COMPANY for such excess cost. The zcnon by COMPANY of tztking over and completing the work shall not constitute a
waiver of or election among any other rights or remedies that COMPANY may have against CONTRACTOR.
4.32 Should CONTRACTOR or its creditors seek relief under any insolvency law, or CONTRACTOR be adjudged a bankrupt,
COMPANY may at any tune thereafter terminate this Agreement and take over and complete the work as provided in Section
4 3 1 of these Terms and Conditions, except that any payments due from CONTRACTOR to subcontractors or vendors in
connection with the work may be made by COMPANY to such s u b c o n ~ ~ c t oor
r s vendors. and be d d u c r e d from the m o u n r s
otherwise due to CONTRACTOR.
4.33 COMPANY may. in its absolute discretion, stop me work at any time, but where C O N T R A O R is not in defznlt,
COMPANY shall pay CONTRACTOR for all parts of the worr: done, including materials provided, in conformity with the
requirements of this Agreement, plus an amount for reasonable and verified costs ofCONTR.4CTOR incurred in preparation
for the pans of the work not yet performed and in shutting down his operauons hereunder, plus art amount for a reasonable
part of the profit CONTRACTOR would otherwise have earned: provided, that the amounts payable under this Section 4.33
hall in no went exceed the unpaid part of CONTRACTOR's compensation.
5. LIABILITY
5.1 General Liability: CONTRACTOR shail indemndy snd save harmless h e indemnitees from and qalnst any and aU !oss, iimaze.
injury, liability, and claims thereof for injun to or dearh o i a person, lnciuding an employee o i CONTRACTCR or an indemn~rer,sr
for loss of or d m a g e to property !except rroprrry subject in Secnons 5.2 2nd 5.3 s i rhese T e n s .;na Coilditionsl, resuitlnq direczv
or indirectly from CONTRACTOR'S periorrnance of Air Agreement. iniluding. but not limlted to. thc use bv CONTRACTOR si
staging or othsr equipment prov~ded by CO>IPANY or othen. pardl less of the negligence of. and regardless o i whether lilbliiy
without fault is imposed or sought to be imposed on. one or more of the indernn~tees,except to d ~ e.xtent e that such ~ n d r m n ~ r;s) .
void or otherwise uneniorceable under appiicable law in effect on or validly retroactive to rhe date of rh~sAgreement and exce3t
where such loss, damage. injury, liability or claim is rhe result of active negligence or wilful misconduct of an lndemnitee and is no:
contributed to by any act oi. or by any omission to perform some duty imposed by law or contract on, CONTSACTOR. :LS
subcontractor or either's agent or employee.
5.2 Liability for Property of COMPANY and Its Affiliates: CONTRACTOR shall be liable to COMPANY and iu arfiliates ior anv loss o i
or damagc to the property of COMPANY and its affiliates (other than the property subject to Section 5.3 of these Terms a d
Conditions) resulting directly or indirectlv from CONTRACTOR'S performance of this Agreement resardless o i the negligence oi
COMPANY, its agents, employees. and affiliates. except to the extent that such liabil~tyis void or othenvtse unenrorceaole under
applicable law in effect on or validly retroacwe to the date of this Agreement: provided. however. that CONTRACTOR'S iiabiiir.-
under this Section 5.2 shall be limited to the applicable insurance which CONTRACTOR carries or has others carry and wh~chshall
not be less than that provided in Section 6 of these Terms and Conditions.
5.3 Liabiiity for the Facility and Materials: CONTRACTOR shall exercise due care and diligence in the performance of this Ageement
and in the c m and protection of the Facllity and materials. At COhlPANY's option, CONTRACTOR shall reconstruct. repair or
n p l a a any part of the Facility or materials lost or damaged by any cause whatsoever, including but not limited to those referred to
in Section 3.2 of these Terms and Conditions. wherever wid loss or damage occurs including loss or d m a g e to materials whlle in
transit. In such went COMPANY shall reimburse CONTRACTOR for the costs of such reconstnrcnon, repair or replacement in
e x a u of 51.000 for each occurrence or in excess of the coverase of any applicable insurance which CONTRACTOR may elect ro
carry or have o t h e n carry, whichever is greater. except costs incurred in reconsmction, repar and replacement of work or mater~ds
mbject to condemnation by COMPANY prior to loss or damage (whether or not such condemnation was effected) under Section 1 . 2
of thew Terms and Conditions. and except cosrs incurred in order to meet the guarantee(si, if any, contained elsewhere in this
A p c m m t CONTRACTOR also shall be paid 3 reasonable profit on that part of arch reconstruction. repair or replacement for
which cost reimbursement is made. COMPANY shall not be liable for loss or dunage to construction equipmen& tools. temporary
structure& temporary excavations or supplies owned or used by CONTRACTOR or its a b c o n u a c t o n .
5.4 Compliance with Laws and Reqlauons: CONTRACTOR shall.comply with dl laws, regulations. decrees. codes, ordinances.
resolutions, and other acts of any governmental authority, including Federal and State labor and tax laws. which are appiicaoie ;o
this Agreement and CONTRACTOR'S performance hereunder. and shall indemn~fyand save COMPANY and its aifiliates harmless
from and apinst any and all 10sdamage.
. injury. liability and c l m s thereof resulting directly or indirectly from CONTXACTOR's
f d u m t o d o so.
5.5 Liens: CONTRACTOR shall discharge at once or bond or otherwise secure against all liens and attachments which are filed in
connection with the work and shall indemnify and save COMPANY. its affiliates. and the owners of the premises on which the work
is performed harmless from and against any and all 10s. damage, injury liability and claims thereof resulting directly or indirect!).
from such liens and attachmenu.
5.6 Patent Rights: CONTRACTOR shall indemnify and save COMPANY and iu affiliates harmless from and aiainst any and all loss.
damage, injury, liability and claims thereof for any patent infringement resulting directly or indirectly from CONTR.4CTOR's
performance of the work, including provision of material and designs by CONTRACTOR, and use of tools and other equipment bv
or for CONTRACTOR in any connection therew~th.
5.7 Cos* and Attorneys' Fees: COKTRACTOR shall promptly pay (a) to any indemnitee all costs and attorrreys' fees incurred by such
indemnitee resulting directly or indirectly from any and ail loss, damage, injury, liabiiity and claims lor which CONTRACTOR is
obligated to indemnify such indemnrtee pursuant to Sections 5.1, 514. 5.5 or 5.6 of these Terms and Conditions, and ib) to
COMPANY all costs and reasonable attorneys' fees in any legd action in which COMPANY or its affiliate prevails, in whole or UI
part. brought against CONTRACTOR based on a breach of this Agreement

6. INSURANCE
6.1 Insurance Required: Without in any way limiting CONTRACTOR'S liability pursuant to S e c t ~ o n5 of these Terms and Condidons.
CONTRACTOR shall maintain the following inarrance:
6.11 Workmen's Compensation and Employen' Liability Insurance as prescribed by applicable law, including insurance coveriq
liability under the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Act a d the Jones Act, if applicable.
6.12 Without in any way dfectingCONTRACTOR's obligations pursuant to Secrion 6.11 of these Terms and Conditions. d marine
work is to be performed hereunder. Protecnon and Indemnity lnarrance. including cwerage for injuries to or dearh o i
m a t e n , mates and crews of vessels used in the performance of this Agreement The limits o i liability of such inmrance sku
not be las than S500,000 per occurrence.
6.13 Comprehensive General Bodily Injury Liability Insurance. Such insurance shall include the following coverages: Broad F o m
Conaactual Liability, Personal Injury Liabliity, Completed Operauons, and Producu Liabdity. The limrts of babllity o i arch
insurance shall not be less than 5500,000 per occurrence.
6.14 Broad Form Roperty Damage Liability Insurance. Such insurance shall include the following coversges: Broad F o m
Contractual Liability. Cornpleted Operations. and Products Liability. and shall expressly cover property of COMPANY and its
affiliates other than that referred to in Section 5.3 af these Tenns and Conditions. The h i t s of liability of such insurance
shall be not less than 5 1 00,000 per occurrence.
6.15 Automobile Bodily lnjury and Roperty Damage Liability Insurance. Such insurance shall extend to owned, nonowned. and
hired automobiles used in the performance of this Agreement The l i i u of liability of arch insurance shall be not less than
S250.000 per person/SSOO,OM) per occurrence for Bodily Injury and 5 100.000 per occurrence for Property Damage.
6.2 Evidence of Insurance: CONTRACTOR shall - before commencing the work - provide COMPANY with certificates or ot'ler
documenlary evidence of the above insurance, satasfactory to COMPANY.
6.3 Policy Endorsements: The above insurance ,*ail include a requirement that the insurer provide COMPANY with 30 davs' 'unrten
notlce pnor to thc etTecrrve date of any cancellanon or rnatenal change of the insurance. The insurance spec~fiedIn Section 6.1 1 si
these Terms and Conditions hat( contain a waiver of subrogadon aganst the indemnltees. The insurance speclfied in Sect~ons6.12.
5.13.6.14 and 6.15 of these l'enns an4 Conditions shdl
(a) name the indemnitees as additional insureds;
(b) provide that said insurance is primary coverage with respect to all insureds; and
(c) contlln a Standard Cross Lizbility Endorsement for Severability of Interest Clauses.

ASSIGNMENT: Neither this Agreement nor ?roney due CONTRACTOR hereunder shall be assigned. wblet or @ansferred in whole or In
part by CONTRACTOR, except w ~ l hthe pnor wri!ten consent of COMPANY, and any attempt to do so without arch written consent i b ~ l
be void.

CONTRACTOR5 LNDER~TAYDING: Subject to any express provisions elsewhere in this Agreement. it is understood that
CONTRAL70R, as a result of careful examination. IS satisfied 3s to the nature and location of the work, the conformation and strucmre o i
the ground, the character, quality and quandty of the rnatenals to be used, the character of temporary equipment and facilities needed
preliminary to and during the prosecunon of the work, the general and local conditions, and all other matten wh~chcou'ld in any wav adfect
the work under this Agreement No representations by or oral agreement with any agent or employee of COMPANY, e ~ t h e before
r or after
the execudon of this Agretment. shat( affect or modify any of CONTRACTOR'S nghts or obligauons hereunder.

RENEGmIATION ACT OF 1951: If Section 104 applies to this Agreemen& this Agreement shall be deemed to contain all of the
provisioru required by wid Section.

RECORDS: CONTRACTOR and its subcontractors and vendors shall maintain m e and correct sets of records in connection with the work
and all transactions rehted thereto. CONTRACTOR and its subconrr~ctorsand vendors shall retain all a c h records for a period of not less
than twenty-four (24) months after Acceptance of the Facility.
No director. employee or agent of CONTRACTOR or of any subcontractor or vendor of CONTRACTOR shall give or receive any
commission, fee. rebate, or gift or entertainment of sign~ficantcost or value in connection with the work, or enter into any buslnels
arrangement with any director. employee or lgent of COMPANY or any affiliate other than as a representative of COMPANY or its affiliate.
without COMPANY'S prior written agreement. CONTRACTOR shall prornplly not~fyCOMPANY of any vldation of this paragraph and any
consideration m i v e d as a ~ s u l of
t such violauon shall be paid over or credited to COMPANY. Any nprewntatne(s) authomed by
COMPANY may audit any and ail records of CONTRACTOR and any such subcontractor or vendoi' in connection with the work and dl
transactions related thereto for the sole purpose of determining whether there has been compliance with this paragraph.
If CONTRACTOR'S compensation under this Agreement is determined in whole or in part on a reimbursement of costs bas~s,the costs to be
reimbursed shall be only those reawnably necesary to perform the work in an efficient manner in accordance with the time schedule
required. COMPANY may from time to Lime and at any time after the date of this Agreement until rwenty-four (24) monlhs after
Acceptance of the Facility, make an audit of all records of CONTRACTOR and its subcontracton and vendon In connection with di costs
reimbursable under this Agreement Such audit may also cover CONTRACTOR'S procedures and controls with respect to the costs to be
reimbiirsed. Upon completion of this audit COMPANY shall pay CONTRACTOR any compensanon due CONTRACTOR hereunder as
shown by the audit Any amount by which the total payment by COMPANY to CONTRACTOR exceeds the amount due CONTRACTOR
as shown by the audit shall be returned to COMPANY. Items not covered by reimbursement but by such compensation as fvted percentages
o r fmcd lump sums shall not be a b j e c t to audit under this paragraph.
CONTRACTOR shail assist COMPANY in making the above audits.
CONTRACTOR shall require. and h a l l require at( subconmctors and vendors to require, in all agreanents in connecnon with the work the
agrrement of the parties to the provisions of this Section.

HEADINGS: Heading of Sections and other parts of this Agreement are for quick reference only and are not to be constnaed as p a n of this
Agreement. In some instances a Section o r part contains provisions not covered by the heading thereof; in other instances, a Secnon or part
contains provisions that an described in the heading of another Secdon or part.

The Certificate of Nonsegregated Facilities (Form GO-279-2) signed by CONTRACTOR and the Equal Opportunity Clauses ( F o m
GO-279-3) arc attached h n e t o and arc a part of this Agreement

The following applies to any penon who engages in the business or a c n in the capacity of a contractor within California:

Conhacton are required by law to be licensed and regulated by the Contractor's State License Board. Any questions
concerning a contractor may be referred to the registrar of the board whose addres is:
CONTRACTOR'S STATE LICENSE BOARD
1020 N STREET
SACRAMENTO, CALIFORMA 95814
The right of either party to require s h c t performance shall not be affected by any prior waiver or c o w of dealing,
CERTIFICATE OF NONSEGREGATED FACII-ITIES

CONTRACTOR certifies that he does not and w ~ l not l maintain or provide for his employees any
segregated facilities at any of his establishments, and that he does not and will not permit his
employees to perform their services at any location, under his control, where segregated iacililies
are maintained. CONTRACTOR understands that the phrase "segregated facilities" includes
facilities which are in fact segregated on a basis of race, color, creed, or national origin, because of
habit, local custom, or otherwise. COhlTRACTOR understands and agrees that maintaining or
providing segregated facilities for his employees or permitting his employees to perform their
services at any locations, under his control, where segregated facilities are maintained is a violariori
of the Equal Opportunity Clauses required by Executive Order No. 11 246 of September 24, 1955,
and the regulationsof the Secretary of Labor set out in 33 F.R. 7 8 0 4 (May 28, 1 9 6 8 ) .CONTRACTOE
- further agrees t,hat (except where it has obtained identical certifications from proposed
subcontractors for specific time periods) it will obtain identical certifications from propose::
subcontractors prior to the award of subcontracts exceeding $10,000 which are not exempt from
the provis~onsof the Equal Opportunity Clauses; that it will retain such certifications in its files, and
that it will forward the following notice to such proposed subcontractors (except where the proposed
subcontractors have submitted identical certifications for specific time periods):

NO-[ICE TO PROSPECTIVE SUBCONTRACTORS OF REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATIONS OF


NONSEGREGATED FACII-ITIES

A Certification of Nonsegregated Facilities as required by the May 9, 1967, order on Elimination of


Segregated Facilities, by the Secretary of I-abor 132 F.R. 7439, May 19, 19673, and as required by
the regulations of the Secretary of I-abor set out in 33 F.R. 7804 (May 28, 1968) and as they may be
amended, must be submitted prior to the award of a subcontract exceeding $10,000 which is not
exempt from the provisions of the Equal Opportunity Clauses. The certification may be submitted
either for each subcontract or for all subcontracts during a period ii.e., quarterly, semi-annually or
annually).

BY
CONTRACTOR OR CONIPANY
TITLE

ADDRESS DATE

CITY, STATE, & ZIP CODE

Return to:

Attention:
EQUAL OPPORTLJMTY CLAUSES

Unless exempted by Federal law, regulation or order, the following terms and conditions shall apply durlng the ?e:-
f o r m n c e of thls contract:

A. The provisions of subsections (1) t h r u u b (7) of Section ";31,, Executive Order :'1243 of September 2 1 , i965. as
amended by Executive Order 11375 of Octuber 13, 1967, and as subsequently amended, are incorporated herein '2::
reference. (For contracts u i 550,OO ur inore, said subsections ( I ) through (7) are aiso set forth below ~ l n dmade a par1
of this contract.)
(1) ' K a C U N ' I U C T O R will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of r x z .
color. religion. sex, or national origin. The CONTRACTOR will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants
are employed and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race. color. re!igion. sex,
or national origin. Such action shdl inciude, but not be limited to the following: Empioyment. upgrading,
demotion, or transfer, recruitment or recruitment advertising; layoff or termination: rates of pay or other forms of
compensation; and selection for training, including apprenticeshp. The CONTRACTOR agrees to post in ccn-
spicuous places, available to employees and applicants for empioyment, notices to be provided by the contractme
officer setting forth the provisions of this nondiscrimination clause.

(2) The CONTRACTOR will, in all solicitations or advertisements for employees placed by or on behalf of the
CONTRACTOR, state that a11 qudified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to
race, color, religon, sex, or national origin.
(3) The CONTRACTOR will send to each labor union or representative of workers with which he has a col!ccrive
bargaining agreement or other contract or understanding, a notice to be provided by the agency contracting
officer, advising the labor union or workers' representative of the CONTRACTOR'S commitments under Secrlon
202 of Executive Order 11246 of September 24. 1965, and shall post copies of the notice in conspicuous places
available to employees and applicants for employment.
(4) The CONTRACTOR will comply with all provisions of Executive Order 11246 of September 24, 1965. and of ?he
rules, regulations, and relevant orden of the Secretary of Labor.
(5) The CONTRACTOR will furnish all information and reports required by Executive Order 11246 of September 24,
1965, and by the rules, regulations, and orden of the Secretary of Labor, or pursuant thereto, and w ill permit
access to his books. records, and accounts by the contracting agency and the Secretary of Labor for purposes of
investigation to ascertain compliance with such rules, regulations, and orders.
(6) In the event of the CONTRACTOR'S noncompliance with the nondiscrimination clauses of t h s Agreement or with
any of such rules, regulat~ons,or orders, this Agreement may be cancelled. terrmnated or suspended iri whole or m
part and the CONTRACTOR may be declared ineligible for further Government contracts in accordance with
procedures authorized in Executive Order 11346 of September 24. 1965, and such other sanctions may be
imposed and remedies invoked as provided in Executive Order 11246 of September 24. 1965. or by rule,
regulation, or order of the Secretary of Labor, or as otherwise provided by law.
(7) ' K e CONTRACTOR will include the provisions of paragraphs (1) through (7) in every subcontract or purchase
order unless exempted by rules, regulations, or orden of the Secretary of Labor issued pursuant to Section 204 of
Executive Order 11246 of September 74, 1965, so that such provisions will be binding upon each subcontractor or
vendor. The CONTRACTOR will take such action with respect to any subcontract or purchase order as the
contracting agency may direct as a means of enforcing such provisions including sanctions for noncompliance:
Provided, however, That in the event the CONTRACTOR becomes involved in, or is threatened with. litigation
with a subcontractor or vendor as a result of such direction by the contracting agency, the CONTRACTOR may
request the United States t o enter into such litigation to protect the interests of the United States.
B. CONTRACTOR agrees that if the amount of this contract is 550.000 or more and he employes 50 or more persons he
shall:
(1) F i e with the Office of Federal Contract Compliance or agency designated by it. a complete and accurate report on
Standard Form 100 (EEO-I) within 30 days after receiving an award of thls contract (unless such a report has been
filed in the last 12 months), and continue to file such reports annually, on or before March 3lst:

(2) Develop and maintain a written affirmative action compliance program for each of its establishments in accordance
with the regulations of the Secretary of Labor promulgated under Executive Order 11246. as amended.

GO.279-3( C D - 3 - 6 3 )
Prinred in U . S . A .
EXECUTIVE ORDER 11758 EMPLOYMENT
OF T H E HANDICAPPED
(Paragraphs (a! through if1 of this
c h u n are aoplicabla i f this contract
is f o r S2,SOO or more)

SOURCE: 1 9 F.R. 20567

(a) The CONTRACTOR w i l l not diwriminata against any e m p l o y w or applicant for employment
b r u u n of physical or mental handicap i n regard t o any position for which the t m p l o y w or apjlicant for
m p l o y m e n t :J q u a i i f i d . T h e CONTRACTOR agrees to take affirmative amlon to amploy. advance in
employment and o t h e m w treat qualified handicapped indivrduals w i t h o u t discrimination based upon thew
physical or mental handicap i n all emplovmant practica such as :hs following: ernplovment. upgrading,
d m o t ~ o nor tranrier, recruitment or recruitment advartlsinq; l a y 0 3 or t w m i n a t ~ o n ,rates of p r y or other
forms of compsnmtion. and salactron f o r training, including apprenticeship.

(b) The CONTRACTOR agrws that. if a handicapped individual files a complaint w i t h the CON-
TRACTOR that he is not complying w i t h the requirements o f the Rehabilitation A c t of 1973, he will ( 1 )
invastiplte the m m p l a i n t and cake appropriate action consinent w i t h the raquirements of 2 0 CFR 741.29
and (21 n u i n n i n o n file for t h r n y u r s . the record regarding the complaint and the acrioru taken.

(c) The CONTRACTOR a g r m that, i f a handicapped individual files a c o m p h i m w i t h the Oepartment


of Labor that he has not complied w i t h tho requiraments of the Rehabilitation A c t of 1973. ( 1 ) he will
m o p a n t e w i t h tha Department i n its inwst~gationof the complaint, and ( 2 ) he will provide all p r n i n o n t
information r a p r d i n g his employment practica w i t h r a p M t o tha handicappd.

