Tutorial for ANSYS®

Release 6.1 Finite Element Analysis Software

For Unix Based Workstations Truss, Frame, and Plate Examples

By Andrew R. Mondi Using examples and revisions from: Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial, January 2000, by Keith M. Mueller Department of General Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign May 2003 Corrections: May 18, 2004

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This tutorial is based upon Cosmos-Geostar Tutorial written by Dr. Keith M. Mueller in January 2000. The example problems solved in that tutorial are also solved here. I tried to incorporate the strengths of Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial into this ANSYS tutorial, even though the structure and content of each are quite different. I thank Professor David E. Goldberg for his guidance while writing this booklet. He is a skilled manager and leader. I thank Mr. Raja R. Katta for his assistance. His concise and timely explanations of difficult material in ANSYS were essential for swiftly completing this project. Also, I thank Professor Thomas F. Conry for his advice and suggestions for refining and improving this tutorial.

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FRAME EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Define Sections Meshing Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Define Frame Constraints Define Frame Loads Apply Solution 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-7 2-8 2-10 2-12 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-20 2-20 2-23 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-9 iv .TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION What is ANSYS? Helpful Web Links Purpose of this Tutorial Using this Tutorial Effectively Starting up in a Unix System Default View in ANSYS Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS 2. TRUSS EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing Solution Phase Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing Reaction Forces Member Forces and Axial Stresses Displacements 3.

PLATE EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing (and refining a mesh) Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing 5.3. APPENDIX Working with ANSYS in Unix Saving an ANSYS file Opening a previously saved ANSYS file Printing result tables Printing graphical output Managing your EWS Account How to Access EWS files Deleting EWS files in Unix Creating Axisymmetric Models General Notes on Understanding ANSYS 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-10 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-10 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-5 v . FRAME EXAMPLE (continued) Post-processing Introduction Reaction Forces Member Forces and Stresses Member Displacements and Rotations 4.

ca/tutorials/ansys/>. Finally a two dimensional plate is analyzed.nist. Some commentary on the mathematics behind FEA software by the National Institute of Standards and Technology can be accessed at <http://math. It uses a preprocessor software engine to create geometry. Using this Tutorial Effectively This tutorial is designed so that the reader completes each example in the order it is presented. Then it uses a solution routine to apply loads to the meshed geometry. Now FEA is used throughout almost all engineering design including mechanical systems and civil engineering structures. Finite element analysis was first developed by the airplane industry to predict the behavior of metals when formed for wings. a frame (using beam members). Here the user defines sections and outputs internal member moments and member rotations. More information about the ANSYS FEA package and other ANSYS products can be found at <www.hsympatico.1. It is designed to familiarize the user with the basic functions of ANSYS FEA software.ca/peter_budgell/home.com>.html>. Finally it outputs desired results in post-processing. Examples of a simple truss.gov/mcsd/savg/tutorial/ansys/FEM/index. Once completing this tutorial. The latter tutorials (frame and plate) assume the user understands certain functions of the program covered in earlier examples. ANSYS is used throughout industry in many engineering disciplines. Purpose of this Tutorial The purpose of this tutorial is to guide students in the Department of General Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through their structures courses (GE 221 and GE 232).mece.htm>. Links and design tips can be accessed at <http://www3. and a two-dimensional plate are explored.ualberta. the user should be able to apply its principles to all types of two dimensional beam problems. This is the simplest of the three models investigated in this tutorial. Helpful Web Links Another ANSYS tutorial produced by the University of Alberta. 1-1 .ansys. This example is useful for those users investigating stress concentrations and other solid mechanics properties. INTRODUCTION What is ANSYS? ANSYS is a finite element analysis (FEA) software package. Next a frame is explored. This is also the longest of the three tutorials because it is the most detailed of the three examples and it does not assume any prior knowledge of the user. This software package was even used by the engineers that investigated the World Trade Center collapse in 2001. First a truss is analyzed. Canada can be accessed at <http://www.

You should not perform any operations in this window. Click the top icon. which creates a new window (Figure 1-2) on the desktop titled “Tansys” with square icons. Note: the question-mark icon accesses Help. Figure 1-2 Tansys window First. a session file screen (Figure 1-3) will pop-up. type ansys. You may need to wait for a few seconds until the graphicalinterface component of the program launches and you see the graphical interface (Figure 1-4 on the next page): Figure 1-3 Session file window 1-2 .Starting up in a Unix System After logging onto the workstation. ANSYS NOW. you will see an x-term window (Figure 1-1) on the desktop: Figure 1-1 x-term window At the prompt in this window.

Figure 1-4 ANSYS with graphical interface Default View in ANSYS The default view in ANSYS is well suited for two-dimensional designs with the x-axis pointing horizontally to the right. and the constraints on the structure. You need to know the position. In order to get ANSYS to work properly. easiest and most logical way to use ANSYS is through the Main Menu located on the far left-hand side of the screen (Figure 1-5 at left). It may look intimidating at first glance however think about the information that you need to solve for all of the components in a structure. length. magnitude and direction of all the loads on the structure. Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS The fastest. and material of the structural members. you simply need to tell the program this information and it will do the rest for you! Figure 1-5 Main Menu 1-3 . y-axis pointing vertically upwards. the position. and the z-axis pointing out of the screen. Zoom and repaint (or refresh screen) commands are very similar to those used in most CAD or word processing software.

The construction steps to be accomplished in each command are listed below: Preprocessor 1. For the purposes of this tutorial. You should complete these three major steps: (1) Preprocessing stage. Load magnitude 3. Member length 2. Member position 3. Load direction Post-processor Get displacement member force data in both graphical and text output. Also information concerning printing. Solution. these are the first three commands on the Main Menu. The rest of this tutorial will bring you through three helpful examples that will familiarize you with ANSYS. and (3) Post-processing stage IN THE ORDER GIVEN. Member material Solution 1. You will use this Main Menu just like Windows Explorer or any other function that is organized in a “tree fashion”.The Main Menu is designed so that you complete the steps required to build your model by beginning at the top of the menu and working your way down. ANSYS will not know how to properly solve your structure and give you bad results. you will need to be familiar with three of the commands on the Main Menu: Preprocessor. Load position 2. 1-5. 1-4 . managing your EWS account and other helpful Unix tips is in the Appendix at the end of this tutorial. (2) Solution. and Post-processor (noted as General Postproc on the ANSYS main menu) – as you can see in Fig. If you do not.

