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K.Shashidhar

Hitech College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA Email: shashi_kb4u@yahoo.com Cell contact: 09848909049

Abstract - Electric utilities in India are facing the pressure of reducing costs and improving the quality and reliability of supply. It is not sufficient to analyze how a particular portion of the network may be modified to improve its performance today: it is a matter of determining what would be the optimal solution when allowance has also to be made for the uncertainties in the prediction of the future scenario of customer demand. The utilities do not follow any accurate mathematical procedure in installing Distribution Transformer. Moreover in many cases they are not placed in the required position due to socio-political and economical reasons which will result in losses. Since the Distribution form a large part of the network, a small amount of loss at each transformer leads to a great variation in total. To address this problem care should be taken to minimize the power loss while commissioning a transformer. Apart from estimating the power loss the voltage regulation should also be considered for finding the optimal location of a Transformer. In this paper a mathematical analysis is made to find the optimal location of a Transformer based upon the minimum peak power loss and minimum voltage regulation. Here three different cases are analyzed considering the present load and forecasting the future load demand and thus obtaining four to five optimal locations at which the distribution transformer can be placed. A comparative study is also made to have a choice between increasing the rating of the over rated transformer or finding the optimal location for a new transformer. Keywords: power loss, voltage regulation, transformer losses, transformer banking. I. INTRODUCTION

consumption is 381,359.5 Million Unit. Ideally, losses in an electric system should be around 3 to 6%. Voltage stability problem generally arises in over loaded systems. The collapses are – low voltage profiles, heavy reactive power flows, inadequate reactive support, and heavily loaded systems. To reduce the losses and to improve the system efficiency, a policy has been made [2]. If a new 11KV/415V Transformer is to be designed and connected to an existing network, several possible solutions are studied. These solutions may include various connection schemes of the substation and several feasible locations, while the principal scheme is defined with a limited number of possibilities. Many a times with the utilities, due to large number of possible sites, an economical comparison may overlook the optimal technical solution. The final decision is usually influenced by additional factors such as topography; land ownership, environmental considerations etc. But if the location of the Transformer is arbitrary the result can be a bad voltage profile. In both the cases we have extra losses resulting in a less efficient and unnecessary higher cost electrical system installation [1]. One such attempt is made in this paper by estimating the location of the distribution transformer taking into consideration of the present and future possible load demand. The various possible technical locations are tried out to obtain an optimal position which can be later compared with the economical issues in placing the transformer. In this paper the reduction of total power loss is compared by both finding the optimal location for an additional transformer and replacing the over loaded transformer with higher rating transformer. Three different possible cases are considered and analyzed to reduce the losses and improve the voltage regulation. The three different cases are as follows: Case 1: In a locality, the power demand is increasing at a considerable rate without any change in the network. To meet the load demand and also to reduce the line losses either an additional transformer can be placed or the over loaded transformer can be replaced by a higher rating transformer. Case 2: The load network (layout) is increasing in different directions. To cater the new load demand and to reduce the line losses, either a higher transformer rating is replaced with the over loaded transformer or an additional

Although Considerable Research has been carried out in distribution, there are yet few areas in the distribution network which are to be concentrated in order to reduce the losses to the maximum extent possible and to increase the power quality. In developed countries, the amount of power loss is not greater than 10%.However, in developing countries, the percentage of active power losses is around 20%; therefore, utilities in the electric sector are currently interested in reducing it in order to be more competitive, since the electricity prices in deregulated markets are related to the system losses [3]. In India, there are forty power distribution companies in various states and Union Territories supplying power. As on March, 2005 the total transformer capacity of the distribution utilities is 330,829 MVA and total distribution line length of the forty distribution utilities is 6,081,878 km. Total electricity

transformer can be placed within the same locality at some other different place. Case 3: Considering the load demand is increased in and around the transformer location. Study has to be carried out either to increase the transformer rating or install an additional transformer. The better approach is followed to reduce the line losses. The above cases are analyzed in two steps 1. The location at which the minimum peak power loss is obtained 2. The location corresponding to minimum voltage regulation is obtained. The optimal location is found from these two analyses and compared with the economical perspective to get the best location taking into consideration of political bias and geographical constraints.

Pi is the real power at node i and Qi is the reactive power at node i The total active and reactive power loss is given by

(3)

(4)

The voltage regulation is calculated by using the formula

Where P.F is the power factor, D.F is the Diversity factor, R.C is the regulation constant Assumptions In this paper the transformer ratings are consider as the maximum load ratings in the network, then a transformer with rating of 10 to 15% more than the load rating is considered. The transformer tap setting is considered as 0.9 and the load power factor is taken as 70%, The load factor is assumed as 0.3 and loss load factor as 0.132 [2]. The conductor Regulation constant is taken as 900 and the Diversity factor as 1.5. C. Algorithm A complete algorithm for determining power loss and analyzing the optimal position of a transformer. Step 1: Read the line data Step 2: Run the load flow program with the developed algorithm Step 3: Determine the power loss of the Distribution network Step 4: Place the transformer in between any two buses and calculate the power loss Step 5: Calculate the voltage regulation. Step 6: After obtaining the location with minimal peak power loss and voltage regulation, the position of transformer is changed in unit distances between the two buses and the power loss is calculated. Step 7: The transformer can thus be placed in a position where optimal power loss is obtained.

