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RF Network Design - Introduction
The term GSM-900 is used for any GSM system which operates in any 900 MHz band. P-GSM-900 P-GSM-900 band is the primary band for GSM-900 Frequency band for primary GSM-900 (P-GSM-900) : 2 x 25 MHz 890 – 915 MHz for MS to BTS (uplink) 935 – 960 MHz for BTS to MS (downlink) E-GSM-900 In some countries, GSM-900 is allowed to operate in part or in all of the following extension band. E-GSM-900 (Extended GSM-900) band includes the primary band (P-GSM-900) and the extension band : 880 – 890 MHz for MS to BTS (uplink) 925 – 935 MHz for BTS to MS (downlink)
R-GSM-900 (Railway GSM-900) band includes the primary band (P-GSM-900) and the following extension band: 876 – 890 MHz for MS to BTS (uplink) 921 – 935 MHz for BTS to MS (downlink)
Frequency band: 2 x 75 MHz 1710 – 1785 MHz for MS to BTs (uplink) 1805 – 1880 MHz for BTS to MS (downlink)
Carrier Spacing and Channel Structure
Channel number – the carrier frequency is designated by the absolute radio
frequency channel number (ARFCN). The frequency value of the carrier n in the lower band is called FL (n) while FU (n) is the corresponding frequency value in the upper band. Frequencies are in MHz P-GSM-900: FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 n with 1 < n < 124 FU (n) = FL (n) + 45 E-GSM-900: FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 x n with 1 < n < 124 FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 x (n-1024) with 975 < n < 1024 FU (n) = FL (n) + 45
Carrier Spacing and Channel Structure
R-GSM-900: FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 x n with 1 < n < 124 FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 x (n-1024) with 955 < n < 1024 FU (n) = FL (n) + 45 GSM-1800: FL (n) = 1710.2 + 0.2 x (n-512) with 512 < n < 885 FU (n) = FL (n) + 95
• Carrier spacing is 200 kHz • 8 time slots per carrier
cables. Capacity. • These values are calculated as a function of design constraints: – BTS and MS receiver sensitivity levels – MS output power level – Antenna gain – Diversity reception – Losses in combiners. However. the power levels of BTS and MS should be in balance at the edge of a cell. The starting point is a set of coverage quality requirements. For a while. etc. every network is indeed coverage driven.6 . the coverage is not the only thing. It provides the means of service and should meet certain quality measures.Coverage. Main output results of the power link budgets are: – Maximum path loss that can be tolerated between the MS and the BTS – Maximum output power level of the BTS transmitter. and Quality Providing coverage is usually considered as the first and most important activity of a new cellular operator. • To guarantee a good quality in both uplink and downlink direction. Slide No.
The traffic capacity requirements have to be combined with the coverage requirements. by allocating frequencies. using inputs of maximum path loss. and Quality The cell ranges are derived with propagation loss formulas such as OkumuraHata. This also may have impact on the cell range.7 . differences in the operating environments and the quality targets in different cell ranges. Slide No. Capacity.Coverage.
per km2. Slide No. Some typical configurations are: • 3-sector sites for (sub)urban areas • 2-sector sites for road coverage • omni sites for rural areas These are not the ultimate solutions. to be used for strategic decisions. antennas and cables is the core of the coverage planning strategy.g. decisions should be based on a careful analysis Cell Range and Coverage Area For any site configuration. The site coverage areas can be calculated then and these will lead to the required number of sites for a given coverage region.8 . e. This makes it possible to estimate the cost.Coverage Planning Strategies The selection of site configurations. The right choice will provide cost savings and guarantees smooth network evolution. the cell ranges can be determined given the equipment losses and gains.
