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Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing

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Course 30001 Reader:

Non-destructive Testing
This document contains the web-based learning materials for this course. Contents Introduction and objectives .................................................................................4 Overviews and applicability of NDT methods....................................................5
Overview of defects in materials .............................................................................. 5 Common defects in cast materials. ......................................................................... 11 Common defects in forged or rolled materials. ...................................................... 12

Overview of NDT methods...............................................................................13
Visual inspection (VT)............................................................................................ 13 Radiographic testing (RT) ...................................................................................... 14 Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT)......................................................................... 16 Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) ................................................................................ 17 Eddy Current testing (ET)....................................................................................... 18 Applicability of NDT methods on different material defects ................................. 19

NDT methods – Visual inspection ....................................................................21
Inspection Inspection during welding..................................................................... 24 Inspection after welding.......................................................................................... 25 Imperfections associated with welding................................................................... 28 Inspection reporting and records............................................................................. 41

NDT Methods – Radiographic Testing .............................................................42
Introduction............................................................................................................. 42 The radiographic process. ....................................................................................... 43 Quality of radiograph.............................................................................................. 47 Film interpretation. ................................................................................................. 51 Advantages and limitations of radiographic testing................................................ 75

NDT Methods – Ultrasonic Testing..................................................................77
Definition of ultrasound and properties of waves................................................... 77 Methods .................................................................................................................. 77 Performance of ultrasonic testing ........................................................................... 80 Measurement of thickness and detection of defects................................................ 91 Advantages and limitations of ultrasonic testing .................................................... 94

NDT Methods – Magnetic Particle Testing ......................................................95
Application ............................................................................................................. 95 Method.................................................................................................................... 95 Magnetization principles and methods ................................................................... 95 MT Performance ..................................................................................................... 97 Surface preparation ............................................................................................... 100 Examination of welds ........................................................................................... 100 Non-relevant indications....................................................................................... 102 Advantages of the MT method ............................................................................. 102 Limitations of the MT method.............................................................................. 102 Demagnetization ................................................................................................... 102 Acceptance criteria ............................................................................................... 103 Reporting .............................................................................................................. 103

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NDT Methods – Liquid penetrant testing .......................................................104
Introduction........................................................................................................... 104 Penetrant Testing Materials. ................................................................................. 104 Method.................................................................................................................. 107 Surface preparation ............................................................................................... 108 Types of penetrant ................................................................................................ 108 Types of developer................................................................................................ 112 Penetration and developing time........................................................................... 112 Evaluation of indications ...................................................................................... 112 Acceptance criteria ............................................................................................... 114 Reporting .............................................................................................................. 114 NDT procedure specifications and reports (examples)......................................... 114 Advantages and Disadvantages of Penetrant Testing (PT)................................... 132

NDT Methods – Eddy Current Testing...........................................................135
Introduction........................................................................................................... 135 Electromagnetic Effects........................................................................................ 137 Eddy Current Generation and Detection............................................................... 137 Factors affecting Eddy Currents ........................................................................... 141

NDT-methods – Alternating current field measurement ................................147
Introduction to ACFM .......................................................................................... 147 Basic ACFM theory .............................................................................................. 149 Benefits and limitations ........................................................................................ 154 General applications ............................................................................................. 155 Comparison of ACFM .......................................................................................... 162 ACFM examples ................................................................................................... 164

Other NDT Methods .......................................................................................167
Leak testing........................................................................................................... 167 Thermographic inspection .................................................................................... 168 Plastic replica method........................................................................................... 168 Acoustic emission ................................................................................................. 169

Probability of detection (POD) .......................................................................170
American Society for Non-Destructive Testing ASNT ........................................ 176 Document No. CSWIP-ISO-NDT-11/93-R Requirements for the Certification of Personnel Engaged in Non-Destructive Testing.................................................................... 179 EN 473:2000 Qualification and Certification of Non-Destructive Personnel — General Principles .............................................................................................................. 181 ISO 9712:1999 Non-Destructive Testing – Qualification and Certification of Personnel .............................................................................................................................. 183 Personnel Certification in Non-Destructive Testing (PCN) United Kingdom – PCN Scheme .............................................................................................................................. 183 Japanese Scheme for Certification of NDT Personnel.......................................... 184 Nordtest Scheme for Examination and Certification of Non Destructive Testing Personnel .............................................................................................................................. 185

NDT standards ................................................................................................186
General.................................................................................................................. 186 Current NDT standards etc ................................................................................... 186

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Introduction and objectives
Many standards and codes require nondestructive testing. In some cases the testing methods to be used are specified. In cases where more than one method is permissible, the DNV surveyor/inspector may be called on to specify the method. Whether the inspection method is specified or optional, it is important for the inspector to have sufficient knowledge of the advantages and limitations of common non-destructive testing methods, and how they relate to different defects in materials and welds. The objective of the netbased training module is to acquaint the participants with the fundamentals of non destructive testing. The level of NDT knowledge shall be sufficient to describe basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of the major non-destructive testing methods, operator certification, interpretation of NDT reports and acceptance criteria. In particular the participants shall be familiar with: The importance of visual inspection. The application of radiographic testing and its dependence on weld joint location, joint configuration, material thickness, etc. and principals of basic radiographic film interpretation. The use of ultrasonic testing and the basic steps in performing a pulse echo examination. The characteristics of magnetic particle testing, and the basic steps in performing testing. The use of liquid penetrant and the basic steps to performing testing. The use of eddy current equipment and the basic steps for performing testing. The use of alternating current field measurement equipment and the basic steps for performing testing Leakage tests, plastic replica technique, and acoustic emission methods. The reliability of the inspection process, probability of detection. Certification schemes and the required level for qualification and certification of personnel performing NDT. The necessity of documented procedures and knowledge of international standards.

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Overviews and applicability of NDT methods
Overview of defects in materials
Common defects in connection with welds. Reference is made to the figure below where some of the defects described are illustrated.
1. POROSITY 2. SLAG INCLUSIONS 3. SLAG LINES 4. LACK OF FUSION 5. INCOMPLETE PENETRATION 6. UNDERCUT 7. UNDERFILL 8. OVERLAP 9. LAMELLAR TEARING 10. SURFACE CRACK 11. INTERNAL CRACK 13. LAMINATION

Weld joints showing the.most common defects referred to in section 2.1 Porosity: Porosity is the result of gas being entrapped in solidifying metal. The discontinuity formed is generally spherical but may be cylindrical. Unless porosity is gross, it is not as critical a flaw as sharp discontinuities that intensity stress. Porosity is a sign that the welding process is not being properly controlled or that the base metal is contaminated or of vanable composition. Uniformly scattered porosity is porosity uniformly distributed throughout a single pass weld or throughout several passes of a multiple pass weld. Whenever uniformly scattered porosity is encountered, the cause is generally faulty welding technique or materials. Porosity is present in . a weld if the technique used or materials used or conditions of the weld joint preparation lead to gas formation and entrapment. If welds cool slowly enough to allow gas to pass the surface before weld solidification, there will be little porosity discontinuities in the weld.

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Cluster porosity is a localized grouping of pores that results from im-proper initiation or termination of the welding arc. Linear porosity is porosity aligned along a joint boundary, the root of the weld, or an interbead boundary. Piping porosity is a term for elongated gas discontinuities. Piping porosity in fillet welds extends from the root of the weld toward the surface of the weld. Much of the piping porosity found in welds does not extend to the surface. Piping porosity in electroslag welds can become very long. Inclusions Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base metal. They may be found in welds made by most arc welding processes. In general, slag inclusions result from faulty welding techniques and the failure of the designer to provide proper access for welding within the joint. Slag lines are elongated cavities usually parallel to the axis of the weld, which contain slag or other foreign matter. Elongated pores or wormholes Uniformly Distributed porsity

Surface breaking pores

a) Poor (convex) weld bead profile resulted in pockets of slag being

b) Smooth weld bead profile allows the slag to be readily removed between runs

Radiograph of butt weld showing two slag lines in the weld root. The influence of welder technique on the risk of slag inclusions when welding with a basic MMA (7018) electrode.

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Lack of fusion Lack of fusion is the result of improper welding techniques, improper preparation of materials for welding or improper joint design. Deficiencies causing incomplete fusion include insufficient welding heat or lack of access to all boundaries of the weld joint that are to be fused during welding, or both.

Lack of side wall fusion

Lack of inter-run fusion

Incomplete penetration Incomplete penetration is joint penetration which is less than that specified. Technically, this discontinuity may only be present when the welding procedure specification requires penetration of the weld metal beyond the original joint boundaries. Inadequate joint penetration may result from insufficient welding heat, improper joint design (too much metal for the welding arc to penetrate) or improper lateral control of the welding arc.
Excessively thick root face

Too small a root gap

Power input too low

Arc (heat) input too low

Undercut Undercut is generally associated with either improper welding techniques or excessive welding currents, or both. It is generally located at the junction of weld and base metal (at the toe or root). Undercut discontinuities create a mechanical notch at the weld fusion boundary (see figure in the chapter on Visual Inspection).

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Underfill/excess weld Underfill is a depression on the face of a weld or root surface extending below the surface of the adjacent base metal. It results simply from the failure of the welder or welding operator to completely fill the weld joint as called for in the welding procedure specification. Overlap is the protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe, face, or root of the weld without fusion. It can occur as a result of lack of control of the welding process, improper selection of welding materials or improper preparation of materials prior to welding.(see figure in the chapter on Visual Inspection) Excess weld reinforcement is, in the root of the weld, (see figure at right) caused by improper fitup and/or welding technique. On the top (see figure in the chapter on Visual Inspection) it may be caused by one or more of the following factors: too low travel speed, too low current, poor planning of the welding sequence and bead size. Cracks Lamellar tearing (cracks) are generally terracelike separations in base metal typically caused by thermally induced shrinkage stresses resulting from welding. Cracks occur in weld and base metal when localized stresses exceed the ultimate strength of the material. Cracking is generally associated with stress amplification near discontinuities in Lamellar tearing in t butt weld welds and base metal or near mechanical notches associated with the weldment design. High residual stresses are generally present and hydrogen embattlement is often a contributor to crack formation. Cracks may be termed longitudinal or transverse, depending on their orientation. When a crack is parallel to the axis of the weld it is called a longitudinal crack regardless of whether it is a centerline crack in weld metal or a toe crack in the heataffected zone of the base metal. Transverse cracks are perpendicular to the axis of the weld. Appearance of fracture face of lamellar tear

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Longitudinal cracks in submerged arc welds made by automatic welding processes are commonly associated with high welding speeds and sometimes related to porosity problems that do not show at the surface of the weld. Longitudinal cracks in small welds between heavy sections are often the result of high cooling rates and high restraint. Throat cracks are longitudinal cracks in the face of the weld in the direction of the axis. They are generally, but not always, hot cracks.

Brittle fracture in crmov steel pressure vessel probably caused through poor toughness, high residual stresses and hydrogen cracking

Crack in flange to drive shaft weld

Solidification crack along the centre line of the weld

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Cenre-line crack in weld capweld

Root cracks are longitudinal cracks in the root of the weld. They are generally forms of hot cracks.

Root crack in weld between bulkhead and tanktop, material: duplex capweld

Crater cracks occur in the crater formed by improper termination of a welding arc. They are sometimes referred to as star cracks though they may have other shapes. Crater cracks are shallow hot cracks usually forming a multipointed star-like cluster. Toe cracks are generally cold cracks. They initiate and propagate from the toe of the weld where restraint stresses are highest. Toe cracks initiate approximately normal to the base material surface. These cracks are generally the result of thermal shrinkage strains acting on a weld heat-affected zone that has been embrittled by hydrogen or an excessive cooling rate, or both.

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Underbead and heat-affected zone cracks are generally cold cracks that form in the heataffected zone of the base metal. They are generally short but may join to form a continuous crack.

Common defects in cast materials.
Castings with wrong dimensions or indentations are usually the result of dimensional errors in the pattern, incorrect design of pattern and mold equipment, or an uncontrolled casting process. Such defects should be revealed by visual examination using proper tools and measuring devices. The most obvious surface defects should also be discovered at this stage. The less obvious surface defects and internal defects may be revealed by use of other NDT methods. The most common types of such defects are: Segregation Local concentration of alloying elements or harmful impurities with the result that ingots have a heterogeneous structure, with maximum impurity concentrations in the last regions to solidify, i.e. around any central pipe which may be formed. Smaller areas of segregation elsewhere result from the entrapment of liquid zones between growing solidifying crystals, as in the case of ingot corner segregation. Segregations may affect the mechanical properties and weldability. Shrinkage Cavity voids resulting from solidification shrinkage. The growth of dendrites during the ‘freezing’ process may isolate local regions, preventing complete feeding from the risers. Pipe The central shrinkage cavity in the feeder head of a casting. Inclusions Non-metallic materials in a solid metallic matrix. Common inclusions include particles of refractory, sand inclusions, slag, deoxida-tion products, or oxides of the casting material. Gas porosity Voids caused by entrapped gas, such as air or steam, or by the expulsion of dissolved gases during solidification.

Surface or subsurface blowholes

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Blow holes, pinholes Crack A discontinuity formed in the surface, with length and depth substantially greater than the width. The origin of cracks varies. Hot cracks are fractures caused by internal stresses that develop after solidification and during cooling from an elevated temperature (above 65Q°C). A hot crack is less visible (less open) than a hot tear and usually exhibits less evidence of oxidation and decarburization. Stress cracks result from high residual stresses after the casting has cooled to below 650° C. Stress cracks may form at room Quench cracking! temperature several days after casting.

Common defects in forged or rolled materials.
Many of the defects typical for cast materials will still appear as defects after forging or rolling of e.g. a faulty ingot. Lamination is as excessive large laminar, non-metallic inclusion embedded in the material. Laminations are usually caused by shrinkage cavities present in the upper section of an ingot enlarged by the forging or rolling process. Inclusions In rolled and forged, materials inclusions are elongated in the work direction. Such elongated inclusions are the main cause of the anisotropy of rolled steel plates.