2. Introduction – several steps will be completed in the Pre Processing stage: 1. Modeling (define Keypoints and lines and using plot controls) 2. Solution. find the internal forces in all members and displacements of all joints. and the three horizontal members will be assumed to be steel and have an area of 10 in2. the four diagonal members will be assumed to be aluminum and have an area of 30 in2. Meshing (one division per element) 2-1 . TRUSS EXAMPLE Given the following loaded truss. Remember: Think about the modeling processing as having 3 major steps: Preprocessing. This tutorial is built so as to mimic this outline structure. I. While this creates a somewhat unrealistic truss. Always be thinking about where you are in the modeling process and how the steps you are completing are meaningful and can be used in other problems you will solve in your classes. Figure 2-1 Given truss For illustrative purposes. ANSYS is constructed in an outline format. and Post-processing. Real Constants (define cross-sectional areas of truss spars) 4. Element Type (2D truss spars) 3. there are small sub-steps. Preprocessing A. it will allow for demonstration of modeling a truss containing different materials and member sizes. In each of these major steps.

The pop-up window will prompt you for a keypoint number and a set of coordinates for that keypoint. Click the small icon next to Active CS. d. Another sub-menu of all modeling commands is listed here. Left click the small plus sign next to Create. c. A sub-menu will drop-down listing all of the commands you can use in the Preprocessing stage. This menu lists all of the objects you can create in ANSYS. b.The first step in designing any structure in ANSYS is to define the Keypoints of the structure. On the Main Menu. These points simulate the joints of the structural members and also serve as endpoints of the members. left click the plus sign next to Preprocessor. Left click the small plus sign next to Keypoints. a. Left click the small plus sign next to Modeling. Keypoints . Note: This sequence of steps will be summarized using the following notation: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS The Create Keypoints window will appear: Figure 2-3 Create Keypoints window 2-2 . You will be creating points and lines. Modeling 1.Figure 2-2 Main Menu B.

g. Remember that Keypoints represent joints of your structure’s geometry so number ALL of the joints in your design. Y.e. At this juncture you should choose how to define all of the Keypoints in your structure. Note: ANSYS does not work in any pre-defined unit system – it is your responsibility to be consistent with your units (i. Define points 3 and 4 as above. Define point 2 just as you did for point 1: enter 2 into the keypoint number box at the top and 200 in the x box. For this example. As mentioned earlier. Select Apply. Note: If you select “Apply” on the last point you need to enter. h. Helpful Hint: If you do not enter a point value. The Create Keypoints window (Figure 2-3) tells ANSYS where your keypoints (or joints) are located. click the “OK” button. Instead choose “Cancel”. we will use inches for length and pounds for load. It is often best to number the joints in a logical manner that you can remember easily. This will create the point and close the dialog box. ANSYS takes default coordinates as 2-3 . In the X. Once you have entered all of the information for the final keypoint (point 5). other times they will not clear away and you must overwrite them. ANSYS is now ready to accept the coordinates for another point. ANSYS will assign a zero for that coordinate component. Sometimes the entries in the box will clear. This way we will be certain that our stresses will be in units of psi. for two-dimensional models. DO NOT SELECT “OK”. and Z coordinate boxes place a 0. i. you may always leave the zcoordinate box blank.e. In the Keypoint number box enter a 1. 200 in the y and 0 in the z box. For this example the joints have been defined below: Figure 2-4 Given truss with numbered keypoints (joints) f. Thus. do not enter your lengths in feet and loads in Newtons!).

You define lines by connecting the keypoints created previously.In ANSYS. This is done for you below: 2-4 .0. if you press “OK”.0)! Note: If you need to remove keypoints that you have already created. go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Delete. a.zero. Begin by numbering your structure’s members on your paper copy for your own records. Lines (Defining Members) . lines represent structural members. You will find that there are Delete commands that correspond to all Create commands. Figure 2-5 All keypoints defined 2. ANSYS will define a new point at (0. Now all of the points for our truss have been defined.

move to the end point and left click once. we will begin with member 1. Left click once on point 1 (0. d. 2-5 . and List of Items are selected. 200). Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Lines> Lines> Straight Line in the Main Menu. The Create Straight Line window will appear (at right). Single. Your mouse cursor will appear to be a small vertical arrow pointing upwards. ANSYS will provide a preview sketch of member 1. Move the cursor right to point 2 (200. Move your mouse cursor to a Keypoint that will serve as the start of the first member you wish to define. Be sure that the options Pick. A yellow box will highlight this point. 0).Figure 2-6 Given truss with numbered members b. This defines the member 1. Figure 2-7 Create Straight Line window Figure 2-8 Line (member) 1 defined Note: The process is the same for defining all other members: left click once on the start point. Left click once near or on point 2. c.

Remember. See that the lines and perhaps your keypoints have disappeared. Figure 2-9 All members defined Note: The lines (members) are denoted by L1. Select the first command on the drop-down menu. In the Plot drop-down menu select Lines. Figure 2-10 Plot command on the menu bar b. c. Define the other six members of the truss in the order they were assigned. Now you should be able to see your model. 2-6 . Go to the PlotCtrls menu (to the right of the Plot menu) and select Numbering. d. there may be a difference in numbering between KEYPOINTS and NODES (this will be discussed in greater detail later). your model should look like the one below. Once all of the lines (members) have been defined. Using Plot Controls . a. The Plot Numbering Controls window will pop-up. Your keypoints (joints) are denoted simply by numbers. Replot. you must change the plot controls.e. you should familiarize yourself with helpful viewing options in ANSYS. In order to see your model. L2 etc.now that you have finished plotting lines. Go to the Plot menu on the menu bar at the top of your screen. 3.