9 .Methodology Define design rules and parameters • Identify design rules to meet coverage and capacity targets efficiently • Acquire software tools and databases • Calibrate propagation models from measurements Set performance targets • Clear statement of coverage requirements (roll out and quality) • Forecast traffic demand and distribution • Test business plan for different roll out scenarios and quality levels Design nominal plan • • • • • Use computer tool to place sites to meet coverage and capacity targets Verify feasibility of meeting service requirements Ensure a frequency plan can be made for the design Estimate equipment requirements and costs Develop implementation and resource plans (including personnel requirements) • Radio plan will provide input to fixed network planning Slide No.
based on interference matrix using an automatic tool. can be done manually.10 In line with the roll out requirement In line with the forecasted traffic level Improve the coverage quality Maintain the blocking performance . Produce frequency plan • Fixed cluster configuration. • Modify nominal design as theoretical sites are replaced with physical sites • Modify search areas in accordance with evolving network. • Flexible. Optimising the network Expand the network • • • • Slide No.Methodology Implement cell plan • Identify physical site locations near to nominal or theoretical locations. using search areas.
11 .RF Propagation A radio wave transmitted to and from a moving mobile station is subject to several effects. The effects are:• Distance attenuation • Shadowing − Diffraction • Rayleigh fading − Reflections − Inter-symbol interference − Doppler shift − Ducting The most important conventional countermeasures to deal with the problems of the mobile channels are :• The use of fade margins • Various types of diversity reception • Installation of supplementary BTSs Slide No. These effects will cause loss of signal strength and interference.
The loss is depended upon the frequency. Slide No. the antenna design and the terrain. caused by :• Obstructions in the propagation path. This will cause multipath signal strength variations.Practical Attenuation In practice. The slope will be steeper. the first Fresnel zone is obstructed in most cases. particularly in the first Fresnel zone This is frequently the case because of the low height of the mobile antenna. Even of line-of-sight conditions apply.12 . The path loss is more severe that the inverse square law would predict. the mobile radio link is not set up in free space. rather between –30 and –45 dB/decade. • Reflections from the ground and from objects Reflections combine different phases of the signal on the receiving antenna.
the impact of Rayleigh fading is taken into account by implementing an extra fade margin of 8 dB. it is necessary to know the probability density function of the fading. Assume : • The mobile radio system needs an signal level of Pr dBm at the receiver • The maximum likely fade (loss) is calculated to be L(fade) dB The a received signal level of Pr dBm can be ensured by transmitting enough power for a normal received signal level of (Pr + L(fade)) dBm The fade margin is normally equal to the maximum expected fade or to a smaller value. The value is chosen in such a way that the threshold value is undershot in only a low percentage of time.13 . In RF planning.Fade Margin The concept of a fade margin is to reserve extra signal power to overcome potential fading. For this purpose. Slide No.
an aeroplane or a discontinuity in the atmosphere. a truck. the reflected signal is significantly attenuated. The result is that not one but many different paths are followed between the transmitter and receiver. a building.14 . In some cases.Multipath Propagation The radio wave may be reflected. from a hill. while in others almost all the radio energy is reflected and very little absorbed. This is known as Multipath Propagation Slide No.
15 .Multipath Propagation Reflection and multipath propagation can cause positive and negative effects :• Coverage extension Multipath propagation allows radio signal to reach behind hills and buildings and into tunnels The latter effect is known as ducting • Constructive and destructive interference The interference due to multipath propagation manifest itself in the following 3 most important ways:– Random phase shift creates rapid fluctuations in the signal strength known as Rayleigh fading – A delay spread in the received signal causes each symbol to overlap with adjacent symbols : intersymbol interference – Random frequency modulation due to different doppler shifts on different paths Slide No.
repeater station at the tunnel entrance radiating into the tunnel may help. valleys. Slide No.Ducting Ducting may occurs in tunnels. but higher frequencies (>800 MHz) follow the tunnel like a waveguide. and in the atmosphere if the boundaries (steep hillsides. If the coverage in a tunnel needs enhancement. VHF frequencies do not propagate well in long tunnels. atmosphere layers) are good reflectors for radio waves. building canyons.16 .