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Overview of NDT methods
Visual inspection (VT).
Method The test object is subjected to examination by the experienced eye of an inspector assisted by vieing aids and measuring gauges. Application/advantages The method may be used on all objects — cast, rolled, forged and welded. Visual inspection before, during and after welding may detect an aid in the elimination of discontinuities that might become defects in the final weldment Limitations It is limited to what the eye can see. Principle

Comments Visual inspection is the basic non-destructive inspection method. Its ability to prevent defects is perhaps the most important feature of visual inspection, and more than for any other method its success is in direct proportion to the knowledge and experience of the inspector. The method should be applied as early as possible in a production process.

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Radiographic testing (RT)
Method Radiographic image is produced by the passage of X-rays or gamma rays through the test object onto a film. Application/advantages Radiographic testing can be used on all metals to detect defects with an appreciable dimension parallel to the radiation beam, on or below the surface of the object. Radiographic testing is most applicable on three dimensional defects. Dependant on radiation energy, radiographic testing can be used on material thickness up to 100 mm Fe or more. Limitations Defects such as cracks perpendicular to the radiation beam cannot be detected by radiographic testing. Radiography is readily used on flat plates. Lack of accessibility due to object/weld configuration may, however, preclude the use of this method. Due to radiation hazard operators must have an authorized knowledge of radiation protection. Principle

Comments The applicability of radiography for weld inspection depends a great deal upon the weld joint location, joint configuration and material thickness. Radiography uses X- or gamma radiation that will penetrate through the part and produce an image on a film or plate. The density of the material in a discontinuity (air in the case of a crack, incomplete fusion, or porosity) is usually lower than that of the solid metal. Different density material attenuate the radiation differently and consequently produce optical density differences on a film or plate. The selection of the radiation source (energy of the emitted rays) for a particular thickness of weld is a critical factor. If the energy of the source is too high or too low for a given thickness of material, then low contrast and poor radiographic sensi-tivity result.

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Ultrasonic testing (UT)
Method Ultrasonic pulses are directed into a test object. Echoes and reflections indicate presence, absence, and location of flaws, interfaces, and/or defects. Application/advantages Ultrasonic testing is a sensitive NDT-method, which can be used on metals or nonmetals. Best results are obtained when the sound beam is perpendicu-lar to the defect. Defects may be detected at depths ranging from 5 mm to 10 m in steel. Limitations Operation of ultrasonic equipment requires experienced personnel. False indications may arise from multiple reflections and geometric complexity. Small and thin objects and coarse-grained materials may be difficult to test. For example, welds involving nickel base alloys and austenitic stainless steels tend to scatter and disperse the sound beam: penetration of the sound beam into these materials is limited and interpretation of the results may be difficult. Principle

Comments The ultrasonic method uses the transmission of mechanical energy in waveform at frequencies above the audible range. Reflections of this energy by discontinuities are detected. In the pulse-echo technique, which is most commonly used, a transducer transmits a pulse of high frequency sound into and through the material and the reflected sound is received from a discontinuity or the opposite surface of the test object. The reflected sound is received as an echo which, together with the ori-ginal pulse, is displayed on the screen of a cathode ray tube. The method can be used to detect both surface and subsurface discontinuities.

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Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT)
Method When an object is magnetized, iron powder applied to the surface will accumulate over regions where the magnetic field is disturbed as a result of surface flaws. Application/advantages MT is a simple and fast method to detect surface defects in ferromagnetic materials. Limitation The MT is applicable only to ferromagnetic materials. It is for example not applicable to stainless weld deposit on ferromagnetic base material. Trained operators are necessary to avoid misin-terpretations. Principle

Inspection of crankshafts with hand yoke BWM 220/12 and adjustable poles Comments Magnetic particle testing is used for locating surface or near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. This method involves the establishment of a magnetic field within the material to be tested. Discontinuities at or near the surface set up a disturbance in the magnetic field. The pattern of discontinuities is revealed by applying magnetic particles to the surface, either by dry powder or suspended in a liquid (wet method). The leakage field attracts the magnetic particles, and thus the discontinuities may be located and evaluated by observing the areas of particle build-up. These magnetically held particles form an indication of the location, size and shape of the discontinuity. Some of the factors which determine the detectability of discontinuities are the magnetizing current, the direction and density of the magnetic flux, the method of magnetization and the material properties of the object to be tested. The electric current used to generate the magnetic field may be alternating (AC) or direct (DC). The primary difference is that magnetic fields produced by DC are far more penetrating than those produced by AC. Compared to liquid penetrant inspection, the MT has the following advantages: it will also reveal those discontinuities that are not surface open cracks (cracks filled with carbon, slag or other contaminants) and therefore not detectable by liquid penetrant.

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Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)
Method The surface to be examined is covered with liquid that penetrates surfaceopen cracks. The liquid in cracks bleeds out to stain powdercoating applied to the surface after removal of excess liquid film from the surface of the test object. Application/advantages PT is a sensitive method to detect defects like cracks and pores that are open to the surface of the material. PT may be used on both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. Limitations PT can only be used on clean surfaces and can only detect defects open to the surface. Principle Comments The method is particularly useful on nonmagnetic materials where magnetic particle inspection cannot be used. The liquid penetrant method is used extensively for exposing surface discontinuities in nonmagnetic materials such as aluminum, magnesium and austenitic steel weld-ments. It is also useful for locating cracks or other discontinuities, which may cause leaks in containers and pipes. There are two varieties of the penetrant method, both using a similar pe-netrant. One uses a visible dye, usually red for color contrast, and the other a fluorescent dye. The main difference is in the visibility of the indication: very small indications are less likely to be overlooked if they are revealed by a fluorescent glow in a near darkness rather than a red indication viewed in normal light.

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Eddy Current testing (ET)
The Eddy Current testing method include also the following testing methods : Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) Electro Magnetic Array (Lizard EMA) (not presented in the course notes) 1. ET is widely used in the industry as an alternative to MT. The equipment type is often recognised as “Hocking impedance plane inspection”. The method is based on manually probe-scanning without recording devices of defect indications. Normally the method is conducted as dry based inspection (i.e topside above water). http://www.hocking.com/ 2. ACFM provided by Technical Software Consultants, UK (TSC) is a computerised system with both automatic and manually probe-scanning options. The system provides recording devices for post interpretation of defect indications. The system is capable to operate both as dry and wet based inspection. ( i.e underwater and above water). http://www.tscuk.demon.co.uk/tschome.htm 3. Lizard EMA provided by Newt International Ltd, UK is a computerised eddy current system with both automatic and manually probe scanning options. The system provides recording devices for post interpretation of defect indications. The system is capable to operate both as dry and wet based inspection. ( i.e underwater and above water). http://www.lizard.co.uk/ These methods of detection can find fine surface breaking defects through nonconductive coatings. In addition they can be used to size defects both for length and depth. They are used mainly for detection of surface breaking defects. General-purpose equipment can also be used for coating thickness measurement and material sorting given appropriate calibration samples. ET advantages 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Can be used through good quality non-conducting coatings Can assess crack depth as well as length (immediately) Quicker than MT (>2m/Hr) Can be used on all conducting materials Gives an electronic and written report (ACFM, Lizard EMA) Can replay the scan for off-line assessment (ACFM, Lizard EMA)

ET disadvantages 1. Can be more difficult than MT on tight geometry 2. Cannot assess sub surface defects 3. Depth of the defect will be along the surface of the defect not “Through thickness”

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Applicability of NDT methods on different material defects
Applicability of different NDT-methods vs. defects in welded joints

Note: For non-magnetic materials liquid penetrant testing is used instead of magnetic particle inspection.

Applicability at different NDT-methods vs. defects in casting

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Generally accepted methods for detection imperfections

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NDT methods – Visual inspection
Viewing aids and measuring gauges. Proper working light is imperative during all visual inspection. The color of the light should be such that there is good contrast between any imperfections and their background. It should be possible to vary the direction of the light to reveal imperfections in slight relief. To give a reasonable idea of what the unaided eye can see, it may be remembered that a normal eye under average viewing conditions can see a disc approx. 0,25 mmØ and a line approx. 0,025 mm wide. The normal eye cannot focus on objects closer than about 150-250 mm. The function of hand lenses is to enable the eye to view an object from a very short distance. For this purpose a hand lens with a magnification 2 — 2,5 is suitable. To inspect a weld that is not directly visible but is within viewing distance of the eye, a dental mirror may be used. For more remote welds, intrascopes, fiber optic or portable TV-cameras may be used. Standard workshop tools are used to inspect welds, such as straight edge, ruler, protractor, caliper (internal, external or vernier), height/depth gauge and contour gauge. Two typical gauges to be used for measuring the sizes of butt welds and fillet welds are shown in figure 5.1. Another measuring gauge which can be used for measuring of weld reinforcement on butt welds, fillet weld leg length and angle for edge preparation is shown in figure 5.2.

Fig. 5.1 — Measurement of weld profiles

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Fig. 5.2 — Instrument for measuring weld profiles Inspection before welding. Before welding, the inspector should: have knowledge of the applicable standard and specification to be used have knowledge of the welding procedure to be used and the welders qualifications where appropriate be provided with the working drawings The inspector should then carry out checks on the following items: Parent metal The parent metal should be checked for correct specifications, dimensions, flatness, surface condition etc. Weld preparation, fit-up and assembly The shape and dimensions of the weld preparation, including backing material are to be checked using appropriate measuring devices. The fusion faces and adjacent material are to be checked for cleanness. The methods of assembly are often specified in the procedure or specification. It may be necessary to note the position of tack welds for subsequent checks. Tack welds to be incorporated in subsequent runs should be cleaned. When preheat is specified, this is to be applied before tacking. Minimum size of the tack welds may also be specified. Regarding fit-up, the gap between the components should be uniform, see A, B and C on Fig. 5.3, however, some non-uniformity may be acceptable. Linear and angular misalignment (D and E) should also be within tolerance, however, it might be necessary to preset the components to take care of the distortion caused by the welding. Fig. 5.3 — Alignment of butt welds

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Welding consumables Consumables are to be checked to ensure that correct item is being used and that it is in good condition. Manual metal-arc electrodes Type coding and/or maker’s identification and diameter are to be as called for by the welding procedure. Taken from sealed packets, the covering shall not be flaked or broken off and there shall be no sign of electrode having been damp and subsequently dried out, such as crystallized salts on the covering or rusty core wire. Storage ovens and heated quivers shall be used as applicable. (No unauthorized returns to packet by economy-minded storekeepers!) Submerged-arc wires and fluxes Identification and matching of wire to flux are, to be checked. The flux shall not be contaminated (caused by over-enthusiastic recovery) or damp. Gas-shielded welding Correct composition and diameter of wire, correct spooling for equipment in use, no contamination by rust or grease, correct shielding gas and flow. In the case of mixtures correct ingredients and proportions are important items. Safe wire feeding is important for keeping a stable arc and preventing lack of fusion. Protection of the arc from draught is also important. Gas-cutting The type and amount of fuel gas shall match the equipment in use. A correct cutting speed is necessary to obtain a satisfactory surface of the cut. Preheating Rapid cooling after welding may lead to cracking, and the cooling rate may need to be reduced by preheating. The faces to be welded and the adjacent metal, are usually heated to a temperature in the range of 50 —250° C immediately before welding. Preheat temperature is normally to be re-established at the start of each run. There may be adverse metallurgical effects if the required preheating temperature is not correct. Two common methods of measuring the temperature are: Surface pyrometer, the accuracy of this and other instruments should be checked regularly Temperature indicating crayon (often referred to as the trademark of a major supplier, ‘Tempilstick’). A check should be made that the preheat temperature is maintained at the specified distance from the Joint, usually approx. 75 mm or six times the plate/wall thickness. Electrical parameters The welding procedure will normally specify the current and voltage to be used. When assessing the tolerances for this, the following should be taken into consideration:

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The static and dynamic characteristics vary for the different makers of machines. Increased fluctuations may be caused by loose connections (a loose welding return often causes arc strikes which may be harmful to the material). Meter readings may also for other reasons fluctuate substantially during normal welding. Meters on the equipment are not always trustworthy unless they have recently been calibrated. It is difficult to assess tolerances for current and voltage. Generally, a small deviation in the volt reading is not so important, more important is that the heat input is sufficient to keep balance between the melt and solid material and to keep good control of the melt. A clamp meter is practical to control the current.

Inspection Inspection during welding.
What is said about welding consumables, preheating and electrical parameters in the previous chapter also applies during welding. During welding the following may be important to pay attention to: Interpass temperature For the case of multi-run welds, check that the conditions specified in the welding procedure for interpass temperature are applied. Time lapse between root run and the following pass (in some cases referred to as ‘hot pass’) may be important and is in some cases specified in the procedure. Back gouging When back gouging is specified, check that the back of the first run is gouged out by suitable means to sound metal normally followed by grinding before welding is started on the gouged-out side. The shape and surface of the resultant groove should be such as to permit complete fusion and a proper shape of the run to be deposited. Tack welds and interrun cleaning All recognized specifications call for cracked tack welds to be ground out. In some pipe joints proper tack welds must be ground out to the original preparation before carrying out the root run in the area. It should be checked that each run of weld metal is cleaned before it is covered by a further run, particular attention should be paid to the junction between the weld metal and fusion faces. Weld profiles with excess overlap or undercut at their edges may lead to poor fusion or defects in later runs. Slag must also be removed before restriking the arc after stopping.

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Inspection after welding.
After the weld runs are completed, the weld is to be cleaned and inspected for shape and surface defects. The assembly should also be checked against the manufacturing drawings and applicable specifications or codes. The weld contour and transition to the base material may in some cases be very important from a fatigue point of view. Cleaning and dressing It should be checked that all slag has been removed. Dressing may be specified from a design aspect or may be necessary to facilitate testing by certain methods. When dressing of the weld face is required, ensure that overheating of the material due to the grinding action is avoided. Furthermore, ensure that due consideration is given regarding the di-rection of the grinding pattern versus the stress direction. Use of the same grinding equipment for different materials may in some cases lead to corrosion problems. Weld contour and shape of welds Butt welds

Fig. 5.4 — Incompletely filled groove can be measured and is normally not acceptable. Root concavity may be acceptable in moderation.