III. CASE STUDY AND SIMULATION RESULTS

II.

SOLUTION METHODOLOGY

B.

To optimally place a Distribution transformer, the minimum peak power loss and voltage regulation of the corresponding transformer are to be obtained. This can be done using any Distribution load flow method. The rating of the distribution transformer to be installed should be judiciously selected to keep the losses in the permissible limits. For the existing distribution system, the appropriate capacity of distribution transformer may be taken as very nearly equal to the maximum demand at good power factor. The Table 1 shows the losses in a distribution transformer with percentage of loading at 90%.

Standard KVA rating Iron Loss (watts) Full Load Cu Loss/Watts 25 50 63 100 150 300 500

130

195

280

310

500

850

1420

650

920

1230

1700

2100

3900

6500

Table 1: Losses in a distribution Transformer

A.

Equations The real and reactive power loss of line ‘j’ is given by Ploss[j] = Rj x (Pi+12 +Qi+12) / Vi+12 Qloss[j] = Xj x (Pi+12 +Qi+12) / Vi+12 (1) (2)

Where i = 1,2,… are the buses Rj is the resistance on line j Xj is the reactance on line j

To analyze the optimal location of a distribution transformer, a 11 KV feeder of Karapa Sub-station at Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh is considered which forms a 11 Bus System. All the three cases are analyzed and the corresponding change in the optimal position of a distribution transformer is analyzed.

Case 1: The power demand is increasing on a feeder at a considerable rate without change in the locality layout, which may happen due to increase in population density or increase in usage of electrical appliances etc. The circuit diagram of Karapa Distribution Network is as shown in the Figure 1.

above procedure is to be repeated by moving the transformer in unit steps between the buses 6-9. Table 3 shows the various locations with respect to the minimum peak power loss where the transformer can be placed. Distance from bus 6

0.1 0.2 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.3 0.4

S.No

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Power Loss (KW)

140.793 47.745 28.50 67.685 76.681 85.8779 87.571 122.581 123.590 90.507 95.372 65.344 71.218

Table 3: Power loss when a transformer moved in unit distances between buses 6-9 Figure 1. Circuit Diagram of Karapa Distribution Network

The power loss of the existing network is calculated as 91.971 KW. Now a comparative study is made between placing an additional transformer at different positions in the network and replacing the transformer with a higher rating. In the first scenario of placing a new transformer, if a transformer of 63KVA is placed in between any two buses, optimal location is to be obtained. The power loss across various buses when the transformer is placed in center of any two buses is as shown in Table 2. From the Table, the location corresponding to minimum power loss is obtained. S.No

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

From the above table the optimal position of the Transformer can be observed as 210 meters from Bus 6. If we cannot place the transformer because of any sociopolitical and economic reasons, then the next optimal location is selected. In the next scenario, a transformer is replaced with a higher rating transformer, instead of placing a new transformer at some optimal location. Generally Transformers are never shutdown, they are left energized, and the transformer stays warmer than the ambient and absorbs less moisture. This implies all year round, cost liabilities for a steady consumption of energy towards no load losses. This no load losses represent energy consumption. Over rated transformers draw an un-necessary high iron loss. In addition to the iron losses, the capital costs locked up is high [5].The Standard Distribution 11/0.45 KV 3-Phase Transformer ratings for rural electrification are given in Table 4. KVA Rating

Percentage Impedance No Load Losses KV

Bus Numbers

1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 2-6 6-9 6-7 7-8 9-10 10-11

Power Loss (KW)

146.895 49.206 201.581 85.467 120.353 87.51 17.432 48.952 134.477 149.493

63

4.5 180

100

4.5 260

200

4.75 500

315

4.75 580

500

4.75 850

630

4.75 1000

Table 2: Power loss when a transformer is placed in between the Buses.

Table 4: 11 KV Distribution Transformer Ratings

But in the network, since the buses 6-9 forms the main line, it can be considered as better location to place a new transformer. This analysis was also supported by observing the voltage profile at all the transformers. Now to obtain the exact location at which the transformer is to be placed, the

From the above two scenarios it is better to place a new Transformer at some optimal location instead of increasing the transformer rating, taking into consideration of all the Geographical constraints and political issues.