(dl Tho CONTRACTOR agrees t o comply w i t h the rules and regulatioru of the Secretary of Labar i n
20 CFR C h V1. Pan 741.

Ie) In the w e n t of the CONTRACTOR'S noncompliance w i t h rho requirements of this clauo. the
e o n t may
~ bo t n m i r u t d or s u r p o n d d i n whole or i n part.

(fl T h b clamu h a l l be i n d u d d in all sukontracts over $2500.

(Pangraphs (9) through (j) o f this clauso are


applicable i f this Contract is f o r more than
$2,500 and for performance i n 40 days or morel

(0) The CONTRACTOR aqrem (1) t o establish an affirmative action program, including a ~ r c p r i a t e
p r o a d m r a consistent w i t h the guidelina and tho r u l a of the Secretary of Labor, which w ~ l provide
l the
affirmative action rmprding the employment and advencmment of the h a n d i c a p p d required b y P.L. 93-113:
(21 t o publish the program i n his amployw's or psrsonnel handbook or otherwisr distribute a copy to all
p.rsonn8l: (31 t o r e v i m his program on or before March 3 1 o f each year and t o make such changes as may be
appropriate. and (4) t o designate one of his principal o f f i c l l s to be responsible for the enablishmem and
o w n t i o n of the proqam.

(hl Tho CONTRACTOR a g w s to permit the examination b y appropriate wntracting agency officials
a the A s r i m n t Secretary for Employment Standards or his daignea, of pertinent books, documents, papen
and r u o r d s concerning his employment and advancemat of the handicapped.

(i) The CONTRACTOR a g r m t o post i n conspicuous placa. available t o e m p l o y e 6 and applicants


f o r emp:aymoni, n o t i c a i n a f o r m t o bo prescribed b y the Assisrant Socrmtary fzr Employment Standards,
p r o v i d d b y th-r contrrcting officer s a t i n g contramor's obligation under the ;aw t o take affirmative action t o
employ md a d n n a i n employment qualifiad handicappd employws and applicants f o r employment and
tho rights and r e m d i a available.

(1) T h o CONTRACTOR will notify each labor union or rapresontativo of worksrs w i t h which he has a
w : l u t i v e bargaining agreement or other contract understandinq, that the comractor is bound b y the tarms of
S e a i o n 503 of tho Rehabilitation Act. and is committed to taka affirmative action t o employ and advance i n
employrnant physicllly and m e n n l l y handicappd individuals.

(Paragraphs (k) and Ill of this C l a u o are


applicable i f this Contract is f o r more than
SSOO.OG0 and for performance I n 90 days or more)

(k) Tha CONTRACTOR a0r.a t o submit a c o p y of his affirmative action program to the A n i n a n t
bury f o r E m p l o y m m t Standards within 90 days after the award t o him of a contract or subcontract.

(1) 7%. CONTRACTOR agrees t o submit a summary report t o the Assistant Secretary for Employ-
m m t Standards b y March 3 1 of aach year during performance of the Comract, and b y March 3 1 of the year
following completion of tho Comract in the f o r m prescribed b y the A n i s t a m S w a t a r y . covering ampioy-
mont and complaint exFrienca, aaommodationr made and all steps takan t o d f m u a l e and carry out the
eommitmonta ur forth i n the affirmative action proqam.
SUB-ORDER CTYAUSE

This clzuse i s intended t o assure t h a t your s u p p l i e r s understand our


requirements a s t o d e l i v e r y , m a t e r i a l , equipment and t e s t i n g . In
accepting this o r d e r , you agree t o perform a s follows regarding o r d e r s
you p l a c e on your own manufacturing p l a n t ( s ) , o r sub-orders placed with
others f o r t h e purpose of completing tbis order:

1. A copy of each of our s p e c i a l purchase o r d e r c l a u s e s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ,


drawings, d e l i v e r y requirements, and any o t h e r information from us
p e r t i n e n t t o p r o p e r l y f u l f i l l i n g your i n d i v i d u a l o r d e r s you s h a l l
forward t o each of your p l a n t s o r sub-order nanufacturers a s
a p p r o p r i a t e i n each c a s e , and t h e s e documents s h a l l be made a p a r t
of your order on your p l a n t o r s u b - s u p p l i e r ' s i n each case. Your
pasaphrasing o u r documents i s not a s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t e f o r
this requirement.

2. You w i l l follow each of your sub-orders whether on your own p l a n t s


o r a t s c b - s c p ~ l i e r ' sp l a n t s a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s a s a g s r o p r i a t e and
keep us c u r r e n t l y informed a t l e a s t twice monthly a s t o progress
and r e q u i r e d versus scheduled completion d a t e s of drawings and
f a b r i c a t i o n , and t o have them rec:-~est o?rr i n s p e c t i o n (when r e q i d r e d
by our order on you) 48 hours before i n s p e c t o r i s needed f o r each
inspection step.

3. If, during progress of your s u b - o r d e r ( s ) , one or more i s e v i d e n t l y


going t o delay your d e l i v e r y t o us beyond r e ~ u i r e dd a t e ' s ) , you
s h a l l immediately perform e x p e d i t i n g t o r e s t o r e t h e schedule and
keep us c l o s e l y advised. Should we advise you we have decided t o
expedite an o r d e r a l s o , you w i l l make necessary arrangements f o r
our r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o be promptly provided with from one t o f i v e
copies of your o r d e r ( s ) , i n c l u d i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , drawings, e t c .
You s h a l l a l s o arrange f o r our r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o be welcome t o
expedite a t your p l a n t s and o f f i c e s and/or those of your sub-
s u p p l i e r ' s a s necessary i n our r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s opinion.

PD-302 (500-CD-4-71)
P r i n t e d i n U.S.A.
ITJSPECTION CLAUSE PD-3'74

The i n s p e c t o r designzted. by COMPAEY s h a l l have f r e e

e n t r y , a t a l l times while work on t h i s c o n t r a c t i s being performed,

t o all parts of CONTRACTOR'S place of performance which concerns

t h e manufacture, i n s p e c t i o n or t e s t i n g of t h e m a t e r i a l t o be

a f f i x e d t o COMPANY'S r e a l property. The CONTRACTOR s h a l l a f f o r d

t h e i n s p e c t o r , f r e e of c o s t , a l l reasonable f a c i l i t i e s t o s a t i s f y

him t h a t t h e m a t ~ r i z li s being f i n i s h e d i n accordance with t h e s e

specifications. All t e s t s and i n s p e c t i o n s h a l l be made a t the


p l a c e of manufacturer p r i o r t o shipment of t h e m a t e r i a l t o Se

a f f i x e d t o COMPANY'S r e a l property and s h a l l be s o conducted a s

n o t t o i n t e r f e r e u n n e c e s s a r i l y with t h e operation of t h e CONTRAC:

TOR'S premises. This i n s p e c t i o n s h a l l not r e l i e v e t h e CONTRACTOR

of complying with t h e a t t a c h e d c o n t r z c t and with t h e s o e c i f i c a t i o n s

and drawings r e f e r r e d t o t h e r e i n , o r of h i s guarantee t h a t the.

m a t e r i a l a f f i x e d t o CCMPANY'S r e a l property s h a l l perform

s a t i s f a c t o r i l y under conditions of reasonable s e r v i c e .

No change s h a l l be made on t h i s c o n t r a c t r e g a r d l e s s i f

such change a l t e r s t h e c o n t r a c t p r i c e , u n t i l such change o r

changes have been submitted t o and approved by t h e Purchase and

S t o r e s Department.

PD-37% (CD-9-65)
P r i n t e d i n U.S . A .
l a d
X, TANK LOCATION

A, CONSIDERATIONS

TANK LOCATION IS INFLUENCED BY A NUMBER OF FACTORS

INCLUDING:

ALL OF THE FACTORS I N V O L V E D ARE INTERRELATED BUT NOT

N E C E S S A R I L Y COMPATIBLE8 AND THE OVER-ALL O B J E C T I V E MUST

BE TO SELECT THE BEST POSSIBLE SITE GIVING DUE

R E C O G N I T I O N TO A L L FACTORS,

FROM AN OPERATIONAL VIEWPOIHT~ TANKAGE MAY BE LOCATED

CLOSE TO OR REMOTE FROM UNITS WHICH THEY SERVED

GENERALLY U P H I L L FROM PUMPS WHICH TRANSFER FROM TANKS

AND CLOSE TOGETHER FOR READY ACCESS, SHORT SUCTION

L I N E S AND M I N I M U M P I P I N G ,

AT TIMES STOCK CHARACTERISTICSD QUALITY CONTROLD OR

OTHER FACTORS REQUIRE LOCATION OF TANKS CLOSE TO


PROCESSING UNITS GENERALLY THESE SHOULD BE LINITED I N
SIZE TO THE SMALLEST CAPACITY TO MEET PROCESSING NEEDS
RATHER THAN STORAGE REQUIREMENTS,

IN THE SELECTION OF TANK SITES FROM THE STANDPOINT OF


IMMEDIATE NEEDS AND POSSIBLE FUTWRE EXPANSION#
TOPOGRAPHICAL CONSIDERATIONS SHOULD INCLUDE:

1 PREFERRED ELEVATION FOR THE FUNCTION TO BE


PROVIDED,

2, UT H L IZATI ON OF NATURAL OR CONSTRUCTED DRA I MKGE


CHANNELS IN THE PROTECTION OF OTHER PLANT OR
PROPERTIES FROH INADVERTENT OIL SPILLAGE,

4, SOILCHARACTER ISTICS ,

FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES ARE OUTLINED IN THE FI~E


RESPECT TO OTHER TANKS, OPERATING FACILITIES, AND

ADJOINING PROPERTIES, APPLICABLE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

MUST, OF COURSE, BE S A T I S F I E D ,

1. TANKS ARE NOT LOCATED ON LANDS WHICH HAVE GREATER

P O T E N T I A L VALUE AS PLANT OR B U I L D I N G S I T E S ,

2, TANKS ARE NOT OUT OF HARMONY WITH THE PLANNED

DEVELOPMENT, OR PRIMARY FUNCTION, OF THE OVERALL

AREA a

B, LOCATION AND SPACI l\G

COMPANY STANDARDS FOR TANK SPACING, AS SHOWN I N TABLES


1, 11, 111, I V OF T H I S SECTION, ARE THE SAME AS THE
AND

IVFPA-30 CODE (1981 EDITION) SHELL-TO-SHELL SPACHMG


TABLE V IS ALSO, THE SAME A S NFPA-30 EXCEPT FOR FIXED
RQQF CRUDE O I L TANKS OVER 120 F E E T I N DIAMETER THAT DO -,

NOT HAVE REMOTE IMPOUNDING AND A L L F I X E D ROOF CRUDE O I L

TANKS OVER 120 FEET IN DIAMETER REGARDLESS OF THE

METHOD OF IMPOUNDING,
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LOCAT ION OF ABOVEGROUND TANKAGE

WITH RESPECT TO PROPERTY LINES AND PUBLIC WAYS ARE

BASED LlPON THE FOLLOYING C R I T E R I A : PRESSURE L I M I T A T I O H

LINDER EMEWGE;iCY V E N T I N G CONDI TIONS, THE TYPE OF L I Q U I D

STORED AND I T S BEHAVIOR UNDER F I R E CONDITIONS, THE TYPE

OF TANK, AND THE TYPE OF F I R E PROTECTION A V A I L A B L E ,

TABLES I, III AND IV INCLUDE DISTANCES THAT ARE

EQUIVALENT TO THOSE STATED IN THE NFPA-30 CODE FOR

ATMOSPHERIC (2,5 PSIG OR LESS) TANKS CONTAINING STABLE

FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS (UP TO 200F FLASH


POINT) . STOCK w ITH FLASH POINTS A T OFF ABOVE 20% ARE

COVERED IN TABLE II,

ITI S GENERALLY COMPANY PRACTICE TO FOLLOW IFPA-30 CODE


REQLIIREMENTS FOR MINIMUM SPACING BETWEEN ABOVEGROUND

STORAGE TAMKS , HOWEVER, FOR LARGE TANKS HAVING

DIAMETERS OVER 120 FEET BUT LESS THAN 150 FEET, AND FOR

FIXED ROOF CRUDE OIL TANKS EXCEPT THOSE HAVING

DIAMETERS NOT OVER 120 FEET AND HAViNG REMOTE

IMPOUNDING, COMPAIVY SHELL-TO-SHELL SPACING REQUI REHENTS

ARE MORE CONSERVATIVE THAN NFPA-30.


THE FOLLOWING TABLE STATES THE COMPANY STANDARD FOR

MINIMUM SHELL-TO-SHELL SPACING OF ADJACENT ABOVEGROUND

TANKS s

OPERATING FACILITIES ARE NORYALLY SEPARATED FRO:.B

TANKAGE BY PIPEWAYS AND ACCESS ROADS, FOR OPERATING

CONVENIENCE, A CLEAR SPACE OF 100 FT. IS NORMALLY

SUFFICIENT FOR PRODUCT TANKS, LESSER SPACING MAY BE


ADEQUATE FOR SMALL TANKS IN SMALL PLANTS, FIXED ROOF
CRUDE OIL TWPdKS OVER 120 FT, DIAMETER, WHEZE USED,

SHOULD BE SPACED 200 FT, OR MORE DUE TO THE F~ISK OF

BOILOVER,

IMPOUND1MG AND DRAINAGE

DRAINAGE SHOULD PREFERABLY BE PROVIDED TO A REMOTE

IMPOUNDING AREA ON COMPANY PROPERTY. THE IMPOUNDING

AREA SHOULD BE DESIGV4ED TO HOLD, AT A PIINIHUM, THE

CONTENTS OF THE LARGEST TANK IN THE TANK FIELD, (SEE


FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL, SECTION 310,) PIPEWAYS AND -

ACCESS ROADS SHOULD BE ISOLATED FROM DRAINAGE AREAS.


FIXED ROOF TANKS STORING CRUDE OILS ARE SUBJECT TO

BOILOVER AFTER THEY HAVE BEEN BURNING FOR A

CONSIDERABLE LENGTH OF TIME AND THE AMOUNT OF OIL

EXPELLED DURING A BOILOVER WILL PROBABLY OVERTAX ANY

DRAINAGE SYSTEM,

ITMAY NOT ALWAYS BE P O S S I B L E TQ PROVIDE THE DRAINAGE

FACILITIES DESIRED DUE TO SPACE LIMITATIONS AND DIKES

SURROUNDING TANKS OW GROUPS OF TANKS MAY BE NECESSARY

TO PROTECT ADJACENT PROPERTIES AND CONTAIN ACCIDENTAL

SPILLS,

IFD I K E S HIGHER THAN 6-FOQT AVERAGE ARE NEEDED, SEE

NFPA-30 FOP ADDED DESIGN FEATURES.

WHERE DIKED ENCLOSURES MUST BE PROVIDED, THE DIKE

ENCLOSURE SHOIJLD BE CAPABLE OF C O N T A I N I N G THE GREATEST

AMOUNT QF L I Q U I D THAT CAN BE RELEASED FRQM THE LARGEST

TANK WITHIN THE DIKE AREA, ASSUMING A FULL TANK, THE


C A P A C I T Y OF THE D I K E D AREA ENCLOSING MORE THAN ONE TANK -
SHALL BE CALCULATED BY DEDUCTING THE VOLUME OF THE

TANKS OTHER THAN THE LARGEST TANK, BELOW THE HEIGHT OF

THE D I K E ,
WHERE TWO OR M O R E L A R G E T A N K S A R E W I T H I N A D I K E D A R E A
SOME INTERMEDIATE DRAINAGE SEPARATION SHOULD BE
PROVIDED, CURBS OR D R A I N A G E C H A N N E L S M A Y B E EMPLOYED,
TANK MANUAL TANK LOCATION

TABLE I
ABOVEGROUND TANKS FOR STABLE FLAMMABLE AND
* COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS (BELOW 200F FLASH POINT) OTHER THAN CRUDE OIL

Minimum Distance in Minimum Distance in


F e e t from Property Line Feet from Nearest Side of
Which is or can b e Built Any Public Way or from
Upon, Including t h e Nearest Important
Opposite Side of a Building on t h e Same
Type of Public Way and Shall Be Property and Shall Be Not
Talk Protection Not Less Than 5 F e e t Less Than 5 Feet

Roof
Protection for
Exposurest
1 : z m e s diameter of 1/6 times diameter of
tank
None Diameter of tank but 116 times diameter of
need not exceed 175 tmk
feet
+ Vertical Approved foam 1/2 times diameter of 1/6 times diameter of
with Weak orinerting system tank tank
Roof to on tanks not
Shell Seam exceeding 150
f e e t in diameter
*
Protection for Diameter of tank 1/3 times diameter of
Exposurest tank
None
~ ~ 2 times diameter of tank 113 times diameter of
butneednotexceed350 t&k
feet
Haizontal Approved inerting 1 /2 times Table 111 1/2 times Table III
and Vertical system on t h e
with tank or approved
Emergency foam system on
Relief vertical tanks
Venting to
I Limit Pres-
sures t o 2.5
, pig
P r o t e c t i m for Table 111 Table 111
Exposurest
None 2 times Table III Table III

t Protection for exposures shall mean fire protection for structures on property adja-
c e n t . t ~liquid storage. Fire p r o t e c t i m for such structures shall b e acceptable when
located (1) within t h e jurisdiction of any public fire department or, (2) adjacent to
plants having private fire brigades capable of providing cooling water streams on
structures on property adjacent t o liquid storage.
* ++

For tanks over 150 f e e t in diameter use "Protectim for Exposures" or "None" a s
applicable.
TANK MANUAL TANK LOCATION

TABLE 11
ABOYEC;ROUND'TANKS FOR COMBUSWLE LIQUIDSw m
* . FLASHPOINTS AT OR ABOVE 200F

Capacity Gallons

TABLE m
(Reference Minimum Distance f a - Use in Table I)

Minimum Distance in Feet Minimum Distance in Feet


from Property Line Whi& from Nearest Side of Any
Is or Can B e Built Upon, Public Way ar from Nearest

751 to 12,000
12,OO 1 to 30,000
38,001 to 50,000
50,001 to 100,000
100,001 to 508,000
--
TANK MANUAL TANK LOCATION

TABLE IV
ABOVEGROUND TANKS FOR CRUDE OIL

* Floating P r o t e c t i o n for 112 t i m e s d i a m e t e r of 116 t i m e s d i a m e t e r o f


Roof Exposures t tank tank

! None
D i a m e t e r of t a n k 116 t i m e s d i a m e t e r of
tank

* Fixed 113 t i m e s d i a m e t e r of
Roof

None 4 times diameter of tank 213 t i m e s d i a m e t e r of


but need not e x c e e d 350 tank
feet

P r o t e c t i o n for exposures shall mean f i r e p r o t e c t i o n f o r s t r u c t u r e s on property a d j a c e n t


t o liquid storage. Fire protection for such s t r u c t u r e s shall b e a c c e p t a b l e when located
(1) within t h e jurisdiction of any public f i r e d e p a r t m e n t or, (2) a d j a c e n t t o p l a n t s having
private fire brigades c a p a b l e of providing cooling w a t e r s t r e a m s on s t r u c t u r e s on
property a d j a c e n t t o liquid storage.

* Liquids with boil over c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t o r a g e in fixed roof t a n k s over 120 f e e t in dia-


m e t e r may not b e desirable. S e e Section 320 of t h e F i r e P r o t e c t i o n Manual.
TANK MANUAL TANK LOCATION
TABLE V
M BETWEEN ABOVEGROUND
m SPACING (SHELGTO-SHEU)
* TANKS FOR FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS

Floating Roof
Fixed Roof Tanks

ClassIdcII
For all type (Other than
Crude) Class IIIA

1 A, ~ a n k s Over 120
Feet Diameter
/1 . 1. For tanks having
.remote impounding 6
-+- + -
6
-+-
6 6
2. For tanks=
having remote

B, Tanks Over 120 Feet


Diameter
1. For tanks having
remote impounding 6

2. For tanks=
having remote
impoud ing

Note 1: If the diameter of one tank is less than 1/2 of the diameter of the adjacent tank,
the minimum shell-to-shell spacing shall not b e less than 1/2 the diameter of t h e
smaller tank.
Note 2: Cmde oil tanks a t production facilities in isolated locations having capacities not
exceeding 126,000 gallons (3,000 barrels) need not be separated by more than 3
feet.
Note 3: Tanks used for storing Class III B liquids may be spaced no less than 3 feet apart
unless within a diked area or drainage path for a tank storing Class I or I1 liquid, in
which case provisions of Table apply.
Note 4: Crude oil storage in fixed roof tanks over 120 feet in diameter may not b e desir-
able. See Section 320 of the Fire Protection Manual.

Note 5: A floating roof tank is defined on page 4 10-2.


?' For tank spacing with respect to property lines and public ways, see pages 410-3 to 410-5
of this manual.
FOUNDATIONS

THIS SECTION INCLUDES A BACKGROUND ON THE EFFECTS OF SOIL


PROPERTIES ON TANK PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR
TANK FOUNDATIONS,

PURPOSE

THE INTENT OF THIS SECTION IS TO PROMOTE GOOD TANK


FOUNDATION DESIGN BY PROVIDING BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON
SOIL CONDITIONS, DISCUSSING TANK DESIGN EXPERIENCES, AND
RECOMMENDING DESIGNS FOR VARIOUS SITUATIONS.