Fig. 5.5 — Undercut and excess penetration

Fig 5.6 — Too much weld metal can adversely affect fatigue strength.

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Fig. 5.7 — Overlap caused by weld metal flowing onto the parent metal without fusing to it. Often difficult to identify positively.

Fig. 5.8 — Insufficient weld metal reduces the weld strength. Fillet welds

Fig. 5.10 — Leg lengths are the primary dimension of fillet welds, unless otherwise stated the leg lengths are intended to be equal.

Fig. 5.11 — Throat thickness, actual dimension is Tl. Dimension measura-ble by visual inspection of finished joint is T2.

Fig. 5.12 — Concave and convex weld faces

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Fig. 5.13— Undercut and overlap Weld repairs Repairs required after visual inspection are normally to be completed and the area reinspected prior to testing by other methods. When the weld does not meet the requirements, one of the following actions may be specified: 1. Report fault to authority for decision 2. Scrap fabrication 3. Re weld surface defects after grinding out faulty material, oxide, slag, etc. 4. Grind all faulty areas back to sound parent metal as per original specifications for edge preparation, taper weld metal at ends of fault to allow adequate access and re weld to original procedure. 5. Cut out (by thermal or mechanical process) all weld metal, re-prepare and re-weld according to original procedure. Where no guidance is given, a combination of 3) and 4) is assumed. Intermediate inspection may be necessary during the process of repair-ing the defects to ensure that the work is correctly carried out and that the defect is exposed and removed. Various NDT-methods may also be used in addition to visual inspection to ensure that the defects are removed. Not only weld defects and correct weld reinforcement should be paid attention to, other surface defects may also be important, such as: Torn surface, caused by removal of temporary attachments. Arc marks, caused by insecure connection of welding return. Stray flash, caused by electrode accidentally coming into contact with work away from weld region. Such defects may be harmful in high-stressed areas, and they are usually rectified by being ground back to sound metal.

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Imperfections associated with welding

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Inspection reporting and records.
To be able to verify that the fabrication and inspection is performed according to the governing procedures, specifications or codes, the inspector may need to make up a check list to ensure that visual inspection of all relevant items at each stage of fabrication has been carried out. When required, welds that have been inspected and approved should be suitably marked or identified. The report should state how the inspection was performed, i.e. if artificial light, hand lenses or other equipment have been used. If other NDT methods are utilized, a report for visual inspection should normally be available and accepted before further NDT is carried out. A careful inspection and description of a defect can be of considerable assistance to experts trying to diagnose the cause and possible remedies. Photographs or accurate sketches or both may in many cases be helpful. It should also be kept in mind that if special problems are experienced during fabrication, a comprehensive reporting may be very important for future inservice inspection. Concerning reporting, see also part "NDT Procedures and reports".

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NDT Methods – Radiographic Testing
Introduction.
Radiographic testing can be applied to most materials depending on material type and thickness. All materials absorb radiation, some more than others. Steel absorbs more than aluminum, copper more than steel, tungsten more than copper etc., depending on atomic number and specific weight. As a rule we say that the more dense a material is, the more radiation it will absorb and the thicker a material is, the more radiation will be absorbed. The applicability of radiographic testing for weld inspection depends a great deal upon the weld joint location, joint configuration and material thickness. The radiographic method is an excellent method for examining buttwelds for volumetric defects (three dimensional) like pores, slag inclusions, slag lines, incomplete penetration etc. The radiographic principle is shown in Fig. 6.1. The film must be located as close as possible to the back surface of the object. To detect ‘two dimensional’ defects like cracks and lack of fusion, the radiation beam must be parallel to the defects.

Fig. 6.1 — Radiographic examination of butt weld Typical example of radiographic testing steel products

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The radiographic process.
Radiographic testing can be performed by using two types of radiation: x-rays, which are produced electrically gamma-rays, which are produced by (nuclear decay of) radioactive material X-rays are generated by high velocity electrons hitting a tungsten anode. The anode will emit x-rays whose energy level and spectrum can be controlled by adjusting the acceleration voltage (kilo Volts) in the x-ray tube. A radioactive source (for example Cobalt 60 or Iridium 192) cannot be turned off and special shielding containers of lead or uranium have to be used for storage and control of the source.

Typical x-ray tube

Typical gamma-ray equipment

Gamma ray projector Sketch radioaktiv source

Crancking unit

Extension cables

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In tables 6.1 and 6.2 some data on x-ray machines and gamma ray sources and their applications are listed.

Table 6.1 — Typical x-ray machines and their applications.

Table 6.2 — Radioactive materials for industrial radiography (Iridium 192 and Cobalt 60 most commonly used)

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The penetrating power of the radiation increases with its energy. The energy of Iridium 192 — radiation corresponds to a x-ray voltage of appr. 800 kV. For Cobalt 60 the corresponding x-ray voltage is appr. 3000 kV. (Due to radioactive decay the activity of radioactive isotopes decreases with time. After one half-life the activity measured in Curie or Becquerel is reduced to one half.)

When using the x-ray machine as exposure source, the energy penetrating the test object may be controlled both by the high voltage and by the exposure time. When using radioactive sources (gamma rays), only the exposure time is controllable. This makes a x-ray apparatus better suited for radiographic testing. When a beam of x-rays or gamma rays strikes an object, some of the radiation is absorbed, some scattered and some transmitted. A thicker portion of material will absorb more rays than a thinner portion. The film under the thin portion will become darker because more rays will penetrate to the film and give a higher exposure. Discontinuities (pores, slag inclusions etc.) are normally ‘light’ compared to the base material and explain why discontinuities produce dark spots or lines on the radiograph. An experienced inspector or interpreter will recognize the type of discontinuity from its image (shape, size etc.) on the radiograph. Sometimes discontinuities may produce light spots on the radiograph, due to heavy metal inclusions e.g. tungsten inclusions from the tungsten electrode used with shielding gas welding.

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For determination of exposure times, special calculators are provided with the equipment. These calculators normally give exposure times referred to steel. If other materials than steel are to be tested, the calculat-ed exposure times have to be adjusted according to table 6.3.

*) Tin or lead alloyed in the brass will increase these factors. Table 6.3 — Radiographic material thickness relative to aluminium or steel Aluminium is taken as the standard metal at 50 kV and 100 kV, and steel at the higher voltages and gamma rays. The thickness of another metal is multiplied by the corresponding factor to obtain the approximate equivalent thickness of the standard metal (aluminium or steel). The exposure applying to this thickness of the standard metal is used. Example: To radiograph 0.5 inch of copper at 220 kV, multiply 0,5 inch by the factor 1.4, obtain an equivalent thickness of 0.7 inch of steel. Thus, use the exposure required for 0.7 inch of steel.

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Quality of radiograph.
Geometrical unsharpness One important variable related to radiography is the geometrical unsharpness Ug. The factor is calculated from the following formula:

where b. = object thickness + object to film distance d. = effective width of the focal spot (given in the equipment documentation for the xray or gamma ray source) f. = film to source distance For high quality radiographs, a small value of Ug is desired (IIW allows Ug = 0,2 mm for best quality).

Fig. 6.2 — Geometrical unsharpness (clarification) Intensifying screens To improve the intensifying efficiency of the photographic process, socalled intensifying screens are used. Note that screens in general should be placed close to the film (vacuum-packed).

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Lead intensifying screens are usually thin lead foils (0.02 — 0.15 mm) glued to a cardboard support. Lead screens may have an intensifying effect of 5 times, depending on the radiation energy. They have the further advantage of absorbing the longer wavelength scattered radiation, thereby producing better contrast in the radiographic image. Certain chemical salts have the property of fluorescence (they emit light) under the excitation of x-rays. Placing a ‘sheet’ of this salt next to the film will increase the sensitivity of the radiograph by 10— 100 times depending on the screen type. Lead salt intensifying screens combine the properties of the two screen types mentioned above: they are highly intensifying and absorb scattered radiation at the same time. Codes and specifications normally require lead screens to be used. Radiographic films Radiographic film is classified according to its sensitivity to radiation (often termed the speed of the film). In USA four sensitivity groups (1—4) are usually specified, while European manufacturers specify three groups (G1 — G3). High-speed films are coarse grained and give low contrast radiographs, while slow-speed films are fine grained and give better contrast and ‘cleaner’ radiographs. Standards and codes specify the films to be used, normally medium to fine grained films.

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Image quality indicator (I.Q.I.) In order to determine the sensitivity of a radiograph, a penetrameter or image quality indicator (I.Q.1.) is used. (fig. 6.1). Each radiograph must show the image of a penetrameter in order to be of any value. Code requirements will specify type, size and position of the I.Q.I. If possible, the penetrameter shall always be placed on the source side of the object. The most frequently used types of I.Q.I. are ASME (hole penetrameter), IIW or DIN (wire step penetrameters). The smallest hole or thinnest visible wire indicates the sensitivity in per cent of the base metal or weld thickness. Depending on the code requirements the sensitivity shall normally be 1.5—2.0 per cent. ASME standards normally specify a sensitivity requirement of 2—2T. The first number is the penetrameter thickness in per cent of the object thickness. The last number (2T) is the hole diameter where T is the thickness of the penetrameter. Each ASME IQI has three holes IT, 2T and 4T and the highest sensitivity requirements is 1—IT and the lowest is 4 — 4T. Example 1: Wall thickness: 10 mm steel DIN/ISO 10-16 Fe: 4 visible wires, thinnest is 0,2 mmØ (table 6.3) Sensitivity in per cent: 0.2 mm 100/10 mm = 2% Example 2: Wall thickness: 10 mm steel ASME requirement: 2 — 2T Sensitivity: The image of the plate and the hole 2T (with diameter twice the thickness of the I.Q.I.) is visible. The sensitivity is then app. 2 per cent. (ref. ASME V). If all wires of the DIN/ISO penetrameter in Example 1 were visible (thinnest wire is 0.1 mmØ) the sensitivity would be I per cent. The material of the I.Q.I. should belong to the same material group as the object (Steel, Aluminum, Copper etc.). The IIW-penetrameters are available only in steel. DIN penetrameters are available in Steel, Aluminum and Copper, and ASME penetrameters in all commonly used materials.

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The diameters of penetrameter wires are shown in table 6.4 Ex.: BZ No. 16 corresponds to a wire diameter of 0,1 mm, No. 15 to 0,125 mm etc. The radiographic sensitivity depends on correct density, good definition and ‘high contrast. On page 33 are indicated parameters and remedies for improving the quality of radiographs. See also section on Film inter-pretation.

Table 6.4 — Diameters of penetrameter wires Note that the wire diameters of the IIW 0,1 — 0,4 are the same as DIN 10 — 16. This is also the case for IIW 0,25 — 1,0 and DIN 6 — 12. DIN penetrameters are identified by Bildgutezahl (BZ) given in brackets in table 6.3.

Image Quality indicator, ASME hole penetrameter and DIN wire penetrameter.

Fig. 6.3 — ASME penetrameter

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Fig. 6.4 — DIN and IIW penetrameters

Film interpretation.
Viewing of the radiographs is the most important part of radiographic inspection. The interpreter must be familiar with the radiographic method and techniques, welding processes etc. The interpretation and evaluation shall be in accordance with valid specifications, codes or standards. Identification The radiographs must be marked in such a way that no doubt Interpreting of radiographs can arise as

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to which part of the object it represents. The identification has to be beyond dispute concerning the position and orientation of the film.

Lead letters and numbers, measuring tape and direction arrows should be fixed to the Section being radiographed and should appear on the radiograph. Position/orientation should be marked on a suitable sketch or drawing to show the necessary details.

Identification, traceability between the object being tested and the film

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Density The density of the radiograph shall be correct according to the procedure or specification. Generally, a density less than 1 is underexposed whiles a density above 4 is overexposed. The density could be measured with a direct reading densitometer or by means of density strips, i.e. filmstrips with fixed density. The density should be between 1,5 — 3,5 on a radiograph of a homogeneous part of the object unless otherwise specified.

Sensitivity The radiographs should be checked for sensitivity level to prove that the recommended radiographic technique is used. For radiographic sensitivity, see page 52. The sensitivity shall be within the limit stated in the procedure or specification, normally 1,5 — 2,0 per cent of the radiographed cross section, see section 6.3.4. Film quality evaluation The radiograph shall be sharp and free from scratches, stains, unsharpness, fog and imperfections due to processing. Where a continuous length of weld (object) is to be radiographed (100 per cent) the separate radiographs should overlap sufficiently to ensure that no portion of the weld remains unexamined. All requirements in the sections above shall be fulfilled before an evaluation of the quality/homogenity of the object is made. If one or more of these requirements is not

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fulfilled the inspector may find it necessary to repeat the radiographs with an improved technique. Material homogenity evaluation and grading The evaluation and grading shall be carried out according to given standards or specifications, considering: type of defect amount of defect classification according to standard and specification (accepted/not accepted) or grading in classes. The radiographs should be examined on an illuminated diffusing screen (viewing box) in a darkened room and the illuminated area should be masked to the minimum required area for viewing of the radiographic image. The brightness of the screen should be adjustable so as to allow satisfactory reading of the radiographs. Some radiographs and sketchs of weld defects

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Some typical standards or recommendations are: ASME V/VIII ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code; Non Destructive Examination ASTM E 155 Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum and magnesium Castings ASTM E 446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings up to 2” (51 mm) in thickness Radiographic standards for steel castings ISO5817/EN 25817 Arc-welded joints in steels - Guidance on quality levels for imperfections. EN 26520 Classification of imperfections in metallic fusion welds with explanations. ISO10042/EN 30042 Arc-welded joints in aluminium and its weldable alloys Guidance on quality levels for imperfections.