17 . The signal may effectively disappear if the reflected wave is 180 degrees out of phase with the direct path signal. Rayleigh fading is dependent on : • Time Time dependent fading is applicable for moving mobiles only The countermeasure against time dependent Rayleigh fading is the use of bit interleaving in burst building Slide No. Partial out of phase relationships among multiple received signals produce smaller reductions in received signal strength.Rayleigh Fading The reflected radio wave will be altered in both phase and amplitude.
the pattern of the fades is also dependent on the radio frequency. In between are many shallower fades. The depth and spacing of the fades is related to the wavelength. the received signal strength will vary very rapidly. The countermeasure against frequency dependent Rayleigh fading is frequency hopping reception Slide No. • Frequency Due to the impact of the wavelength. Maximum fades are very deep (down to –40 dB or less).18 . When a mobile antenna moves through this field.Rayleigh Fading • Location The fading effect is a spatial effect. Sometimes it is possible that a mobile is in a fade of the correct BTS but not in a fade of any “incorrect” BTS transmitting on the same frequency. a few inches apart. The countermeasure against location dependent Rayleigh fading is diversity reception.
called delay spread is caused by multipath propagation effects.Inter-symbol Interference The sharp pulse that is transmitted arrives in the receiver as a delayed. smeared and flattened budge that lasts longer than the original pulse. This effect. Slide No. If the delay spread is large relative to the average symbol duration.19 . the individual symbols will overlap each other and ISI will occur.
Slide No. This frequency shift varies considerably as the MS changes direction and/or speed. Doppler shift introduces random frequency modulation in the radio signals. others a negative shift at the same instant. some with positive shift. The power spectrum of the received radio signal will be smeared. Doppler shift affects all multiple propagation paths.Doppler Shift The movement of the MS relative to the BTS will cause a shift in frequency of the radio signal. Doppler shift effects can be limited by using a well-designed (adaptive) equaliser in the receiver.20 . known as doppler shift. Thus Doppler frequency shift Δ f is :Δ f = Vr / λ where Vr is the radial speed component pointing to/from the BTS or a reflection point.
02. • The predicted distortions in the received signal are subtracted from the received signal. Knowing the channel characteristics. The Viterbi algorithm is an example of an adaptive MLSE (maximum likelihood sequence estimation) solution. 05. It uses the well known 26 bits (or more) TSC training sequence transmitted in each timeslot burst (once per 0. Slide No. the predicted distortion in the transmitted pulses are subtracted from the received waveform and the most likely sequence of data for the distorted received signal is estimated.Equalisation To some extent. The TSC (training sequence codes) are specified in GSM Rec.5ms) to measure the channel characteristics. the general countermeasure against distortion due to multipath effects is adaptive equalisation :• The distortion characteristics of the channel are measured continuously.21 .
The echos resulting from reflections just outside the ellipse for Δt = 15 μs are mostly the strongest and will cause most trouble. One bit period is 3. This means that the sum of the echos with delays of >= 15μs should remain >= 9 dB under the sum of the wanted carrier signal plus the “useful” echos within the 15μs window. Hence.69 μs.5 km in distance. echos with about 4 bit lengths delay can be compensated. Echos with a delay of > 15 μs cannot be cancelled by the equaliser.22 .Equalisation The equaliser used for GSM is specified to equalise echos up to 15 μs after the first signal. These signals should be considered as co-channel interference for which the required minimum C/I ratio of 9 dB must be met. This corresponds to 4. Slide No.
bounded by ellipsoids that have their focal points at the transmitter and the receiver antennas. To keep out of this zone. The radius of the first Fresnel zone is r(F1). buildings or vegetation. the distance r from the optical LOS should be : r ≥ r ( F1) = λd1( S − d1) S The obstacles may be hills. Slide No.Fresnel Zone A fresnel zone is a 3 dimensional body. n ≡ 1.23 . The sum of the distances from a point (P) on the ellipsoid to the transmitter (T) and to the receiver (R) is n/2 wavelengths longer than the LOS path (S) : Distance (P-T) + Distance (P-R) = S + n (λ/2) For the first fresnel zone.
This effect is called diffraction. Radiowaves may bend around obstructions to a certain extent.Diffraction Shadowing does not always mean that no signal is received behind an obstacle. The diffraction effect depends on the wavelength in relation to the size of obstacle.24 . and is greater the longer the wavelength. Slide No.
literally from one street to another. Each pixel has an size in the range of 50m x 50m to 500m x 500m.25 . One pixel is characterised by :• Terrain height • Clutter type : high/low building. Slide No. Shadows as deep as 20dB may occur over very short distances. The problems of shadowing are most severe in heavily built-up urban centres. The fading effects produced by shadowing are often referred to as slow fading The radio network planning tool uses a topographical database. forest. The topographical area is divided in a grid of pixels.Shadow Fading The effect of shadowing by obstacles is fading of the received signal. water etc.