IMTRODUCT ION

A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL PROPERTIES AND THE EFFECTS ON TANK


PERFORMANCE IS ESSENTIAL BEFORE DESIGNING A TANK FOUNDATIOMa

TANK FOUNDATIONS AWE SITE SPECIFIC AND INFLIJENCEDBY SOIL


TYPE, SOIL TYPE IS EITHER GOOD, INTERMEDIATE OR POOR, IN
GOOD SOILS, A FOUNDATION MAY BE A COMPACTED BERM WITH A
CONCRETE RINGWALL. IN POOR SOILS, HOWEVER, A FOUNDATION MAY
REQUIRE PILE SUPPORT,
THE RELATIVE HAZARD OF THE STORED SUBSTANCE TO THE

GROUNDWATER SUPPLY AND THE POTENTIAL OF THIS SUBSTANCE TO

REACH GROUNDWATER MUST BE EVALUATED,

BACKGROUND

TO PROPERLY D E S I G N A TANK FOUNDATION AND P I P I N G CONNECTIONS

TO THE TANK# IT IS NECESSARY TO KNOW# NOT ONLY THE LOAD

CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE SUPPORTING SOILS, BUT ALSO THE

SETTLEMENT THAT MAY BE A N T I C I P A T E D UNDER IMPOSED LOADS, $i


TANK SETTLEMENT OF SEVERAL INCHES OR EVEN A FOOT IS NOT

SERIOUS AS LONG A S SETTLEMENT IS UNIFORM, THE TANKS SHELL

CAN TOLEQATE VERY L I T T L E ABRUPT UNEQUAL SETTLEFIENT BUT CAN

TOLERATE A UNIFORM T I L T I N G OF THE TANK WITH ONLY A S L I G H T

INCREASE IN SHELL STRESS, FLOATING ROOFS ARE ESPECIALLY

SENSITIVE TO "OVALLING" RESULTING FROM UNEQUAL SETTLEMENT.

THE FLOATING ROOF HILL BIND, HANG UP, AND REQUIRE RELEVELING

OF THE TANK,

DETAILED SOIL [NVESTIGATIQNS MINIMIZE UNCERTAINTIES IN A

FOUNDATION DESIGN, SOIL I N V E S T I G A T IONS ARE GENERALLY

CONTRACTED TO OUTSIDE ENGINEERING FIRM SPECIALIZING IN

THESE SERVICES,
SOILS TYPES CAN BE GROUPED INTO THREE CATEGORIES:

SI
SOILS ARE STRONG ENOUGH TO
SUPPORT THE TANK WITHOUT ADVERSE SETTLEMENT,

TYPE I 1 - INTERHEDIATE
Sorbs: SOILS ARE STROMG ENOUGH
TO CARRY TANK LOADS H I T H TOLERABLE SETTLEMENTS BUT TOO
WEAK, WHEN CONFINED, TO SUPPORT THE EDGE WITHOUT
ADVERSE SETTLEHENT,

TYPE 111 - POOF! SOILS: SOILS NOT ABLE TO SUPPORT A


TANK WITHOUT APPRECIABLE SETTLEHENT CAUSING ADVERSE
AFFECTS ON THE T A N K ' S INTEG~ITY, POOR SOILS ARE SILTS
AND CLAYS OR HIGHLY OSGANIC S O I L S ,

I F THE TANK BOTTOM AND SHELL SETTLEWENT I S UNHFORH, THE


TANK STRUCTURE WILL NOT BE AFFECTED,

FIGURE 1 s ~ o ~MAXs mun PERMISSIBLE DIFFERENTIAL BETWEEN


THE CENTER AND THE SHELL FOR TANK BOTTOMS OF VARYING
DIAMETER AND WITH VARYlMG ORIGINAL BOTTOM PROFILES FROM
COME-UP (SLOPING TO A HIGH BOTTOM CENTER POINT) TO
CONE-DOWN (SLOPING TO A LOW BOTTOH CENTER POINT) FROH
A STRESS STANDPOINT, LARGER DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENTS
CAN BE TOLERATED I F THE BOTTOM I S CONE-UP 2RIGIWALLY,
HOMEVER, PROBLEMS RESULT FRO14 THE FACT THAT SETTLEMENTS
DO MOT VARY UNIFORMLY WITH R A D I A L DISTANCE,

FOR INSTANCE:

COME-UP BOTTOM NAY HAVE ITS DRAINAGE PATTERN


DISTURBED TO OUTSIDE WATER DRAWS BY UNEQUAL
SETTLEHENT,

,TOO STEEP A BOTTOM SLOPE HAY RESULT IN CREASES

FORMING I N THE BOTTOM PLATE FRON THE SLACK THAT


DEVELOPS AS SETTLEMENT OCCURS,

.BECAUSE OF UNCERTAINTIES OF THE BOTTOM


CONFIGURATION AT ANY TIME, A VERY CONSIDEIiABLE TANK
VOLUME BELOW WHAT I S BELIEVED TO BE THE HIGH POINT
11
OF THE BOTTOM MUST BE ALLOCATED TO "DEAD STORAGE,
GAGES AND OPERATIONS MUST BE ABOVE SOME

CONSERVATIVELY ESTIMATED BASE,

ITHE BOTTOM PLATE IS HELD AGAINST THE SUPPORTING

FOUNDATION BY THE WEIGHT OF THE LIQUID ON THE


PLATE, AS THE L I Q U I D LEVEL I S LOWERED, THE L I Q U I D
PRESSURE BECOMES INADEQUATE TO PROVIDE THE
NECESSARY RESTRAINT AND THE BOTTOM SNAPS UP IN A
SERIES OF MINOR BUCKLES, THIS CAUSES A N I X I N G OF

BOTTOM SEDIHENT AND HATER WITH THE STORED PRODUCT


AND CAUSES A FURTHER LOSS OF OPERATING STORAGE
CAPACITY, ESPECIALLY WHERE PRODUCT STORAGE REQUIRES
C R I T I C A L Q U A L I T Y CONTROL,

ONE SOLUTION I S TO USE A CONE-UP BOTTOM AS SHObdN I N


FIGURE 3: CONE-UP TANK BOTTOM- PASCAGOULA REFINERY~
THIS BOTTOM HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY USED AT THE
PASCAGOULAREFINERY WHERE SETTLEMENT I S LARGER

TANK BOTTOMS AND AFFIXED CONE ROOFS CAN BE SAND-JACKED

TO (03 APPROACHING) THE ORIGINAL TANK BOTTOM CONTOUR.


DETAILS OF A RELEVELING PROCEDURE DEVELOPED AT THE

PASCAGOULAREFINERY ARE PROVIDED IN THE ENGINEERING AND

MAINTENANCE BULLETIN43 AVAILABLE


NO, FROM THE
COXPORATE LIBRARYI N SAN FRANCISCO.
ITIS PREFERABLE, OF COURSE, TO LOCATE A TANK ON S O I L S

FIRM ENOUGH TO AVOID EDGE SETTLEMENT, THE KINDS OF

EDGE SETTLEMENT THAT CAN B E E X P E R I E N C E D W I T H TANKS ARE:

GENERAL A ~ E A L SUBSIDENCE RESULTS FROM THE LOAD

IMPOSED ON THE U N D E R L Y I N G S O I L S B Y THE TANK AND I T S

CONTENTS 1

VARIABLE EDGE SETTLEMENT AROUND TANK PERIPHERY DUE

TO D I F F E R E N C E S I N THE SUPPORTING S O I L ,

IRADIAL SHEAR FAILURE OF SOIL BELOW THE TANK SHELL

AND IN THE ADJACENT UNCONFINED SOIL OUTSIDE THE

TANK CAN CAUSE EDGE SETTLEMENT,

DESIGN GUIDELINES

DESIGNS ARE GOVERNED BY THE SITE CONDITIONS, INCLUDING

S O I L TYPE, CORROSION P O T E N T I A L , AND ENVIRONMENTAL R I S K ,

GUIDELINES TO EVALUATE THESE PARAMETERS FOLLOW AND,

ONCE D E F I N E D , A FOUNDATION D E S I G N CAN B E CHOSEN U S I N G

FIGURE 2 ALONG W I T H STANDARD FORMSEF-364, EF-421 AND

STANDARD DRAWING GF-S1121,


SITE CONDITIONS

RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION DESIGNS ARE LISTED ACCORDING TO

SOIL TYPE IN FIGURE 2. SOIL DATA IS OBTAINED FROM

E X I S T I N G RECORDS OR BY CONTRACTING AN ENGINEERING F I R M

TO COMPLETE A SOIL IIYVESTIGATION, THESE SOILS

PROPERTIES D E F I N E WHAT TYPE OF FOUNDATION I S NECESSARYa

TYPE I - 6001) SOILS: FOUNDATIONDESIGNS INCLUDE A

COMPACTED BERM FOUNDATION W I T H A CONCRETE R I N G WALL

OR ASPHALT PAD AS SHOWN ON STANDARD FORMEF-364.

1, A CONCRETE RING WALL PROVIDES THE GREATEST

ASSUgANCE OF MEETING ELEVATION TOLERANCES

AROUND THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE TANK,

2, ASPHALT PAVEMENT IS APPLIED TO THE TANK GRADE

TO MEET CONSTRUCTION GRADING TOLERANCES FOR

TANKS STORING STOCK UP TO 2500F. ITCAN


PREVENT WATER FROM MIGRATING UP THROUGH THE

FOUNDATION AND CORRODING THE TANK BOTTOFI,

ALTHOUGH EXPERIENCE SHOWS THAT WATER

EVENTUALLY MIGRATES THROUGH THE PAVEMENT, IT


DOES LIMIT THE FUTURE INSTALLATION OF

CATHODIC PROTECTION UNLESS THE PAVEMENT IS

REMOVED, (SEE CORROSION SECTION, )

SPECIFICATIONS AND APPLICATION PROCEDURES ARE

COVERED ON STANDARD FROM EF-364, PAVEMENT


SELECTION DEPENDS ON THE AVAILABILITY OF A

CENTRAL M I X I N G P L A N T AND THE FOLLOWING:

A GOOD FOUNDATION
TYPE H I - INTERMEDIATE
SOILS:
INCLUDES A STRUCTURAL BERM BUILT OF FIRM8 WELL-

COMPACTED8 SELECT SOILS OF SUFFICIENT THICKNESS TO

P R O V I D E NECESSARY SURCHARGE ON INTERMEDIATE S O I L AT

THE EDGE OF THE TANK, BERM HEIGHT SHOULD BE

ESTABLISHED BY SOIL INVESTIGATION OR FROM OTHER

EXPERIENCE IN THE AREA, THE BERM MUST PROVIDE

ADEQUATE H E I G H T TO KEEP THE TANK FROM S E T T L I N G TO AN

ELEVATION BELOW THE SURROUNDING GRADE, BERM


FOUNDATION D E S I G N S CAN I N C L U D E :
1 I A REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WALL

CONSTRUCTED UNDER THE S H E L L ,

2, A C O N F I N I N G R I N G WALL PLACED O U T S I D E THE

SHELL A D I S T A N C E OF AT L E A S T THE DEPTH

OF THE WALL, THIS WALL MAY BE

REINFORCED CONCRETE OR SHEET P I L I N G ,

TYPE 111 - POOR SOILS

1, POOR SOILS, IF NOT TOO THICK ABOVE FIRMER

SUBSO[LSt MAY BE EXCAVATED AND REPLACED W I T H

COMPACTED B A C K F I L L ,

2, IFP O O ~ SOILS ARE TOO DEEP TO BE REMOVED,

THEY MAY BE PRECONSOLIDATED TO P E R M I T L I M I T -

HEIGHT TANKAGE TO BE ERECTED, THE COST OF

PRECONSOLIDATED TECHNIQUES MAY APPROACH THE

COST OF P I L E SUPPORTED FOUNDATIONS,

3, AFTER A TANK IS ERECTED, UNDERLYING SOILS CAN

BE CONSOLIDATED THROUGH AN EXTENDED WATER

LOAD PROGRAM,
4 8 IFTANK LOADS AND SOIL CONDITIONS DO NOT

ECONOMICALLY PERMIT ANY OF THE PREVIOUSLY

MENTIONED A L T E R N A T I V E S , THEN A P I L E SUPPORTED

FOUNDATION MAY BE THE ONLY PRACTICAL

ALTERNATIVE,

1N ADDITION TO THE FOUNDATIONS PREVIOUSLY DISCUSSED,

CONCRETE SLABS ARE OCCASIONALLY USED FOR TANKS LESS

THAN 20' I N , DIAMETER,

CORROSION

CONTROL OF EXTERNAL CORROSION OF TANK BOTTOi4S SHOULD B E

CONSIDERED IN THE FOUNDIATION DESIGN, OTHERWISE, LEAKS

CAN RESULT IN AS LITTLE AS FIVE YEARS. FROM A


CORROSION S T A N D P O I N T # THERE ARE THREE P O S S I B L E DESIGNS,

LISTED IN ORDER OF DECREASING EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST

TANK BOTTOMSIDE CORROSION,

,SAND, GRAVEL, OR EARTH FILL IN CONJUNCTION WITH

C A T H O D I C PROTECTION
ONLY THE FIRST TWO OPTIONS A ~ ECONSIDERED ACCEPTABLE

FOR TANKS CONTAINING STOCKS WHICH ARE EITHER VALUABLE

OR MAY CAUSE C O N T A M I N A T I O N PROBLEMS I N THE EVENT OF A

LEAK ( E ,G , HYDROCARBONS, MOST CHEMICALS, ETC I 1,

BERM FOUNDATIONS PAVED WITH ASPHALT HAVE BEEN WIDELY

USED FOR O I L STORAGE TANKS I N THE P A S T , EXPERIENCE HAS

SHOWN THAT EVENTUALLY WATER PERMEATES THROUGH EVEN THE

BEST ASPHALT AND THAT BOTTOMSIDE CORROSION CONTINUES,

IN ADDITION, SUCH FOUNDATIONS CANNOT BE R E T R O F I T W I T H

CATHODIC PROTECTION BECAUSE THE ASPHALT IS A HIGH

R E S I S T A N C E B A R 2 I E R THAT I N S U L A T E S THE TANK BOTTOM FROM

A CATHODIC PROTECTION CURRENT, THEREFORE, ASPHALT


PAVEMENT AND O I L D R E S S I N G SHOULD GENERALLY B E A V O I D E D ,

THE TANK BOTTOM LIFE WITH THIS FOUNDATION TYPE HAS

A MEMBRANE PLACED BENEATH A TANK FOR LEAK DETECTION

SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED AS A BARRIER TO CORROSION,

WATER WILL USUALLY LEACH IN BETWEEN THE MEMBRANE AND

THE STEEL BOTTOM AND CAUSE CORROSION, SO CATHODIC

PROTECTION OR A CONCRETE PAD I S STILL REQUIRED, THE


LIFE EXPECTANCY OF A TANK BOTTOM ON A FOUNDATION OF

SANDS AND CATHODIC PROTECTION IS EXPECTED TO BE 30


YEARS OR MORE,
INTHE PAST* TANKS WERE B U I L T ON ROCK* SAWD OR CORAL

FOUNDATIONS WITHOUT CATHODIC PROTECTION, NATER IS

DRAWN UP BY CAPILLARY ACTION UNDER THE TANK THROUGH

THESE FOUNDATIONS, ESPECIALLY SAND, AND CAUSES SEVERE

TANK BOTTOM CORROSION, THEREFORE* A TANK SHOULD BE

BUILT ON ONE OF THREE FOUI\IDATIONS LISTED 014' THE

P R E V I O U S PAGE,

A MORE D E T A I L E D D I S C U S S I O N OF THE CAUSES AND CONTROL OF

, TANK BOTTOM CORROSION IS FOUND IN SECTION 242 OF THE

COR~OSION PREVENTION MANUAL,

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

TANK FOUNDATIONS ARE DESIGNED TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER IN

ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE AREAS AND WHERE STORED

SUBSTANCES ARE A HAZARD TO THE ENVIRONMENT, DEPENDING


ON THE TANK'S GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL,

VARIOUS' DESIGN SCHEMES MAY BE USED A S SHOWN IN STANDARD


DRAWING GF-S1121 THE PARAMETESS AFFECTING THIS DESIGN

CHOICE I N C L U D E :

,HOW HAZARDOUS IS THE STORED HATERIAL?

,HOW DEEP I S THE WATER T A B L E AND WHAT TYPES OF S O I L

A ~ EBETWEEN THE TANK AND THE WATER TABLE?

lWHAT IS THE QUALITY OF THE E X I S T I N G WATEP SOURCE

BELOW THE SITE?


DESIGNS SHALL EMPHASIZE STRUCTURAL INTEG!?I T Y , EARLY

WARNING, AND CONTAINMENT TO ASSURE PROMPT RESPONSE TO A

LEAK 1

THE STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF A TANK CAN BE MAINTAINED BY

PROVIDING A GOOD FOUNDATION AND A NON-CORROSIVE

ENVIRONMENT, TANK BOTTOMS CAN BE PROTECTED FROM

CORROSION BY US ING CATHODIC PROTECTION AND/OR COATINGS

BOTH INTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY SEE THE CORROSION


. PREVENTION MANUAL SECTION 423 AND THE COATINGS MANUAL
FOR FURTHER DISCUSSIONS OM CATHODIC PROTECTION OR

COAT INGS ,

EARLY WARNING THROUGH V I S U A L D E T E C T I O N I S PREFERRED,


INSTRUMENT DETECTION IS ACCEPTABLE WHERE VISUAL

D E T E C T I O N I S NOT F E A S I B L E , DETECTION I S P R O V I D E D BY
ROUTING LEAKS FROM BETWEEN THE TANK BOTTOM AND AM

IMPERVIOUS LINER TO THE PERIMETER OF THE TANK (SEE GF-


S11211,

PARTIAL IMPERVIOUS COMTAI NMENT SERVES TO PREVENT

UNDERSIDE LEAKS FROM PERCOLATING INTO THE SOIL,

GENERALLY IN THE FORM OF A MEMBRANE LINER UNDER THE

TANK TH I S CONTA INMEIVT INSURES THAT STOCK WILL NOT

REACH GROUNDWATER, A PARTIAL CONTAINMENT, WHERE A

PERCENTAGE OF THE STOCK I S CONTAINED, I S S U F F I C I E N T TO

HOLD L E A K S U N T I L DETECTED,
STANDARD DRAWING GF-Sl121 SHOWS DETAILS OF SECONDARY

CONTAINMENT AND LEAK DETECTION SYSTEMS FOR VARIOUS

FOUMDATIOH D E S I G N SCHEMES,

APPURTENANCES

STANDARD DRAW1 NGS 6B-S78%6 AND 6c-978677 SHOW TYP IC A L

DETAILS OF CATCH BASINS AND BOTTOM, OUTLET STRUCTURES

WHICH MUST BE CONSIDERED AS PART OF THE TANK FOUf4DATION

DESIGN, INAREAS SUBJECT TO EARTHQUAKE, EVERY BOTTOM

APPURTENANCE SHOULD B E PROTECTED B Y A CATCH BASINl OR

CONCRETE BOX P E W STANDARD DRAWING GC-Q1075, TH Is w ILL


PERMIT MOVEMENT OF THE TANK RELATIVE TO THE EARTH

WITHOUT SHEARING OFF A BOTTOM CONNECTION,

ADDITIONAL INFORMABION

API-650 APPENDIX B PROVIDES A "RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR

CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATIONS FOR API VERTICAL


CYLINDRICAL OIL-STORAGE BANKS, N
BHIS RECOMMENDED
PRACTICE DOES NOT CONFORM IN ALL ASPECTS TO OUR

P R A C T I C E S AND SHOULD BE USED AS A G U I D E ONLY,


TANK MANUAL LOCATION, FOUNDATIONS AND CONNECTING LINES

10 20 30 40 50 60
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT (INCHES)
(CENTER SETTLEMENT MINUS EDGE SETTLEMENT)

1. These curves are based on an analysis of stresses in a flexible circular steel membrane resting
on a yielding foundation and on settlement data for tanks at Pascagoula, Miss. ranging from
69 feet t o 156 feet in diameter. Curves are based on the assumption that the differential
settlement decreases in proportion t o the cube of the distance from the center toward the
edge. Maximum tangential compression at the shell-bottom joint is limited t o 18,000 psi
resulting in a safety factor against failure of at least 1.67. The curves are a plot of the
equation:

A
--
-
s + ds2+o.46i
D 4
in which: A = Maximum Permissible Differential Settlement (in.)
D = Tank Diameter (Ft.)
5 = Initial Bottom Slope (in./Ft.) - Positive when initially coned up.

2. Tank bottoms initiallyconed up will buckle when a moderate amount of differential


settlement has occurred. Such buckling is harmless providing initial slope is not excessive.
Maximum recommended upward slope for tankssubject t o settlement i s 112 in./ft.

3. See paragraph on "Maximum Permissible Tank Bottom Settlement" this section for other
considerations where large settlement is anticipated.

