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S.No.

Content Page No.


biology

1. Heredity and Evolution 1


2. 15
3.
4. Reproduction in Plants 51
5. A Representative Study of Mammals 73
6. Life Processes 87
7. Conservation of Environment 105
8. Waste Water Management 121
chemistry
9. Solutions 133

10. Atoms and Molecules 143

11. Chemical Reactions 153

12. Periodic Classification of Elements 174


13. Carbon and its Compounds 194
physics
14. Measuring Instruments 211
15. Laws of Motion and Gravitation 216
16. Electricity and Energy 232
CONTENT

17. Magnetic Effect of Electric Current and light 254


Syllabus 286
Practicals 291

III
Chapter 1

HereDity
and Evolution
1. HEREDITY and Evolution
Heredity and Variation parents, in body design, function etc., The
rules of heredity determine the process
A cow gives birth to a calf. Both the by which the traits and the characteristics
mother cow and calf share common are relatively inherited.
characteristics like body design,
physiological function etc, that are specific “The inheritance of characteristics
to their species. However on a very close through generation is called heredity”
observation of the mother cow and the The inheritable characteristics may be
calf and the bull which is the calf’s other morphological/anatomical/physiological/
parent , we will come across a number reproductive and are also known as
of differences among them, like colour traits.
pattern in the skin. By virtue of being
If we take a very close look at the
Activity 1.1 rules of inheritance, both father and
•• Ask your classmates to roll their mother contribute equal amount of
tongues. Observe how many can genetic material to the child. This means
and how many are not able to roll that each trait can be influenced by
their tongues. Record your findings. both paternal and maternal genetic
material – i.e, DNA.
•• Similarly record the variation in the
eye colour noticed among your Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884)
classmates. worked out the first ever scientific
experimental study on heredity.
the progeny of the parent, the progeny Mendel, an Austrian Augustinian monk
individual, need not just be the replica observed variations in the characteristics
of what its parents are. (Inheritance of garden pea plant (Pisum sativum)
of characters from the parents to the which he had cultivated in his monastery
progeny ( i.e. , Heredity) ensures the garden. Mendel was curious  to find out
passing of the parental characters to the
the results of crossing of pea plants
progeny). The difference or change in the
with the variation in traits. The visible
characteristics between the individuals
contrasting characters that Mendel
is called Variation. Human population
shows a great deal of variation. observed in the garden pea plants were
BIOLOGY

1.1. HEREDITY • Seed shape - Round/Wrinkled

The progeny produced through the


• Seed colour - Yellow/Green
reproductive process is similar to its • Flower colour - Violet / White

2
HEREDITY and Evolution

Character Dominant trait Recessive trait • Pod shape - Full / Constricted


• Pod colour - Green / Yellow
Seed shape
Wrinkled
Round • Flower position - Axillary / Terminal
• Stem height - Tall / Dwarf
Seed colour Green
Yellow
1.1.1. Mendel’s monohybrid cross
Flower colour Mendel selected the garden pea plant,
Pisum sativum for his experiments. He
Violet White selected tall and dwarf plants and allowed
them to grow naturally. As pea plants
Pod shape produce seeds only by self pollination, he
observed that tall plants produced always

Full Constricted

Pod colour X
Parental

Tall Dwarf


Green Yellow
Flower
Position

F1 generation
X

Tall Selfing Tall


F2 generation

Axial Terminal

Tall Tall Tall Dwarf

Fig. 1.2 Diagrammatic representation of


Monohybrid cross

tall plants generation after generation


CHAPTER 1

Stem
height under natural condition.Similarly, dwarf
plants produced always dwarf plants
generation after generation. Hence, he
Tall Dwarf
termed the tall and dwarf plants as wild
Fig. 1.1 Seven pairs of contrasting
traits in Pea plant studied by Mendel. types or pure breeding varieties.

3
Then he crossed a tall plant with medium height plants or dwarf plants.
a dwarf plant, produced progeny and This means that only one of the parental
calculated the percentage of tallness and traits were seen and not the mixture of
dwarfness in subsequent generations. the two. When such a F1 tall plant was
allowed to have self pollination, both the
When a pure breeding tall plant was tall and dwarf plants appeared in second
crossed with a pure breeding dwarf filial generation (F2). in the ratio of 3:1.
plant, all plants were tall in the first filial This indicates that both tallness and
generation (F1) i.e., there was not any dwarfness were inherited in the F1 plants
but only tallness trait was expressed.
Gregor Johann Mendel(1822-1884)
The first experiment of Mendel
Mendel was considering the inheritance of a single trait
educated in a (Height of the plant Tall/Dwarf) is called
monastery and went Monohybrid Cross.
on to study science
Expression of morphological
and mathematics
characters as tall or dwarf plant, violet or
at the university of
white flower is called Phenotype.
Vienna. Failure in the
examinations for a teaching certifi­cate The expression of gene (or
did not suppress his zeal for scientific Chromosomal make up) of an individual
quest. He went back to his monastery for a particular trait is called Genotype.
and started growing peas. Many others
1.1.2. Physical basis of heredity
had studied the inheritance of traits
in peas and other organisms earlier, The genotype of a character is
but Mendel blended his knowledge of influenced by factors, called Genes.
Science and Mathematics and was the The genes are the factors which form
first one to keep count of individuals the physical basis for inheritance of
exhibiting a particular trait in each Characters. The alternate expressions
generation. This helped him to arrive of the same gene are called alleles.
at the laws of inheritance that we have The contrasting pair of alleles make
discussed in the main text. up an allelomorph. Examples : Tall and

Activity 1.2 Leaves Buds and Fruit


Observe in your locality for plants
which show different characters for Seeds
the following traits. Count them and
record your findings. Examples:
Coconut Tall Dwarf Insects Grubs
BIOLOGY

Bean Violet Flower White Flower


Sugar Cane White Stem Purple Stem
Fig. 1.3 Variations in the beaks of finches
Clitoria Blue Flowers White Flowers to suit their eating habits.