The distances between the fading dips are in the magnitude of hundreds of meters.g. depending on the size of the obstruction :• Shadowing. Slide No. The distances between the fading dips are in the magnitude of tens of meters. individual building) can be treated statistically.26 .Shadow Fading The shadowing problem is approached in 2 ways.g. hills) can be predicted by propagation models in computerised planning tools. • Shadowing by obstructions smaller than the database resolution (e. diffraction and reflection by obstructions larger than the database resolution (e.
to give the probability of signal being greater than the receiver sensitivity.05.Shadow Fade Margin Shadow fade margins must be added to the receiver sensitivities specified in GSM Rec 05.27 . The fade margin depends on :• The desired coverage probability • The propagation slope • The standard deviation of the log-normal fading Slide No.
g.g. e. The inputs are :• The propagation slope. It can be used for a wide range of propagation slopes and standard deviations. e.g. e.28 . 40 dB/decade This means that the signal will decay according to 1/rn where n = 4 • The shadow fading standard deviation σs. by using a set of standard graphs. 90% coverage probability over the area Slide No.Jakes Graphs A way to find an appropriate fade margin is the method according to Jakes. 7 dB • The required coverage probability.
1) Slide No. Take required area coverage probability P(area) as the ordinate value 3. Find the fade margin for P(edge) in the CDF table for the standard normal distribution table N(0. The intersection of the 2 values will provide a value for the cell edge coverage probability P(edge) 4.Jakes Graphs The output will be the fade margin for a given required area coverage probability. This can be found as follows : 1.29 . Find the abscissa value σs/n 2.
Slow Fade Margin – Example According to GSM 03. 0. In the normal distribution N(0.30 . the normal case of urban propagation has a standard deviation of σs = 7 dB while the propagation path loss slope is –35dB/decade. In the graph. the fade margin = 0.61 x 7 = 4. then n = 35/10 = 3. In order to find the required fade margin to achieve 90% area coverage. the following steps are taken :1.30.73 corresponds to 0.1) table.5 = 2 2.3 dB Slide No.5 Because the σs = 7 dB. the P(area) = 90% and σs/n = 2 Intercept at the curve for P(edge) ~ 0. Hence.61 x σs. Determine the σs/n abscissa value : The propagation slope is 35 dB/decade. the value for σs/n = 7/3.73 = 73% 3.
31 .g. Slide No. − No obstacles assumed to be close to the BTS antenna. The level within this pixel varies about the median in a way that can only be analysed statistically. Okumura-Hata). − Local mean signal levels are distributed around the pixel median with a log-normal probability distribution. • Deterministic propagation models − Take into account individual buildings and use ray tracing techniques. − Formulas derived from measurements (e. − Make use of high resolution map data (at least 10m).Propagation Modeling • Statistical propagation models − These calculate a median signal for each pixel.
32 . spurious signals) The thermal noise depends on the receiver bandwidth B (in Hz) and the absolute temperature T (Kelvin). Ni = k T B Where k = Boltsmann’s constant = 1.g.Noise Levels There are 2 kinds of noise that play a role in mobile communication :• Thermal noise • Man-made noise (e.38 x 10-23 J/K Watt Slide No.
38 10-23 x (17 + 273) x 200 x 103 = 8 x 10-16 W = -120 dBm Slide No. the S/N ratio will be worse than at the antenna because the amplifier has added some extra noise by itself. At a temperature of 17 degrees C and a receiver bandwidth of 200 kHz. will be amplified by the frontend RF amplifier in the radio receiver. After amplification. The noise figure F is the ratio between : • The total output noise level generated by both the external noise and the internal noise of the amplifier • The output noise level due to external (thermal) noise only A typical noise figure for a GSM receiver is 6 dB.Noise Figure A mobile radio signal. the received thermal noise is :- 1.33 . received on the antenna.