Know that you can turn on and off visual components of your model using the options under the Plot and Plot Controls (PlotCtrls) command on the top menu bar. Element Type 1. C. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. Select “Add.” The Element Type Library window will pop-up.. Figure 2-12 Element Type window 2. Turn on the Keypoint and Line numbers options and select OK.Figure 2-11 Numbering window e. The Element Type window will pop-up. Now you should be able to see your truss completely numbered. Note: Throughout this tutorial you may need to Replot your model several times to get a good visual representation of your model.. 2-7 .

next you must define the cross-sectional areas for the members of your truss. c. D. Select Add.. Select “Link” in the left hand box. Real Constants . You will return to the Element Types window (Figure 2-12). Select OK. e. This means that this element will be a truss link. The Real Constants window will pop-up. Click close. This will force your truss members to be displaced in 2 dimensions..Figure 2-13 Element Type Library window 3. Figure 2-14 Real Constants window 2. 2-8 . 1. so that the Element Type for Real Constants window will popup. d. In this window set the following: a. this will close the Library window. b. Select “2D spar” in the right hand box. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. Leave the default 1 for element reference type number.

b. Note that "Type 1 . Initial Strain is 0. Initial strain to 0 2-9 . f. Click Apply. Set Real Constant Set No. d. Note that you are in Real Constant Set Number 1. Enter the cross-sectional area for steel (10) [in units of in2]. The Set Constants window will pop-up. Enter the following in the Set Constants window: a. Select OK. Figure 2-16 Set Constants window 4. This will store the information for aluminum. to 2 e.LINK1" is already highlighted. Enter the cross-sectional area for Al (30) [in units of in2]. c. ANSYS is now prepared to receive the set of real constants for steel (type 2).Figure 2-15 Element Type for Real Constants window 3.

Click Close in the Real Constants window. On the right hand side double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic. Note that “Material 1” has already been created . 3. E. The box will close and you will return to the Real Constants window. 2-10 . Now there are two real constant sets for cross-sectional area defined (one for each material).now you must define the materials that make up your truss members. left click on Material 1 so it is highlighted (this may already be done).Figure 2-17 Set Constants window with those for steel g. The Material Behavior window will appear. In this window. Go to Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models. h. Material Properties . 1. Figure 2-18 Material Model Behavior window 2. This window is divided into two regions: Material Models Defined on the left and Material Models Available on the right. Click OK.ANSYS is waiting for you to define it. This will launch a new pop-up window Material Properties for Material Number 1. Remember that the diagonal members are aluminum and the horizontal members are steel.

000. Select OK. Poisson's ratio is not used.000 ksi). Figure 2-20 Material Menu location in Define Material Behavior window Figure 2-21 Material ID window 5. Enter 0.Figure 2-19 Material Properties for Material Number 1 4. Select the Material drop-down menu in the upper left-hand corner of the window and select New Model. 2-11 . but it is a good idea to be in the habit of entering it. For this example. You will return to the Define Material Behavior window. Enter 10000000 in the EX box b.3 in the PRXY box c. In the Material Model Behavior window (Figure 2-18) click on Material 2 in the left hand box so that it is highlighted. so it doesn’t have to be entered.000 psi (10. click OK (the default number is sufficient). For all two-dimensional models (spars). let us make Material 1 behave like aluminum with an Elastic Modulus of 10. Note: we will follow the same steps to define Material 2 (steel) as we did for Material 1 (aluminum). a. d. A pop-up window asking for a Material ID number. PRXY is for Poisson's Ratio. The box EX is for the Elastic Modulus of the material.

Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. Select OK and exit out of this window by clicking on the close box or selecting Exit in the Material Menu. In the workspace. Figure 2-22 Pick Line Attributes 2. 4. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked Lines. page 5-1. note that the mouse will be a small black upward pointing arrow. Define the elastic modulus (EX) to be that of steel for this example (30000000 psi) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to be 0. Select lines 1. 7. In the right hand box and double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic (this may already be done). Meshing . 5 and 7 (all the diagonals). Select OK in the Line Attributes window. each with a single left click. The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. 1. The Pick Line Attributes window will pop-up.the Mesh function is the heart of ANSYS! Meshing is like breaking your structure into small pieces that ANSYS can recognize and then “gluing” these pieces of your model together. 2-12 . 3. it is difficult to pull it apart so you should save your model NOW (see Appendix. Note: You may want to turn line numbering under PlotCtrls>Numbering to see the line numbers if this is not already done. F. The properties window for Material Properties for Material Number 2 will pop-up (Figure 2-19). 3. 8.6. if you do not already know how to do this). Once this is complete.3.

Select OK on the Line Attributes window. Select Apply so you will return to the Pick Line Window. The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. define these lines accordingly: a. Real constant number and Element type for the lines that you selected. Real Constant Number = 1 c. Material Number = 1 b. There is no need to define the Element Section. Element type = 1 d. In this window you can set the Material Number. Select with a left mouse click all of the steel members (2. Figure 2-24 Define Line Attribute window for material 2 (steel) 2-13 . Since you selected all of the aluminum members. e. and 6). 7. 6. Now you are ready to define the material properties for the steel members. 4.Figure 2-23 Define Line Attributes window for material 1 (aluminum) 5.

Figure 2-25 Element Size window 10. Select OK. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Controls>ManualSize>Lines> All lines. Select OK. 11. Real Constant = 2 c. Element Type = 1 d. Set the number of divisions per line (NDIV) to 1. This will close both this window and the Line Attributes window (if you haven't already done so). The Element Size window will pop-up. The other boxes should remain blank. 9. Define these properties for the steel members: a.8. this will close the window. Material Number = 2 b. Note the lines of your truss will appear shorter than before (see below): Figure 2-26 Truss after number of divisions per element are set to 1 2-14 .

Be sure that pick and single are selected.Note: Be absolutely sure that your model is correct BEFORE you mesh it together (upcoming steps). Now go to Phase 2. This step is the heart of ANSYS. 15. Select each line individually with a single left click. It might be a good idea to save your truss now. the Solution Phase. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines. 12. Your model is now complete and is ready to be loaded. Once your entire truss is entirely highlighted. select OK in the Mesh lines window. Figure 2-27 Pick Mesh Lines window 13. 14. Your truss will now appear to be one color and connected like earlier. You cannot place loads on your model or find displacements of nodes until it is meshed. This is an indication that your Mesh was successful! Figure 2-28 Fully meshed truss This completes the Preprocessing stage. Your mouse should look like an upward pointing arrow. 2-15 . The Pick Mesh Lines window will pop-up.

The Apply U on KP’s window will pop-up. B. Apply Constraints 1. Analysis Type 1. Figure 2-30 Apply U on KP’s window 2-16 .II. Select Static and OK. Numbering to Element Numbers. Be sure that Pick and Single are turned on. Attrib. You may want to turn on your element numbering through PlotCtrls>Numbering and setting Elem. Figure 2-29 Analysis Type window 2. go to Solution> Define Loads >Apply> Structural> Displacement>On Keypoints. Solution Phase – here you will be applying loads and constraints to your truss. Next. A. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu. The Analysis Type window will pop-up.

The Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31) will pop-up. e. this will close the Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31).2. Select Apply. Leave KEXPND option as default. Leave KEXPND option as default. The Define Constraints window will pop-up. Apply as a constant value c. Displacement value = 0 d. Apply Loads 1. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. Select Apply. 3. Note there are two small triangles (one horizontal and another vertical) under node 5. UX and UY b. this will close the Define Constraints window and the Apply U on KP’s window. Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. Apply as a constant value c. 5. The Apply F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. Figure 2-31 Define Constraints window 4. In the Apply U on KP’s window. UY b. Now select node 5 (far right and bottom of truss). Note there is now a small triangle under node 1. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. select Apply. 2-17 . The Apply U on KP’s window (Figure 2-30) should still be available. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Force/Moment>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. Displacement = 0 d. Select OK. e. Select the following: a. Set the following: a. Select node 1 (coincident with the origin) with a left click near or on the point. 6. 7. C.

Magnitude = -300 [units of lbf]. 5. FX b. Select the following: a. 2-18 . This will close the Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) but will leave the Apply F/M window open. The Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) will pop-up. Select Apply in the Apply F/M window. 6. Magnitude = -400 [units of lbf]. FY b. Figure 2-33 Define F/M on KP’s window 4. 3. The Define F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. Apply as constant c. Now select node 2 again and Apply in the Apply F/M window (Figure 2-32). Apply as a constant c. d. Select OK. Select the following: a. it will be highlighted by a small yellow box as before. Select Apply.Figure 2-32 Apply F/M on KP’s window 2. d. Select node 2. This will close both the Define F/M and Apply F/M windows.

You are now ready to have ANSYS actually solve the truss. Figure 2-36 Solution windows. your truss should look like the one below. The Solve Current Load Step window will appear. Figure 2-34 Fully constrained and loaded truss D. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS in the Main Menu. Now your truss is fully constrained and loaded. Select OK. Figure 2-35 Solve Current Load Step window 2. It may take a few seconds before both of the following windows appear. After doing so. Then ANSYS will solve the truss. 2-19 .7. Apply Solution 1. Repeat this process (steps 5 and 6) for node 3 (load = -1000) [units of lbf]. You may close them both.

A. Figure 2-37 Define Element Table window 2. member axial stresses.this is the last step of the three major analysis steps in ANSYS. Note that the reaction solution results are listed by node number. Reaction Forces 1. Go to General Postprocessor>List Results>Reaction Solution. In the pop-up window select All items and OK. B. You are now ready for the final step. Member Forces and Axial Stresses 1. The Define Element Table window will pop-up. The Define Additional Element Table Items window will pop-up. In this section we will order ANSYS to output internal member forces. Post-processing . The Reaction Solution window will pop-up.. and node displacements. You can see the node numbering on your truss by going to Plot Controls>Numbering>Nodes (this may not be necessarily the same as the Keypoint numbers). Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Define Table. 2-20 .”. III.This completes the Solution Phase. 2-37 Reaction Solution Table 2.. Post-processing. Select “Add.

d. type “Axial Stress”. b. 6.. e. Close element Data Table. 2-21 . b. Select OK. In the left hand box scroll to the bottom and select “By sequence num”.. Set the following a. d. 4. Select “Add. Set the following: a. You will return to the Element Table Data Window. Place a “1” after the comma in the Selection box in the lower right. Set “By sequence num” in the left hand box (may already be done).”. In the right hand box select LS. Select SMISC in the right hand box. this will launch the Additional Elements window again. In the User label item set the name to “member forces”. e. In the “User Label for item” box. Place a 1 next to SMISC in the selection box after the comma.Figure 2-38 Define Additional Element Table window 3. c. c. This will close the window. Select OK. Figure 2-39 Define Additional Element Table window 5.

page 5-2). You can save it to your EWS account or print the data (if you do not know how to do this. You can also get a visual representation of your truss using some of the graphical results options. Your element table will appear.the two quantities you defined. Select Member Forces and Axial stresses by left clicking on each . This will close the window. They should be at the top of the listing. To output this data go to the File at the top of the window. Select OK. Figure 2-40 List Element Data 8. Go to General Postproc>Elem Table> List Elem Table. The Contour Plot of Element Table window will pop-up. see Appendix. Figure 2-41 Element Table 10. 2-22 . The element numbers are in the first column followed by the Member Forces and Axial Stresses. 9. Note how the values are listed. Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Plot Elem Table. The List Element Data window will pop-up.7. 11.

You should now be able to see a deformed truss with the member forces plotted. Note that along the bottom you can see that the element forces correspond to the certain colors of the plot. This will close the window. For this example we will plot member forces. Leave the lower box as “No . 13.do not average”. Displacements 1. In the “Item to be plotted” box (Fig. General Postproc>Plot Results>Deformed shape.Figure 2-42 Contour Plot of Element Table window 12. Figure 2-43 Contour Plot of Truss 14. Click OK. 2-42) you can choose what you would like to output. C. Figure 2-44 Plot Nodal Solution window 2-23 . The Plot Nodal Solution window will pop-up.

2. To see the values of the deformations go to General Postproc>List Results>Nodal Solution. Figure 2-46 Nodal Solution window 5. Set DOF solution in the left box and “All dofs” in the right box 6. Click OK. Click OK. Choose your plot preference. This will close the window and create a table of displacement results. for this example plot “deformed and undeformed. You should now move on to the FRAME example. The Nodal Solution window will pop up. Figure 2-47 Displacement Table This completes the Post-processing. Figure 2-45 Deformed and undeformed truss 4. 2-24 . This will close the window.” 3.

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FRAME EXAMPLE As you should already know.3. The greatest differences between the frame and truss examples occur in defining and assigning member properties and applying loads (in this case a distributed load). You will find that many of the steps in this tutorial are similar to those in the truss. Introduction – think about the steps that you will complete in this section of the tutorial and how they are similar or different from the truss tutorial.cross sectional area) 4. Meshing (similar) B. procedures that are the same or very similar to those in the truss example will not be outlined in much detail. Material Properties (similar) 5.beam) 3. The coordinates for the Keypoints are: 3-1 . This tutorial assumes that you have already worked through the truss tutorial. Sections (new) 6. Modeling – none of the principles used in this example are different from the truss. and Post-processing. Solution. 1. Try to complete this without help of the tutorial. The following frame will be constructed: Figure 3-1 Given Frame Once again. Modeling (similar) 2. the major difference between trusses and frames is that members are beams and thus can have a reaction moment. 1. I. Consequently. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS. Preprocessing A. a complete finite element analysis in ANSYS has three components: Preprocessing. The steps to be completed in this phase are listed below. Real Constants (similar . Element Type (different .