FIGURE 1
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE TANK BOTTOM SETI'LEMENT
TANK MANUAL LOCATION, FOUNDATIONS AND CONNECTING LINES

OR SAND-CLAY-SILT MIXTURES) ORGANIC SOILS)


NOTICEABLE SETTLEMENT 0 LARGE SETTLEMENT
LITTLE SETTLEMENT FAIR DRAINAGE POOR DRAINAGE

PILE SUPPORTED M A T
FOUNDATION

CORROSION PREVENTION- LOAD PROGRAM REFERENCE: EF-421


FOUNDATION
OESIGN REMOVE POOR SOIL

CONCRETE SPACER
SECONDARY
0 LEAK DETECTION PIPING AT LEAK DETECTION-GROOVES
CONTAINMENT &
TANK PERIMETER CUT IN CONCRETE

FIGURE 2
TANK FOUNDATION DESIGN GUIDE
TANK MANUAL LOCATION, FOUNDATIONS AND CONNECTING LINES

* Parabolic

* Parabolic

Tank bottom plates can be placed in an exaggerated cone-up


configuration t o compensate for differential settlement. The tank
bottom layout shown above was specific for site conditions at the
Pascagoula Refinery. This curve is the maximum recommended; steeper
slopes may cause the bottom plate t o crease.

Thisdesign can be applied t o other sites where differential settlement is


anticipated. The parabolic portion of the tank bottom layout is defined
by considering soil conditions, tank diameter and tank height. Consult
with a soils specialist or the Corporation Engineering Department's Civil
and Structural Division for assistance.

FIGURE 3
CONE-UP TANK BOTTOM - PASCAGOULA REFINERY
A I B I C I D
I CONSTRUCTION NOTES 1
Cl. ) I O T O l T l O U A L L COIICRETE TO G I V E A S T R E l l G l l l 0 1 3 0 0 0 L 8 S . P t l
SUUPEI u t c n III 18 o * r s .

CARE S H A L L I f T A M N TO A C l l l E V E F U L L O E S l U l COIIPACTIOII Of
S O I L I E H E A T H THC C W C R E T E MI.

Cl. WllEH THE COHCRETE 8 0 1 I S I H S T A L t E D W I T H R C ~ I N C R ~ T ER l l l G


WALL. THE RIIIC YNL IEIHFORCIIIG S T L E ~ SHALL BE 8 E n r /UID I I ~ D
Ill 11) THE 8 O I R E I I I F O R C I W G STEEL. THE BARS SIIALL BE LAPPED
1 4 D I A H E T t R S O f T l l E L A R G E 5 1 8111.

Cb. TME BOTTOH SUMP 11157 8 E P O S I T I O I I E D BEFORE P L A C I I I G T l l t T W K


SUPPORT B E M S . S i t STNIDARO ORAYIIIG CL-DIO74.

Typl'cal W;ny WON

See no+= C - 3

Top o f concre#e s h / /
hare s m o o t h f i h i ~ band
urea uoder t'onk s h o N
be coo/ad wifh Chcvron

''-see note C - 2
-- - - .- - --

SECT. A r REFERENCE D R A W I N G S
Sfondurd i b c k Boffom Sump
- - -- - -- -

GC-Of074
1

O I H G 1)) P I
~ l w...
n-t p.l ..-. i.
.in
--
o A T E I ~ . )A.Pl P n o v t o

,.,.,,a,
i t
. .-. ... .
I 16
I I'
,.,",.S
~

," ,,
---

..
STANDARD COIJCRETE BOX
FOR T A N K B O T T O M S U M P S

7GC -
.

. . ... .- .
. -
--.... ..-A.

-- Q. 1075 - I
- . ..
\irnOi~n-iiRiwiir~
1
X I I, CONNECTING LINES

A, PURPOSE AND SCOPE

THIS SECTION DEFINES THE NEED FOR FLEXIBILITY AND

O U T L I N E S METHODS FOR PROVIDING IT I N CONNECTING L I N E S

WITHOUT THE USE OF SPECIAL JOINTS IS EMPHASIZED AND

PREFERRED,

B, REQUIREMENTS FOR FLEXIBILITY

PIPING FLEXIBILITY PROVIDES FOR RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN

TANKS AND L I M E S CAUSED B Y :

21 THERMAL EXPANSION DUE TO SOLAR HEAT. HEATED

PRODUCT OR STEAMING-OUT DURING CLEANING,

INS E I S M I C AREAS. WHERE PIPING AND CONNECTIONS HAVE

BEEN D E S I G N E D FOR SETTLEMENT 04 THERMAL EXPANSION, NO

ADDITIONAL PROTECTION AGAINST EARTHQUAKE MOTION IS

NECESSARY,
METHODS FOR PROVIDING FLEXIBILITY

D, P I P I N G BENDS

ADEQUATE PIPING FLEXIBILITY AT TANKS USUALLY CAN BE

PROVIDED BY A CAREFULLY PLANNED P I P I N G LAYOUT WITHOUT

FLEXIBLE JOINTS, TABLE I t ATTACHED, SNOWS A TYPICAL

LAYOUT OF PIPING THAT WILL PROVIDE ADEQUATE

FLEXIBILITY.

FOR SPECIAL DESIGN PROBLEMS, REFER TO CORPORATION


ENGINEERING DESIGN PRACTICES L-134-9 AND 10, "DESIGN OF

PIPING FOR FLEXIBILITY, I1

El VALVES AND FITTINGS

THE FOLLOWING CONSIDERATIOWS AFFECT A FLEXIBILITY CHECK

ON ANY P I P I N G SYSTEM.

FLANGED VALVES - FLANGEDSTEEL VALVES NORMALLY ARE

PROVIDED AT TANKS, ~NFORTUNATELY, THE ALLOWABLE


BENDING MOMENT FOR A FLANGE HAS NOT BEEN ACCURATELY

DEFINED, PARTICULARLY THE LIMITS WITHIN WHICH THE

FLANGE MAS MOT BEEN ACCURATELY DEFINED, PARTICULARLY

THE L I M I T S W I T H I N WHICH THE FLANGE WlLL BE REASONABLY

TIGHT, HOWEVER, THE ATTACHED TABLE 2 INCLUDES WHAT ARE

CONSIDERED TO BE CONSERVATIVE ALLOWABLE BENDING MOMENTS

FOR FLANGES AND FOR OTHER P I P E F I T T I N G S ,

FLANGEBOLTS - ASTM 8-193, G ~ A D E B-7, (SAE 4140) ALLOY

. BOLTS ARE RECOIFSMENQED FOR MAKING UP FLANGES AT THE TANK

AND FOR A L L STEEL F I T T I N G S ADJACENT TO THE TANKS THAT

ARE EXPECTED TO CARRYING BENDING MOMENT,

FLANGEGASKETS - CORRECT GASKET INSTALLATION AT FLANGE

CONNECTIONS I S E S P E C I A L L Y IMPORTANT WHERE THE FLANGE I S

SUBJECT TO BENDING LOADS,

WELD NECK FLANGES- THESE FLANGES ARE PREFERRED OVER

SLIP-ON FLANGES I N FLEXIBLE P I P I N G INSTALLATIONS SINCE

WELD NECK FLANGES HAVE GREATER BENDING STRENGTH,

REDUCED SIZE VALVES - REDUCED SIZE VALVES CAN BE USED

I N A P I P I N G SYSTEM I F THE BENDING MOMENTS ON THE SYSTEM

AT THE VALVES ARE WITHIN PERMISSIBLE LIMITS OF THE -.

VALVE FLANGES USED, VOID U S I N G REDUCED S I Z E VALVES I N

10 I N , AND SMALLER L I N E S I Z E S ,
ELBOW AND TEE FITTINGS - VHEN DESIGNING LINES FOR

FLEXIBILITY, USE FORGED S T E E L F I T T I N G S I N S T E A D OF F I E L D

FABRICATED TEES OR MITERED ELBOWS, PARTICULARLY IN


-
LARGER P I P E S I Z E S ,

PIPE SUPPORTS - SUPPORTS FOR PIPING WITHIN THE FIRST h


BEND FROH A TANK SHOULD BE ADJUSTABLE IN HEIGHT '86
ALLOW FOR SETTLEPIENT, IF SETTLEMENT APPEARS TO BE A

POSSIBILITY,

F, FLEXIBLE JOINTS

WHERE IT IS IMPRACTICAL OR UNECONOMICAL TO PWOVIQE

FLEXIBILITY TO P I P I N G LAYOUT, IT NAY BE NECESSARY TO

USE SOME TYPE OF F L E X I B L E J O I N T S OR F L E X I B L E HOSE,

BALL JOINTS- UNIVERSAL BALL JOINTS (E~G,. BARCO) ARE


MANUFACTURED I N S I Z E S UP TO 12 INm THEY HAVE GREATER

R E S I S T A N C E TO F I R E THAN OTHER F L E X I B L E TYPE J O I N T S ,

ROTATIONAL OR LAP JOINTFLANGES- VAN STONE FLANGES AWE

NOT CONSTRUCTED TO RESIST T14RUSB8 B U T ARE ADAPTED 10


MEET SETTLEHENB MOVEMENT BY R O T A T I O N ,

A LAP JOINT FLANGE USING GALVANIZED SHEETS EITHER

WRAPPED WITH TEFLON TAPE OR SPRAYEL WITH A TEFLON


COATING (SEE DRAWING 6E-135177) HAS BEEN APPLIED

SUCCESSFULLY IN PASCAGOULA REF PNERY TANK FIELD PIPING,


GASKET COUPLINGS - GASKET COUPLINGS (E~G., DRESSER AND
VICTAULIC) PROVIDE A METHOD FOR JOINING PIPE TOGETHER

WITHOUT WELDING* THESE JOINTS HAVE FAILED UNDER FIRE


EXPOSURE AND HAVE DUHPED A P P R E C I A B L E AMOUNTS OF FUEL,
RESULTING I N SPREADING THE F I R E AND SOMETIIjiES COPaPLEf E

LOSS OF TANK CONTENTS,

FOR T H I S QEASON, A V O I D T H E I R USE FOR L I N E S ADJACENT TO

TANKS,

BELLOWSEXPAMSIOP~ JOINTS- BELLOWSEXPANS ION JOINTS CAN

BE MADE I N A L L S I Z E S AND HAVE SOME ADVANTAGE OVER THE

GASKET TYPE I N THAT NO P A C K I N G I S REQUIRED,

G, FLEXIBLE METAL HOSE

AT LEAST ONE OIL COFIPANY HAS CONDUCTED LIMITED FIELD

F I R E TESTS ON SMALL DIAMETER F L E X I B L E METAL HOSE,

METAL HOSE SELECTIONS OFFER THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES

OVER THE F L E X I B L E TYPE J O I N T :

1) METAL HOSE ABS@WBS END LOADING AND DOES NOT

REQUIRE S P E C I A L T I E RODS AND ANCHORS NECESSARY FOR

FLEXIBLE JOINTS,
2) A SINGLE klETAL HOSE CAN ABSORB THREE-DIMENSIONAL

MOVEMENT, ON THE OTHER HAND, BELLOWS AND F L E X I B L E

JOINTS CANNOT HANDLE LATERAL DISPLACEMENT UNLESS

USED IN SERIES WITH A STRAIGHT SECTION OF PIPE

BETWEEN W P A I R OF THE J O I N T S ,

3) METAL HOSE COSTS LESS THAN A COMPARABLE BELLOWS OR

B A L L J O I N T F L E X I B I L I T Y SYSTEM,

HI FLEXIBLE RUBBER HOSE

WHERE LARGE R E L A T I V E MOVEMENTS OF TANKS AND L I N E S ARE

ANTICIPATED, REINFOQCED AND ASBESTOS WRAPPED RUBBER

(CARGO) HOSE CAN P R O V I ~ E D NEEDED FLEXIBILITY.


03
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CCT 1967 (Mar 1962 ~eissued) 430-5

-- --
7
TANK DATA 800K
TABLE 2

ALLOWABLE BEND l NG MOMENTS


FOR P I P E AND F I T T I N G S

I P I P E 1, M O M E N T -8". K ~ PI NCHES
SIZE THICK
NOM. INCHES PIPE ( I ) 1 WELD l NG
ELBOW (2) 1 WELDING
TEE (2) 1 FIELD FABR.
TEE (2)
STEEL CAST I RON
FLANGE (3) FLAHOE ( 4 ) 1

NOTES
I. Pipe assumed to be A-83, A-53A with a1 lowabl e stress of 16,QOQ psi normal
or W,000 psi bending with line cold and at low pressure.
2. Allowable bending stress equal to 40,008 psi. Appropriate concentration
factors have been used in accordance with Part 5, Page 96 of ASA B 31.3 -
1959 Ref inary.Pi ping Code.
3. Allowable bending on flange calculated from 1959 ASME Boiler Code, Section
8, Appendix II. 1/16 inch asbestos gasket used.
4. Allowable bending in cast iron valve = 6 0 ( ~+3)= where D = pipe O.D. in
i nches.

OCT 1967 ( ~ a r1562 Reissced)


NOT.: defo,/ /> io be !

u s e d on/v when r ~ f u / / m
.I'

igo j o / n f /on o e 1s e a p e c i e d i o occur


i ocoimn 8' /n one d / r e c t / o / t ,s u c h
1 u/+h h e k ~e/f/emeni;
/f musf no? 3e u s e d
I rvhrre cyc//c m o f l o n
W I / / joke p h c e .
Ir'

iocof/on A

I 1 1 1 1

STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA SCALE DA T


~QUDOFEM~~HEEB D R A ~CH DR.APP ENG
EnelnnRlne DEtlrRrvrnr 'lrM FRAmtscoOPRB. DEPT.
r / , 1,

T
/ vP/CAL / N S ~ A L L A T / O N /LOR EIB. DEPT.
L A P J O I N J RANd S
/NJANK JIELD /P/A/G 3
XIII , TANK MA1NTENANCE

A, SCOPE

THIS SECTION SUMHARIZES MAINTENANCE PRACTICES OF


VARIOUS OPERATING ORGANIZATIONS AND IS INTENDED TO BE
USED AS A GUIDE, LOCAL CONDITIONS AND EXPERIENCE
INFLUENCE THE PROCEDURES USED IN MAINTENANCE WORK,

PROCEDURES FOR CLEANING PETROLEUM STORAGE TANKS VARY


DEPENDING ON LIKELIHOOD FOR ACCIDENT AND FIRE, AND
OTHER FACTORS, DIFFERENTCOMPANY ORGANIZATIONS HAVE
PREPARED GUIDING PRACTICES AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR
VENTILATING AND CLEANIdG TANKS, SOME OF WHICH ARE
LISTED BELOW,
4, MARKETING DEPARTMENT, CHEVRON U .S ,A,, OPERATIONS
STANDARD, SECTION IX, PART D, "TANK CLEANING
I/
INSTRUCTIONS,

#HEN SHELL DOOR SHEETS OR ROOF WINDOWS ARE OUT IN

TANKS FOR LARGE EQUIPMENT ACCESS, ESTABLISHED SAFETY

PROCEDURES SHOULD BE FOLLOWED FOR HOT WORK, QUALIFIED *-

WELDING PROCEDURES USED FOR THE M A T E 8 I A L INVOLVED AND

CORNERS AT THE REPLACEMENT PLATES ROUNDED TO A RADIUS

EQUAL TO 5 TO 10 TIMES THE PLATE THICKNESS TO REDUCE


STRESS CONCENTRATIONS,

C, SHELL

TANKS CONTAINING CRUDES AND REFINED OILS HEAVY ENOUGH

TO M A I N T A I N A P R O T E C T I V E F I L M SELDOM SHOW A P P R E C I A B L E

SHELL CORROSIOM BELOW THE TOP OIL WORKING HEIGHT8

EXCEPT ON THE BOTTOM COURSE, LIGHT REFINED OIL AND

PETROCHEMICAL TANKS# IN CONTRAST8 MAY SUFFER FWOH

GENERAL CORROSION OVER THE E N T I R E I N T E R I O R SURFACES.

NHEN AFTER RIMTERHAL INSPECTION8 EXCESSIVE CORROSIOM

I S SUSPECTED8 GAUGINGS OF SHELL THICKNESS SHOULD B E

TAKEN TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF CORROSION ON THE

SHELL,

1, "TANK LIFE AND OPERATING LIMITS~" WRITTEN FOR


THE IBM 360/65 SYSTEM AND AVAILABLE THROUGH THE

CORPORATION ENGINEER ING DEPARTHENT COMPUTER .-

STAFF, AND
2, "TKSTR," WRITTEN FOR THE COP~PANY VP/CSS SYSTEH

AND AVA ILABLE THROUGH W,OIIl PIPELINE


DEPARTMENT,

AND RETIRING TANKS, ITALLOWS HIGHER CONDEMNING

'STRESSES FOR MOST WELDED TANKS BUILT FROM 1949 ON DUE

TO THE INCORPORATION OF IMPROVED MATERIALS, BETTER

FABRICATION DETAILS, INCREASED WELD INSPECTION, AND

BETTER WELDING, FOR DETAILS REFER TO THE TANK


MANUAL,

INTERVAL
BETWEEN INSPECTIONS DEPENDS LARGELY UPON THE

PRODUCT HANDLED AND THE CORROSION HISTORY OF THE TANK

AND MAY VARY FROM ONE OR TWO YEARS TO TEN OR HORE

YEARS. WHERE A NUMBER OF TANKS ARE IN IDENTICAL

SERVICE, RANDOM INSPECTIONS MAY BE MADE OF SINGLE

TANKS AT APPROPRIATE INTERVALS TO ESTABLISH THE

CORROSION PATTERN OF THE GROUP PROVIDED THERE IS -.

EVIDENCE THAT THE TANKS ARE NOT APPROACHING THE END

OF T H E I R SAFE OPERATING L I F E ,
AFTER A TANK HAS BEEN CLEANED, EACH COURSE OF THE

S H E L L SHOULD BE I N S P E C T E D AT L E A S T AT QUARTER P O I N T S #

MORE IF BADLY C O R ~ O D E D, CORROSION SOMET IMES VARIES

BETWEEN SHADY AND SUNNY S I D E S ,

NOH-DESTRUCT IVE TEST METHODS ARE BECOMING MORE

R E F I N E D AND ACCURATE AND ARE G A I N I N G WIDESPREAD USE.

THESE METHODS I N C L U D E ULTRASONICS, V I SUAL I N S P E C T I O N ,

EDDY CURRENT DEVICES, AND RADIOGRAPHY# AND ARE

DESCRIBED IN SECTION 215 OF THE CORROSION PREVENTION


MANUAL,

THE METHOD ALMOST UNIVERSALLY USED TO GAGE THE METAL

THICKNESS IS ULTRASONICS, HOWEVER, WHEN THE

CORROSIVE CONDITION OF THE SHELL I S VERY SEVERE, A

MEANINGFUL ULTRASONIC READING I S D I F F I C U L T TO O B T A I N

AND A I N T E R N A L TANK I N S P E C T I O N I S NECESSARY.

WITH THE INCREASED USE OF ULTRASONICS TO DETERMINE _

WALL T H I C K N E S S E S I N E X I S T I N G TANKS, PLATE LAMINATIONS

AND CLUSTERED I N C L U S I O N S ARE B E I N G DETECTED W I T H SOME

FREQUENCY,
UPON DETECT ION OF QUEST IONABLE AREAS WITH ULTRASONIC

INSTRUMENTS, THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURE I S RECOMMENDED:

2, WHEN THE TANK CAM BE ENTERED, THE SUSPECT AREA

SHOULD BE MAPPED FROM THE INSIDE AND VISUALLY

INSPECTED,

-3, IFCONCERN EXISTS AFTER STEP 2, OR AFTER STEP 1


AND IT IS NOT CONVENIENT TO TAKE STEP 2,
OBTAINING MORE EXPER IENCED CONSLILTAT I O N IS

RECOMMENDED a

FOR A RIVETED TANK WITH A FEW OR MANY YEARS OF

SATISFACTORY SERVICE6 IF THE INDICATIONS CAN BE

REASONABLY PROVEN TO BE LAMINATIONS GENERALLY

PARALLEL TO THE PLANE OF THE PLATE, ANY CORRECTIVE

A C T I O N OR DERATIWG I S NOT RECOMMENDED UNLESS:

A, THERE WAS AN UNUSUALLY HIGH RISK ASSOCIATED WITH

THE L O C A T I O N ,

C, THE TANK WAS EXPERIENCING HYDROGEN BLISTERING OR


WAS IN AN ACID OR SOUR WATER SERVICE WHERE
HYDROGEN B L I S T E R S WOULD BE EXPECTED,

1. API GUIDE FOR INSPECTION


OF REFINERY EQUIPMENT,

CHAPTER X I II ATMOSPHERIC AND LOW PRESSURE


STOWAGE TANKS,

4. PIPE LINE DEPARTMENT, WESTERN OPERATIONS, INC, r


STANDARD No, 5,231,6, "TANK INSPECTION, PI
D, BOTTOMS

~NABILITY TO I N S P E C T TANK BOTTOMS I N S E R V I C E MAKES I T

ALMOST I M P O S S I B L E TO P R E D I C T THE AMOUIVT AND NATURE OF

MAINTENANCE WORK REQUIRED, BOTH INTERNAL AND

EXTERNAL CORROSION OF TANK BOTTOMS U S U A L L Y RESULT IH

P I T T I N G RATHER THAN GENERAL SURFACE CORROSION,

SINCE THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF A TANK BOTTOM IS TO

RETAIN TANK CONTENTS, THE ECONOMIC CRITERIA THAT

O R D I N A R I L Y GOVERN FOR UNIFORM CORROSION DO NOT APPLY

FOR BOTTOM PITTING, FOR EXAMPLE, A TANK ROOF MAY

STILL BE QUITE SERVICEABLE EVEN WHEN 50% OF THE

O R I G I N A L METAL HAS BEEN L O S T BY CORROSION BECAUSE THE

METAL LOSS IS EVENLY DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT AND NO

LOCALIZED PITTING OR HOLES HAVE OCCURRED IN THE

COVERING, IN
CONTRAST, A TANK BOTTOM WHICH HAS L O S T

L I T T L E AS 5% OF I T S O R I G I N A L METAL MAY B E USELESS AND

REQUIRE E X T E N S I V E R E P A I R OR REPLACEMENT,

-.
FOR YOUR INFORMATION, ATTACHED TO THIS SECTION IS A

COPY OF API PETROLEUM SAFETY DATA SHEET PDS-2207,


PREPARING TANK BOTTOMSFOR HOT WORK,
TANK BOTTOMS, EXCEPT IN THE VICINITY OF THEI~
-
ATTACHMENT TO THE SHELL, ARE ALMOST UNSTRESSED D U R I N G

NORMAL OPERATIONS OF THE TANK, THIS DISCUSSION IS

CONFINED TO TANKS HAVING AN INITIAL 1/4-INCH STEEL

BOTTOM AND MAY NOT NECESSARILY BE APPLICABLE 60

T H I N N E R BOTTOMS USED I N BOLTED AND G A L V A N I Z E D TANKS,

LOSS RECORDS, FIRST VISUAL EVIDENCE GENERALLY

C O N S I S T S OF LEAKAGE WHICH SHOWS UP OW THE TANK GRADE,

SOMETIMES ACTIVE LEAKS MAY BE CONTROLLED TEMPBRAR ILY

BY PLACING CLAY, DI4Tt MUD OR SIMILAR MATERIAL

THROUGH THE RGOF I N THE GENERAL AREA I N D I C A T E D B Y THE

L E A K # OR B Y M A I N T A I N I N G A WATER BOTTOM,

TANK BOTTOMS SHOULD BE CLEANED ONLY TO THE EXTENT

NECESSARY FOR INSPECTION, HAMMER TESTING BY AN -.