The implementation margin being 2 dB and the fade margin for Rayleigh fading being 8 dB. the reference receiver sensitivity can be taken as :For normal GSM 900 BTS -120 dBm + 6 dB + 2 dB + 8 dB = -104 dBm Slide No.34 .Receiver Sensitivity With the thermal noise level of –120 dBm and a noise figure F = 6 dB. the noise floor will be at –114 dBm.
35 . Rayleigh Fading (time domain) and Doppler Effect (frequency domain) GSM 1800 Receiver Sensitivity The reference sensitivity levels specified in GSM Rec 05. 2 and 3 mobile stations and normal BTS) • • • • -120 dBm (Class 4 and 5 mobile stations) -97 dBm (micro-BTS M1) -92 dBm (micro-BTS M2) -87 dBm (micro-BTS M3) This already take into account the effect of multipath fading on moving mobiles.05 are as follows :• -102 dBm (class 3 mobile station or micro-BTS M1) • -100 dBm (GSM 1800 class 1 and 2 mobile stations) • -97 dBm (micro-BTS M2) • -92 dBm (micro-BTS M3) Slide No.Receiver Sensitivity GSM 900 Receiver Sensitivity The reference sensitivity levels specified in GSM Rec 05.05 are as follows:• -104 dBm (Class 1.
4..36 . typical macro cell radius 3 – 30 km Frequency reuse (factor n = 3. ) Cell splitting to increase local capacity Micro and pico cells act as patches for hot spots. tunnels and buildings Balance is to be found between conflicting requirements of : • Coverage • Traffic capacity Slide No.. 7 .Cellular Architecture The essential principles of the cellular architectures are :• • • • • Low power transmitters with antenna heights between 20 – 50 m Small coverage zones (cells).
given the fact that the number of allowed frequencies is fixed. the number of frequencies assigned to each of K cells becomes too small. a large K is desired. This involves :– Estimation of the co-channel interference – Calculation of the minimum frequency reuse distance D to meet the cochannel interference criterion – The practical values for K range up from 3 to 21 Slide No. A frequency can be reused simultaneously in different cells. In practice. • The challenge is to find the smallest K value which can still meet our system performance requirements. provided that the cells using the same frequency set are far enough separated so that co-channel interference is kept at an acceptable level most of the time. the total number of allocated frequencies is fixed.Cell Clustering Frequency reuse is the core concept of the cellular mobile radio system.37 . Trunking inefficiency will be the result. When K is too large. The total frequency spectrum allocation can be divided into K frequency reuse patterns. • Theoretically.
The K value can be found as follows :• • • • • The starting direction of the i axis is arbitrary j is rotated by one cell face (60 degrees) to the left from the i axis After finding the first co-channel cell.Cluster Size Valid values for K are found by setting i and j to positive values in :K = i2 + i j + j2 The smallest value for K is 3. go back to the starting cell Rotate the i axis by one cell face Repeat the procedure. Frequency Reuse Distance The frequency reuse distance D can be derived from the K value:- D = R 3K Slide No. found for i = j = 1.38 .
6 R2 Sector cell (Hexagon) = 1.39 .g.Cell Types The 2 main cell types are :• Omni cells : – Coverage is in principle a circle. for highways) – 3 sectors Cell Coverage Area Omni cell (Hexagon) = 2.96 R2 Slide No. but in reality a rough pattern • Sector cells : – 2 sectors (e.
Several antennas cannot be mounted at the same point Slide No.Base Station Antenna Problems Problems that are encountered in the design and installation of cellular antennas :• Dead Spots Slight unintentional tilts and minor lobes nulls in the radiation pattern may result in gain loss on some spots • Isolation The more spacing between transmitter and receiver antennas.40 . Less the coupling • Collinear antenna mounting Only one antenna can be mounted at the top most point of the site tower.
with compression. more minor lobes appear in the radiation pattern.Dead Spots A higher antenna gain is achieved by compressing the beamwidth in the elevation plane. Moving a dead spot away from a certain location can be done by :• Tilting the antenna beam • Reduction of antenna height • Use of a lower gain antenna Slide No. Unfortunately. In the desired coverage area.41 . nearby dead spots may exist due to minor lobe nulls even though the distant coverage is good because of a high main lobe gain.
which is a reduction in receiver sensitivity. duplexers and isolators Slide No. This is caused by :• Receiver in-band noise caused by the co-site transmitter (spurious signals) • Gain reduction of the low-noise amplifier caused by an strong off-channel signal Techniques used for isolation are :• Decoupling of the antennas by adequate spacing • Filtering the transmitter’s out of band channel noise by multicouplers.Isolation Isolation between transmitter and receiver antennas is required to avoid receiver desensitisation.42 .