Advantages and limitations of radiographic testing.
Advantages A radiograph will detect volumetric discontinuities such as porosity, inclusions, and even cracks if the crack opening runs parallel to the radiation beam. The radiogramme or film provides a 'visual' indication of flaws A radiograph is an excellent and permanent record of the testing, with built-in evidence (penetrameter) to verify the sensitivity of the film. Well established standards and codes of practice Can be used on almost any material A radiograph will show surface discontinuities such as undercut, in-adequate penetration, excessive penetration and burn through. These defects can also be detected visually. Note: RT should not replace visual inspection for surface inspection. For visible testing of materials or processes, the film may be substituted by a fluorescent screen. This enables the operator to see defects in materials, unwanted particles in a substance etc.. The same method is often used in hospitals and for airport security checks. Limitations X-rays and gamma rays are hazardous radiations. Irradiation of the human body will increase the risk for developing cancer and genetic defects. Such radiation cannot be detected by any of the human senses and proper instruments have to be used to check

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the radiation level. Due to the radiation danger, limitations may be imposed upon time and place of radiography activities. Access to both sides of the test object is necessary to produce a radiograph. The shapes of the test object may make it difficult to produce a radiograph with useful information. Discontinuities such as cracks, laminations, lack of fusion, etc., must be aligned with or parallel to the radiation beam to be detected clearly. Choice of radiation energy for a particular thickness of weld is a critical factor. Location of defect in test object’s cross section is difficult to determine. Information typical x-ray systems is given on below web links: http://www.agfa.com/ http://www.yxlon.com/ http://www.ndt.net/

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NDT Methods – Ultrasonic Testing
Definition of ultrasound and properties of waves
Ultrasound Sound waves with a frequency of 20kHz or more, i.e. above the normal range of the human ear, are generally referred to as ultrasonic waves. In practical use 50 kHz to 50 MHz is used for material testing. To a certain extent ultrasonic waves possess properties similar to those of light waves, i.e. they may be refracted, focused and reflected. For the testing of materials, piezo-electric crystals formed as thin plates are used for generating ultrasonic waves. If an alternating voltage is applied to the crystal, the plate will vibrate with the frequency of this voltage, i.e. it emits sound waves. Conversly, a sound wave striking the plate produces a voltage at its electrodes. Common piezoelectric transducers are made of quarts and barium titanate. Properties of waves The following relationship exists between the parameters frequency (f), wave length (l) and propagation velocity (v) in a propagating sound wave:

When ultrasonic waves are used for material testing, the following applies: shorter wavelengths will detect smaller defects the penetrating power increases with the wavelength longer wavelengths should be used on coarse grained material Frequencies may therefore be selected as follows: small defects: high frequency (2-4 MHz) large defects: low frequency (0,5-2 MHz) fine grained material: high frequency coarse grained material: low frequency

Methods
When testing materials with ultrasonic waves, high-frequency sound waves propagate in homogeneous solid bodies as directed beams, with very little attenuation. At interfaces between media with different acoustic properties, such as air and metal, the waves are

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almost completely reflected. This makes it possible to detect cracks, inclusions and other flaws by means of ultrasonic waves. Ultrasonic testing of materials may be performed by the following methods: a. The reflection (pulse-echo) method b. The transmission method c. The immersion method The most important method is the pulse-echo technique which will be emphasized in this section.

Ultrasonic inspection of buttweld in piping system using angle probe.

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Ultrasonic thickness measurement of piping using D-meter and single crystal 0degree probe. The reflection (pulse-echo) method When an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted to the object, the time delay between the initial pulse and the echo from the back wall, or from a flaw inside the object, can be measured.

Fig. 7.1 — The pulse-echo principle

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Performance of ultrasonic testing
Ultrasonic equipment

For indication and measurement of thickness, distances and defect sizes, an ultrasonic apparatus containing transmitter, receiver and indicating screen is required. Relevant requirements for such equipment are: The ultrasonic equipment should cover a frequency range of at least 1,0 - 6,0 MHz. The ultrasonic equipment is to be fitted with a calibrated gain regulator with maximum 2 dB gain per step. Test range: applicable to the test The ultrasonic equipment is to be equipped with a flat screen extending to the front of the apparatus so that a reference curve can be drawn directly on the screen (see calibration 7.3.5). The ultrasonic equipment must be able to operate with both combined and separate transmitter and receiver probes (fig. 7.5). The ultrasonic equipment should allow echoes with amplitudes of 5% of full screen height to be clearly detectable under test conditions. Probes When testing materials with ultrasound, two types of probes may be used; the normal probes (0°) (longitudinal waves) and the angle probes (transverse waves).

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Probes (transducers) for ultrasonic equipment. Left: normal probe 0°, right: angle probe 70°. The normal probe (0°) generates longitudinal waves and transmits them (via a couplant such as oil, grease or water) into a test object in a direction normal to the surface to which the probe is applied. The pulse propagates in a straight direction, but due to beamspread, the soundfield will become cone-shaped. The angle of beamspread is related to probe diameter and frequency. In fig. 7.3 the principle of application of a normal probe is shown. Note that the echo height on the screen decreases as the length of the soundpath increases. Normal probes are to cover a frequency range of 0,5 - 6 MHz. Typical values are 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz and 6 MHz. Most commonly frequencies used are 2MHz and 4MHz. Application of a normal probe

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The angle probe is constructed to transmit transverse waves at a defined angle into a test object.

Ultrasonic inspection of nozzle weld connection using angle probe. Typical angles are 35°, 45°, 60°, 70° and 80°. The most commonly used angels are 45°, 60°, 70°. On materials with sound-velocities different from steel, the angle will change according to Snell’s Law. For instance, a probe of 60° in steel will give 56° in aluminium, 37° in copper and 35° in cast iron (Table 7.1).

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The angle probes are to cover a frequency range of 2 - 6 MHz. Typical values are 2 MHz and 4 MHz.

Application of the angle probe The table below gives the angles of refraction in different materials for the most common types of angle probes having an angle of incidence of 35 - 80° with respect to steel. The acoustic velocity in cast iron depends on various factors, the quoted values being average figures.

Angles relative to steel The double crystal probe (which is a special normal probe) consists of two separated piezo-electric crystals, transmitter and receiver. Because the initial pulse has to pass an acoustic delay block before reaching the contact surface of the material, the initial pulse will not interfere with defects immediately below the contact surface. In other words, the deadzone will be greatly reduced.

Principle of the double crystal probe (TR — or SE probe)

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An ultrasonic pulse from the transmitter crystal will propagate via the delay block into the material, and reflected pulses from defects will reach the receiver crystal resulting in an echo on the screen. The delay block and separate transmitter-receiver configuration, make the double crystal probe useful for detecting defects immediately below the contact surface and for measuring thicknesses within the range 1 - 30 mm. It is of importance to notice that with a double crystal probe, the first echo is always used for detection. Usually the double crystal probe is constructed with the piezo-electric elements at an angle (1° - 5°) to the normal. This will increase the detection efficiency close to the surface of the material and prevent multiple echoes from reaching the receiver. A double crystal probe with focused beam will be efficient for detecting pitting corrosion. Note: The surface must be metallic clean when using double crystal probes. On a surface with a small radius of curvature, such as pipes with a small diameter, it may be necessary to adjust the probe shoe to attain sufficient contact between the material and the probe. Procedure Ultrasonic examination must be performed in accordance with a written procedure. Each procedure must include at least the following information, as applicable: Type of instrument Type of transducers Frequencies Calibration details Surface requirements Type of couplants Scanning techniques Recording details Reference to applicable welding procedures Coupling medium and contact surface A satisfactory couplant, in either fluid or paste form, should be used to transfer the ultrasound from the probe into the material. Oil, grease, or glycerine are well suited for this purpose. A cellulose gum (wall paper paste) is particularly suitable as it can be removed with water after inspection is completed. The contact surface should be free from weld spatter and any other substance which may impede the free movement of the probe or disturb the transmission of ultrasound to the material. Light grinding of the surface and the weld may be necessary.

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Calibration The calibration of the apparatus and probes are of decisive importance for the testing result. For the calibration of the equipment range scale and the angular determination of angle probes, an IIW calibration block (V1 or V2) should be used

Calibration blocks, range calibration

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Range calibration using V2 block, 25 mm radius.

Range calibration using V2 block, 50 mm radius.

Range calibration using V1 block, 100 mm radius.

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Acceptance criteria often define a defect by specifying the size/height of the defect echo in relation to a calibrated reference curve. As the sound velocity will vary with the material tested (i.e. beam angle, range calibration, sound beam profile, etc., varies with the material) it is imperative that the calibration blocks are of the same material as the test object. For construction of a reference curve, see figure below.

Construction of reference curves

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Construction of reference curve, 3/4 skip distance from reference reflector

Construction of reference curve, 5/4 skip distance from reference reflector

Construction of reference curve, 1/4 skip distance from reference reflector

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ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section V, Article 5, describes a method or standard which is frequently used for ultrasonic testing of welds in steel constructions. In the reference block (fig. 7.8) made from the production material (or of a material with similar acoustic and metallurgical properties) a drilled hole is used as a reference reflector for establishing the reference curve. The diameter and hole location are dependent on the thickness of the plate, and are given in the ASME-standard. By placing the probe in different positions on the reference block and marking the corresponding echo height, one can establish a distance-amplitude curve on the screen. Defects will be accepted or rejected depending on the echo height compared to the reference curve and the length of the defect.

Root defect detected, echo amplitude evaluation against reference curve A more detailed description for the calibration of the ultrasonic apparatus is given in VERITAS Classification Notes No. 7 "Ultrasonic Inspection of Weld Connections". (Note, this document is currently under revision). Acceptance criteria Before starting the ultrasonic examination, it is important to define the code or standard the examination should follow. The soundness of the materials/welds must comply with the criteria in the defined code or standard.

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Reference block for construction of reference curve L = length or reference block given by probe angle and material range to be covered. T = thickness of reference block. B = width of reference block, minimum 40 mm. P = position of drilled hole.

Calibration reference block requirements Defect sizing A method which is suitable for determining the size of large defects with normal probes and angleprobes is the 6 dB-drop method, also called the half value-method. When a defect is detected, the probe is moved towards the edge of the defect until the defect echoheight it reduced by 6 dB (or 50 %), and the center of the probe is marked as the edge of the defect. By moving the probe around the defect in this fashion, the extent of the defect can be plotted. The same technique can be used with angle probes.

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Measurement of thickness and detection of defects
Material thickness (T) may be measured by using normal probes. Calibration has to take place on similar materials as the test object to avoid errors due to different sound velocities. By reading the distance to echo number n and divide by n, the thickness can be measured within approximately ± 1 - 2 % Echoes appearing between ‘full thickness echoes’ indicate lamination or other types of defects.

Thickness measurement using multiple echo-technique

Range calibration using 0 degree probe, 20 mm calibration.

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Ultrasonic thickness measurement of pipespool using ultrasonic apparatus and 0degree twin crystal probe In some cases the back wall of the test object may be so corroded (pittings) that the transmitted sound is reflected from the pittings into the material. Thus very little ultrasonic energy is reflected back to the probe and thickness measurement is impossible. In such cases double crystal probes should be used. Possible errors If thickness measurements are to be carried out on an object with a coated surface, the coating may give rise to measurement errors. To avoid such errors please note: When using single crystal probes, measure the material thickness between first and second echo When using double crystal probes, the coating must be removed before measurement is carried out. When using corrometers, D- or K-meters, it is likewise imperative that the coating is removed before measurements are carried out.

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Ultrasonic thickness measurement of piping using D-meter and single crystal 0 probe.

Ultrasonic thickness measurement of cast steel nozzle using D-meter and twin crystal 0degree probe.

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When using double crystal probes for measurement of pipe wall thickness, be aware of correct probe position related to the axis of the pipe.

Advantages and limitations of ultrasonic testing
The principal application of ultrasonic techniques consist of flaw detection and thickness measurement. Advantages of ultrasonic tests: Capable of detecting planar defects not detectable by radiography. High sensitivity, permitting detection of minute defects. Great penetrating power, allowing examination of extremely thick sections, e.g. up to 10 m of steel. Accuracy in the measurement of flaw position and estimation of flaw size. Fast response, permitting rapid and automated inspection. May be performed with access to only one surface of the object. Limitations of ultrasonic tests: Test conditions which may limit the application of ultrasonic methods usually relate to one of the following factors: Unfavourable geometry of test object; for example, size, contour, complexity and defect orientation. Undesirable material structure; for example grain size, structure porosity, or inclusion content. Examples of materials difficult to test by ultrasonics are austenitic steel and welds involving nickel base alloys. Penetration of sound into these materials is limited and interpretation of results may be difficult. (It should be noted that austenitic materials are now widely used for fabrication of chemical tankers and -installations as well as nuclear reactors.) Coupling and scanning problems, surface conditions etc. When using normal probes, defects located less than 4-5 mm below the test object’s surface is difficult to detect. (This is due to the equipment dead zone, the width of the pulse, and the probes near zone where interference will affect the measurements). Due to high sensitivity false or irrelevant indications may occur. Requirement to operator’s qualifications. (Ref. appendix II). Information on typical ultrasonic equipment is given on below web links : http://www.krautkramer.com/ http://www.panametrics.com/

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NDT Methods – Magnetic Particle Testing
Application
Magnetic particle inspection may be applied to detect surface defects in ferromagnetic materials.

Welding inspection on reactor tubes with hand yoke and isolating transformer

Method
The test object is magnetized Magnetic powder (iron powder or iron oxide) is applied to the surface during magnetization. The powder will accumulate where a surface flaw causes a leakage in the magnetic field.

Magnetization principles and methods

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Direct magnetization is induced when current is passing directly through the test object, e.g. by applying prods. (Fig. 8.1) Indirect magnetization is induced when placing the test object in a magnetic field, e.g. by means of a yoke (electromagnet). (Fig. 8.2)

Inspection of crankshafts with hand yoke and adjustable poles The principle of circular magnetization is shown in Fig. 8.1 and longitudinal magnetization in Fig. 8.2.

