1/2VDD

Vref = ½ * 5 = 2.5v

Gain of the Op-Amp When using NOKIA 2300, the gain of the Op-Amp is obtained as follows: Vin = 5mV R1 = 10k ohm Rf = 100k ohm Gain Av = Rf/R1 = 100/10 = 10. And Vo = ViAv = 5 * 10-3 * 10 = 50mV Guard time calculation tGTA =(RC)ln(VDD/VTSt) tGTP = (RC)ln(VDD/(VDD-VTSt)) tREC = tDP + tGTP tID = tDA + tGTA tDP = 11ms tDA = 4ms tGTA = (330*103 * 0.1* 10-6)*ln(5/2.5) = 3.3 * 10-2 * 0.6931 =2.29 * 10-2 sec =22ms tGTP = 330*103 * 0.1* 10-6*ln(5/2.5) =0.033 * 0.6931 = 22ms tRec = TDP + TGTP = 11 + 22 =33ms tID = tDA + tGTP = 4 + 22 =26ms From the above calculation, it implies that before a tone could be registered as a valid DTMF tone it must have a tone duration of 33ms and inter digital pause of approximately 26ms. Read more: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/215994_simulation-of-dual-tone-multi-f requency-dtmf-tones#ixzz1KeDR5mBW

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