3 + 40 log d dB A(v) = 59.Isolation Horizontal Spacing The isolation A(h) between 2 horizontally separated antennas is given by the empirical formula :A(h) = 31.3 + 40 log d dB for 900 MHz for 1800 MHz Slide No.43 .6 + 20 log d – (Gt + Gr) dB for 900 MHz for 1800 MHz Vertical Spacing The isolation A(v) in dB is given by :A(v) = 47.6 + 20 log d – (Gt + Gr) dB A(h) = 37.
with a 95% reliability. This is the median value. 95%) that the signal in a given area will be at least a number of X dB below the median value of that area.44 . the signal level can only be guaranteed top be –102 dBm (or more) which is the receiver sensitivity of the mobile. e.g. Slide No. This contour is a statistical boundary.Service Contour The propagation prediction model provides the signal level in terms of dBm. –88 dBm Given the standard deviation.g. Thus. there is a certain probability (e. If the MS travels along the boundary. The signal contour for a specified receiver sensitivity must be plotted around the cell site to define the coverage area. for 95% of all the locations it is expected to receive a signal that is above –102 dBm.
However it is desirable to design a cell structure as homogeneous as possible.45 .Cell Structure Planning A homogeneous cell structure is practically impossible. This will lead to :• Reliable coverage • Simple frequency planning • Easy calculation of traffic loads • Reliable handovers Slide No.
at the edge of towns) • Avoid random pointing of antenna direction.Cell Structure Planning Good cell structures can be planned by keeping the following points in mind :• Use as homogeneous a cell structure as possible (no abrupt changes in cell size.g. Avoid areas with many equally good server. e.46 . The front lobe at any BTS directional TX antenna should illuminate only the back lobe of its co-channel counterpart • Define cell boundaries firmly. resulting in many handovers and many interferers • Sufficient overlapping zones • Avoid cell boundaries across traffic hot spots • Keep all antenna heights about the same Slide No.
when they grow across the LOS radio path Slide No. and good coverage can be achieved.47 . Cells are living because :• New buildings may be erected within the coverage area • Existing building may be demolished • Trees are also a concern.Cell Structure Planning Once a BTS is located through site establishment. there is no guarantee that the cell will maintain its original coverage.
In all cases. the existing cells adjacent to the growth area will be affected in the following aspects :• • • • • Changes in cell size and shape Changes in the BSS parameters Updates in neighbour list Frequency allocation Interference performance Slide No. existing outdoor coverage needs to be upgraded to indoor coverage Integration of each new BTS or even each TRX has to be carefully planned into the greater system.48 .Cell Structure Growth Network growth can be required for the following reasons :• Extension of coverage area A new coverage area needs to be added • Capacity increase The traffic density in an existing cell has grown • Coverage quality increase For example.
This is accomplished by reducing the cell sizes in areas of high demand :• This requires the creation of new small cells within the overall cluster pattern • Frequency reuse must not infringe on rules determining frequency allocation for the large pattern • Some coverage quality improvement can be expected as well Slide No.49 . the basic cellular principle required that capacity increase is achieved by reusing frequencies more often over a certain coverage area. Hence more sites are needed within the existing area.Coverage Quality and Capacity Increase If the number of available channels is fixed.
Coverage Quality and Capacity Increase Increasing the cell density in a coverage area can be achieved by :• Adding more sites in the coverage area • Cell splitting (sectorisation) The capacity increases while the number of sites remains the same – The size of the small cell is dependent on 2 factors:• Radio aspect • Capacity of the system – Certain channels should be used as barriers • Cell Splitting Slide No.50 .