Click Add. 2. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete on the Main Menu. Y coord.. Close this window as well. This will close the window and return you to the Element Types window. 4. X coord. Select OK. The Real Constants for a Beam window will appear. 2. Define the Element Type – this frame is composed of beams. 3. Define Real Constants 1.Table 3-1 Keypoint Locations KP No. Another window will appear prompting for which beam to select. Select Add. Select OK. 1. 3-2 . You will only have one choice since you have only defined one type of beam. Select Beam in the left-hand box and 2D Elastic in the right. The Define Element type window will appear. The Real Constants window will pop-up.. Figure 3-2 Library of Element Types Window 3. C. the Library of Element Types window will pop-up. Connect the Keypoints with lines from Preprecessor>Modeling>Create> Lines>Lines>Straight lines. 1 0 0 2 0 144 3 180 0 4 180 144 5 360 0 6 360 144 2. D. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu.

Initial strain = 0 g. (In British units. in the British system. Often tables will report these values in other unit sets such as “Added mass/unit length” in lbm/ft.5 lbm. units of force are in lbf and units of mass are in lbm. Moment of Inertia = 8000 d. Select Apply. Pay close attention to your units! Also. lbf and lbm have the same numerical value. Height = 8 e. = 3. Real Constant Set No. Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. Note: Remember that you are working this problem in lbf and INCHES. Just like entering in Keypoint coordinates. Shear deflection constant = 0 f. Cross-sectional area = 20 c. = 1 b. ANSYS is now ready to accept the constants for the second and third types of beams. Added mass/unit length = 42 lbm/ft. In this window you define all of the constants for members 1 and 5. Real Constant set number 1 will correspond to the W8x42 beam used for members 1 and 5.Figure 3-3 Define Real Constants for a Beam 4.) h. Define this beam: a. 5. 3-3 ./in. Once you are complete select OK and close out of the Real Constants boxes.

Enter E (EX=30000000) and Poisson's Ratio (PRXY=0.5 E.3) and Exit. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models in the Main Menu. The Define Material Properties window will appear. Define the material just as you defined steel or aluminum in the truss example. constant 0 0 Initial strain 0 0 Added mass/unit length 3. Define Sections – this section tells ANSYS what sort of beam you are using.Table 3-2 Real Constant Values Corresponding Beam W8x42 W10x48 RC Set No. F. 1 2 Cross-sectional area 20 25 Moment of intertia 8000 10000 Height 8 10 Shear deflctn. In this example we will use traditional I beams. Double click in right hand box Structural>Linear> Elastic>Isotropic. Figure 3-4 Beam Tool 3-4 . 2. Go to Preprocessor>Sections>Beam>Common Sectns.5 4 W12x54 3 30 12000 12 0 0 4. Define Material Properties 1. The Beam Tool window will appear. 1.

The Element Size box will appear. Meshing 1. T3 1 1 1 G. Sub Type = I (from drop-down menu) d. W2. Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. Also note that you could choose a different number of divisions per element. Table 3-3 Section Definitions ID 1 2 3 Name W8x42 W10x48 W12x54 Sub Type I I I Offset Centroid Centroid Centroid W1. T2. Thus we have selected 25 divisions per element as a good manageable value. ID = 1 b. Note: all of these dimension values are expressed in units of inches. For the truss. Once you are complete select OK. Name = W8x42 c. Select Apply. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Cntrls>ManualSize>Lines>All lines in the Main Menu. Just remember that your results may be less accurate with fewer finite elements. This will save the information for the W 8x42 beam. W3 8 10 12 T1. However. For the W 8x42 beam (Real Constant set 1) enter the following: a. Set the number of divisions (ndiv) to 25. such as beams) we need to be able to calculate internal moments. Leave the other boxes blank and select OK. 3.2. For clarity. For this frame example (and for all structures that have members with internal forces that vary with position. Offset to centroid e. T1 = T2 = T3 = 1 g. It was not necessary for any further divisions because in a truss there are no internal moments or rotations that need to be calculated. we set the number of divisions per element to 1. do not create too many elements as your analysis will become computationally more expensive possibly causing the program to crash or freeze. W1 = W2 = W3 = 8 f. This is also why it is so important to save often while conducting your analysis and especially before Meshing! 3-5 . let us have the dimensions of each beam correspond with the same Real Constant Set. and other structural properties so we need several elements per part to get accurate results. Note: The ndiv function divides the element into small pieces. rotations. Your frame will now appear to be of dashed lines. “finite elements”.

This will close the Line Attributes window. 1 and 5 3 2 and 4 Material No.2. 7. Figure 3-5 Line Attributes window 4.W8x42 2 . It is always a good idea to save your project before meshing – do this now. 3-6 .W12x54 6. Select all of the lines and OK. 1 2 3 Element Type No. 1 1 1 Real Constant No. 5. Real Constant number = 1 c. Element type number = 1 d. Select Apply. Go to Preprocessing>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked lines. Element section = W8x42 e. Repeat this process for the other members in the frame assigning the following constants: Table 3-4 Line Attribute Assignments Member No. Set the following: a. Select lines 1 and 5 with a single left click. Material number = 1 b. a select lines box will appear. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines. If the mesh was successful the frame will made of blue-green solid lines. 3.W10x48 3 . 1 1 1 Element Section 1 . Select Apply in the pick lines box. The members will be highlighted. The Line Attributes box will appear.

this is a static analysis. Select OK in the selection box. Select All Degrees of Freedom (All DOF) since all of the free ends are fixed and constrained in the x. Introduction – the most significant change from the truss tutorial is the presence of the distributed load. Define Frame Loads – unlike in the truss that contained all point loads.II. Single left click on all three bottom nodes. y and rotational directions. each will be highlighted by small yellow boxes. You should see two small green triangles and little red crosses indicating these are constrained in all three directions at each end.three fixed ends) 3. Analysis Type (similar . The Apply Constraints box will appear. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Beams. a selection box will appear. Define Frame Constraints – we will fix the three bottom ends of the frame. 1. Select OK. Define Frame Loads (different .static) 2. you will need to apply a distributed load to the frame. 5. 2. Select the first option.distributed) 4. Static. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu. Define Frame Constraints (different . Apply as a constant value of 0. 4. 1. 2. Figure 3-6 Apply Constraints window 3. C. 1. 3-7 . 1. This will be simulated by applying a load to each node. Just as with the truss tutorial. Solution A. D. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. Analysis Type – just like in the truss tutorial. and OK. The Apply Pressure on Beams selection window will appear. The Analysis Type window will appear. Apply Solution (similar) B.