Fig. 8.1 Circular magnetization methods Fig. 8.2 Longitudinal (or axial) magnetization

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MT Performance
Wet particles (iron particles suspended in liquid) are recommended below 60° C.

Inspection of turbine blades with hand yoke and adjustable poles Dry particles are recommended between 60°C and 300°C. Fluorescent particles may be advantageously used.

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It is recommended to use contrast color to provide adequate contrast when using nonfluorescent particles. The thickness of the layer should not exceed 75 um. The contrast color must not be electrically conductive.

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The highest detection sensitivity for surface cracks is obtained by applying alternating current (AC) magnetization and wet powder. The use of permanent magnets is not recommended due to the magnetic field configuration which may mask defects in a large region around the poles. (The part of the field perpendicular to the surface will hamper the mobility of the magnetic particles, and thereby disturb the indications. Only the region between the poles with dominating field tangential to the surface may be reliably tested, fig. 8.3.) Prods, when applied, shall be tipped with lead or aluminium to avoid copper deposits and hard spots from burns on the part being examined.

Fig. 8.3 — Magnetic field configuration of a permanent magnet

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Surface preparation
Prior to magnetic particle inspection, the surface to be examined and all adjacent areas within at least 25 mm shall be dry and free of all dirt, grease, lint, scale, welding flux and spatter, oil, or other extraneous matter that could interfere with the examination. Rough surfaces hamper the mobility of magnetic powder due to mechanical trapping which in turn produces false indications. Such areas should be surface ground.

Examination of welds
Recommended field strength, perpendicular to the defect, is in the range of 2,4 kA/m (30 Oersted) to 4,0 kA/m (50 Oersted). The field strength should be checked by a proper instrument (e.g. Hall probe).

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Maximum sensitivity is obtained when the direction of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the defect.

As a rule of thumb the ratio current/prodseparation shall be in the range of 3 to 5 A/mm. The prods and yoke shall be positioned as indicated in fig. 8.4 to obtain full coverage of a weld.

Fig. 8.4 — Positions of prods or yoke for a 100 % coverage of a weld

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Welding inspection on tubes, longitudinal and transversal crack indication with cross yoke

Non-relevant indications
Non-relevant indications that do not result from presence of flaws may occur. Examples of such indications are: When applying a too strong magnetic force, particle buildups may occur around sharp corners, at rough surfaces, small undercuts etc. Changes in magnetic properties may give indications, i.e. between steel and mill scale, between different base metals or between weld metal and base metal. A well known example is non-relevant indications between non-ferromagnetic weld metal and ferromagnetic base metal.

Advantages of the MT method
A superior method for detection of surface cracks. The method is fast and simple to carry out.

Limitations of the MT method
The method is only applicable to ferromagnetic materials. Misinterpretations may occur depending on the test object surface, differences in chemical composition of welds and base materials, object geometry etc. Limitation of temperature range (during welding).

Demagnetization
Reasons for demagnetization All ferromagnetic metals, after having been magnetized, will to some extent retain a residual magnetic field. Demagnetization may be necessary if :

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the magnetic field will interfere with the operation of instruments sensitive to magnetic fields. during machining or cleaning operations chips may adhere to the surface and interfere with subsequent operations like painting or dimensioning. the test object is to be used for parts/components where remains from the magnetization is undesirable (e.g. bearings).

Acceptance criteria
The criteria are usually specified in the relevant standard/code. Linear surface discontinuities (cracks, linear porosity) are usually not allowed. Undercut may be accepted within specific limits in depth and length. In addition to the magnetic particle examination, determination of the undercut depth must be performed by visual inspection.

Reporting
Like other NDT methods the main purpose of an MPI report is to identify the object examined and to state exactly the location of the defects found. Photos and sketches are helpful enclosures to the MPI report.

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NDT Methods – Liquid penetrant testing
Introduction
Liquid penetrat testing is a method that is used to reveal surface breaking flaws by bleedout of a coloured or fluorescent dye from the flaw. The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface breaking flaw by capillary action1. After a period of time called the "dwell", excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer applied. This acts as a "blotter". It draws the penetrant from the flaw to reveal it's presence. Coloured (contrast) penetrants require good white light while fluorescent2 penetrants need to be used in darkened conditions with an ultraviolet "black light"3. The method is suitable for surface examination of all non-porous, non-absorbing materials. For ferromagnetic materials, magnetic particle testing is recommended.

Penetrant Testing Materials.
The penetrant materials used today are much more sophisticated than the kerosene and whiting first used by inspectors near the turn of the 20th century. Today's penetrants are carefully formulated to produce the level of sensitivity desired by the inspector. To

1

Capillary action: A force that is the resultant of adhesion, cohesion and surface tension in liquids which are in contact with solids as in a capillary tube 2 Fluorescent: The property of a substance, such as fluorite, of producing light while it is being acted upon by radiant energy, such as ultraviolet rays or x-rays. 3 Black light or Ultraviolet Light: Ultraviolet (UV) light or "black light" as it is sometimes called, has wavelengths ranging from 180-400 nanometers. These wavelengths place UV light in the invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays. The most familiar source of UV radiation is the sun and is necessary in small doses for certain chemical processes to occur in the body. However too much exposure can be harmful to the skin and eyes. Excessive UV light exposure can cause painful sunburn, accelerate wrinkling and increase the risk of skin cancer. UV light can cause eye inflammation, cataracts and retinal damage. Because of their close proximity, laboratory devices like as UV lamps deliver UV light at a much higher intensity than the sun and, therefore, can cause injury much more quickly. The greatest threat with UV light exposure is that the individual is generally unaware that the damage is occurring. There is usually no pain associated with the injury until several hours after the exposure. Skin and eye damage occurs at wavelengths around 320 nm and shorter which is well below the 365 nm wavelength where penetrants are design to fluoresce. Therefore, UV lamps sold for use in LP application almost are always filtered to remover the harmful UV wavelengths. The lamps produce radiation at the harmful wavelengths so it is essential that they be used with the proper filter in place and in good condition.

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perform well, a penetrant must possess a number of important characteristics. A penetrant must: Spread easily over the surface of the material being inspected to provide complete and even coverage. Be drawn into surface breaking defects by capillary action. Remain in the defect but remove easily from the surface of the part. Remain fluid so it can be drawn back to the surface of the part through the drying and developing steps. Be highly visible or fluoresce brightly to produce easy to see indications. Must not be harmful to the material being tested or the inspector. All penetrant materials do not perform the same and are not designed to perform the same. Penetrant manufactures have developed different formulations to address a variety of inspection applications. Some applications call for the detection of the smallest defects possible and have smooth surface where the penetrant is easy to remove. In other applications the rejectable defect size may be larger and a penetrant formulated to find larger flaws can be used. The penetrants that are used to detect the smallest defect will also produce the largest amount of irrelevant indications. Type 1 - Fluorescent Penetrants

Crack indication in hydraulic pump housing. Note the enhanced contrast of the fluorescent penetrant.

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Type 2 - Visible Penetrants

Crack indication in hydraulic pump housing. Red penetrant on white developer. Fluorescent penetrants contain a dye or several dyes that fluoresce when exposed the ultraviolet radiation. Visible penetrants contain a red dye that provides high contrast against the white developer background. Fluorescent penetrant systems are more sensitive than visible penetrant systems because the eye is drawn to the glow of the fluorescing indication. However, visible penetrants do not require a darkened area and an ultraviolet light in order to make an inspection. Visible penetrants are also less vulnerable to contamination from things such as cleaning fluid that can significantly reduce the strength of a fluorescent indication. Penetrants are then classified by the method used to remove the excess penetrant from the part. The methods are: Water Washable Post Emulsifiable, Lipophilic or Hydrophilic Solvent Removable Water washable penetrants can be removed from the part by rinsing with water alone. These penetrants contain some emulsifying agent (detergent) that makes it possible to wash the penetrant from the part surface with water alone. Water washable penetrants are sometimes referred to as self-emulsifying systems. Post emulsifiable penetrants come in two varieties, lipophilic and hydrophilic. In post emulsifiers, lipophilic systems, the penetrant is oil soluble and interacts with the oil-based emulsifier to make removal possible. Post emulsifiable, hydrophilic systems, use an emulsifier that is a water

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soluble detergent which lifts the excess penetrant from the surface of the part with a water wash. Solvent removable penetrants require the use of a solvent to remove the penetrant from the part.

Method
The main steps of the method are as follows : Precleaning of the surface to be tested Drying of the surface Application of penetrant by spraying, brushing or dipping Penetration time Removal of excess penetrant Drying of the surface by normal evaporation or by careful blowing with a fan or ‘hair dryer’ Application of developer as a thin layer by dipping, spraying, or by use of ‘dusttank’ Developing time Inspection of the test object Post cleaning (if required) Principle of Liquid Penetrant Testing

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Surface preparation
The surface to be examined must be dry and free from paint, dirt, grease, lint, scale, welding flux, weld spatter, oil or other extraneous matter that could obscure surface openings or otherwise interfere with the examination (machining and grinding may close surface cracks mechanically).

Types of penetrant
Three types of penetrant exist in both visible (most commonly red) and fluorescent color. Ordinarily, fluorescent examination is the most sensitive. Water washable penetrant Water washable penetrants are most frequently used and are sensitive enough for ordinary weld examination. For rough surfaces this is the only suitable type of penetrant. These penetrants may be removed from the surface by water washing. A none dusting clean cloth or free flowing water may be used. Post emulsifying penetrant Post emulsifying penetrants are mainly used on smooth surfaces. For such surfaces this type of penetrant has a higher sensitivity than the water washable penetrant. After the necessary penetration time a thin continuos layer of emulsifier is to be added to the top of the penetrant. The emulsifier will interact with the penetrant. The resulting liquid from this interaction is water washable. After an emulsifying time, depending of the type of surface, the liquids used and the temperature, all surface penetrant may be washed away without disturbing the penetrant inside the surface discontinuities. Solvent removable penetrant For low temperature examination and for examination of smooth surfaces the solvent removable penetrant is recommended. Excess penetrant is removed from the surface by wiping with a dry absorbing (nondusting) cloth followed by re-wiping the surface using a clean cloth damp with a solvent remover.

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Testblock

Normal temperature range for liquid penetrant examinations: 15°C — 50°C (60° F — 125°F) Above and below this temperature range liquids suitable for high/ low temperature examination are to be used.

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Comparator blocks

A non-standard temperature requires a procedure qualification with a comparator block. For details see ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sec. V, art. 6.

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Types of developer
Nonaqueous wet developer, which is a powder suspended in a volatile solvent. Spraying with nonaqueous developer from a min. distance of 30 cm gives the best result for field’ work. Dry developer, which is a dry powder, less suitable for field use. Aqueous wet developer, which may be either a powder suspended in water or a powder — water solution. The aqueous — wet developer is suitable for high temperature examination.

Penetration and developing time
It is important for the test to use sufficient penetration and developing time. Recommended times are given in table 9.7.

Table 9.7 — Recommended penetration and developing times

Evaluation of indications
Discontinuities at the surface will be indicated by bleeding-out of the penetrant, however, local surface irregularities such as machining marks may produce false indications. Insufficient removal of excess surface penetrant may also produce red/ fluorescent shadows or false indications.

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To evaluate indications, use a thin brush dipped in a solvent. Carefully remove just the colored developer. Apply a new thin layer of developer. If the indication reappear, a discontinuity exists. If not, there might have been a false indication. Indication detected

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Acceptance criteria
Acceptance criteria will be stated in the relevant standard/code. Ordinary linear surface defects like linear porosity, cracks, overlaps etc. are not accepted.

Reporting
It is important that the inspection results are stated clearly with exact location of any defects found. See NDT procedure specifications and reports for further details about reporting.

NDT procedure specifications and reports (examples)

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Penetrant Testing (PT)
Like all non-destructive inspection methods, liquid penetrant testing has both advantages and disadvantages. The primary advantages and disadvantages when compared to other NDT methods are summarised below. Advantages The method has high sensitive to small surface discontinuities. The method has few material limitations, i.e. metallic and non-metallic, magnetic and nonmagnetic, conductive and non-conductive materials may be inspected. Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be tested. Parts with complex geometric shapes are routinely inspected. Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. Aerosol spray cans make penetrant materials very portable. Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively inexpensive. Lots of small articles, in batches, can be examined using automated systems A power supply is not needed for some methods of penetrant testing Disadvantages Only surface breaking defects can be detected. Only materials with a relative nonporous surface can be inspected Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. When using penetrant examination for nickel base alloys, austenitic stainless steels or titanium there exist some limitations as to the con-tent of the liquids, see ASME Sec. V, art. 6. Fluorescent penetrant examination shall not follow a color contrast examination. Reexamination is to be carried out with the same type of penetrant as the original examination. The method is timeconsuming. The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected. Interpretation of results is sometimes difficult The method is often abused and skimped, or not fully understood Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials may be required There can be a fume exposure problem, particularly in confined spaces

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Main processtages of the penetrant testing

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From Metals Handbook: Common types, location and Characteristic of flaws or discontinuities:

Information on typical penetrant systems is given on below web links. http://www.bycotest.com/ http://www.amgas.com/

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NDT Methods – Eddy Current Testing
Introduction
Eddy Current inspection is widely used in industry for the inspection of metals. The eddy current methods are sensitive to the following properties of metals: Electrical Conductivity Magnetic Permeability Geometry The capability of the technique in individual applications depends on the following: The frequency of AC used The sensor design Distance of sensor from surface (Lift Off) These parameters will allow assessment of object surfaces without need for electrical contact (Through coatings). Conductivity is the measure of the ease with which the electrons flow in a material and will therefore determine the eddy current density; changes in conductivity will affect the eddy currents produced in the material. Increased conductivity will reduce the depth of penetration of eddy currents into the material. Permeability has probably the greatest effect on eddy current testing. The eddy current signals created by permeability changes in ferrous welds can make eddy current techniques difficult to apply although ACFM technology has largely overcome these problems. Some eddy current sets can provide useful information about materials by assessment of permeability (e.g. metal type or condition). Increased permeability will reduce the depth of penetration of eddy currents into the material. One of the most important test variables is the frequency. Eddy current testing is carried out at frequencies from a few Cycles Per Second (Hertz [Hz]) to several million Cycles Per Second (Megahertz [MHz]). The most important effect of the frequency is on the depth of penetration of the eddy current field in the test metal. Increased frequency will reduce the depth of penetration of eddy currents into the material. Depth of Penetration All methods using alternating current are limited by the depth of penetration of such currents into a conducting surface. The theoretical depth of penetration (where the current is reduced to 1/3 of its value at the surface) is dependent on conductivity, magnetic permeability and the frequency of operation.