E X P E R I E N C E D INSPECTOR I S AN A I D I N L O C A T I N G P I T S AND

THIN SPOTS AT BOTH TOP AND UNDERSIDE OF THE BOTTOM

PLATE, ALTHOUGH UNDOUBTEDLY BETTER RESULTS ARE


O B T A I N E D WHEN U S I N G ULTRASONIC EQUIPMENT,

SNALL LEAKS OFTEN ARE DIFFICULT TO LOCATE^ ONE


METHOD I S TO USE A VACUUM BOX W I T H A SOLUTION FOR THE
-

DETECTION OF AIR BUBBLES, ANOTHER METHOD USED

SUCCESSFULLY FOR R E L A T I V E L Y SMALL TANKS I S TO APPLY


AIR PRESSURE UNDER THE TANK BOTTOM AFTER CAULKIMG

AROUND THE PERIPHERY OF THE TANK BETWEEN THE

BOTTOMPLATE AND THE TANK'S FOUNDATION, WITH A SMALL

AMOUNT OF WATER INSIDE, LEAKS ARE LOCATED E A S I L Y AS

THE A I R BUBBLES THROUGH,

WHEN A BOTTOM REPAIR IS INDICATED AS A RESULT OF

I N T E R N A L CORROSION. IT MAY BE PERTINENT TO KNOW AT

THE SAME TIME WHETHER THEliE IS ANY EXTERNAL

CORROSION, HOWEVER, IN THIS CASE - INSTEAD OF HAMMER

TESTING - IT I S RECOMMENDED TO CUT HOLES TO INSPECT

THE UNDERSIDE, WHEREBY IT IS DESIRABLE THAT THE

OPENIHGS BE LARGE ENOUGH TO ACCOMMODATE PLACEMENT OF

A FOOT JACK UNDER THE BOTTOM, THIS WILL ALLOW THE

BOTTOM TO BE R A I S E D AND INSPECTED UNDERNEATH W I T H A

F L A S H L I G H T FOR SOME DISTANCE,

THE USE OF ULTRASONIC EQUIPMENT WOULD INDICATE MORE

ACCURATELY WHERE AND TO WHAT EXTENT REPAIRS ARE

REQU IRED
BEFORE BOTTOM REPAIR IS UNDERTAKEN USING PLASTIC,
-
CONCRETE, OW OTHER COATINGS, OVER OLD BOTTOMS,

STRUCTURAL SOUNDNESS AND LIQUID TIGHTNESS OF THE

SHELL-TO-BOTTOM CONNECTION SHOULD BE DETERMINED BY

CAREFUL I N S P E C T I O N ,

GALVANIC ACTION BETWEEN THE MILL SCALE AND BASE STEEL

ACCELERATES CORROSION OF THE UPPER SURFACE, THIS IS

CHARACTERIZED BY N ~ OF THE
~ WELDS ~ OR AREAS
~ OF ~

PLATES WHERE THE MILL SCALE HAS COME LOOSE, HHERE


THIS CONDITION OCCURS, GALVANIC CORROSION MAY BE

ARRESTED B Y S A N D B L A S T I N G TO REMOVE THE M I L L SCALE,

THE PRESENT AVAILABILITY OF A WIDE VARIETY OF

ACCEPTABLE PLASTIC COATINGS THAT CAN BE APPLIED AT

LOW COST HAS MADE THE USE OF WELDING TO REPAIR

DEFECTS L E S S ECONOMICALLY A T T R A C T I V E THAN HERETOFORE.

-.
WHERE THE REPAIR OF DEFECTS BY WELDING HAS BEEN

DETERMINED TO BE THE PROPER REPAIR METHOD THE

FOLLOWING CRITERIA FOR MAKING THE REPAIR ARE

SUGGESTED:
A, SPOT WELD PITS HALF WAY OR MORE THROUGH THE
-
P L A T E I F THE P I T I S NOT GREATER THAN 1 INCH

I N DIAMETER AND SURROUNDED B Y S U B S T A N T I A L L Y

F U L L THICKNESS MATERIAL,

B, PATCH PITTED AREAS 09 LARGER THAN 1 INCH

DIAMETER WITH PIECES OF 1/4 INCH PLATE FULL

F I L L E T WELDED A L L AROUND,

2, FOR REPAIRING DEFECTS DUE TO UNDERSIDE

CORROSION:

A, PLUG HOLES MHICH ARE WEEPING STOCK BACK

I N T O THE TANK FROM UNDER THE BOTTOM,

8, REPAIR HOLES B Y WELDING ON LARGE PATCHES,

NEVER SPOT WELD SUCH HOLES,

C, SEVERAL HOLES IN THE SAME VICINITY INDICATE

A BADLY CORRODED AREA. COVER THE ENTIRE

AREA WITH A LARGE PATCH RATHER THAN A

NUMBER OF SMALLER PATCHESl -..

D, IN
WELDING OM PATCHES, WELDERS SHOULD C A L L

A T T E N T I O N TO A L L P L A C E S WHICH BURN THROUGH


ON ACCOUNT OF THIN PLATE, THE PATCH IS NOT

LARGE ENOUGH AND SHOULD BE EXTENDED,

WHEN CORROSION AND/OR PITTING OF THE TANK BOTTOH

IS SEVERE OR WIDESPREAD ENOUGH TO MAKE R E P A I R S

B Y WELDING UNECONOMICAL THERE ARE A VARIETY OF

OTHER HETHODS FOR EFFECTING A MAJOR REPAIR, THE


THREE P R I N C I P A L METHODS ARE: [ N S T A L L A NEW S T E E L

BOTTBr4, LINE THE BOTTOM WITH A FIBERGLASS

REINFORCED PLASTIC COATING AND, APPLY AN

UNREINFORCED P L A S T I C C O A T I N G ,

FIG, 500-1 PRESENTS THE COMPARATIVE COST OF

THREE METHODS MENTIONED ABOVE AND WAS COMPILED

FROM 1965-1972 COMPANY-WIDE EXPERIENCE.

GENERALLY THE REPLACEMENT BOTTOMS HAVE BEEN LAID

OVER AN O I L - S A N D P A D COVERING THE OLD BOTTOM;

SKETCH P L A T E S ARE S L I D THROUGH A SLOT CUT I N THE

SHELL, I F THIS I S DONE IN THE PROPER SEQUENCE, -*

J A C K I N G OF THE TANK S H E L L I S UNNECESSARY,


BOTH CUTBACK ASPHALT AND HEAVY FUEL OIL HAVE

BEEN us:a FOR OILING THE SAND PAD, CARE MUST BE

TAKEN A T A L L T I M E S TO B E SURE THE TANK I S SAFE

FOR WELD1 NG ,

THE NEW BOTTOM IS CONTINUOUSLY WELDED TO THE

SHELL. U S I N G GENEROUS F I L L E T WELDS ON THE TOPI

INTERMITTENT
FILLET WELDS FOR STRENGTH ARE MADE

BETWEEN THE NEW BOTTOM AND THE LOWER PART OF THE

OLD SHELL (SEE SKETCH NO, 11,

SUCH A REPLACEMENT BOTTOM CANNOT BE CATHODICALLY

PROTECTED, BECAUSE THE OLD BOTTOM WILL SHIELD

THE NEW BOTTOM FROM THE P R O T E C T I V E CURRENT,

MEW STEEL (HENCE THE BOTTOM) WILL NORMALLY BE

ANODIC TO OLD STEEL (SHELL), IFTHE TANK

C O N T A I N S A BOTTOM LAYER OF CORROSIVE WATER, THIS

MEANS THE NEW BOTTOM MAY BE I N C L i N E D TO CORRODE

FASTER THAN THE PREVIOUS ONE, UNDERSIDE


CORROSION OF NEW BOTTOMS HAS NOT USUALLY BEEN A

PUOBLEH, PROBABLY BECAUSE OF THE HIGH


R E S I S T I V I T Y OF THE O I L - S A N D LAYER,
1, API RP-12H "RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR
INSTALLATION OF NEW BOTTOMS I N OLD STORAGE -

TANKS"

IN MOST INSTANCES, IT IS SIGNIFICANTLY LESS


COSTLY THAN A NEW STEEL BOTTOM, CO~PANY
EXPERIENCE AND THE AVAILABILITY OF MANY
COMPETENT APPLICATION CONTRACTORS MAKE THIS A
PROVEN AND SATISFACTORY REPAIR METHOD,

APPENDIX B OUTLINES IN DETAILS THE EQUIPMENT*


MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES THAT HAVE BEEN FOUND BY
WESTERN QPERATHBP~STO PRODUCE A SATISFACTORYJOB
WHEN UTILIZING POLYESTER RESINS FOR TANK
REPAIRS. THE MATERIALS DIVISION OF THE
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAY BE CONTACTED IF -,

QUESTIONS ARISE OR IF FURTHER INFORMATION IS


NEEDED,
A 1/8-INCH OR THICKER LAYER OF REINFORCED

ISBPOLYESTER OF EPOXY RESIN LAMINATE MATERIAL

HAS THE STRUCTURAL CAPABILITY TO SPAN SMALL

HOLES OR TO DEFLECT TO GET SUPPORT FROM THE TANK

SUBBASE AT LARGER DIAMETER HOLES, 1~ IS

D I F F I C U L T TO I N S T A L L SOUND L A M I N A T E OVER A LARGE

HOLE a

THIS REPAIR METHOD CAN BE CONSIDERED WHERE THE

BOTTOH IS TIGHT AND COREOSIOIU OR PITTING HAS

OCCURRED P R I M A R I L Y ON THE STOCK S I D E OF THE TANK

BOTTOM, MOST REINFORCED COATINGS USED TO

PROTECT TANK BOBTOQlS ARE PROPRIETARY E P O X I E S OR

COAL TAR E P O X I E S .

THESE COATINGS ARE NOT INTENDED TO PROVIDE

MECHANICAL STRENGTH, THEY ARE GENERALLY THIN

(10-20 MILS) AS COPIPAARED TO 1/8" - 1/4"


THICKNESS OF THE REINFORCED COATINGS, THE .

TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS AND CONDITIONS GIVEN

ABOVE FOR REINFORCED COATINGS ALSO APPLY TO

UMREINFORCED COATING: HOWEVER, THE EPOXIES

GENERALLY HAVE HIGHER TEMPERATURE LIMITS,


METAL-BEARING COATINGS, SUCH AS DIMETCOTE #3 (A

ZINC-SILICATE TYPE COATING), ARE APPLIED BY

SPRAY GUN OVER A SURFACE WHICH HAS BEEN

THOROUGHLY SANDBLASTED, DIMETCOTE #3 HAS BEEN

VERY EFFECTIVE FOR REDUCING CORROSION AS AN

INNER COATING FOR TANKERS AND TANKS HANDLING

PETROCHEMICALS,

SATISFACTORY RESULTS HAVE BEEN OBTAINED BY

F I L I N G WITH CONCRETE AS FOLLOWS:

B, DRILL HOLES IN BLOWN-UP AREAS AND FILL

C A V I T I E S UNDER THE TANK BOTTOM W I T H GROUT,

I F REQUIRED,

C, APPLY ROOF PUTTY AROUND THE LOWER PORTION

OF THE SHELL - SEE DRAWING GE-134179 - TO

PROVIDE SPACE FOR SEAL, -.


D, PLACE 4 INCHES OF CONCRETE OVER THE ENTIRE

BOTTOM, U S I N G THE FOLLOWING M I X , AND A P P L Y

S T E E L TROWEL F I N I S H :

7 SACKS
1888 L S S ,

WATER 33 GALS.

RELEGATED BY THE ADVENT OF P L A S T I C COATINGS TO A

FEW S P E C I A L S I T U A T I O N S ,

"GEL" MUD Fr LLS

OFTEN IT IS NECESSARY FOR A LEAKY TANK TO REMAIN

I N S E R V I C E FOR A CONSIDERABLE T I M E BEFORE I T CAN

BE EMPTIED FOR REPAIRS, THIS MATERIAL MAY BE

EASILY MIXED AND INJECTED BY USING A STANDARD

F nwE FOAM GENERATOR (SEE DRAWING GE-1351891,

CATHODIC PWOTECTIBN CAM SOMETIMES BE A P P L I E D TO

PREVENT UNDERSIDE BOTTOM CORROSION OF EXISTING

TANKS. HOWEVER, IF THERE IS PAVEMENT, CATHODIC

PROTECTION MAY BE I N E F F E C T I V E ,

\3
AN IMPERMEABLE PAVEMENT WILL PREVENT THE FLOW OF

CATHODIC PROTECTION CURRENT TO THE BOTTOM S T E E L ,

CATHODIC PROTECTION WILL BE EFFECTIVE WHEXE


-
THERE ARE PERMEABLE AREAS OR BREAKS IN THE

PAVEHENT AND WILL PREVENT CORROSION DUE TO

MOISTURE PENETRATING THROUGH THE PAVEMENT AT

SUCH L O C A B I ONS , HOWEVER, CORROSION DUE TO

MOISTURE M I G R A T I N G UNDER THE TANK FROM PERMEABLE

TO IHPERMEABLE AREAS CANNOT BE E L I M I N A T E D , FOR


FURTHER INFORMATION REFER TO SECTION 423 OF THE

C o w ~ o s ~ o PROTECTION
~ MANUAL, OR TO THE

CORPORATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT,

CORROSION IN VAPOR SPACES DEPEND ON THE TYPE OF VAPBZ

AND MAY BE RAPID IF APPRECIABLE AMOUNT OF HYDROGEPi

S U L F I D E I S PRESENT,

F, FOUNDATION PAD

SETTLEMENT OF THE TANK PAD DUE TO COMPRESSION,

P A R T I C U L A R L Y ON P E N E T R A T I O N MACADAM OR P L A N T - M I X TYPE

PAVEMENTS, MAKES A GROOVE AT THE EDGE OF THE TANK


SHELL, CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO ELIMINATE THIS GROOVE

BY LOWERING THE SHOULDER AROUND THE TANK AND PROPERLY

D R A I N I N G OFF THE WATER,

G, PROTECTIVE COATINGS

INTHE PAST, FEW ECONOMICAL COATINGS HAVE BEEN F O U ~ D

. WHICH WILL PROTECT TANK SHELLS FROM INTERIOR

CORROSION, INN,C,D, EXTENSIVE USE OF HIGH SOLID

IS EFFECTIVE BUT EXPENSIVE. AN E C O N O ~ I C AMLYSIS MAY

BE NEEDED I N ORDER TO J U S T I F Y I T S USE,

INE X I S T I N G TANKAGE, WHEW PERIODIC INSPECTION HAS

INDICATED THAT CORROSION HAS REACHED LIMITS WHICH

WOULD SOON NECESSITATE REDUCTION IN TANK FILLING

HEIGHTS TO KEEP WITHIN ALLOWABLE STRESSES, SOME -.

OPERATING ORGANIZATIONS HAVE CHECKED FURTHER

CORROSION Loss BY GUNITING THE INTERIOR OF THE TANK

SWELL, GUNITE LININGS EXTEND THE LIFE OF TANK SHELL

INDEFINITELY ( A S FAR A S CORROSION IS CONCERNED) AND


CAN B E PLACED A T A COST OF ABOUT O N E - T H I R D THAT OF A

NEW TANK S H E L L .

PLASTIC COAT INGS AND P A T Cil ~NG~

SOME GF THE MORE RECENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR TANK

I N T E R I O R S WHICH HAVE B E E N USED SUCCESSFULLY, INCLUDE

REINFORCED PLASTICS AND METAL-BEARING COATINGSa

PLASTIC COATINGS REINFORCED WITH GLASS FIBERS AWE NOT

APPLIED WITH A GUN AT A COST COMPETITIVE WITH THE

COST OF GUN ITE LINING, METAL-BEARING COATINGS SUCH

AS DIMETCOTE ARE EFFECTIVE AND HAVE PROVED ECONOMICAL

FOR COATING CARGO TANKS ON TANKERS HANDLING

PETROCHEMICALS AND GASOLINE,


3. API BULLETIN NO, 1607. "A REPORT ON THE USE OF
PLASTIC MATERIALS FOR TEMPORARYOR PERMANENT
REPAIRS TO STEEL STORAGE TANKS, PI

TANKS SHOULD BE PAINTED PR IHARILY FOR PRESERVATION

AND PERHAPS EVAPORATION SAVINGS, SPECIFIC


RECOMMENDATIOFdS FOR TANK P A I N T I N G SHOULD BE BASED OY

KNOWLEDGE OF LOCAL CONDITIONS AND PRESENT P O L I C Y .

H, APRONS AND GUTTERS

APRONS AND GUTTERS CONSTRUCTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH .

DRAWING GC-Q78672 (SEE SECTION X I 3 SHOULD REQUIRE

MINIMUM MAINTENANCE
SELECTIONOF A GOOD APRON DRESSING I S PARTICULARLY
IMPORTANT FROM THE MAINTENANCE POINT OF VIEW. A GOOD
DRESSING WILL PROVIDE A SURFACE THAT WILL REHAIN I N
PLACE AND WITHSTAND THE ERODING EFFECTS OF WIND AND
RAIN.
-STOPPINGTANK BOTTOM LEAKS W I T H
"GEL" COMPOUNDS
TANK MANUAL TANK MAMTENmCE

RGtASS REINFORCED POLYESTER RESIN

I l l 1 1 1 1 ! / I
I l l / I l l / I I , I I I I I I l l 1 i i ! l / i l l l l l ~I I / j i i
1 1 1 1 i l l i l 1 ! 1 j 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 I l l i 1 1 1 1 1 1 : ! I ; I ! / / / / I i l l ,
I ; / I ! I ! I ! ] I ) ) i l l / ; ( I t i ! : I l l ! I j j : : ; I 8 1 1

I l j l t i l l I l i l i l i l I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 \ , / I I ! I j i I ! ! : -
1 ' 1 1
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TANK DIAMETER - FEET


COMPARATIVE COST OF MAJOR TANK BOTTOM REPAIRS

1. CURVES ARE BASED ON RECENT (1965 1972) COMPANY JOBS -


ADJUSTED TO MARCH 1973.
2. COST OF CLEANING AND MAKING TANK SAFE FOR WORK 1s NOT
INCLUDED.
3. COST FOR A SPECIFIC JOB MAY VARY CONSIDERABLY FROM CURVES
DUE TO AVAILABILITY OF COMPETENT LABOR, EQUIPMENT, LOCATION
AND WEATHER CONDITIONS.

FIGURE 500-1
TANK MANUAL ThVK MAINTENAVCE

SPECIFICATIONS FOR TAUK G W T I N G

Typical Prodecures and Specifications for Guniting h i d e a tank shell are as follows:

Sandblasting

Sandblast the entire surface to be W t e d so that it is free from m t and scale. For floating roof
tanks, support the roof with the seal removed, where possible, on the roof legs in their high
position.

Reinforcing

Attach to all portions of the shell and the bottom which m to be ,ounited, a 2-inch by 2-inch, 12-
by 12-gage welded gabmized wixe mesh Wla mesh shdl be spaced 314 inch to 718-inch from the
shell and supported with 311dkch diameter, 611dinch Vee form, steel wire, welded to the shell
a d that part of the bottom of the tank as shown on Sketch NO. 3.

Application of Gunite

Apply two cdats of gunite to the inside surface of the shell and that portion of the bottom as
indicated on Sketch No. 3.

Apply the first coat, 1-inch thick, of undisturbed , h t e to cover the wire mesh.

Not less than 24 hours after the application of the first coat, apply a second coat of ,gmite, rod, and
f d h with a wooden float. Final thickness of the f i i h e d work shall not be less than 1-112 inch.
Surfaces shald be true and even and shall not deviate more than 114-inch in 1&inch when checked
with an 18-inch long radius board in the horizontal plane, and shall be free from crazing or other
defects. Final coverage of all mesh and attachment wires shall not be less than 518-inch.