You make the box by holding down the left mouse button and dragging. Undoubtedly. Figure 3-8 ANSYS workspace window after the top of the frame is selected for application of a distributed load 4. 5. highlight all of the nodes on the top of the frame where the distributed load will be applied by enclosing this area in a box. Then individually left click on the each small yellow box on the vertical supports where no load should be applied. In the workspace. you will select some of the vertical supports where you do not want to apply the distributed load. In the Apply Pressure on Beams selection window (Figure 3-7). Once you are certain that only the nodes where the load should be applied are highlighted. change the Pick option (at the top) to Unpick and the Box option to Single. 3. The define pressure on beams window will appear. thus you must deselect these locations.Figure 3-7 Apply Pressure on Beams selection window 2. In this case change the select style option to BOX (not Single). select OK in the Apply F/M on Nodes window. 3-8 .

In the numbering window turn node numbers to ON. etc. A tool box will appear. 3-9 . Select OK. It would be a good idea to “Save As…” before Post-processing. Post-processing A.. Before beginning your Post-processing. you can zoom in on your model display by PlotCntrls>Pan Zoom Rotate. 2. close all of the pop-up boxes. Set the pressure value to 100. III. ANSYS will return data tabulated for these small pieces (finite elements) that ANSYS calls nodes. if you have trouble seeing your nodal numbers. and 102 (from left to right respectively). Just as with the truss. it is good to see the numbers assigned to each of your nodes so you can make a meaningful interpretation of this data. Introduction – as discussed in the notes of section I. Remember this load was given in 100 lb/in.Figure 3-9 Apply Pressure on Beams window 6. or other set of units! E. You numbering might be different and is dependent upon the precise order you created lines. Apply the Solution 1. The other boxes may remain blank. but you would need to convert this value if this were given in lb/ft. To see you nodal numbering go to PlotCntrls>Numbering. Also. Keypoints. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. For this example. ANSYS assigns a number to each node and reports Postprocessing information according to this nodal number.G. 52. For most of the Post-processing functions we will use in this section. the nodes at the fixed points (bottom of vertical members) are 1. THESE NODES ARE DIFFERENT FROM KEYPOINTS. Select OK.1 (page 3-5) recall that by setting the number of divisions per node (ndiv = 25) we broke the beams into small pieces or “finite elements”. 3. Select Solve in the pop-up window. 1.

See the printing section (near the end of this booklet) on how to do this.000 lbf were applied) and the moments sum to 0 lbf-in. 3. The Reaction Solution window will pop-up. See section III.9 lbf in the y direction and a moment of –76121 lbf-in. The List Nodal Solution window will pop-up. Your solution may be somewhat different from the one given here. D.+180in.9 lbf in the y directions and a moment of 76121 lb-in. 4.B (in the Post-processing section) in the truss tutorial while keeping in mind that the output will be listed by NODE and not Keypoint as explained previously in the Reaction Forces section. If you desire. This is a good fast way to check that your model is correct. Note that the nodal numbering will increase or decrease linearly from one end of a beam to another. the y forces sum to 36. Figure 3-10 Reaction Solution window 2. in the x direction and 8807.2. Member Displacements and Rotations 1.4 lbf in the x direction. Reaction Forces 1. Also note that the sum of all the reaction forces are listed at the bottom under total values. Note that the x forces sum to 0 lbs. * (180in. you should print these results now. 8807.4 lbf. the forces at node 102 (which corresponds to Keypoint number 5) are –2025. Take note of the nodal numbers in significant places such as those at the ends of each beam. Member Forces and Stresses – reporting this data is no different from the truss tutorial.000 lbf (since 100lbf /in. (since none were applied). B. You can see that the forces at node 1 (which in this example are coincident with Keypoint number 1) are 2025. Go to General Post-processing>List Results>Nodal Solution>DOF Soln. C. 3-10 . In the pop-up window select All items and OK. Similarly.) = 36. Go to General Postproc>List Results>Reaction Solution.

Figure 3-12 Nodal Solution Table 3. With your nodal numbering turned on. In this window select All DOFs (degrees of freedom) and OK. At the bottom of the list maximum values for each parameter are reported. In this window. This concludes the frame tutorial.Figure 3-11 List Nodal Solution window 2. The solution will appear in tabular form. the plate tutorial. you should be able to find the corresponding node to the Keypoint or other member location of interest. Proceed to Chapter 4. the displacement in the x and y direction and the rotation of each node is listed. 3-11 .

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Preprocessing A. PLATE EXAMPLE For this example we will model the plate below. we will take advantage of its SYMMETRY.1” uniform tensile loading of 8 psi Figure 4-1 Steel plate with hole in center When we model this plate. As a rule of thumb. it is always good to take advantage of symmetry because it allows for your analysis to be smaller and subsequently more specific. Although it has a thickness. ANSYS allows us to model it as a two dimensional representation. 20” steel square plate with 4” diameter hole thickness = . We can see symmetry by dividing the plate into 4 parts about the center of the hole and then apply constraints to edges of this divided part. Below is the geometry that we will define in ANSYS: Figure 4-2 Model of plate that takes advantage of symmetry I. Introduction – below is an overview of the steps we will complete in this example and how those steps compare to the previous examples: 4-1 .4.

1. Modeling (different – defining areas and using Boolean operations) 2. Element Type (different – plate with thickness) 3. Real Constants (similar - define element thickness) 4. Material Properties (no changes here) 5. Meshing (different – mesh areas and refine mesh) B. Modeling 1. Begin by going to: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Areas>Rectangle>By 2 Corners, the Create Rectangle by 2 corners window will appear.

Figure 4-3 Create Rectangle by 2 Corners window 2. The boxes WX and WY specify the coordinates of one corner of the rectangle. Enter 0 in both boxes and width and length of 10 (we will be working this problem in inches and pounds). 3. Now we must create the hole in the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Create>Areas>Circle>Solid Circle. The Create Solid Circular Area window will pop up.

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Figure 4-4 Create Solid Circular Area window 4. The WP X and WP Y boxes specify the center point of the circle. Our circle will be centered at (0,0) and has a radius of 2. Your model should be as below:

Figure 4-5 Model after defining both rectangular and circular areas. 5. Just like when using a CAD program, you must perform a Boolean operation to remove the circle from the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Subtract>Areas. The Subtract Area selection window will appear.