Case 2: Due to urbanization there can be a change in the physical layout of the load network i.e the distance of the tail end load from the transformer is increased, which leads to increase in line losses. In this case the transformer should cater the increased load demand and line losses. Replacing the transformer with higher rating will not reduce the line losses. But if an additional transformer is placed at an optimal location within the network the total power losses are reduced. Considering in the same Karapa Distribution Network of Figure 1, the line length is increased between the buses 10 and 11 by 100 meters as shown in Figure 2.

S.No

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

**Distance From bus 6
**

0.05 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4

Power Loss (KW)

149.6 109.53 89.24 63.36 60.23 56.41 109.74 103.78

Table 6: Power loss when a transformer is moved in unit distances between the Buses for an extended network

From the above table it is observed that the optimal location to place a transformer is at 200m from Bus 6. If at any case it is not possible to place the Distribution transformer then the next optimal location is selected. Case 3: Considering the load demand is increased in and around the transformer location, which can happen because of the locality being commercially developed. In this case, there is no additional contribution of line losses and all that is primarily due to the load. Here to reduce the total power loss, it is better to have an additional transformer in parallel to the existing transformer as per the load requirement. This is called as “Transformer Banking”. This method of placing an additional transformer will keep the Iron losses within considerable limits.

Figure 2. Circuit Diagram of extended Karapa Distribution Network

IV.

SUGGESTIONS

Here with the increase in Line length from 400 to 500 m, the total power loss of 11KV Feeder Network without placing a Transformer is 112.657 KW. Now by placing the Transformer in between any two buses across the main line, The power loss obtained by simulation is tabulated as shown in Table 3. Power Loss (KW)

78.14 70.35 175.85

S.No

1 2 3

Bus Numbers

2-6 6-9 9-10

Meters should be connected on all distribution transformers for accurate calculation of energy loss. The low voltage problem on distribution feeders may be corrected by operating an on-load-tap changing in the high voltage side of the power transformers situated at 33/11KV substations and providing a combination of switched capacitors and automatic voltage regulators on 11 KV feeders. The size of the conductor should be selected on the basis of KVA X KM capacity of standard conductor for a required voltage regulation [7]. The maximum limits of voltage variation should be as per the Indian Electricity Rule. Length of the 11KV and 415 V corresponding to different loads is presented in Table 6. Size and code

50 mm2 ACSR 30 mm2 ACSR 20 mm2 ACSR

Table 5: Power loss when a transformer is placed in between the Buses for an extended network

From the table, it is observed that the minimal peak power loss is obtained in between the buses 6-9 and this location is confirmed by observing the voltage regulation at all the buses. To find the better location in between the bus 6-9, the transformer is moved in unit steps from Bus 6 as shown in the Table 5.

**KVA-KM for 8% drop at 0.8 pf.
**

10,640 7,200 5,120

**Max. length of line (km)
**

30 20 15

Connected Load (kw)

355 360 341

Table 7: Length of 11 KV line corresponding to different loads

Various other methods can be adopted to reduce the line losses in a distribution transformer like placing a shunt capacitor, Grading of conductor, Feeder Reconfiguration etc.

V. CONCLUSION

APPENDIX

Karapa Distribution Layout is shown in the figure The Transformer admittance is 0.4-j0.797 The Line admittance is 0.5346-j0.6682

The distribution losses can be reduced by proper selection of transformer rating and location keeping in mind the present and future load demand. The utility companies should take into consideration of the technical and economical issues in installing a new transformer with the constraints of socio-political bias and geographical constraints. .

REFERENCES

[1] Piedade Jr., C.; “Rural electrification”, Nobel Editors, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1979 (In protugese) [2] Indian Electricity Act. 2003. Online available: http://powermin.nic.in/acts/notifications/electricity. [3] L.Ramesh, S.P.Chowdhury, S.Chowdhury, A.A.Natarajan, C.T.Gaunt “Minimization of power loss in Distribution Networks by different Techniques”,. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems Engineering 2:1 2009 [4] S. Corhodzic and A. Kalam ,”Assessment of Distribution Transformers using Loss Capitalization Formulae” [5] K. V. S. Ramachandra murthy and M. Ramalinga raju , ”Electrical Energy Loss in Rural Distribution FeedersA-Case study”,ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. [6] IEEE. 1991. IEEE Distribution Planning Working Group report, Radial Distribution Test Feeders. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 6(3): 974-985. [7] J. D. Glover and M. Sarma. 1994. Power System Analysis and Design. 2nd Edition, PWS publishing company, Boston, MA. [8] “Options for system upgrades for rural power networks” for United States Agency for International Development [9] Best practices in Distribution Loss reduction, Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) project training material of USAID INDIA. Available at http://www.usaid.com. [10] Hernán Prieto Schmidt, Nathan Ida, Fellow, IEEE, Nelson Kagan, Senior Member, IEEE, and João Carlos Guaraldo, ”Fast Reconfiguration of Distribution Systems Considering Loss Minimization “, IEEE Transactions on power systems, Vol. 20, No. 3, August 2005.

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