Gunite Materials Mix

Ckment - Pure Portland cement, free from lumps and hardened particles, shall be used.
Sad - Sand shall be clean, hard, dense, sharp and free from organic or deleterious matter. Sand for
gunite shald be graded within the limits tabulated below:

Percent Passing
Sieve Sieve by Weight
3/8 inch 1QQ
No. 4 98-100
No. 8 70-95
No. 16 6G85
No. 30 45-45
No. 50 15-35
No. 10Q 0-5
TANK MANUAL TANK MAINTENANCE

APPENDIX B

POLYESTER RESIN FOR TANK REPAIRS

GENERAL

The resins referred to in this guide are themwetting rigid polyester resins produced from
Isophtalic acid or bisphenol-fumaric, and mixed with styrene. When catalyzed, the resins will
polymerize to a clear hard, strong material.

NOTE: Imuroper use of polyester resin can involve inhalation hazards, skin and eye hazards. and
danger of fire. It is necessary to observe certain precautionary measures to insure safe
usage.

EQUIPMENT

-
Guns

A Single nozzle with catalyst injector. These are designed to spray promoted resin and to inject
catalyst.either into the nozzle (internal mix) or into the air stream (extermal mix).

B. Twonozzle type. These guns are designed to be used with separate supply lines to each nozzle
to suppiy resin mixed with catalyst to one nozzle and resin mixed with promoter t o the other.
The two streams of resin mix in the air in front of the gun.

Choppers - A device to chop fiber glass roving into short lengths for mixture of glass and resin. This
is an air driven attachment to the spray gun and is designed to chop and blow the roving into the
resin mixture as it is applied.

Sandblasting Equipment - Coventional sandblasting equipment to clean to bare metal the parts to
be coated.

Rubber Gloves - Rubber or polyethylene doves are recommended while handling liquid styrene,
catlysts and promoters.

-
Rollers

A ARSCO Co. Long nap, sheepwool, wooden core rollers are used for rolling out chopped roving
and resin and for wetting out mat and resin (4" and 9" width).

B. VENUS Co. serrated aiuminum rollers are used for compressing and removing air from the wet
laminate. These are available in 3, 7 and 9" widths and 1" and 2" diameters.

C. A solid steel roler or steel pipe with grooves cut into the surface also makes an effective roller.

D. A cylinder of galvanized 114" hardware cloth attached to a regular roller frame and handle is
very efficient to roll out chopped glass laminate.
TANK M A N U A L T.ANK :MAINTENANCE

APPENDIX C

CLEANING FUEL OIL AND CRUDE TANKS


WITH
VARIABLE ANGLE MIXER

GENERAL

Variable angle or swivel mixers, have k e n used for d e m i n g heavy oil and crude
tanks. T h e flow patterns c r e a t e d by t h e s e mixers significantly reduce oily wasre
d i s w s a i problems by keeping c he s e d i m e n ~ si n suspension w i ~ h1% s ~ c r e dfluid or w i ~ h
a ijush duid. T ' k y &re t h e n removed by pumping :he rnixture out of he ~ m k . i nis -7

method when compared t o the cooventionai manuai c i e m i n g rnexhoa m a y be i a s t e r


m d more economical

TRADITIONAL CLEANING PRACTICE

Cleaning tanks has been a difficult operation. The past methods a r e expensive,
unple3sant and messy aif airs. Methods vary from plant so plant. 4 brief outline of a
typical traditional procedure is as follows:

T h e t a n k is heated t o return a portion of t h e bottoms t o t h e solution and


then pumped t o another tank. After using an eductor in t h e tank, rhe t a n k
is hosed down with f i r e hoses. A hot/cold w a t e r circulation system is
installed and t h e t a n k is filled with w a t e r and heated. The oil is then
skimmed off t h e t o p and t h e n t h e t a n k is emptied. The l e f t o v e r sludge is
then hosed o r vacuumed o u t and used f o r a landfill.

The t i m e f o r this procedure ranges up t o about 4 weeks and 12-man days, depending . -
on t h e size of the t a n k and t h e kind of stored crude.
TANK MANUAL TANK MAINTEYANCE

Figure I

Reproduced f r o m l e n s e n I n ~ e r n a ~ i o n aIPIC'S.
l, Series 608 Mixers Brochure
T A N K bIANU.4L TANK LIXINTZSXNCE

CLEANING WITH ,A 'JilRIAaLE ANGLE MIXER

Advantages

Using a variable angle mixer in 3 d e a n i n g procedure has cur down the expense and
t i m e of cleaning ranks. A variable a g l e mixer has a b a l l - ~ y p e stuffing Sox t h a r
d l o w s angular movement and it f i t s into The sheil manholes.

Figure 1 shows t h e Vari-Anglet jensen Mixer, which has 60' angular adjustment. The
flow patterns established by t h e normal side entering mixer allow sediment accumula-
tions in dead spots (Figure 2). The variabie angle mixer can d i r e c t flow Fatterns ro
atmost mv a-ea of :he rank and e!iminates most dead spors. Tile acvznrases 31 rnis
procedure are:

Valuabie od is recovered from oily soiids and is easily trsnporteci :o eke reiic-
ing units.
Tank capacity is increased because solid waste is not accumuiaring in t h e tank.
Tank downtime is reduced.
Very LitTle solid wastes must be disposed of.
Overail cleaning COSTS a r e reduced (El Segundo reduced cos?s from $iZ9ivl eo
$43M, refer t o VARIABLE ANGLE MIXER TESTING I N REFINERIES -
-
El Segundo page 500-4n).
Cleaning operation is essentially d l done from outside the tank.
Exposure of people to t h e t m k ' s atmosphere can be minimized or eliminated.
Sludge (mainly suspended wax) l e f t in tank can be moved t o another rank and
processed.
Recovered oil may pay for the d e a n u p costs, such as: mixer COST, labor cssrs,
etc.
The costs f o r variable angle and fixed m g l e mixers xe very competitive.

FIXED SIDE ENTERING iLfIXER VARIABLE AIUGLE MIXER

Figure 2
T.ANK MANUAL T A N K M.AINTENANCE

Procedures

T k variable angle mixer is an economical and easier way t o c i e m a large ~ a n ki n fuei


and crude oil service. F o r m a l l tanks his m a y nor b e the b e s ~solution. The mixers
f i t t h e existing t a n k manways and a r e e a s y t o i m t d l . S e v e r d Company reiineries run
their cfude t a n k mixers d m o s t continuously so a boteom sludge never buiids up.

T k mixers zre used in various tanks t o help clean and/or r e d a i m oil from ehe solid
wastes.

The basic procedure is as follows:

!. The c o m w s i t i o n o i the s e i i m e n r Is derermineti. T'rus anaiysis is ?he basis for


s e i e c u n g t h e soivent f o r dearung.

2. The solvent is added t o the t a n k t o a t leasr 6 f e e t a h v e t h e ,mixer, a d :,his is ~ k e


minimum level of liquid during operation of t h e mixer. This avoids u v i e a t i o n of
t h e fluid while mi-uing.

3. T k mixers a r e run from 5 t o 15 days in pssitions ranging from 30' right t o 3Q"
I . Manufacturess recommend t h a t t h e posieion k c h m g e d every 2 4 heuss
(Company use bas frequently been every 8 hours).

4. T h e s p e n t solvent is pumped o u t of t h e tank, abld may be refined abld used a s f uei.


More t h a n one cleaning c y c l e m a y b e required t o thoroughly clean a rank.

5. If t h e t a n k is not satisfactorily cleaned, then hor w a t e r flooding or vacuuming ehe


t a n k m a y be necessary. The leftover sludge is used for a landfill.

Figure 3 shows typical mixer arrangements f o r different size raaks, but a r i a n g e m e n r s


vary w i t h type of t a n k bottom, maintenance access and routing of conduit line.
Cone-down tanks should have t h e m i x e n uniformly distributed around r h e tanks.
Previous experience suggests t o standardize on a 50-np. mixer which has t h e c a p a c i t y
t o clean a t a n k up t o 196 f ~ .diameter. For tanks 150 ft. d i a m e t e r and larger,
consider using t w o or m o r e mixers as required (refer t o VARIABLE ANGLE MIXEZ
TESTING IN REFINERIES - El Segundo, page 500-44). F o r cleaning of smaller tablks
(about 50 ft. diameter), such a s F C C fractionation bottom rundown tanks, C R C
suggests using their p a t e n t e d "Chevron C l e a n Tank" process using variable angle
mixers. Small tanks would require a mixer of a h u t 25 hp., depending on t h e s t o r e d
fluid. Mixers used for both cleaning abld blending service usually require m o r e
horsepower than required %or only cleaning. Mixer size and numbers should be
verified by analysis of t h e sludge t o be removed and consultation with t h e
manufacturer.
TANK MANUAL T A N K MAINTENANCE

SuR~onLinm + +'
S u n ~ o nL i n m Susrion Linm +.
,/--.-.,

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/-',\ ~.\\

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J

1-5 M I X E R S

Note: A t present (1978), the only U.5. manufacturer of variable m$e mixer is
Jensen Mixer.

Figure 3
VAR1,qBLE .ANGLE MIXER TESTING 1N RFFiNEliIES

The following dara and information from reiinerdes cover the results of their use o i
variable ang!e mixers in several t a k s .

Richmond Refinerv

General

In May 1975, Richmond Refinery Maintenance people purchased a Jensen Vari-Ang!e


Mixer and 50-hp. motor as a t a n k cleaning tool. Its first use in 241 Tank was success-
ful, and i t has already been moved t o a second tank.

!n its operation as a c u r r e r tank for m o r e than five years' time, Tank 241 had recciveb
line flushes of asphalt and fuel oii in addition TO a l t e r stock. Richmond e s ~ i m a t e s
t h a t &our 85% of the oii in t h e oily sludge in t h e tank was recovered and sold ss
fuel. The c a n c e n t r a t e d solids remaining were removed by vacuum truck. And 30
hours of in-tank vacuum truck e f f o r t was neczssary t o finish clean up of t h e Loose
soiids.

This was t h e first use at Richmcnd Refinery of a vari-angle mixer to d e a n a refinery


:ank of bottom sludge. This was done by adding hot FCC-mixer c u t t e r and turning on
t h e Jensen mixer. Two filling-mixing-draining cycles were used.

The advantages of this procedure were:

1. Recovered valuable oil - 2,000 barrels worth $20,000.


2. Reduced cleaning costs.
3. Reduced t h e amount of oil to landspreading by 90%.

Cleaning of 24L Tank. Richmond Refinerv

Scope

-
Service Has received line flushes of asphalt m d fuel oil in addition to curter. It has
not been cleaned f o r over 5 years. Because of leakage, i t hsd t o b e cleaned before
repairing.

-
Sludge in Tank .4 2- t o 3-foot high mound of solidified, yet soft, asphaltic material
was visible in the c e n t e r of t h e tank. Around this mound was 8 t o 12 inches of oil,
asphaltic material, and solids. A u t o m a t i c gauge reading 9 in. at s t a r t . Overall
e s t i m a t e was abour 2,300 barrels of oily sludge in bottom of t h e tank.

Sample Analysis - A sample taken near t h e manway was t e s t e d in t h e laboratory for


t h e following:

1. Samples analyzed for ash content.


2. Samples mixed with various c u t t e r s t o s e e what c u t t e r would work best.
3. Samples t e s t e d to s e e e f f e c t of t e m p e r a t u r e on fluidiTy and separation of oil
solids. D a t a indicated 105' needed.
TANK M A N U A L TANK MAINTENA.NCE

Attachment of Mixer 70 !ilanwav

The Jensen Yixer and related necessary gear w e r e purchased for about $15,000
(1 975). This i n d u d e d mixer, SO-hp. motor, electrical gear, adapters, spare ?ropeller,
e t c The Mixer c a m e with a 20-inch mounting flange whrch was then a t t a c h e d t o an
adapter p l a t e fitting the existing 24-inch manway. Separate adapter plates will be
required for other s i z e manways. Yo t i e rods a r e required.

No problems w e r e noted In t h e subsequent operation of t h e Jensen Mixer, and no loss


of fluid through t h e swivel-type joint was observed.

Firs? Vixinq C v d e

1. "FCC Hot Carter" added-!eve1 a t 11 ft. 10 in and F.9'-9'

2. Additional hat cutrer added during mixing s o level rose t o 20 f t . at b09°F.

3. Mixers operated for 67 hours. Mixer angle changed every 8 hrs. from right,
center, left, center, erc (Changing t h e mixer angle only every 2 4 hrs. is recom-
mended.)

4. Mixing stopped; cutTer t o F/O blending.

After F i r s t Cycle-Sludge in Tank - A 10-b5 in. high mound of loose solids was
visible. A rough e s t i m 3 t e indicated about 50% reduction in oilv solids. T h e sides of
t h e t a n k a p p e G e d d e a n and f r e e of any oil hangup. Sample frdm pile in t a n k showed
sludge t o b e loose and t h a t it contained oil and pieces of scale, some as large as 1-in.
square by bl8-in. thick.

Second Mixing C y d e

Mixing lasted about nine days. F C C hot c u t t e r was again added. Mixer angle was
changed once per day.

-
After Second C y c l e Sludge in Tank Again Reduced - The t a n k was inspected by five
people, i n d u d i n g Mr. English of t h e Richmond Refinery, and representatives of
l e n s e n Mixers. Many a r e a s o f d e a n floor plate w e r e found.

Estimated Effect of Cleaning C v d e s - An e s t i m a t e of t h e results of t h e cleaning by


mlxer IS as follows:

First Mix (3 days) 50% reduction in volume

Second Mix ( 9 days) 30%-40% additional reduction

80'590% reduction of tank bottoms by


mixing routines (use 85%)
TANK MANUAL TANK MAINTEYANCE

Removal of Solids from T m k bv C o n t r a C o r TJsine Vacuum Truck

Vacuum truck recovered about six loads of 2, 500 gallons eac!. Ti-,, vacuum rruck was
described a s Super-Sucker unit. Total cost of the c o n t r a c t o r w a s $(r,800. He used h s
own m c u u m truck ar,d a foreman, one operator, and t w o l a k r e r s . The $4,8QQ
i n d u d e d t r a n s p a f l a t i o n t o and f r o m Richmond Refinery.

T'R sludge was s o f t and readily removed by t h e vacuum truck.


Only 30 hours w e r e needed t o remove t h e oil sludge remaining. This debris was
dumped o n t h e landspreading a r e a i n t h e Richmond Refinery.

Oil Recovered i n C u t t e r Stock

About t O O O barrels o i 011 were recovered for w e i n fuel blends.

El Segundo Refinery

El Segundo has had s u c c e s s f d testing and usage i n several tanks with t h e s e mixers.
T k y use 50 hp. for d e a n i n g service and 60 hp. f o r combined d e a n i n g and blending
s e r v i m in rheir crude oil tanks. They found t k c o s t difference minimal between
fixed and variable angle mixers. Problems noted w e r e only t h e s h a f t l e n g h of t h e
mixers in c e r t a i n tanks. Locally o p e r a t e d a c t i v a t o r s were installed t o switch angles
of t h e mixers (about $500 each). They ran a test on t w o 227 ft. diameter, 60-f;. tugh
tanks using o n e 150-hp. mixer in each. Tank #998 with a fixed angle mixer cost
$120,000 t o d e a n . Tank /I999 with a variable angle mixer c o s t $43,000 t o d e a n . Each
mixer ran 100 hours and Tank /I999 i n d u d e d a hot water circl-llation system in t o t d
cost.

El Segundo is currently using variable angle mixers i n u u d e oil tanks as follows:

Diameter of Mixer Number of M ixers Service


230 f t. 60 hp. 3 Blending and Cleaning
200 f t . 60 hp. 2 Blending and Cleaning
200 f t. 60 hp. 1 (only o n e manway) Blending and Cleaning
200 f t. 50 hp. 2 Cleaning only

O t h e r Refineries

Pascagoula Refinery has noted s u c c e s s f d t e s ~ i n gi n d e m i n g t w o tanks. O n e was a


200,000 bbL c r u d e t a n k and i t was d e a n e d in about o n e week, using 20-man days of
labor (previously t h i s took 4 weeks and 100-man days). No m a t e r i a l was taken t o t h e
land farm, and t h e t a n k was essentially d e a n . Also, a 90-ft. d i a m e t e r t a n k was
d e a n e d using t w o c u t t e r stocks and a 60-hp. Jensen Vari-Angle Mixer. Initially, t h e r e
was about 112-ft. of fractionator bottoms and F C C c a t a l y s t fines in t h e t a n k bottom.

5outh Africa's government crude oil t a n k f a r m (SFF) and Caltex's C a p e Town


Refinery repofled successfully d e a n i n g tank using swivel mixers during t h e 1975
Chevron Process Meeting session on Air/ Water Problems. C a p e Town SFF personnel
have used a Plenty-type 32PlSVE 6,000 side-entry swivel mixer with 30-inch propeller
TANK MANUAL TANK MAINTENANCE

and 60-np. motor i n d e m i n g is-it. d i m e t e r tmks. A ~ y p i a lappliczition was in a


tank which has 4 iee: o i Oarius C r u d e siudge. Twenty-two f e e t o i iignt c r u d e was
added, and t h e t z n k mixed cantinuously and emptied a f t e r acproximareiy 14 days.
The t a n k bottom was reported very d e a n .
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(2) /%e w o i e r - ye/ m / x shou/d con f o / o o p p r o x m ~ , y e < v
G 7.; Ge/ by cu e ~ g n f .

FOP * / n o r /ecrks, us/nq one s o c k ~ o i G e / ~ s r


500 f o .
800 d b / s . OF' y a n k ~ o p o c / f y moy A o v e
.

34 4 d succ e SJ .for major / e ~ k s(3 b a r n ) one


s o c k per /50 f o ZOO b6/!5. o f ionk c y , ~ ~ c / r )
"=?Y suffice ,
r "4A/um/oum,A /pe; T# C; ,+oi ~ n k
boffom;p/oce os n e a r / O /eok
.,

y e n e r o f o r ; .5/n9/'e
h o w e r ; w/fne" or/f/cs
/n b o f t o m o f hopper.
funk bo f f o m .

1 I

GO. 4 5 0 E ( 8 M s C D . 2 . 6 2 )
PETROLELOM SAFETY DATA
Compiled 8 v Committee on Safety and Fire Protection