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Figure 4-6 Subtract Area selection window 6. Single left click on the rectangle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area that is occupied ONLY BY THE RECTANGLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the rectangle and the circle. The rectangle should now appear pink or purple. 7. Select OK in the Subtract Area window (Figure 4-6). You have now defined the area that we will be subtracting from. 8. Single left click on the circle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area occupied ONLY BY THE CIRCLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the circle and the rectangle. The circle should now be highlighted. 9. Select OK in the Subtract Area selection window. You have now defined all of your geometry. C. Element Type 1. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete. The Define Element Type window will appear just as in the previous tutorials (Figure 2-17). Select Add... The Element Type Library window will appear. 2. In the left hand box select Structural Solid. In the right hand box select Quad 4 node (42). This will define the elements to be small quadrilaterals each with 4 nodes from which the location of each square will be calculated. 3. Select OK. Note that the Element Types window will still be open. Be sure that the element type is highlighted and select Options. The Element Type Options window will appear:

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Keep the type number as the default (1). Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete. select Add.1.Figure 4-7 Element Type Options 4. Set the thickness to . D. The other options may remain as default. 4-5 . In the Element Behavior box select “Plane Stress with Thk”. Close out of the Real Constants windows. The Define Real Constants Set window will appear. The Real Constants window will appear. Figure 4-8 Define Real Constants Set window 2. Select OK.be sure that the correct (and only) element type is highlighted (Type 1 Plane 42) and select OK. Select OK and Close the Element Type window. Real Constants 1. A new window will appear .

Meshing – be sure to save right now! 1. Material Properties . The MeshTool box will appear.note nothing in this section has changed from previous tutorials – try doing this on your own! 1. Then select Mesh (towards the bottom of the window). Left click once on the plate geometry so that it is highlighted. Figure 4-9 MeshTool window 2. 2. This will make fairly large finite elements. 4-6 . F. 4. A Mesh Selection box will appear. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>MeshTool. 3.3. The MeshTool is a convenient and quick way to mesh an object and refine an object that is already meshed. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models. Left click and hold down on the control bar and slide it to the right to level 8 (the level is denoted above the bar). On the Fine to Coarse bar directly below the Smart Size box controls the size of your finite elements. Turn on the Smart Size option at the top of the MeshTool.E. In the Define Material Properties window select Structural>Linear>Elastic>Isotropic. In the pop up window set the modulus of elasticity (EX) to 290000000 (remember we are working in pounds and inches so this number is in psi!) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to 0.

7. A Refine Selection box will appear just like the Mesh Selection box. The Refine Mesh at Element window will pop up. Select OK in the Mesh Selection window. we know that the most important stresses in this plate are near the hole. There is no need to Refine the mesh elsewhere since other stresses in the plate are not as important. 4-7 . 6. Now your element has been meshed and should appear to be divided into quadrilaterals. Note that the MeshTool is already set to refine at elements (directly above the refine button).5. Then select OK in the Refine Selection box. However. Figure 4-10 Refining the mesh near the hole 8. we should Refine our mesh in this area. On the MeshTool select Refine (near the bottom of the MeshTool). Single left click on all of the finite elements adjacent to the hole (see below). Consequently.

Introduction – no radically new concepts are employed in this section that were not used in previous examples. Apply Constraints (similar – X and Y direction on lines) 3. The New Analysis window will appear. Go to: Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Lines. Apply Pressure (similar – pressure on lines) B. from the computer. Select Static and OK. Note that you can refine your mesh several times until you have finite elements in your region of interest that are small enough to your satisfaction. Once you are satisfied with your mesh. 4-8 . 1. The Apply Constraints window will appear. You can even REFINE your mesh after you run the solution and look at post-processing output.Figure 4-11 Refine Mesh at Element 9. 10. The elements elsewhere in the plate are large. Apply Constraints 1. Select OK. You can select the defaults (minimal refinement) in this window. It is usually good to have your mesh change gradually so that you do not have disjointed elements. Analysis Type (no changes – static) 2. Select the bottom edge only and OK in the pick box. You might be thinking. Note: now the elements near the hole. then ANSYS may crash or give incomplete results. Analysis Type – go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis. However this is not cause for concern since the stresses there are unimportant and uninteresting. move on to the Solution Phase. II. it will require a large amount of memory etc. If ANSYS requires more memory than the computer can give. “Why don’t I use the most accurate mesh everywhere in the element?” This is generally not a good idea because when ANSYS tries to solve the plate. C. The Define Constraints window will appear. where the most important and interesting stresses are located. Solution Phase A. thus the approximation in that region will not be as accurate. are very small and will give a better approximation of the plate’s behavior there.

Figure 4-12 Apply Constraints window 2. Displacement value = 0. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Lines. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for the left edge with a zero-displacement constraint in the X direction. d. Click on OK. UY b. Another pick box will appear. Apply as constant c. 4-9 . 3. The Define Pressure on Lines box will appear. D. Select the right hand vertical line and OK. Set the following: a. Apply Loads 1.

As you might guess. displacement.Figure 4-13 Apply Pressure on Lines 2. you can refer to the Truss Example tutorial Post-processing section to review this process. rotation. E. This set of commands will output the stress. Select OK in the series of boxes that appear just as in the other tutorials. Apply Solution .now all the loads are applied and you are ready to solve. The graphical output will likely be the easiest and most meaningful for your analysis. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. Results will be generated in the workspace. If you desire. Post-processing – The major difference between post-processing with the plate and with the other examples is that you will probably find the graphical outputs most helpful. III. You are now ready for post-processing. tabular output will list far too many nodes to be helpful. energy or any other relevant outputs. Set a constant value pressure of -8 and select OK (since negative pressure points AWAY from its application point). 4-10 . All graphical outputs that you will need can be accessed from: General Postproc> Plot Results>Contour Plot>Nodal Solu.