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Four examples are shown: Ferritic steel has high permeability and low conductivity. The permeability is the dominant effect and gives a smallest depth of penetration. Aluminium has a high conductivity and low permeability giving a middle depth of penetration. Copper has a higher conductivity therefore less penetration than aluminium. Stainless steel has a low conductivity and low permeability giving the deepest depth of penetration. Copper appears between mild steel and aluminium.

Frequency and Depth of Penetration Applications for which electromagnetic systems can be used include: 1. Surface Crack (defect) detection in conductors 2. Sub surface defect detection in non-magnetic conductors 3. Tube and bar inspection (production) 4. Tube inspection on site (e.g. Heat Exchangers and Condensers) 5. Metal Sorting 6. Layer Thickness Measurement such as: a. Insulator on Conductor b. Non-magnetic conductor on conductor c. Conductor on Insulator

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Electromagnetic Effects
In the first half of the nineteenth century it was discovered that there are three effects. If a loop of wire connected to a current measuring device is moved through a static magnetic field then the device measures a current flow. This shows that electricity can be generated by magnetism and is the principle of the dynamo or generator. A wire carrying an electric current experiences a force when placed near a magnet. Also if the electric current reverses the force changes direction. This is the principle of the electric motor. The changing of a current in a wire will cause another current to flow in an adjacent but not touching wire. This is illustrated below:

Changing Current in circuit A produces current in adjacent circuit B. It should be noted that it is the closing of the switch in circuit A which causes a current flow in circuit B (a steady state current would have no effect). It is this phenomenon that leads to transformers, radio and television transmission and eddy current testing. If an A.C. current flows in circuit A, because it is always changing, then one also flows in circuit B. If circuit B is replaced by solid metal then a current flows in that metal (which is the eddy current). The link between the two circuits is a magnetic field. The full sequence of events is described below.

Eddy Current Generation and Detection
Coils A coil will increase the intensity of the magnetic field produced from an electric current. The field from adjacent wires in a coil add to provide a new total magnetic field dependent on the current and the number of turns in the coil. Coils are necessary in eddy current testing to produce a sufficient magnetic field from limited current or a sufficient current from a limited magnetic field.

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The shape of the magnetic field from a coil is similar to that from a permanent magnet. This can be represented as a series of lines or, for simplicity a single arrow. For D.C. current the arrowhead is at the North Pole; for A.C. this only occurs at a certain point in time but is related to the directions of currents flowing at the same point in time. The magnetic field varies at the same frequency as the current in the coil. The coil windings are also sometimes shown collectively. In practical eddy current probes a ferrite material is often used to further concentrate and control the magnetic field. The ferrite is usually in the centre of the coil, and in some applications (shielded probes) may also surround the coil.

Magnetic Field produced in a coil. Eddy Current Generation If a coil is brought in close proximity with a conductive material the alternating magnetic field (primary field) will pass through the material. As discussed above eddy currents will be induced in to the material. The eddy currents generated will normally have circular paths at right angles to the primary field. The flow of the eddy currents in terms of magnitude, phase and distribution depend on several factors.

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Eddy Currents flowing in a material These electrical Eddy Currents will induce a secondary magnetic field to flow in opposition to the original primary field

Secondary Field produced by the Primary Magnetic Field Eddy Current Detection This situation can be balanced and so the display can be set to read zero in the normal set of circumstances, (no crack) but if there is a change in the Eddy Current flowing in the material this will then alter the secondary field, which in turn will affect the characteristics of the primary coil. It is this change that will be monitored and so displayed, normally, on either a meter or cathode ray tube monitor.

Advanced Eddy Current instrument

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General Crack Detection image on instrument shown in picture above

Corrosion Detection image on instrument shown in picture above

Coating Thickness Detection image on instrument shown in picture above

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Factors affecting Eddy Currents
There are several factors, which will affect the eddy currents, which have been produced: 1. If a surface-breaking crack is encountered, in this case the Eddy Current is forced to flow under or around the crack, this will change the characteristics of the primary coil and thus the metering system can indicate its presence.

Eddy Current behaviour around a defect 2. Lift off of the probe from the material surface, if this varies then the results can be affected, unless the probe has been specifically designed to limit the effects of lift off.

Lift off effect, note air gap

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No lift off effect, note no air gap 3. Varying permeability of the test material can affect the resulting flux flow in the test. The magnetic permeability of a metal affects the ease with which magnetic lines will flow through it. In a material with high permeability a larger density of these lines will be created from a given source, and the lines will tend to concentrate in the material (particularly the surface). This has two effects: firstly a greater amount of magnetic energy can be stored in the coil, therefore increasing its inductance, and secondly plenty of eddy currents are generated which increases the lift off effects. High permeability materials will have created a small depth of penetration of the eddy currents. 4. Edge effects, if the Eddy Currents come up against an edge then they will be compressed and this will affect the results again.

Edge Effect

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Edge effect

No edge effect, probe fits to geometry

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5. Changing thickness of the material under test, again this can affect the results.

Varying material thickness Geometry The geometry of a component under test can cause difficulties in eddy current tests. A curved piece of metal will obviously have a different lift off response to a flat one, and the edge effect can distort the eddy current field and produce a large signal. Geometrical effects can be reduced by designing a probe, which fits the surface, or by the use of shielded probes.

Probes of various size and shape to fit various geometry

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Probes of various size and shape to fit various geometry

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NDT-methods – Alternating current field measurement
Introduction to ACFM
What it is Electromagnetic inspection technique. Developed from the ACPD technique. Designed to increase benefits whilst overcoming the limitations. Uses a uniform induced field. Requires no electrical contact so can be used through coatings. Provides surface breaking crack detection and sizing (length and depth). Does not rely on calibration. Full data storage. The a.c. field measurement (ACFM) technique was developed during the 1980’s from the a.c. potential drop (ACPD) technique to combine the ability of ACPD to size without calibration with the ability of eddy current techniques to work without electrical contact. This is achieved by maintaining the uniform input field (induced rather than injected) but measuring the magnetic fields above the specimen surface instead of the surface voltages. The main aim of both ACPD and ACFM is to avoid calibration on artificial defects whenever possible because such calibration is known to be prone to error for a number of reasons: There is increased scope for operator error. The calibration piece is not representative. A slot does not behave electrically like a crack. The slot is unlikely to be in material representative of the crack location (i.e. parent plate, HAZ, weld). The slot is not generally in geometry representative of the crack location. Calibration can only be valid for the defect length used because crack length influences the depth signal. In ACPD only one component of the surface electric field is measured since the voltage probe is always placed parallel to the input current flow. In ACFM, on the other hand, use can be made of all three components of the magnetic field, although usually only two components are needed. The three components are defined in the figure below:

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Definition of field directions and co-ordinate system used in ACFM. The ‘Y’ component, By, is parallel to the input current, the ‘X’ component, Bx, is perpendicular to the current and parallel to the metal surface, and the ‘Z’ component, Bz, is perpendicular to the metal surface. For deployment on fatigue cracked weld toes for example where a crack is parallel to the weld, the x-direction will be parallel to the crack edge. In general terms, the theoretical modelling shows that the magnetic field components are related to the rates of change of the surface potential differences. With no defect present and a uniform current flowing in the y-direction, the magnetic field is uniform in the x-direction perpendicular to the current flow, while the other two components, By and Bz, are zero. The presence of a defect diverts current away from the deepest part and concentrates it near the ends of a crack (or on either side of a pit). The effect of this is to produce strong peaks and troughs in By and Bz (above the ends of a crack or either side of a pit), while Bx shows a broad dip along the whole defect. An example of the Bx and Bz signals above a crack is shown in the chart recorder plot on the left in Figure 2, while a qualitative explanation of the signals is shown in Figure 3. ACFM probes generally measure Bx and Bz, the former being used to estimated crack depth and the latter giving an estimated of crack length.

Figure 2. Example of chart recorder and butterfly plots from a defect.

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Figure 3. Qualitative explanation of the nature of Bx and Bz above a notch.

Basic ACFM theory
Current induction A coilof wire carrying an alternating current will generate a magnetic fieldaround it as demonstrated in Figure 4.

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Figure 4. Magnetic field around a coil Note that the magnetic field and electric field are always 90 degrees to each other. If this coil is brought down onto the surface of a metal sheet the alternating magnetic field around the coil induces a current in a thin skin on the surface of the metal - again at right angles to the magnetic field.

Figure 5. Electric field induced in a metal plate Figure 5 shows the lower portion of the magnetic field produced by an ACFM induction coil and the AC electric current, which is induced into the surface of the metal. It is this induced current, and particularly the region marked on the diagram where the current can be considered to be approximately linear, that forms the foundation of the ACFM technique. The ACFM instrument usually drives a current of 1 amp through the induction coil at a frequency of 5kHz.

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Field distribution If we consider a uniform AC current sheet in the surface of a material, as in Figure 6, this will itself produce a magnetic field above the surface at right angles to the current direction.

Figure 6. Magnetic field produced by current in plate With reference to the co-ordinate system shown above, where X and Y directions are along the surface of the material and the Z direction is normal to the surface, a current flowing in the Y direction will produce a magnetic field (termed B by physicists) in the X direction. We term this Bx. The magnitude of the B field is proportional to the current density in the electric field: the higher the current density (the closer the flow lines are together) the higher the magnetic field. In Figure 6 the By and Bz components of the magnetic field are both zero and the Bx level depends on the magnitude of the current. If the current flow lines are parallel then there is no component produced in Z, i.e. Bz is zero. A resultant of the magnetic field in the Z direction is produced by curvature of current or bending of the flow lines as shown in Figure 7 Bz will be positive if the current curves in one direction and negative if it curves in the other direction.

Figure 7. Magnetic field due to current curvature

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The important principles to remember are that if a current is flowing in a surface (called the x - y plane) then, The magnetic flux density in the x direction is proportional to current in the y direction The magnetic flux density in the y direction is proportional to current in the x direction The magnetic flux density in the z direction (out of the x - y plane) is proportional to the curvature of the current in the x - y plane Fields around a defect After having seen the way that an electric current can be induced into a metal surface using a coil and the magnetic field that is produced above the surface of the metal by the induced current, we can now look at the effect on the fields by the presence of a crack. Remember that because the current flows in a thin skin the current will only be disturbed by surface breaking defects. Figure 8 shows the way that a uniform electric current flows around a surface breaking crack and the shape of the resultant magnetic field.

Figure 8. Electric current flow and resultant magnetic field around a crack. Current flowing near to the crack ends will try to flow around the crack ends, which will cause a slight ‘bunching’ of the current, flow lines and, more importantly, a curvature in the lines. This can be seen in Figure 8. In the centre of the crack the current will flow down one crack face and back up the other side with the result that the current density will be reduced on the surface, with no curvature of the flowlines. Let us now look at how the Bx and Bz components of the magnetic field would change if an appropriate sensor were moved along the length of the crack.

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Figure 9. X - section to show how Bx and Bz vary along the length of a crack. With reference to Figure 9 it can be seen that away from the cracks the Bx is at a certain background level and Bz is zero. As one end of the crack is approached the Bz shows a peak, which corresponds, to the current curving around the crack end and Bx shows a small rise in accordance with the bunching of the current at the crack end. In the centre of the crack the Bz drops back to zero and the Bx drops into a trough as the current density on the surface decreases. The drop in Bx is related to the crack depth. A similar indication occurs at the other crack end: Bz shows a trough as the current curves in the opposite direction around the crack end and Bx peaks slightly then returns back to the normal background level. The ACFM software displays the Bx and Bz traces as shown above which produce the characteristic signals shown in Figure 9 when a crack is encountered. The Butterfly Plot As well as using the Bx and Bz signals the ACFM software also uses another display called the butterfly plot. This is simply an X-Y graph with Bx plotted along the Y-axis and Bz plotted along the (negative) X-axis as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10. The Butterfly plot

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When no cracks are present the butterfly display will show a slightly moving spot. When a crack is encountered the responses in Bx and Bz are combined in the butterfly to produce a loop, as shown above. This loop is a very useful display as other disturbances in the Bx and Bz plots due to lift off or other geometric changes usually give very different plots than a crack. Summary The main points to remember about ACFM theory are: AC Current is induced into the test piece such that the current runs orthogonal to the expected crack direction The current flows in a thin skin on the surface of the material The technique is sensitive to surface breaking defects The Bx and Bz components of the magnetic field above the surface of the specimen are measured Bx is sensitive to defect depth Bz is sensitive to defect length A defect will normally produce a dip in Bx, a peak-trough pair in Bz and a loop in the butterfly plot.

Benefits and limitations
General benefits 1. Works through paint and scale – reduced cleaning. 2. Full records of all data – irrespective of whether a defect is called. 3. Data available for review by another operator. 4. Easily deployed by a two-man team or singly. 5. Operates at high and low temperatures. 6. No requirement for area to be visible, providing access is available for probe. 7. Detection and sizing in one instrument. 8. No calibration – less room for operator error. 9. Can be used for detection and sizing on many materials, e.g. Aluminium, stainless steel, titanium. (Note that correction factors are needed).

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Limitations As with any NDT technique, ACFM does have some limitations to its use. General 1. Scanning direction should take account of expected defect orientation. 2. Sensitivity reduces with increasing coating thickness. 3. Some probes are sensitive to gross geometry changes, such as plate edges. These can be overcome by appropriate probe choice. Carbon steel 1. Sensitive to surface breaking flaws only. 2. Depth sizing models are for isolated semi elliptical flaws Non magnetic materials 1. Sub surface defects may be detectable depending on the skin depth, however the predicted response can be difficult to quantify. 2. Sizing models for carbon steels may need modifying depending on skin depth.

