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 The Spanish defeat was not really surprising. The Royal Governor of the Philippines, Don Pedro Manuel de Arandia had died in 1759 and his replacement Brigadier Don Francisco de la Torre had not arrived because of the British attack on Havana in Cuba. Spanish policy was for the Archbishop of Manila to be Lieutenant Governor. In part, because the garrison was commanded by the Archbishop Don Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio et Vieria instead of by a military expert, many mistakes were made by the Spanish  forces. Under Spanish rule, the Philippines never paid its own way, but survived on an annual subsidy paid by the Spanish Crown. As a cost saving measure, and because the Spanish authorities never really contemplated a serious expedition against Manila by a European power, the 200 year old fortifications at  Manila had not been much improved since first built by the Spanish. Early success by the British in Manila did not enable them to expand their control over all parts of the Spanish Philippines. In reality they only continuously controlled Manila and Cavite. But Manila was the capital, and key, to the Spanish Philippines, and the British accepted the written surrender of the Spanish  government in the Philippines from Archbishop Rojo and the Real Audiencia on 30 October 1762. Other parts of the Philippines were controlled for shorter periods. Vigan, Ilocos Sur, was controlled by the British appointed governor of Ilocos Sur, the Ilocano Diego Silang and his successor against the Spanish, Gabriela Silang. Ilocos Norte and Cagayan also saw British ascendancy against the Spanish by way of  local native freedom fighters . The terms of surrender proposed by the Real Audencia and agreed to by the British leaders, secured private property, guaranteed the Roman Catholic religion and its episcopal government, and granted the citizens of the former Spanish colony the rights of peaceful travel and of trade 'as British subjects'. Under superior British control, the Philippines would continue to be governed by the Real Audencia, the expenses of which were to be paid by Spain. The Seven Years War was ended by the Peace of Paris signed on 10 February 1763. At the time of signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Philippines had been taken by the British and was being administered as a British colony. Conseqently no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Crown. The British ended their rule by embarking from Manila and Cavite in the first week of April 1764, and sailing out of Manila Bay for Batavia, India and England. The conflict over payment by Spain of the outstanding part of the ransom promised by Archbishop Rojo in the terms of surrender, and compensation by Britain for excesses committed by Governor Drake against residents of Manila, continued in Europe for years afterwards.
Simón de Anda y Salazar (Subijana (Basque Country), October 28, 1701 - Cavite, October 30, 1776) was Spanish governor of the Philippines from October 6, 1762-March 17, 1764 and again from July, 1770-October 30, 1776. He had been appointed lieutenant of the governor and captain-general in Manila at the time of the British expedition against Manila. He left Manila on October 4, 1762, two days before the fall of the city and
as central Spanish power had collapsed. In June 1762. foresight. 1774. Major Scott as Adjutant-General and Captain Fletcher as Brigade-Major of the East India Company. 1776. roused the opposition of the regulars. Admiral Samuel Cornish received secret orders for an expedition. A monument to his memory was erected on Bonifacio Avenue in Manila.established a new capital in Bacolor. He directed a letter to the King complaining of certain disorders in the Philippines. 1762. and the expedition received limited support from the East India Company. The inspiration for the attack was as much dreams of loot as plans for geopolitical advantage. they were available to be employed against the Spanish possessions in Asia. to secularize the curacies held by regulars. He was assisted by Colonel Monson as Second in Command. but was confronted by several insurrections of Filipinos and Chinese between 1762 and 1764. The commander of the expedition was Brigadier General William Draper. He then travelled to Spain and was well received at court. 1762 to October 6. December 11. and Anda in Bohol were named after him. On April 12. which he communicated to the authorities at Calcutta. Pampanga. On August 1. and had the order repealed. enumerating among them a number against the Friars. in the hospital de San Felipe. Prelude British troops stationed in India were idle since the fall of Pondicherry. and four store ships. The troubles with the Moros continued. and made Councilor of Castile.839 regulars. reformed the army and engaged in other public works. 1776. between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Spain in and around Manila. He organised the resistance against the invaders. when they withdrew in accordance with the Treaty of Paris (1763). His rule was characterized by his energy. from September 24. He had himself proclaimed governor as acting governor Archbishop Manuel Rojo was captured by the British and ceded the islands to them. and conflicts with the regulars. When war broke out with Spain. The expeditionary force consisted of: y 79th Draper's Regiment of Foot (450 men) . The cities San Simon in Pampanga. He entered in negotiations with the British and received the keys to the city from them in April 1764. a Spanish colony at that time. sailors and marines. He proceeded against his predecessor and others. the capital of the Philippines. Battle of Manila (1762) The Battle of Manila was fought during the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in the United States). sailed away from Madras with a force of 6. three frigates. 1768 her returned in Manila and became governor in July 1770. or religious orders. 1762. He opposed the King's order of November 9. Cavite at seventy-six years of age. He died on October 30. honesty. a British fleet of eight ships of the line.
The British promised support for an uprising led first by Diego Silang and later by his wife Gabriela. On September 30. while the ships sailed up to draw the fire of the town upon themselves. about 2. On October 4. During the night of October 5 to 6. . the expedition entered the Manila Bay and anchored off Fort Cavite.) The Battle On September 24. she had run aground so that she screened the rear of Draper's camp from the Spanish cannon. the British cannonade had made a practicable breach in the fortifications of Manila. the battery and the ships opened fire and in 4 hours silenced the guns of Manila.000 men) French deserters under Lieutenant Martin (200 men) other assorted troops (freed African slaves. On the 10th of October.5 km south of the walls of the city. Gen. and began to construct a battery. .000 Filipinos and were driven back with heavy loss. the remainder of the archipelago remained loyal to Spain. including some Filipinos. Mortality. Draper landed his troops unopposed through heavy surf. Draper seized a detached fort which had been abandoned by the Spaniards within 200 meters of the glacis. but was driven ashore by a gale. the Spaniards made a sally upon the British position with 1. The four million dollars has never been fully paid. promising four million dollars for ransom of the town and of the property contained therein. after much delay owing to stormy weather and the defective condition of Admiral Cornish's ships. Manila was placed under the authority of Lt.y y y composite battalions of sepoys (drawn from all the Madras Sepoy regiments) under Captain DesPlans (2. a British store ship arrived with entrenching tools. but the expedition was rewarding nevertheless. Her stores were landed with greater speed and safety than would have been possible had she remained afloat for the gale continued for several days and forbade the passage of boats through the surf. The garrison of Manila consisted of the Royal Regiment (20 companies of 100 men each). especially after the capture of the treasure ship Santísima Trinidad with a value of two million dollars on board. native Christian Indians who claimed to have Portuguese descent. By October 5. Dawson Drake. acting governor Archbishop Antonio Rojo surrendered the citadel and the port of Cavite as soon as the city fell. On September 25. but the British force never materialized. Through the efforts of Spanish Lieutenant-Governor. To prevent further slaughter. There were only 80 artillerymen. On September 26. desertion and various detachments had reduced this regiment to some 565 soldiers.. Aftermath The British held Manila until it was returned to Spain.. Fortunately. A substantial number of Royal Marines and sailors were then detached from the fleet. These companies were far from being at full strength. They were unable to establish control over other areas of the Philippines. Draper's regiment and a party of sailors attacked the breach and took the fortifications with little difficulty. At dawn of October 6. Nawab European infantry. Thus fell Manila within 10 days of the arrival of the British. Don Simón de Anda y Salazar.
The city remained in British hands for 18 months and was given back to Spain in April 1764 after the Treaty of Paris (1763). . partly in exchange for the captured British colony of Minorca.