If you have been saving to the default file (file. The Save window will appear. You can confirm your save was successful by going to “File>Save As” again and noting the name in the right hand box. The second section outlines how to access and manipulate files on your EWS account.db You must include the file type extension (. This directory is listed in the bottom box of the Save As window.db 2. Your project will launch. This is ideal for your finite element analyses because several files are created throughout the analysis including the main database file (.db). You will already be in your EWS account where all of your ANSYS files should be located. then in the box enter: truss1. opening and printing files may be different from working in other operating systems that may already be more familiar to you. go to File>Save As. Open a previously saved ANSYS file 1.db.db and select OK. You should include the file type extension which is . Working with ANSYS and Unix A. and various solution and results files. If you want to call your file “truss1”. This is a default ANSYS file. From the top menu bar. Highlight truss1. let us name our file truss1. In order for you analysis to operate properly. Let us say that you want to open truss1. a backup database file (. ANSYS uses the work “Resume” instead of “Open”. it is important that all of these files be in the same location so that ANSYS can access them when necessary. It is a good idea to depend on this function only for backup purposes. If you do not specify a name for your project. 5-1 . For this example.db) you can open this by simply choosing: File>Resume Jobname. 3.db on your account. The Resume From window will appear. The purpose of the section is to outline these tasks to make using ANSYS easier for you. I. all of your data will be saved into this file. APPENDIX Some common tasks such as saving.db.db. At the end of the account name enter and select OK.dbb). Below are a few steps to follow to save your project: 1. 2.db) otherwise you will not be able to see it when you want to reopen your project. B. Go to File>Resume From. 3. The EWS account is especially convenient because you can access it from any EWS computer and you do not have the worries that are associated with using a disk (such as it being damaged or lost). Note that you are already set to save in your EWS account. Note: You may also notice (especially if you have already saved projects before) that there is a file called file.5. Saving an ANSYS file – ANSYS is set to save files automatically to your EWS (Engineering WorkStation) account.

doc individually.edu>. For this case. We will then be prompted if we really want to remove the file.edu> for the 4th floor Engineering Hall lab and <lpr –Pmelas1@wood. This process may change from year to year.ews. For our example we would type rm paper1.doc from our EWS account. 5-2 . At the prompt type ls this command will “list” all of the files currently saved on your EWS account. Printing result tables 1. To view your project output file. 3. open another xterm window and type ls at the prompt (meaning “list”). You must remove files from your account to make room for your analysis. 1. However at the time this tutorial was created you would type: <lpr –Pehlas3@wood. Deleting files quickly – sometimes when working in ANSYS you will get a message that there was an error saving or ANSYS could not properly execute a save command.doc The * is a “wild card” command. type: rm *. Type y for yes. So. Open an xterm window. Printing graphical outputs 1. Instead of removing each file individually as outlined above. Type rm for remove followed by the file name and its extension. 2. 2.ews. When you have a table window open you can choose File>Copy to Output. How to access all of your EWS files from a Unix machine 1. This will list all of the files on your account.C. If you are unfamiliar with using a text editor you should ask the EWS site consultant on duty how to launch and use one.uiuc. Find the file ending in . after typing this you will be prompted “if you are sure you want to remove” for each file ending in . The “Capture Image” box will appear.edu> for the lab in MEL.ews. Let us say that you wanted to remove all files that end with the extension . This will activate the “Printer Name” box. B. 2.uiuc. Managing Files on your EWS Account A. This is probably because you do not have enough room on your EWS account to save your project. There are several text editors available on the Unix systems.doc.out this is the ANSYS output file and can be opened or printed using a text editor. Select “Print to” towards the bottom of the screen. As a general rule you should type <lpr –Pprintername@wood. II. 3. In the “Printer Name” box you will need to type in a Unix command to send the job to the printer.uiuc. Go to PlotCntrls>Capture Image. This will copy the table to your project output file. When using the wildcard command you will be prompted to remove each file individually. let us say that we want to remove the file paper1.. You can use the wildcard anywhere in the command line so you could also type: rm paper* and this would remove anything that begins with “paper” regardless of extension. D.doc 2.

Creating Axisymmetric Models When using ANSYS you may be asked to create an axisymmetric model. Look at the wire-frame representation below: 5-3 . It was already outlined how to model traditional symmetry (which for this example is the bar’s symmetry with respect to the x axis) in the plate tutorial. Note the bar is also symmetric with respect to the x-axis. it is always a good analysis technique to take advantage of symmetry in design. Consider the part below: Figure 5-1 Axisymmetric bar. To take advantage of the axial (about the y-axis) symmetry you must first model the section that is to be rotated about the y axis. Just as mentioned in the introduction to the plate tutorial. You can take advantage of this symmetry in ANSYS. You can define geometry to be rotated about an axis.III. The y-axis is that of axial symmetry. thereby taking advantage of axial symmetry.

This is done in Preprocessing>Real Constants. Be sure to constrain properly your sketch in the Solution phase. See section I.Figure 5-2 Wireframe representation of axisymmetric bar. ANSYS is programmed to rotate your element about the y axis in the workplane. displacement will be constrained to zero in the y direction on the z axis.C of the Plate tutorial (pg. Then you can skip step 5 since there will be no need to define Real Constants. so no explicit constraint needs to be applied. Follow this section as written except for steps 4 and 5. Also. Thus.” you have implicitly constrained all points on the y axis from moving in the x direction. you must define the section (highlighted in gray) entirely in quadrant I. By specifying the elements to be “axisymmetric. then you must tell ANSYS that the problem is axisymmetric. 4-4). Once your geometry is sufficiently defined. For ANSYS to properly define your geometry. if you want a solid bar (not hollow) you must align one side of your geometry on the y axis. you cannot allow any of this two-dimensional geometry to have negative coordinates. For this example. Note that the section to be modeled (highlighted in gray) is entirely in quadrant I of the modeling plane (all values are non-negative). From the options window (Figure 4-7) set the Element Behavior to “Axisymmetric” (instead of “Plate with Thickness”). 5-4 .

you would have to return to that analysis section to make adjustments. these students understood that: (1) modeling. General Notes on Understanding ANSYS When this tutorial was first used during the spring semester.IV. (2) in order to edit various parts of the model. 2003. it was understandably tempting to try to circumvent the rigid processes outlined in this tutorial. etc. meshing. The students that tried this by jumping between steps or skipping sections in the tutorial often found themselves lost (with several hours wasted) trying to repair their model using processes not outlined in this tutorial. Because of the tedious nature of iterative design using Finite Element Analysis. and. Understanding (and consequently rapid analyses!) comes with familiarizing oneself with the entire process and the order in which the processing commands must be executed. occurred only in the Preprocessing stage. Specifically. if possible. These students recognized that only certain operations can be performed at certain times and those operations had to be performed with a certain degree of coherence and order. material definition. 5-5 . the students who grasped ANSYS best seemed to understand how each step in the program fit into the overall FEA process.

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