51 . This is also called coverage limitation • No interference (C/I is good) − Co-channel interference − Adjacent channel interference • No traffic congestion Slide No.Coverage Limited System In a noise limited cell. there is a limitation due to SNR limitations only.
52 . Doubling the power gives a gain of +3dB Increase BTS antenna height. Doubling the height may give +6 dB gain Use a high gain or a directional antenna at BTS Lower the threshold level of a received signal Install a masthead amplifier Decrease the front-end noise figure F (low noise receiver) Use a diversity receiver Select proper BTS site locations Use enhancers or micro/pico cells to enlarge coverage or to fill in holes Engineer the antenna pattern Slide No.Coverage Extension The coverage can be increased by one or a combination of the following actions :• • • • • • • • • • Increase transmitted power.
Savings are installation and operational costs. that receives at a low height and transmit to a higher height and vice versa. Two types of enhancers are distinguished : • Wideband • Channelised The enhancer can be considered as a relay.53 . its is not cost effective to install a BTS. they have only a relay function • Repeater gain 10 – 85 dB adjustable • Typical repeater range 0.Filling Coverage Holes In areas where the traffic intensity is low. An enhancer can be use to fill these coverage holes at low investments. Aspects:• The antenna pointing to the cell site BTS is directional • The lower antenna is omni or directional • Enhancers do not improve the SNR.5 – 3 km • Interference aspects may make implementation difficult • Ring oscillation shall be avoided • Distance to serving BTS site as small as possible to avoid spread of power into a large area in the vicinity of BTS and beyond • Enhancers may impact the network of another operator Slide No.
54 . an intracell handover to another frequency or time slot should occur • Frequency hopping − Effective on uplink and downlink path − Choose different hopping sequences for co-channel cells. avoiding problems from co-channel and adjacent channel interference • Selection of a proper channel − Among a set of assigned channels to a particular MS − If the quality of the signal is poor. resulting in a different interferer from hop to hop Slide No.Interference The C/I ratio can be increase in a number of different ways :• Good frequency management chart − Grouping the channels into subsets • Intelligent frequency assignment − Allocation of specific channels to cell sites and MS.
adaptive power control to keep transmission power as low as possible. in other directions no signal may be needed • Tilting of antenna patterns − To confine energy within a small area − Downward tilt of directional antenna • Reduction of antenna height − Reducing interference is as important as radio coverage • Power reduction of interfering transmitter − RF power control.55 .Interference • Antenna pattern design − In some directions a strong signal is required. on a per time slot basis − DTX. interrupted transmission during gaps in speech • Choosing cell site location Slide No.
g... This fixed frequency planning can be done manually.56 . In general.. determined by the interference matrix Slide No. this method can lead to a more efficient frequency use. . f21 for the control channels on a safe K = 21 cell cluster. 18 frequencies doing the job instead of the fixed K = 21 frequency cluster size for the same level of coverage quality. cluster of K = 21 cells will use 21 frequencies (at least). e.g. The basic idea is to protect the BCCH frequency – It is a good solution to use first e.Planning the frequencies The frequency plan can be made in different ways :• Fixed cluster configuration – For example. f1. • A mix of these methods is also possible – Control channels are always transmitted at maximum power. It is simple but not particularly efficient • Flexible assignment – Based on the interference matrix using an automatic tool. and then let the other frequencies be at a closer range.
• No interference analysis is required • It is possible however that frequencies from adjacent layers in differnt groups can be adjacent channels. new frequencies from other layers of the same frequency group can be added in that cell. by increasing the cell density in order to improve the traffic capacity and the coverage quality. This needs to be verified • If the frequency planning is performed by a computer tool.g.57 . the frequency group are of less importance Slide No. e.Extension and Frequency Changes When a network is to be extended. each cell starts with a layer of a particular frequency group • In a later stage. a revised frequency plan is necessary • To minimise the re-tuning. the already operational base station should be left unchanged as much as possible • The pre-assigned frequencies of the cell cliques that will change significantly should be abandoned in favour of new frequencies It is convenient to define a set of frequency group • Initially.
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