A M E R I C A N PETROLEUM INSTITUTE
1801 K STREET, N. W. WASHINGTON, 0.C. 20006

PSD 3207
June 1974

PREPARING TANK BOTTOMS FOR H O T WORK

INTRODUCTION A N D SCOPE SPECIFiC PRECAUTIONS


The purpose of this data sheet is to outline I. Work permits for tank entry and/or hot work
safety precautions for preventing accidental fires must be properly signed and issued before work is
md/or explosions while making hot-work repairs started.
to the bottoms of tanks.
2 . An air mover should be in operacion at all
For the purpose of this data sheet, the term times during entry and hot work.
"'hot work" is defined 3s any operation that will or
can produce a spark or flame hot enough to cause
3. Lines to and from the tank that have been
the ignition of flammable liquids or vapors. blanked off, disconnected or otherwise isolated
should not be disturbed or dismantled during entry
Tanks that have contained flammable liquids and/or hot work.
must be considered unsafe for hot work, regardless
of age and type of construction, until safety 4. Metal surfaces of tanks previously used in
inspection proves otherwise. leaded products service should be cleaned of all
deposits at least 30 cm (12 in) on all sides of heat
Special techniques are required in the per- contact. area prior to performing hot work in
formance of hot work on tank bottoms to prevent accordance with the provisions of API RP 2015. If
ignition of flammable liquids or vapors that may be the area described in the preceeding sentence is not
i
entrapped under the tank. cleaned down to bare metal, all personnel in the
Although each tank bottom repair job must tank must wear air-supphed respiratory equipment
receive careful individual consideration, the safety while hot work is being performed.
procedures described herein provide various 5. Grounding leads from the welding machine
methods for preparing tank bottoms for hot work. should be attached directly to the tank on which
These procedures will be applicable to most situa- hot work is to be performed.
tions.
6. Cylinders of compressed gas used for cutting
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS operations should be securely fastened in an
upright positions and kept outside the tank at a
The tank must be safely isolated, cleaned and safe distance away from the open manholes in
ventilated in accordance with applicable provisions accordance with ANSI Z 49. I , Safety In Welding
of API RP 2015: Recommended Practice For and Cutting. Cutting torches and hoses must be
Cleaning Petroleum Storage Tankr Prior To Entry shut off at the cylinder valves and kept outside the
and Preparing Tank Bottom For Hot Work Opera- tank when not in use.
tions. 4. The area inside and outside the tank should
Visual inspections of the hot-work area will be be kept clear of combustible material.
necessary. The conditions and safety precautions
under which hot work is to be performed must be INSPECTION PROCEDURES
clearly stated. The person or persons responsible
for authorizing the hot work should designate the When hot-work repairs are contemplated, an
precautions to be followed. inspection of the tank bottom must be made,
regardless of suspected condition.
Adequate first aid fire-fighting equipment should
be available and ready for instant use. Workmen Appropriately sized small openings are some-
should be instructed in the proper use of this times madein the tank bottom by cold cutting or
equipment. by drilling holes in each area where hot work is to
be performed to facilitate visible inspections and MAJOR REPAIRS
combustible-gas tesrs. Care musr be t a ~ e nwhen
making such openings to avoid a source of ignition When repair jobs involving most of the rank
for any flammable vapors which may be released bottom are planned, it may be desirable to displace
from the underside of the tank bottom. A coolant the flammable liquids andlor vapor Sene2tll rile
should be applied to the cutting edge of such tools tan^ by water-flooding.
to reduce the heat of friction. The use of open 1. Drill and tap holes for 13 mm (95 m)plpe dc
type electric drilling machines is not recom- high points in the tank bottom suffic~entlyspaced
mended. to assure proper inspection and dispersement of
The results of combustible-gas and/or toxic water.
material tests taken from beneath the tank bottom 2. Install pipe nipples to be used as vents, check
and examination o r analysis of samples of soil points and water inlets. Height of nipples should
under the tank will determine if a potential hazard exceed the earthen dike mentioned next.
from flammable liquids or vapors andlor toxic
vapors exists and the correct work procedures to 3. Construcr an earthen dike around the outer
follow. When inert gases are used, the atmosphere shell of the tank higher than the highest lloor plate
in which the work is being performed should be in the tank.
monitored for oxygen deficiency. 4. Fill the space underneath the tank with
water. Continue the flow of water as required to
maintain a constant high water level within the
SAFE WORK PROCEDURES
dike.
The work procedures adopted will be deter- 5. Watch for leakage inside the tank ant1 tun-
mined by the the tank the porarily plug leaks as necessary to keep the tank
type and extent of the hot-work repairs to be bottom dry..
performed and inspection results.
Inasmuch as tank bottoms are proven free of
flammable liquids and/or vapors, the safe work
6 . Remove nipples, plug holes with tapered pin
o r other device and back-weld as required after
repairs a e completed.
-
procedures described in the following apply only
to those situations where flammable liquids or
vapors are proven present. PERIMETER REPAIRS
Repairs around the periphery of a tank bottom
MINOR REPAIRS may be made safely after the following prepara-
tions:
This type of hot work usually involves the
welding of corrosion pits, patches o r other repair 1. Excavate under the edge of the tank. Such
jobs localized to small areas. The following proce- excavations should extend a minimum of 30 cm
dure may also be required when welding supports (12 in) beyond the point of any hot-work area and
o r braces if the bottom is not in good condition. must be large enough for a man to work in with
safety and comfort.
1. Drill and tap a hole for 13 mm (35 in) pipe 2. Seal off all openings between the tloor plates
adjacent to the repair area. and the tank foundation by packing with mud or
2. Connect a supply of carbon dioxide (CO, ) o r some other suitable material. Such packing should
other inert gas to the 13mm tap by using metal be checked from time to time to assure that the
tubing. Some device, such as a manometer o r flow seal remains intact.
meter, should be used to prevent overpressuring of 3. Use a combustible-gas indicator to check
tank bottom. excavations and seals between floor plates and
3. Maintain a flow of inert gas to ensure that, foundation.
before work has begun and during the course of
work, the atmosphere under the tank bottom in 4. A portable air blower may be ~1st.d tor
the area o f welding will not support combustion of ventilation purposes.
P4
any flammable vapor that may be present.
4. Remove tubing, plug hole with tapered pin o r Note: Excavations should be carefully rcfillcd
other device and back-weld promptly, as required. t o prevent possible failure to tank foundations.
SECTIONAL REPAIRS for srnall jobs, d r y ice has been placed on tilt: sand
before installing bottom patching plates.
When making sectional repairs to tank bottoms,
the foilowing methods may be used: DOUBLE-BOTTOM INSTALLATION
I . Cold-cut the tank bottom to be replaced, When constructing a double bottom in a :ank.
using a hand- or air-operated tool, m d remove. A the following procedures may be used:
coolant should be applied continuously to the
cutting edge of such 'tools to reduce the heat of 1. Place approximately 10 cm (4 in) of sand or
friction. other sealing material over the existing floor. There
may be occasions where the depth of the sealing
2. Remove earth from under the section to be
material can be less than 10 cm.
replaced. Fill with tamped sand and seal the
pirimeter of the patch L e a with mud or some 2. Install a new bottom by welding.
other suitable noncorrosive material.
Note: Hot work can be safely performed on
3. Use a combustible-gas indicator to be sure an tank foundations that are saturited with oils if
effective seal has been made. combustible vapors are not present and there is no
imminent danger of oil penetrating the sand barrier
4. When large sections o l the bottom must be
and contacting the new bottom being welded on.
replaced and it is questionable that the seal will
remain effective, it -may be wise to maintain an The foregoing procedures are not intended to
inert atmosphere under the patch area when hot cover ail the different types of tank bottom
work is being done during installation of a new hot-work repairs that may be encountered. They
section. This may be accomplished by using vapor- do, however, describe a variety of situations where
ized C 0 2 o r other inert gas. Under some conditions these basic principles of safety can be applied.

Order No. 852 22070

The data and methods described in this publication may be used by anyone desiring to d o so, but
the American Petroleum Institute shall not be held responsible or liable inany way either for loss
or damage resulting therefrom or for the violntion of any Federal, state or municipal regulation
with which they may conflict.
XIV, HOTTAPPING OFTANKS I N SERVICE

OCCASIONALLY THERE MAY BE ADVANTAGES OR A NEED TO

I N S T A L L A NEW NOZZLE OR OTHER APPURTENANCE I N A TANK

SHELL WITHOUT TAKING THE TANK OUT OF SERVICE, USING


PROPER PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONS, THIS CAN BE

ACCOMPLISHED BY HOT TAPPING, (AN ALTERNATIVE WHICH

SHOULD NOT BE OVERLOOKED IS THE POSSIBILITY OF

INSTALLING THE REQUIRED NEW NOZZLE ON A MANHOLE

COVER),

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

HOT TAPPING IS A USEFUL TOOL BUT ITS USE INVOLVES

HAZARDS WHICH MUST BE RECOGNIZED AND WEIGHTED WITH

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM, WELDING


REQUIRES THAT THE AREA BE COMPLETELY GAS FREE AND THE

JW READINGS BE TAKEN CONTINOUSLY DURING THE WELDING

PROCESS TO ASSURE NO VAPOR ACCUMULATION,

C, EQUIPMENT

THERE ARE SEVERAL MAKES OF HOT TAP MACHINES WHICH CAN

BE PURCHASED OR RENTED, AND ALTHOUGH DEVELOPED

PRIMARILY FOR USE ON PIPE LINES, THEY ARE ALSO


S U I T A B L E FOR USE ON TANK SHELLS,

Dm INSPECTION

BEFOREA HOT TAP IS MADE, EXAHINE THE TANK SHELL AT

THE LOCATION OF THE HOT TAP FOR ANY POSSIBLE

DEFICIENCIES AND REVIEW RECENT RECORDS OF INTERIOR

I N S P E C T I O N OF THE TANK,

E, '' STANDARDS

LOCATIONSOF THE NEW NOZZLE WITH RESPECT TO NEARBY

NOZZLES SHOULD BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH LOCATION

REQUIREMENTS AP'I-650 AND KEPT REASONABLY CLEAR OF


OF

EXISTING SEAMS, PIPE FLANGES, REINFORCING PLATE AND


DETAILS SHALL CONFORM TO API-658 NOZZLE DETAILS, THE
IIVTERIOR BACKUP WELD FOR THE SINGLE NOZZLE SECTION

CANNOT BE MADE W I T H THE TANK I N S E R V I C E , ,

F, PROCEDURE

SMALL CONIYECTIBMS UP TO - USE THE STANDARD


2 INCHES
WELDING BOSS PER DRAWING GB-4-31368, FOLLOW
I N S T A L L A T I O N INSTRUCTIONS SHOWN ON THE DRAWING,
PIPE CONNECTIONS OVER 2 INCHES
- NOZZLES LARGER THAN

2 I N C H E S I N DIAMETER REQUIRE A REINFORCING PLATE,

INSTALL NOZZLE AND REINFORCING PLATE IN ACCORDANCE

WITH DETAILS SHOWN IN SECTION 510 OF THE TANK MANUAL*


FIGURES A AND B,

G, FIRE PROTECTION

TO REDUCE SHELL PATE STRESS D U R I N G WELDING OF THE

NOZZLE AND REINFORCING PLATE TO THE SHELL* WORK

SHOULD B E DONE AT LOW O I L HEIGHT, A FEW F E E T ABOVE

THE WELDING, HOWEVER, THE LIQUID LEVEL SHOULD NOT BE

BELOW THE L E V E L WHERE WELDING WORK I S B E I N G DONE I A


LIQUID INTERIOR BACKING IS NECESSARY TO KEEP THE

SHELL COOL AND TO PREVENT POSSISLE HOT SURFACE

I G N I T I O N OF THE TANK VAPOR SPACE,


' , ENGINEERING PROCEDURS NO. 3 8 PAGE: I OF 5
PASCAGOULA REFINERY DATE: JUNE 9, 1982

PURPOSE A$D SCOPE


1.1 The purpose of this Ei;gineering Procedure is to describe the
Design Engineer's respansibil ities when a hot tap must be
performed .
1.2 This Procedure is interlded primarily for hot tapping lines and
vessels in service. If a tank is to b2 :lot tapped, refer to the
Tank Manual, Section 51 0, for additional requirements.
1.3 If an EN0 is prepared for hot work other than a hot tap on a line
in service, the Designs Engineer must follow this Procedure where
applicable.
DEFINITIONS
"Hot tap" - A hot tap i s any connection to a line or vessel in
service requiring hot wcrk and the use of a hot tap machine. The
hot tap procedure ciinsists of welding the stub to the line or
vessel, instal 1 in3 a valve, hydrotesting the stub and valve,
installing the not tap machine, cutting the coupon, and removing
the hot tap machine, A hot tap does not only mean "use 'of a hot
tap machine!'. Both the hot work and the coupon cutting are
critical operations in a hot tap. The hot work could cause a fire
or explosion, while a lost coupon could damage downstream
equipment.
2.2 "In servi:ceU - A line or vess21 is considered to be in service
unles; the cquipmcnt hzs been:
a) Depressured
b) Isolated with blinds (double blocks and bleeds are not
acceptzble except as out: i n e d in Refinery Instruction No. 107,
Para. 3)
c) Cleaned until free o f t~ydrocarbcns or other hazardous
materials
d) Sniffed for combustibles w-ith a J-W tester
e) Approved for hot work by Fire and Safety.
If any - orie of -the above ccnditicns is not met, a Hot Tap Data
Sheet is required in addition to the Hot Work permit ("green
permit !') .
2.3 "Hot Work" - Hot work is any operation that will or can produce
enough heat or a spark o r flame hot cnougli to cause ignition of
f 1 ammable 1 iquids or v~3psrs.
ENGINEERING PROCEDURE NO. 38 PAGE: 2 O F 5
PASCAGOULA REFINERY GATE: JtiriE 9, 1982

HOT TAPS
3.0 METALLURGY
3.1 Minimum base metal thick~e5s for a hot tzp on carbon steel, as
recornmended by >,?I Fubl i c a t i c r ; 2201, is 1 / 4 " . Thinner walls or
alloys cay b e hot tz;ped dejend:ng on t h 3 circui~stances.
3.2 Hot tapping should 2c;t t j ~p:rforneij on equipr~~entrequiring stress
*-
relief, since natersals cafinot be s t ~ e s s relieved while
pressuriz2d. Exs~:;lles: chrome noly, same grzdes of stain1 ess
steel, nquipment which will be in caustic service over 1400F, and
equipment which wi 1 1 h a i ; d ? e amines at certain temperatures and
concentrations.
3.3 Hot tapping shcu:d -
net LC perforzed on equjpcnnt that contains:
a) cacs t l c or hydrogen
b) flammable vapor/air or oxygen mixtures ~ i t h i nthe flammable or
explosive ranse
c) chemicals, such as acids and chlorides, which are likely to
dec~mpose and become hazardous due to the heat of welding
d) unsaturated hydrccarbans , unlrss evidence precludes the
possi bi 1 i ty of expicsive decomposition (such as ethylene under
specific temper&ture, pressurz arid oxy,;cn mixture conditions)
e) air, except in extre~ely rare cases when the line cannot be
thoroughly clfaiierl 2nd has been purgzd with inert gas, water,
or steam.
4.0 EQUIPMENT
4.1 Central Tool Room has a hot ta;, machine fcr each of these branch
sizes:
%" to 2" - two piece, manually operated TDW Model T-101
1" to 6" - on? piece, pneumatically operated TDW Model
360
3" to 12" - one piece, pneumatically operated TEN Model
660
4.2 Hot tap valve must be a full port valve to allow installation of
the hot tap machine. On lzrge valves, check the seat ring
clearance. Some seat ring lugs may protrud? into hot tap cutter
area and could be grouild off when a maximum sjze cut is made.
4.3 On horizontal hot taps where shavings nay interfere with valve
seating, provide an udder i r ~ th? bottom of the hot tap stub to
trap shavings. Also, install a small valve on the seat of the hot
tap valve to blow out any shavjngs that zccmulate in the seat.
a ENGINEERING PROCEDURE NO. 38 PAGE: 3 OF 5
PASCAGOULA REFINERY DATE: JUNE 9, 1982

HOT TAPS

LIMITATIONS
5.1 Pressure and temperature of t h e equipment t c be hot tapped s h a l l
not exceed t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e hot t a p machines as follows:
1440 psig @ 10OGF
1300 psi5 @ SOOoF
1100 esig @ 300OF
1090 psi9 @ 400oF
300 psig F SQOOF
830 psis @ 6000F
. .
700 psi3 @ 70COF
5.2 All b ~ a n c h connections a r e t o 02 w e l i ~ da"L9Go t o t h e main l i n e o r
vessel.
5.3 Branch connections cf ji" t o 14" m2y be hot tapped i n t o l i n e s t h e
same s i z e . o r l a r g e r .
5.4 Branch connections of c\Jer 1%" should 02 a t l e a s t one s i z e smaller
than the main 1 ine or v e s s e l . Extreme c a r e must be taken t h a t t h e
p i l o t d r i l l i s centered in the branch connection. Consider using
a p i l o t d r i l l guide per Board of Engjneers Zccornmended P r a c t i c e
28, Figure 1 .
5.5 Do not weld c l o s e r than 78 inches from a f l a n g e c r threaded
connection, or 3 inches a welded seam.
5.6 The length of t h e hot tzp stlab with valve q u s t not exceed the
reach of t h e hot t a p machine. Tables o-F inaxirnr~m s t u b lengths f o r
each machifie a r e available a t the Central Tool goom.
6.0 HYDROTEST AVD PRESSURE TEST REqUI4EMENTS

6.1 Hot t a p valve must be hydrotested along with the s t u b .

6.2 Hydrotest with water i f the oijerating ternperature i s beiow 2000F.


From 293oF t o 400oF, use GSP-19 o i l . Up t o 5900F, use GST-90
oil. If t h e operating temperature i s sbove 5930F, use a high
temperature s i l i c o n e o i l ( G E SF-87 or e q u i v a l e n t ) .

6.3 Hydrotest pressure w i l l be detei-mined by the Design Engineer using


Hot Tap Hydrotest Pressure C a l c u l a t i o n , Attachment I . Test
pressure w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y be the normal hydrotest pressure
associated with the flazcje r a t i n g .
6.4 If a r e i n f o r c i n g pad i s r e q u i r e d , leak t e s t the pad welds through
- . , t h e $" dialneter weep hoie. Either hydrotest a t 25 psig with water
o r o i l per Paragraph 6.2, or t e s t w i t h a i r a t 5 psig. See Piping
S p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r b r a ~ c hc m n e c t i o n reinforcement requirements.
,
a ENGINEERING PROCEDGRE NO. 38 PAGE: 4 OF 5
PASCAGOULA REFINERY DATE: JUNE 9, 1982

PREPARATION
7.1 Prior to hot tapping, the Cesiyn Engineer shall:
Deterr:tine that the i'iietalluryy a;id syste~n conten-Ls wi 1 1 permit
welding.
Obtain UT gages of wall thicknesses at the hot tap location
from Inspection.
Calculate the maxirnum hydrotest pressure per Attachment I.
If the equipment to be hot tapp2d is a pipe, specify the
minimum flow to be maintained to dissipate heat. Suggested
minimum velocity for liquids and gases is 1.3 fps.
If the equipment to be hot tapped is a vessel or tank,
determine what the level of liquid above the hot tap location
will be. A minirnum of three feet of liquid above the hot tap
is required.
Develop a method of iilsrlring that specified flow is maintained
during the hot tap (i .e., flow meter, visual, etc.).
Specify hot tap valve packing per Valve Packing Schedule,
Attachment 11.
Develop Hot Tap Data Sheet, Attachment 111.
Compile Engineering Work Order, H G ~Tap Data Sheet, and any
other necessary information.
Obtain approval of the EKO and attachments from the Lead
Engineer, Supervising Engineer, Manager Gesigns Engineering,
Maintenance Manager, and Area Superintendent.
I s s ~ eEN0 and attzchments.
8.0 -
STOPPLE PLUGGING
8.1 Stopple plugging is an unusual procedure which requires the
approval of the Area Superintendent and Manager Designs
Engineering. This Hot T3p Procedure must be followed whenever
stoppling is to be done.
8.2 bihen an entire sech-ion of line or a vessel must be isolated for
repairs or additions wi'thaut interrupting service, Stopple
Plugging Machines are used. A pair o-f hot taps is made both
upstream and downstream of the section to be isolated and a bypass
installed between the outer two. A Stopple Plugging Machine i s
instal led through each of the inner two hot taps. When the plugs
are secured, the section is available fcr work.
8.3 Stop?le Plugging Machines are available through the T. D.
Williamson Covpany in 2" to 40" sizes. The standard machine
handles pressures to 960 psi @ 130°F. High temperature machines
handle up to 690 psi P 650cF. A i3W technician directs the
installatior: cf the plug; and vonitors work whi1.e they are in the
1 ine.
' ENGINEERING PKOCEGURE E0. 38 PAGE: 5 OF 5
PASCAGOULA REFINERY DATE: JUNE 9, 1982

HOT TAPS

8.4 Necessary in-lornati~n for proper Stopple equipment selection


includes :
a) temperature
b ) pressure
c) line size
d) wall thickness (UT gage)
e) length of tino Sto;;le F:ug will be in line
service
metal lurgy
anticipated changes in conditions while plugs are in line.
8.5 The 'Design Engineer must specify the gaskets to be used with the
Stopple Plugging mzchices, in acccrdance with the Piping
Classification of the main lin?. Use only new gaskets.
8.6 The Design Ecgineer, Main'ienafice Foreman arid Shift Supervisor
shall - thoroughly r-eview the entire work procedure with the TDW
technician prior to k~ork start.

DATE

ATTACHMENTS: I Hot Tap Hydrotest Presstire Calculation with Example A


I1 Valve Packing Schedule
I11 Hot Tap Oata Sheet
REFERENCES: Recommended Practice No. 28, "3ot Tapping Pipe Lines"
Tank Manual, Sgcticn 510
API Publicati~n 2201, "Proc2dures for Welding or Hot
Tapping on Equipment Containing
Flammables"

EAE/rse - 9/83
'L ENGR .Pk.3C32
DERIVED FROM THE ASME 63ILER F8N3 FRESSURE VESSEL C O G $ , SECTION VIII, PARAGRAPli
UG-28, 1980 EDITION WITH ADDENDUMS.

1. EJN -
2. EQU IPMEKT MATERIAL

3. EQUIPMENT TEMPERATJRE AT HYDROTEST TIME O F


4. MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH PSI (From t a b l e s in Code)

IN
( M i n . UP gage)

( I f < 10, refer t a Ccdpi)

From F i g . 5-uG0-28.0.)
(f-rom F i g . 5-UCS-28.X.
Exact figure d e p s t d s
on m z t e r i a l . )

psi
8. Maximum calculated hydrotest pressurz, PC = 1 . 5 Pa = psi.
Paximum f l a n g e r a t i n g hydrctest prEssure, Pf = PSI.
Operating pressure, Po = psi.

- No - then hydrotest pres;ire F h t i s the l e s s e r of PC and Pf


- Yes - then i s PC + Po < Ff?
-
- No then hydrotzst pressure F h t = Pf
- Yes - then h y d r o t e s t pressu7e P h t = PC + Po
10. HYDROTEST PaESSljRE, Pht = PSI.

I EAE/rse - 9/83
ENGR P R O C I 2
DERIVED FROM THE ASME BOILER AN3 PRESSURE VESSEL CODE, SECTION VIII, PARAGRAPH
\

UG-28, 1980 EDITION WITH AC3E:.iDUi:S.

3. EQUIPMENT TEMPERATURE AT HYDROTEST TIXE 2.59 OF

4. MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH 3-3,


GO3 PSI (From tables in Code)

TA-17-' 5-- I N
UT ga.ge)
in.

2'?-.oq
r < 10, r*ef<r t o Code)

m 1 ~ i ) - 2 8 . 0 ).
17,500
( F r m Fig. 5-UCS-2E.X.
Exact figure dcpcnds
on miterial .)

T7& psi
8. Maximum calculated hydrotest pressure, PC = 1 . 5 Pa = 1890 psi.
Maximum flange rating hydrotest pressure, Pf = 4= psi.
Operating pressure, Po = bO psi.