General applications
Manual weld inspection ACFM is extensively used for the inspection of welded connections in a wide range of industries. Most in air manual weld inspection is carried out with the new AMIGO instrument. The AMIGO has all the advantages of ACFM inspection available on other TSC instruments, but in a smaller, lighter package, and with the added benefits of a longer battery life and support for simple array probes.

Figure 11. AMIGO system and one-man inspection of coated pipework

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The system provides: Rapid scanning using a hand-held probe. Reliable crack detection and sizing (length and depth). Dual frequency option 5kHz (for optimum performance on ferritic steel). 50kHz (for improved sensitivity on non-ferrous metals). Rugged site unit, IP54 rated. At least 6-hour operation on one fully charged battery pack, and easy exchange of battery packs in the field. General inspections with manual probes can usually last a full 12-hour shift. Reduced cleaning requirements with no need to clean to bare metal. Capable of inspection through thin metallic coatings, or through non-conducting coatings several millimetres thick. Windows software for ease of operation and compatibility with other Windows applications. Full data storage for back-up, off-line view and audit purposes. Access to a wide range of geometries using TSC’s new range of active topside probes. Buttons for RUN / STOP and MARKERS on instrument and larger probes to allow one-man operation in difficult access areas. Probes with embedded serial numbers to simplify operation. Still in the field is the previous model U9 Crack Microgauge. Although significantly larger and heavier than the AMIGO, the U9 is still capable of manual probe ACFM inspections, although it does not support arrays.

Figure 12. Inspection of pressure vessel using U9

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A summary of common industries and typical applications is shown below.

Some of the work involves the use of 2 man teams, including rope access specialists. With 2 man operations ACFM allows the probe pusher to be remote from the inspector. The butterfly plot removes the effect of non-uniform probe movement to allow reliable use of non-inspectors as access providers. In this way it is not necessary to have skilled inspectors who are also skilled divers or climbers.

Figure 13. Two-man operation using rope access.

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The use of rope access avoids the need for scaffolding. The use of ACFM avoids the need for paint removal and re-application. Sub-sea inspection The same principals of 2-man operation are used for sub-sea inspections. The operator remains on the surface and the diver deploys the probe. Good audio communications are essential with good helmet mounted camera views required in most cases.

Figure 14. Sub-sea schematic

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Figure 15. The U21 Underwater Crack Microgauge and its use for node inspection Automated and semi automated weld inspection (Information available on request) Elevated temperature inspection (Information available on request) Thread inspection The inspection of threads can be difficult with conventional inspection methods particularly with the female component. The use of MPI and penetrants requires high levels of cleaning and in fact highly skilled operators, especially when the crack site is only visible using mirrors. The ACFM technique has successfully been used for thread inspection over a wide range of thread types. ACFM can inspect through coatings or partially cleaned threads. Threads ranging from 5mm (0.195”) to 350mm (13.65”) diameter have been successfully inspected in either parallel or taper configuration. Sizes outside this range are also possible. Materials that can be inspected include ferritic steels, stainless steels, inconel, titanium and other electrically conducting materials. Special purpose automated systems are also available and can be customised to suit particular customer requirements. Hand deployed probes are available for detection and crack depth sizing. A typical manual inspection system is shown below.

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Figure 16 Manual thread probe In the oil and gas industry, ACFM is now being applied to the inspection of drill strings, mud motors, bolts and casings. For thread inspection, manually deployed probes are available for use with TSC’s standard ACFM instrument (the Crack Microgauge). This same instrument can be used for inspecting welds, bores etc. by simply changing probes. Simple handling systems can be produced to allow the inspection of bolts or studs.

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Figure 17. Titanium stud inspection rig In some situations it is desirable to reduce the reliance on skilled operators to reduce costs and increase reliability. For drill string thread inspection, TSC have developed an automated thread inspection system known as ATI. ATI provides simple PASS/FAIL reporting and removes the requirement for a skilled operator to make the initial interpretation of the data. BP, Shell, British Gas, Statoil and OSO have supported ATI developments. The ATI system has successfully gone through field trials, and was first used offshore (by Shell) in 1998. The ATI system is available for inspection of a wide range of standard oilfield threads, both API and proprietary designs.

Figure 18. The ATI system and deployed pin probe

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Application examples The following pagescontain pictures of ACFM being used for several different application areas. In most cases typical defect signals are shown along with pictures showing the component or deployment method.

Comparison of ACFM
Comparison with eddy current The main rival to ACFM as far as detecting and sizing surface breaking defects is concerned is the Eddy Current (EC) technique. A summary of the differences between ACFM and conventional EC is given in Table 1. The main drawbacks of EC arise from the use of a compact circular excitation current. This results in a very sensitive detection capability, but also makes the technique prone to strong lift-off signals and signals due to material property changes. The non-uniform nature of the current also limits its sensitivity to deep defects because the current does not flow to the bottom. The most important consequence, however, is the inability to model the current flow in a general way, making it necessary to use calibration techniques for sizing. The use in ACFM of passive sensor coils separate to the excitation field also makes it much easier to build array probes than with conventional eddy currents. ACFM array probes with up to 192 sensors have been built using a single large-scale excitation field.

Table 1. Summary Of differences between ACFM and eddy currents

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Comparison with MPI For ferritic components, Magnetic Particle Inspection, MPI, is commonly used for surface breaking crack detection both topside and subsea. The technique requires removal of coatings and cleaning to bright metal. A visual indication of defect location and length are produced using either black or UV ink. In many situations it is the depth of a defect and not its length that determine its importance in terms of structural integrity. Therefore in order to ascertain depth an alternative technique, such as ultrasonics or ACPD, needs to be employed before a decision can be made. ACFM can detect surface breaking cracks without the need for extensive cleaning or coating removal and provides crack depth and length information. Increasingly, where ACFM has been adopted, if MPI is used at all, it is simply to confirm an indication found by ACFM.

Table 2. Summary of differences between ACFM and MPI

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ACFM examples

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Other NDT Methods
Leak testing
Selection of System: For leak testing it is important to choose the correct method in order to optimize sensitivity, cost and reliability of the test. Leak testing should follow a pattern. A rough method should be followed by a more sensitive one, e.g. ultrasonic, bubble test, heliumspectrometer. Visible methods Bubble test: A leak in a gascontaining enclosure may be indicated by the formation of buobles in a soapsolution at the leak. The pressure drop from inside to outside of a weld may be established by either a vacuum box or by preation of the enclosure. Liquid penetrants: Leaks may be detected visually by use of fluorescent or coloured liquids. (Apply penetrant on one side and inspect on opposite side). Acoustical method An ultrasonic instrument will detect ultrasonic energy produced in a turbulent flow of gas through an orifice. The ultrasonic energy is normally converted to an audible frequency in the instrument. Defects down to 0.25 mm can usually be detected by this method. Registration of smaller defects requires low background noise. Radiographic method If a shortlived radioactive isotope is injected into the system, leakages may be detected by radiation monitors. Tracergas methods Halogen leak detector is a detector that responds to halogen tracer gases. A vacuum system can be filled or pressurized with tracer gas. Leakage is registered using a sampling probe on the outside of the pressurized system. Higher sensitivity (up to 1 O-7

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torr 1/sec.) is achieved by placing a sampling probe in a vacuum system and applying tracergass from outside. Helium leak detector is a helium mass spectrometer responding only to helium. This is the most applicable and reliable instrument for leak testing, and is used with the sampling probe either inside or outside the vacuum system. A leakage rate of 1 0-11 torr 1/sec. may be detected.

Thermographic inspection
A number of devices respond to the temperature radiated by an object at a temperature above absolute zero and convert it to a proportional electric signal. Readouts may be presented: in digital form as line graphs on black-gray-white or colour screens Thermographic inspection may be used for detection of heat leakage, e.g. as a survey of refineries,oil installations, houses, cars etc. Advantages Some advantages of noncontact thermographic methods are: the thermal output may be detected remotely the thermal pattern is not disturbed by the instrument inaccessible or difficult regions can be monitored, provided there is a clear view between the sensor and the area to be measured measurements may be made rapidly and accurately. In certain temperature ranges temperature differences as small as 0.2° C may be measured. Limitations The surface emissivity of the material is to be known. Glass, plastic, water vapor and carbon dioxide may disturbe the detection.

Plastic replica method
The plastic replica method is mainly used where it is desirable to study the object in a microscope or a scanning electron microscope. By using the plastic replica method, however, the object can be left undamaged. Procedure: Grinding and mechanical polishing

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Electrolytic polishing Etching Applying plastic Examination of the removed plastic replica by microscope Applications: Examination of the microstructure of a material, e.g. after heat treatment of materials. Detection of surface cracks (e.g. running hot cracks in crankshafts), which are difficult to find by any of the traditional NDT methods. Surfaces may be studied for damages like wear, pittings, fracture etc.

Acoustic emission
Acoustic emission may be used for either continuous monitoring or during proof testing. Acoustic emission as an instrumentation technique relies on the detection of acoustic signals emitted from a growing crack or similar defect. By measuring the relative arrival times for an acoustic signal from a crack at 3 or 4 transducers at different positions it is possible to determine the location of the source of the signal. Areas or regions with a high concentration of detected acoustic signals will indicate ‘an active’ defect and can be identified for further inspection by other NDT methods. Advantages Acoustic emission may be used in connection with full scale pressure testing of tanks or containers of different materials such as wood, plastic, fiberglass, concrete or metals. Necessary pressure may be provided either through a hydrotest or by raising the pressure of the liquid in the system. In this way the shut-down costs can be reduced. Limitations The main disadvantages of the acoustic emission method are: high costs due to advanced equipment and experienced personnel. databank needed for testing of different materials. difficulty in interpretation of results.

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Probability of detection (POD)
Inspection reliability The reliability of the inspection process relies on : Capability of the actual technique Degree of reliance on operator skill Inspection procedures used Auditability What is POD? In its simplest form POD is a percentage of cracks detected However in practice this must refer to cracks of a particular size - i.e. cracks must be grouped together in a certain size range POD can be referred to crack length or depth - how relevant this is depends on the inspection technique and how it works, - and on how defect severity relates to the different dimension of a crack Probability of Detection Provides a basis on which to compare inspection methods The terms is much abused! In order to compare techniques the techniques must be evaluated in the same trial using the same samples The POD performance only relates to the trial in which it was derived Conducting a POD trial The defects must be real. If you want to know how good a technique is at detecting cracks, you must evaluate it on real cracks - not artificial defects or slots The samples must be representative of the components to be inspected in the field (shape size and material properties) There must be sufficient numbers of defects to make the trial representative

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POD Trials In practice this means : You cannot do trials on slots and relate that to real inspection in the field You cannot rely on repeat inspections of the same crack The way in which the POD is reported must refer to the way in which the trial was conducted Presentation of POD POD is often presented as a POD curve This curve is either nothing more than a series of individual data points, or a curve fitted to the points The data points are calculated on the basis of number of defects detected expressed as a % of defects that could have been detected The resulting point estimate of POD is an experimental POD Typical POD ‘Curve’

Ideally the curve should show a rapid change from low detection to high over a small size range - and detection should improve with crack size! The ICON Project ICON was a major European project conducted to evaluate the performance of Offshore NDT Equipment The trials were conducted in 3 countries using a ‘library’ of fatigue cracked welded tubular connections (mainly nodes) The results provide POD data for a range of underwater equipment

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Plotting of POD in the ICON Trials

ICON POD Data

Comparison of different electromagnetic NDT techniques used above water and MT(MPI) used underwater (controlled working conditions)

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ICON POD Data

Comparison of different electromagnetic NDT techniques used underwater and MT (MPI) used underwater (real subsea working conditions) Limitations of POD POD does not take account of false calls POD derived in a lab trial probably provides an optimistic assessment of what can be achieved in the field If you set up a POD trial properly you need a large number of real cracks in real samples - But - how do you know what you have really got!!! Considerations for POD Trials Characterisation of defects - ideally all defects must be destructively sectioned in order to allow a comparison of the trial result with the ‘real’ answer. In practice this is rarely done and the sample defects are characterised - with NDT! Keeping operator expectation low - if the operator expects to find a defect in every sample he will try harder - may be good, may be bad

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Spurious calls Increasing sensitivity can lead to high numbers of false calls POD does not take account of false calls In the extreme, if an operator said everything was cracked, this could be interpreted in terms of POD as a good result - all areas known to contain cracks were reported as cracked! It is therefore necessary to consider false calls along with POD One way of considering this is using ‘Reliability Operating Characteristics’ ROC. In fact this is little more than a data point plotting % POD against % false calls Statistical treatment of POD data POD trials give Experimental POD results If all defects in a group are found, then the experimental POD for that group is 100% However, statisticians will argue that just because all the defects in a group were found, if the group were larger, then maybe one or more defects would be missed To account for this, binomial statistics are usually employed Binomial Statistics Binomial statistics introduce the concept of Confidence Levels If there are 29 cracks in a POD trial and all of them are found (100% experimental POD), binomial statistics gives a 90% POD with 95% Confidence for the same data. This is referred to as the 90/95% POD and cannot be achieved with less than 29 cracks in a size group. Thus a large number of cracks are required.