9. Is PC < Po?
- - t h hydrotest
~ ~ presiu:e P h t i s t h e lesser of PC and Pf
- es - t&s PC + Po < P f ?
- then hydrotest pressure P h e = Pf
- Yes - then hydretest pressure Fht = PC + Po
10. HYDROTEST FREZSL'XE, P f l t = q-Zit'
__ PSI.
ENGIHEERIHG PQ5CZZLIIRE
, -.----- ;iO. 38
-7--
- Ai-XCl+lEET 11

-VALVE PACKXKG SCHE2ULE

RECgMMENDED PACK I NG

ACIDS & XYLENES CHEM-PAC - 2009


Sulfuric John Crane C-1045
CAUSTIC John Crane C-1045
GASES
Air John Crane 6 AM
Ammonia John Crane 6 AM
Butane & Propane Jchn Crane 6 AM
Freon John Crane 6 AM
LPG John Crane 6 AM
HEAVY OILS TO 4500F John Crane 6 AM
HEAVY OILS ABOVE 4500F John Crane 6 AM
LIGHT OILS TO 7000F John Crane 6 AM
STEAM
j, To 4500F John Crane 6 AM
Above 4500F John Crane 187-1
WATER
Fresh John Crane 6 AM
Salt John Crane 6 AM
Condensate John Crane 6 AM
John Crane 6 AM
HC + H z o v e r 300°F John Crane 6 AM
CHEMICAL
M EA John Crane C-1045
Mercaptans John Crane C-1045
Arnines John Crane C-1045
Chlorine John Crane C-1045
DY e John Crane C-1045
Inhibitor John Crane C-1045

EAE/6-82

L ENGR PROC f ~ 2 / c a
ENGZP4EERTYG PROCEDU2E MO. 30 - AT;F~CH??ENT 111

HCT TRP DATA SHEET

EWO NO.

L I N E NUMBER, SPEC., SIZE HOT TAP STUS S I Z E

SERVICE

P L A N T OR L O C A T I O N

REQUIRED FLGM RATE I N L I N E (GFM) ( 3 P D ) (SCFI-I)

PRESSURE IN LINE (PSIG)

I F VESSEL OR TANK, REJUIREC L I q U T n L E V E L ( F T )

TEMPERATURE OF PROGUCT IN L I N E OR TANK (OF)

VALVE PACKING -->


,-

SPECIAL CONDITIONS ( H Z ~ , ETC. ) - -


O N E - L I N E DIAGRAM O F PROPOSED COPiIIECTIGN - SHOGI NEARBY RECOGNIZABLE FEATURES.

12. DRAWINGS OR SPOOL SHEETS St-1OWIb!G EXACT LOCATION (IF NONE, ATTACH SKETCH)

13. M I N . WALL T H I C K N E S S A T HOT TAP LOCATION, PER U T GAGE ( I N )


14. VALVE AND STUB HYDROTEST PRESSURE ( P S I G ) -
15. HYDROTESTMEDIA

16. PRESSLIRE T E S T REINFORCEMENT PAD: ( a ) NO PAD ( b ) T E S T WELDS THROUGH


1 / 4 " D I A . WEEP HOLE

ENGINEER DATE
EAE/ 9/ 8 3
ENGR PROC"/rse
XV , DETERMI NATION OF INSPECTION INTERVALS

A n SCOPE
-

THE FOLLOWING SECTION SETS FORTH PRINCIPLES FOR

GUIDANCE I N D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF I N S P E C T I O N I N T E R V A L S FOR

CONVENTIONAL ATMOSPHERIC STORAGE TANKS AND LOW

PRESSURE (UNDER 15 PSIG) TANKS* SUCH A S SPHERIODS,

TANK INSPECTION INTERVALS ARE ESTABLISHED TO

FACILITATE THE PLANNING OF TANK MAINTENANCE FOR

ADEQUATE SAFETY AND MAXIMUM O P E R A T I N G U T I L I Z A T I O N AT

MINIMUM EXPENSE, FACTORSTO BE DETERMINED DURING

I N S P E C T I O N ARE: ( 8 ) P H Y S I C A L C O N D I T I O N OF THE TANK:

($3) RATE OF CORROSION: AND (c) CAUSES OF ANY

D E T E R I O R A T I O N WHICH MAY HAVE OCCURRED, I F POSSIBLE.

C, DEFINITIONS

1, NINIMUN ALLOWABLE SHELL THICKNESS IS THAT

REQUIRED TO SAFELY OPERATE A TANK AT FULL

HEIGHT,

2, CORROSION ALLOWANCE IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

THE E X I S T I N G T H I C K N E S S AND THE M I N I M U M ALLOWABLE

THICKNESS,
3, REMAININGLIFE IS THE CORROSION ALLOWANCE

D I V I D E D BY THE A N T I C I P A T E D CORROSION RATE,

D, INSPECTIONS

COMPLETE INSPECTION INCLUDES ALL INTERNAL ARD

EXTERNAL ELEMENTS, SUCH AS SWING CABLE, ROOF

SUPPORTS, ALL APPURTENANCES, VALVES, ETC,, AMQ

REQUIRES THAT THE TANK BE OUT OF SERVICE, GAGE


MEASUREMENT OF SHELL, ROOF AND BOTTOM THICKNESS IS

USUALLY ADVISABLE,

E, IMSPECTI O l INTERVAL

INTERVAL
BETWEEN IWSPECTION DEPENDS LARGELY UPON THE

PRODUCT HANDLED AND THE CORROSION HISTORY OF THE

TANK, AND MAY VARY FROM ONE YEAR TO TEN OR MORE

YEARS. THE FOLLOWING ARE SUGGESTED NAXINUM INTERVALS

BETWEEN INTERNAL INSPECTIONS FOR AVERAGE CONDITIONS:

1, IFTHE REMAINING L I F E I S OVER 1s YEARS, INSPECT

AT HALF THE WEHAINING L I F E ,

2, I F THE R E H A I N I N G L I F E I S BETWEEN 5 AND 10 YEARS, .

INSPECT I N 5 YEARS.
3. IFTHE REMAINING LIFE IS 5 YEARS OR UNDER*

I N S P E C T AT THE END OF R E M A I N I N G L I F E .

F, OTHER FACTORS

THE ENGINEER SHOULD EVALUATE THE PERTINERT

CIRCUMSTANCES* TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION: (A) THE

NECESSITY TO ASSURE OPERATING CONTINUITY; (B)


MONETARY VALUE OF S P E C I A L STOCKS; (c) R E L I A B I L I T Y OF

- DATA ON SHELL THICKNESS AND CORWOS I O M

CHARACTERISTICS; AND (D) CHARACTERISTICS OF ANY

P R O T E C T I V E COATINGS USED,

6, CORROSION

ANTIC IPATED CORROSION RATES SHALL BE REASONABLE RATES

FOR EACH S H E L L COURSE P R E D I C T E D ON P A S T S H E L L GAGINGS

OR ACTUAL CORROSION RATES IN THE SAME OR SIMILAR

SERVICES AND TANK LOCATION, TAKE ADVANTAGE OF EVERY

OPPORTUNITY TO 1M"IPROE THE RELIABILITY OF CORROSION

FORECASTS,

CORRECTIVE WORK

PLANNING SHOULD BE COFlPLETED WELL IN ADVANCE FOR

CO!?ROSION ARRESTING MEASURES SUCH AS GUMITING, A


TANK SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM SERVICE BEFORE ANY

S E C T I O N REACHES M I N I M U M T H I C K N E S S TO A V O I D A D D I T I O N A L
EXPENSE FOR STEEL RENEWALS,

I, REPORTS
-

REPORTS RECOMMENDING R E P A I ws SHOULD INCLUDE THE


LBCATIQN~ EXTENT, AND REASONS FOR ANY REPAIRS
RECOMMENDED,

SAMPLESOF TYPICAL REPORT FORM MAY BE FOUND I N THE


, API GUIDE FOR INSPECTION OF REFINERY EQUIPMENT~
CHAPTER XI I I, "INSPECTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AND LOW-
PRESSURE STORAGETANKS,N
Inspection program cuts tank-fai ure risk
John R. Fraylick program was necessary because, ing hydrostatic tests in Fawley, En-
9: Stanclard O i l Co. within its operating geography, many gland.' As a result of these failures
Cleveland, Ohio tanks were built between 1940 and and a third one in Canada, a study
1960 with steel of relatively low-im- group within the American Petroleurn
'Sohio Pipe Line Co. has succe~sfuily pact quality. Institute's (API) divisicn of refining
reduced the risk of low-tempelature Finding and removing low-impact was appointed lo review thc oil-stor-
brittle failures of oil-storage tanks steel from the tanks were clearly im- age-tank Fail~ire problem for the oil
'.through a system of inspection and practical. Therefore, Sohio focused o n industry. Results of this survey were
prompt repair. eliminating the other two contributors reported in a paper' submitted at the
The company concluded lhat ~ t s to brittle iai!ure: high, localized stress- di\ilsion's meeting, May 11, 1954.'
es; and cracks, notches, and other The report conclucied that although
Based on a paper presented to the Energy-sources crack starters. any failure is serious, the overall prob-
" Technology Conierence and E x h ~ b ~ t ~(ASME),
on
-'.Fcb 23-27,New Orleans History. In February and March lem was not. The repor! did point,
1952, two oil-storage tanks failed dur- however, to the need for improve-

Brittle failure of a pressure storage tank, Cleveland, Dec. 5, 1957. Arrow shows failure locat~on(Fig 1)

5 TECHNO16 6 Y Jalv ? 1 lr18h Otl & GA\J o u r n ~j5


l
ment in design to eliminate stress con-
centration factors, for use of sound
welding practices, and for carrying
out thorough inspection during con-
1 Tank shell, roof location after 1972 failure * 1
struction.
Because Sohio had experienced
brittle cracking of several process ves-
sels, Ihe problem was viewed with
greater concern within the company
than elsewhere in the industry. Tliere-
fore, during 1956, studies were initiat-
ed better to understand the problem.
This was an ideal time for such a study
because a new refinery was being
constructed, and a broad source of
materials samples was available for
testing.
Charpy impact tests have been
commonly used to measure the de-
gree of susceptibility to brittle failure
(the lower the Charpy value, the more
brittle the material). The acceptance
test for steel is a minimum 15-ft-lb
Charpy V-notch impact at the lowest
operating temperature for the
Sohio tested more than 200 samples
from new construction and from o l d
equipment which had experienced
brittle failures. A progress report of
this study was reported to the API
clivision of refining May 13, 1 9 ~ 8 . ~ Sohio's efforts were focused o n se- icternal corrosion. The shell was
The conclusions from this study, at lection of better mateiials for new oil- "cladded" with these patch plates for
least i1~1regard to oil-storage tanks, storage tanks. Therefore, as API Stan- the full circumference ot the tank (Fig.
were that only half Sohio's oil-storage dard 12C, now API Standard 650 was 3).
tanks could be considered safe from revised to provide better, notch-tough The hell-to-bottom ioint failed at
failure at 50" F. and virtually none (i.e., brittle-resistant) materials, the the fillet weid connecting the cladding
could be considered safe at O0 F. In concern with the problem dimin- plates and rep!acement tank-floor
the geography in which Sohio was i~hed.~ plates. The \velds on this cladding
operating, these conclusions caused a Flat bottom-tank failures. ln early proviciecl numerous sources for cracks
high level of concern. 1972, an event took p!ace which not which could penetrate into the tank
Sohio experience. During the time only redirected attention to the sub- shell in this highly stressed area of the
this study was taking place, Sohio ject of brittle failure but also caused a tank.
experienced a brittle failure i n a pres- refocus of concern for brittle failures No fil-e or injuries occurred and
sure storage tank (Fig. This spher- o n existing rather than new equip- 98% of the oil was recovered.
oid was being filled with water before ment. About 10 years later, a 100,000-bbl
being returned to service after a major This event was a total, catastrophic crude-oil tank failed i n Moose jaw,
repair. brittle failure of a 66,000-bbl, 100-11 Canada.9 This failure had many paral-
The operator misplaced the decimal diameter by 48-11 high floating-roof lels with Sohio's earlier failure: The
when converting gauge pressure to tank." fracture went vertically from near the
feet of water which resulted in over- This tank split from the bottom to bottom to the top; the shell split com-
filling the vessel. The 3-in. vent o n top the top and completely around at the pletely loose from the bottom; and the
could not handle the water entering shell-to-bottom joint. The shell was entire shell was thrown with consider-
through the 16-in. fill opening. The thrown more than 100 ft in a direction able force in the opposite direction.
pressure exceeded what the vessel, opposite the vertical split and onto the This failure originated at a manway
could handle and a brittle failure split tank dike (Fig. 2). nozzle weld in the weld between the
across four plates at the equator. The roof floated downward toward nozzle and the reinforcing pad (Fig.
This failure ran out into ductile ma- the split ending about 40 ft from the 4). Incomplete penetration of the weld
terial on either side of the brittle split. center of the original tank. O i l carried was reported and fine cracking was
Water rushed out the large opening a distance of 400 to 600 it. The shell, also observed in the welds which
creating a vacuum in the top of the riding a wave of oil, hit a power pole. were attributed to wrong selection of
vessel and it collapsed. The vessel A 3 X 5-ft segment of a 0.70-in. electrodes.
was scrapped. thick shell plate was broken off by the The investigators also postulated
Whether ductile material w o u l d power pole. This 3 x 5-ft segment that the normally high stresses i n the
have resulted in a smaller, more local- and the lower five (of six) plates in the nozzle weld might have been supple-
ized failure, one which could have vertical split showed the typical chev- mented by the thermal stresses caused
avoided pulling i n of the top, is argu- ron or herringbone patter on the sur- by temperature differentials between
able. Many people within the compa- face of the failure which literally the air and crude oil and/or ground
ny, however, believed it would have. pointed to the origin of failure.' and crude oil induced by a rapid drop
P\lthough this was not a flat-bottom- The origin for this failure was a in atmospheric temperature.
tank failure, this episode intensified crack in a \veld at the junction of 5-in. O i l spread over a substantial area
interest in brittle failures. high patching plates added to repair and caught fire which resulted in

56 Oil R CasJnurnal,July 21, 1986 TECHNOLOGY


XVI , PRODUCTION TANKS

A, I NTRODUCTION

THIS SECTION PROVIDES GUIDANCE IN THE DESIGN,


CONSTRUCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF VERTICAL TANKS FOR
ATMOSPHERIC STORAGE OF CRUDE OIL IN OIL FIELD
PRODUCTION OPERATIONS,

B, "CODES AND STANDARDS

API STANDARDS

1, API STANDARD12A: SPECIFICATION FOR OIL STORAGE


TANKSWITH RIVETED SHELLS (240 - 225,000 BBLS)

3 API STANDARDB2D: SPECIFICATION FOR LARGE WELDED


PRODUCTION TANKS(500 - 3,000 BBLS) --
-
5. API STANDARD 12F: SPECIFICATION FOR SMALL WELDED
PRODUCTION TANKS (90 - 440 BBLS)

6, A P I STANDARD 650: WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OIL


STORAGE.

. MOST VERTICAL STORAGE TANKS PURCHASED BY THE COMPANY


ARE DESIGNED IN ACCORDANCE WITH A P I STANDARD650 AND
A COPY OF THIS IS INCLUDED IN THE TANK MANUAL,

COPIES OF THE OTHER API STANDARDS MAY BE OBTAINED


DIRECTLY FROM THE API, 1801 K STREET N n W a

WASHINGTON, DmCm, 20006, API STANDARDS 12A AND 12E


HAVE LITTLE APPLICWYIOM IN PRESENT DAY PRODUCING

OPERATIONS, EXISTING RIVETED TANKS ARE RAPIDLY BEING

R E T I R E D AND WOODEN TANKS AFiE WOW P R O H I B I T E D BY OSHA


FOR ABOVE-GROUND STORAGE OF CRUDE O I L ,

OSHA REGULATIONS

PRODUCTION TANKS IN THE UNITED STATES MUST COMPLY

WITH THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-.


(OSHA) OF THE U n S n DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
THE PLANNING PHASE SHOULD ALSO INVESTIGATE STATE OR

LOCAL REGULATIONS THAT MAY BE APPLICABLE. THESE WILL -

GENERALLY RELATE TO FIRE PROTECTION AND POLLUTION

CONTROL , WITH RESPECT TO F IRE PROTECTION, THE MFPA


30 N F AND ~
COHBUSTIBLE ~ LIQUIDS ~ C O B E ~ IS~ THE ~
MOST WIDELY RECOGNIZED AUTHORITY,

C, DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

MOST OF THE DESIGN FACTORS DISCUSSED HEREIN AND IH


THE TANK MANUAL APPLY TO PRODUCTION TANKS AND THIS

SECTION PROVIDES A CROSS REFERENCE TO PERTINENT

INFORMATION CONTAINED ELSEWHERE IN THE MANUAL, THE


INFORHATION REPRESENTS OVERALL GOOD PRACTICE BASED ON

COMPANY EXPERIENCE AND, I N SOME CASES, SUPPLEMENTS OR

MODIFIES THE REQUIREMENTS SET FORTH IN THE API


STANDARDS,

--
REFER TO SECTION 11, GENERAL DESIGN AND SECTION I,
SELECTION OF TANKS FOR A GENERAL DISCUSSION OF THE

B A S I C ELEMENTS THAT MUST BE CONSIDERED, SECTION II


COVERS SUCH ITEMS AS: SERVICE AND USE, TANK
DIMENSIONS, SITE CONDITIONS AND BOTTOM D E S I G ~ ~ ,
SECTION I COVERS FACTORS RELATED TO SELECTION SUCH AS
-
CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS, OPERATING NEEDS, ECONOMY AND

THE BASIC ELEMENTS THAT MUST BE CONSIDERED IN


S E L E C T I N G THE TYPE OF ROOF,

'REFER TO THAT PART OF SECTION IP ENTITLED, "BRITTLE


FRACTUREAND QUALITY OF STEEL" AND TO RECOMMEIVDED
PRACTICE NO, 20 FOR M A T E R I A L REQUIREMENTS THAT SHOULD
BE CONSIDERED TO PROTECT AGAINST BRITTLE FRACTURE,

THIS FACTOR WILL MOT GENERALLY BE A PROBLEM FOR BANKS

SMALLER THAN ABOUT 40,000 BBLS UNLESS THE DESIGN

M E T A L TEMPERATURE I S BELOW - 10F,

T A ~ KSHELLS MAY BE SUBJECT TO BUCKLING UNDER WIND

PRESSURE, SECTION I 1 AND THE REFERENCE RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE NO, 11 PROVIDES A BASIS FOR ASSURING THAT

THE PROPOSED TANK HAS ADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO SWELL

BUCKLIIVG, TANKS THAT HAVE A HEIGHT TO DIAMETER RATIO -

EXCEEDING 1 TO 1 ARE S U S C E P T I B L E TO B E I N G OVERTURNED

BY H I G H WINDS WHEN EMPTY OR NEARLY EMPTY. IIV THESE


I N S T A N C E S SOME MEANS OF P R O V I D I N G P O S I T I V E ANCHORAGE,
SUCH AS ANCHOR BOLTS, SHOULD BE CONSIDERED,

REFER TO SECTION II AND THE REFERENCED RECOF~MENDED


PRACTICE NO, 11 FOR INFORMATION ON THE NEED IN A

PARTICULAR LOCALITY TO CONSIDER SEISMIC FORCES AND,

IF SO, THE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PROVIDING ADEQUATE

R E S I S T A N C E TO S H E L L B U C K L I N G ,

REFER TO SECTION X FOR A DISCUSSION OF THE FACTORS TO

BE CONSIDERED IN LOCATING TANKS, ASIDE FROM

OPERATING REQUIflEMENTS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL REQUIREMENT

THE PRIMARY CONSIDERATION IS FIRE PROTECTION,

SECTIOR X INCLUDES THE IFPA 30 REQUIREMENTS REGARDING

TANK SPACING AND DISTANCE FROM PROPERTY LINES AND

OTHER OPERATING FACILITIES. BOLTED TANKS ARE LESS

R E S I S T A N C E TO DAHAGE FROM A SURROUNDlNG F I R E THAN A

WELDED OR R IVETED TANK, THIs CHARACTER IST IC SHOULD

BE CONSIDERED IN THE LOCATION AND USE OF BOLTED

TANKS,
REFER TO SECTION X I FOR PRACTICES AND PRINCIPLES TO
-
BE FOLLOWED I N D E S I G N I N G AS ADEQUATE TANK FOUNDATIGW,

NOTE PARTICULARLY THE TWO METHODS THAT CAN BE USED TO

PROTECT THE UNDERSIDE OF THE TANK BOTTOM FROM

CORROSION: A FOUNDATION TOP DRESSING OR CATHODIC

PROTECTION, AND THE NEED TO MAKE THIS SELECTION

BEFORE CONSTRUCTION I S STARTED,

THE VARIOUS A P I STANDARDS ADEQUATELY COVER MOST OF

THE APPURTENANCES USED ON PRODUCTION TANKS, SECTIONS


I11 - V I I I PRESENTS COMPANY PRACTICES AND SPECIAL

DESIGNS FOR THESE AND OTHE2 APPURTENANCES, THE


D E S I G N OF LADDERS AND STAIRWAYS ARE ALSO SUBJECT TO

OSHA REGULWTIONS, COMPANY STANDARD DRAWI NGS FOR THE

APPURTENANCES COMPLY W I T H OSHA REGULATIONS,

D, MA1NTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS

SECTION X I%I SUMHAWIZ E S MAINTENANCE PRACTICES OF

VARIOUS OPERATING ORGANIZATIONS AND I S INTENDED TO BE -.

USED AS A GUIDE FOR ALL TYPE OF TANKAGE INCLUDING

PRODUCTION TANKS,