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POD Trial Samples

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Certification schemes
Certification schemes for NDT personnel Most standards specifying NDT will require certification of NDT operators. The aim of a certification system is to guarantee that the operator is experienced and has the necessary qualifications to perform NDT. Such a certificate may be limited to specific NDT methods and/or materials, welding etc. It is the duty of the surveyor to verify that the operator has the necessary qualifications and a valid NDT certificate for the actual testing to be carried out. Different organisations and countries have established their certification schemes. Below some of the best known is listed: ASNT American Society for Non-Destructive Testing CSWIP Certification Scheme for Weldment Inspection Personnel, United Kingdom EN 473:2000 Qualification and Certification of Non-Destructive Personnel - General Principles ISO 9712:1999 Non-destructive testing – Qualification and Certification of Personnel’ PCN Personnel Certification in Non-Destructive Testing, United Kingdom Japanese Society for Non-Destructive Inspection NORDTEST Nordtest Scheme for Certification of Non-Destructive Testing Personnel

American Society for Non-Destructive Testing ASNT
(Reference document: SNT-TC. 1A (1996)) The ASNT scheme for certification of NDT personnel is basically a system that may be adopted by a company when establishing an internal inspection system. The ASNT system has also been adopted by inspection companies and is often referred to by other certifying bodies. The ASNT model is therefore described in more detail below. The ASNT-scheme has three levels: A Level 1 NDT operator shall be qualified, under the surveillance of a level II — NDT operator, to perform specific ND tests according to written instructions and to report the results.

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A Level II NDT operator shall be qualified to calibrate instruments and evaluate results with respect to applicable codes, standards and specifications. He shall be familiar with the scope and limitations of NDT methods and be capable of guiding level I NDT operators. He shall be able to prepare written instructions and to organise and report nondestructive tests. A Level III NDT engineer shall be competent to perform training and examination of level I and II NDT personnel. A level III NDT engineer will have several years’ experience in NDT and have a detailed knowledge of standards and specifications. He shall be able to designate NDT methods and techniques to be applied for a given NDT problem. ASNT certificates are issued for level I and II for the following NDT-methods: Ultrasonic Testing, Radiographic Testing, Magnetic Particle Inspection, Liquid Penetrant Testing, Eddy Current Testing Leakage Testing. NDT engineers at level III are approved as such by appointment issued either by ASNT or by the company. ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP) Revision 3 (November 1997) This document establishes the system for central certification of nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel administered and maintained by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT). The purpose of the ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP) is to provide independent, transportable NDT certification by examination to promote national and international acceptance of NDT certification and reduce multiple audits of certification programs. Categories of qualification are defined in terms of the skills and knowledge required in given method(s) to perform specified NDT activity(ies).

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ACCP Professional Level III: An ACCP Professional Level III shall have the skills and knowledge to establish techniques, to interpret codes, standards, and specifications, to designate the particular technique to be used, and to prepare or approve procedures and instructions. An ACCP Professional Level III shall also have general familiarity with other NDT methods. An ACCP Professional Level III shall be capable of conducting or directing the training and examination of NDT personnel in the methods for which the ACCP Professional Level III is qualified. An ACCP Professional Level III shall have knowledge of materials, fabrication, and product technology in order to establish techniques and to assist in establishing acceptance criteria when none are otherwise available. ACCP Level II: An ACCP Level II shall have the skills and knowledge to set up and calibrate equipment, to conduct tests, and to interpret, evaluate, and document results in accordance with procedures approved by an ACCP Professional Level III or ASNT NDT Level III. An ACCP Level II shall be thoroughly familiar with the scope and limitations of the method to which certified and should be capable of directing the work of trainees and Level I personnel. An ACCP Level II shall be able to organize and report NDT results. An ACCP Level II shall be capable of developing an instruction in conformance with a procedure. ACCP Level I: An ACCP Level I shall have the skills and knowledge to properly perform specific calibrations, specific tests, and with prior written approval of an ACCP Professional Level III or ASNT NDT Level III, perform specific interpretations and evaluations for acceptance or rejection and document the results in accordance with instructions. An ACCP Level I shall receive the necessary guidance or supervision from an ACCP Level II or ACCP Professional Level III or ASNT NDT Level III. Validity and Recertification Certification shall be valid: for a period not to exceed five years, at which point recertification is required in order to maintain certification; and when an individual performs work in an IS only if all examination(s) required for that work have been successfully completed and endorsement issued accordingly. Certification shall be invalid if the: CMC finds after reviewing evidence that the individual has violated the applicable code of ethics, and

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individual does not satisfy the annual near-distance vision examination requirement in 7.9.1. Failure to comply with this vision requirement may cause revocation of ACCP certification. Employer authorization (see 2.8) shall expire when employment is terminated. Recertification Recertification is required in order to: extend certification after the specified period of validity; and maintain certification after a significant interruption of continued satisfactory work activity in that NDT method or IS for which certification is held. Note A significant interruption of continued satisfactory work activity occurs when the period of interruption is: greater than the sum of an individual’s NDT experience at all levels of qualification in the method, or less than the sum of an individual’s NDT experience at all levels of qualification, but greater than 12 of the last 24 months, or less than the sum of an individual’s NDT experience at all levels of qualification, but greater than 36 of the last 60 months. With this document visit ASNT homepage on Internet for more information about certification http://www.asnt.org/certification/certification.htm

Document No. CSWIP-ISO-NDT-11/93-R Requirements for the Certification of Personnel Engaged in Non-Destructive Testing
3rd Edition September 2001 The CSWIP is a British certification system covering application on welding of the NDT methods. The document prescribes procedures by which personnel may be examined and, if successful, certified for ultrasonic testing, magnetic testing, liquid penetrant testing, visual and optical testing, radiographic testing and/or radiographic interpretation and eddy current testing as applied to welded joints, castings and/or wrought components.

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The requirements for examination eligibility, examination format and the rules governing certificate validity and renewal are, as a minimum in compliance with ISO 9712 (1999) and EN 473 (1993). The certification system comprises three parts: General (theory and practical common to all applications of a particular method of NDT) Sector specific (theory and practical for the method related to a specific application – in the present case this is welds made by conventional fusion welding processes, casings and/or wrought components) Job specific (practical related to the special needs of an individual employer) – the examination is conducted by the employer. General and sector specific examinations are conducted by, or under the control of, an Examining Body authorised by TWI Certification Ltd. The present requirements are intended to meet the majority of users’ needs for the practical non-destructive testing of welds, castings and wrought products and to provide industry with an assured minimum standard of proficiency. The majority of users of independent certification find the general and sector specific examinations sufficient for their needs, and do not require job specific examinations. The specialist user may add job specific examinations related to his/her own particular needs. The examination is designed to test the candidate’s grasp of the subject and his/her understanding of the operations he/she performs. The examination procedure involves written and practical examinations. Visit CSWIP’s homepage on Internet for more information about certification http://www.twi.co.uk/or contact: TWI Certification Ltd Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AL, UK Telephone: +44 (0) 1223 891162 Telefax: +44 (0) 1223 894219 Email: twicertification@twi.co.uk

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EN 473:2000 Qualification and Certification of NonDestructive Personnel — General Principles
This certification standard covers proficiency in one or more of the following methods: 1. Acoustic emission testing 2. Eddy current testing 3. Leak testing ( hydraulic pressure tests excluded) 4. Magnetic particle testing 5. Penetrant testing 6. Radiographic testing 7. Ultrasonic testing 8. Visual testing The system described in this standard can also apply to other NDT methods provided an approved programme of certification exists. The certification body shall fulfil the requirements of EN 45013. Levels of qualification Level 1 An individual certificated to Level 1 has demonstrated competence to carry out NDT according to written instructions and under the supervision of level 2 or 3 personnel. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, level 1 personnel may be authorised to: Set up NDT equipment. Perform the test. Record and classify the results of the tests in terms of written criteria. Report the results. Level 1 certificated personnel shall not be responsible for the choice of test method or technique to be used, nor for the assessment of the test results. Level 2 An individual certificated to Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform non destructive testing according to established or recognised procedures. Within the scope

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of the competence defined on the certificate, level 2 personnel may be authorised to: Select the NDT technique for the test method to be used. Define the limitations of application of the testing method. Translate NDT standards and specifications into NDT instructions. Set up and verify equipment settings. Perform and supervise tests. Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes or specifications. Prepare written NDT instructions. Carry out and to supervise all level 1 duties. Level 3 An individual certificated to Level 3 has demonstrated competence to perform and direct non destructive testing operations for which he is certificated. An individual certificated to level 3 may: Assume full responsibility for a test facility or examination centre and staff. Establish and validate NDT instructions and procedures. Interpret standards, codes, specifications and procedures. Designate the particular test methods, procedures and NDT instructions to be used. Carry out and to supervise all level 1 and 2 duties. Validity The maximum period of validity of the certificate is five years. The initial period of validity shall commence when all of the requirements for certification (training, experience, success in examination and satisfactory vision test) are fulfilled. Certification shall become invalid: At the option of the certification body, e.g. after reviewing evidence of unethical behaviour incompatible with the certification proceduresIf the individual becomes physically incapable of performing his duties based upon failure of the visual acuity examination taken annually under the responsibility of his employer If a significant interruption takes place in the method for which the individual is certificated.

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ISO 9712:1999 Non-Destructive Testing – Qualification and Certification of Personnel
This International standard establishes a system for the qualification and certification, by a central independent body of personnel to perform industrial non-destructive testing (NDT) using the NDT methods listed under EN 473 above. ISO 9712:1999 has 3 levels of qualification as described under EN473 and the certificates issued under this scheme has the same validity as certificates issued under EN 473, however this ISO standard has less specific requirement to practical examination compared to EN 473:2000 and the Nordtest scheme ISO 9712:1999 is more or less equivalent to EN 473:1993

Personnel Certification in Non-Destructive Testing (PCN) United Kingdom – PCN Scheme
The PCN scheme, an internationally recognised scheme, for the certification competence of NDT personnel, is accredited as meeting the requirements of European Standards EN 45013, EN 473 and international standard ISO 9712. Entry to PCN examinations require training and experience in accordance with published guidelines which are available free of charge on request from Customer Services, TWI Training & Examination Services. The scheme offers three levels of certification specific to industry sectors and NDT methods. The scheme offers three levels of certification specific to industry sectors and NDT methods. PCN certification is also available in a number of sectors: tube and pipe aerospace welds castings wrought products (forgings) general engineering products (includes welds, castings and wrought products) railway TWI offers PCN examinations at permanent locations in the UK and overseas and periodically at additional locations according to demand. To be eligible for Level 1 and Level 2 examination, candidates must have successfully completed, prior to making application for examination, a PCN approved course of structured training to the relevant PCN syllabus and satisfy relevant work experience requirements in accordance with document 'PCN/GEN Issue 3'.

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To successfully complete examinations the candidate shall obtain a grade of at least 70% in each examination part and an overall composite grade (N) of at least 80%. Certificates PCN certificates are valid for a period of 5 years and can be renewed by examination or documentation. For further information, please contact: Customer Services Tel: + 44 (0) 1223 891162 Fax: + 44 (0) 1223 891630 E-mail: mailto:trainexam@twi.co.uk

Japanese Scheme for Certification of NDT Personnel
(Ref. Doc. NDIS 0601:2000) Latest document NDIS 0601:2000 is almost corresponding to ISO 9712 with three level qualification as below. Level 3 :Management level Prepare or approve of specification and procedure Evaluation and judgement of inspection results. For RT, UT, MT, PT, ET, SM Level 2 :Senior level Control of inspection process and prepare of test report Instruct to Level 1 operator For RT, UT, MT,MY, PT, PD, ET, SM Level 1 :NDI Operator level Inspection and prepare of inspection record. For RT, UT, UM, MY, ME, MC, PD, PW, ET, SM UM= Thickness measurement MY=Yoke type MT MC=Coil type MT PD=Normal PT PW=Water type PT English version NDIS 0601:2000 is not available.

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Nordtest Scheme for Examination and Certification of Non Destructive Testing Personnel
(Nordtest Doc Gen 010, Fourth Edition 2001 -06) The Nordtest scheme for examination and certification of non-destructive testing personnel is the main scheme for certification of NDT personnel in the Nordic countries. The Nordtest scheme is meeting the requirements of European Standards EN 45013, EN 473 and international standard ISO 9712. EN 473 includes general requirements related to examination and certification. Nordtest scheme provides more detailed requirement to the technical content, principles for judgement or level of quality in the examination, which assure a uniform performance of examinations and certifications.

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NDT standards
General
The amount and type of NDT to be performed will often be specified by reference to a standard, code or guideline. The NDT programs may be specified at different levels: Laws and Regulations: Laws and regulations are issued by the authorities and are normally written in general terms. In some cases NDT programs may be specified. Typical references are Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD), Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD), US Coastguard, UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE), Marine Safety Arency (MSA) UK. EU Directives i.e. PED (Pressurised Equipment Directive). Standards and Codes: A standard is a document prepared by international or national standardization organizations. Examples are ISO (International Standardization Organization) and ANSI (American National Standards Institute). The term code may indicate the same level of recognition as a standard. An example is the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. EURO Norms (EN). Guidelines and Recommendations: Different international or national societies, organizations or bodies may issue guidelines, recommendations etc. concerning NDT. Guidelines etc. are publications giving practical information on specific items like for instance ‘Ultrasonic Inspection of Weld Connections’ issued by DNV (CL.No.7). Specification: A specification is a precise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, pro-duct, system or service, indicating, whenever appropriate, the procedure by means of which it may be determined whether the requirements given are satisfied.

Current NDT standards etc
Below are listed some of the most applied standards and recommendations where NDT programs are specified:

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ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers has issued a ‘Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code’ containing 11 sections. The relevant sections are: Section V, Nondestructive Examination, which describes in detail the performance of NDT. Section VIII ‘Pressure Vessels’ describing NDT and acceptance criteria for such vessels. The ASME-code is extensively used throughout the world not only for pressure vessels but is often adopted for other structures. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials Standards are often referred to for radiography of steel castings. Corresponding standards exist for castings of aluminium, magnesium, tin, bronze and copper. IIW International Institute of Welding has established, as a recommendation, collections of reference radiographs of welds in steel and aluminium. In the past these collections were often referred to when specifying acceptance criteria of welds when radiographic methods were used. Nowadays, national or international standards are more commonly used. According to the IIW Reference Radiographs the types of defects are given by a lettering code and the quality of the radiographs by a colour code: black — blue — green — brown — red, where black is the best quality and red the poorest. Below is listed some typical standards, rules and guidelines often used in connection with NDT.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing

Page 187

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing

Page 188

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing

Page 189

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