4
HEREDITY and Evolution

Activity 1.3 Charles Darwin: (1809-1882) Charles


Darwin set out on a voyage when he was
Find out identical / Non-identical twins
22 years old. The 5 year voyage took him
in your school and locality. Find the
to South America and the islands, off its
minute variations between them.
coast. Interestingly,
after he got back
dwarf plants, wrinkled and smooth seed
coat, white and violet coloured flower. to England, he
Organisms differ or vary in expressing never left to the
phenotype which leads to variation. shores again. He
stayed at home and
1.2. Variation conducted various
All around us , we see different experiments that
organisms belonging to different species, led him to formulate
differing from one another. Variation his hypothesis
may be defined as the differences in the from which evolution took place due to ral
characteristics among the individuals selection. He did not know the mechanism
of the same species (intra specific
from where the variations arose in the
variation) or among the different genera
species. Had he been enlightened by
Mendel’s experiments, he would have
contributed more. But these two great men
did not know of each other or of their works!

We often associate Darwin solely with


the theory of evolution. But he was an
accomplished naturalist, and one of the
studies he conducted was, to do with the
role of earthworms in soil fertility.
Fig. 1.4 Identical twins
(intergeneric variation) or different
species (Inter specific Variation). No two b. Germinal Variation - It pertains
individuals are identical to each other. to germ cells or gametes and it is
Asexual reproduction produces, very inheritable. It leads to speciation
closely resembling offsprings. Asexual and evolution.
reproduction thus results in offsprings with
minor variations.Sexually reproducing Significance of Variation
organisms produce offsprings with
CHAPTER 1

marked,significant and visible variations. ¡ It is the source of raw material for
evolution.
1.2.1. Types of variations
¡ Animals are able to adapt themselves
a. Somatic Variation - It pertains to
bodycells and it is not inherited. to the changing environment.

5
Lamarckian of a race, would be identical in all
View on organic evolution: aspects.

1.2.2. Theory Of Natural Selection


Charles Darwin made a number of
observations in many parts of the world
and put forth the law of natural selection
involving struggle for existence and
survival of the fittest.
Variation leads to genetic
diversity,which is the key for evolution.
Fig. 1.5 Giraffe
1.3. Evolution
Jean Baptise Lamarck (1744-1829)
postulated the Use and Disuse Theory. Evolution may be defined as a gradual
According to Lamarck, use of a part development of more complex species
/ organ efficiently by a species, for from pre-existing simpler forms.
generations over a long period of time,
It is an extremely slow process and
results in that part / organ being well
has occurred over millions of years,as
developed in the subsequent generations revealed by fossil evidences.
and disuse of part/organ for a long period
would make that part / organ diminished or Evolution has thus resulted in the
degenerated. diversity of organisms, influenced by
environmental selection.
Lamarck quotes the example of
development of long neck of Giraffe. 1.4.  Speciation
Giraffes were forced to extend their neck
and stretch their legs to reach the leaves of
Mankind in India and all other parts
of the world, form a single species
tall trees. Over a long period of time, this
called Homo sapiens. As in India,
resulted in long neck and legs in giraffe.
morphological features of people living
Lamarck remarks that the “will or want”
in different geographical areas like
for a character makes the organisms to
South India, North India, North Eastern
posseses it at a later time. region, Kashmir and Andaman are not
the same as the people living in different
continents are different in morphological
¡ Organisms are better suited to face features.
the struggle for existence
Men, with these differences in their
¡  Variations give the organisms an bodily features, differentiate more
BIOLOGY

individuality of their own. and more, if there is no chance of


interbreeding among them.
¡  Without variation, there would be no Imagine a situation, where this
science of heredity as all individuals would result in the impossibility of

6
HEREDITY and Evolution

breeding between two such individuals 1.5.  Human evolution


of geographically isolated populations.
Then they would be  ready to become Fifteen million years ago, in Africa
two different species. existed hairy bodied Gorilla and
Chimpanzees like Hominids. After that
When two populations are isolated by 3-4 million years ago, men like hominids,
geographical barriers, or reproductive walked into Eastern Africa. Evidence
barriers, there is a chance for a change to shows that they hunted with stone
develop in their gene flow (Genetic drift), weapons but were mostly fruit eaters.
leading to formation of a new species. They were probably not taller than four
Genetic drift with changes in the gene feet but, walked upright in the grass
flow imposed by isolation mechanism lands of East Africa. These creatures
acts as an agent of speciation. were called the First human like being
– the hominid. The hominid was called
Thus speciation is arising of a new Homo habilis.
species from a sub-population of a
species which is geographically or The next stage of human evolution
reproductively isolated over a long period came into existence 1.5 million years
of time from the other population of the ago with the rise of Homo erectus  who
same species. were meat eaters
The Neanderthal man who lived in
East and Central Asia 1 million years

CHAPTER 1

Fig. 1.6 A comparison of the skulls of adult


modern human being, baby chimpanzee
and adult chimpanzee. The skull of baby
chimpanzee is more like adult human skull than
adult chimpanzee skull. Fig. 1.7 Evolutionary tree

7
ago, used to hide to protect them and based upon similarities and differences in
buried their dead. their physical and genetical characters.
Archaic Homo sapiens arose in South 1.7. Genetic engineering
Africa and moved across continents and
developed into distinct races during the Genetic engineering is the modification
ice age. Between 75,000 – 10,000 years, of the genetic information of living
the modern Homo sapiens arose. Pre- organisms by manipulation of DNA by
historic caves were developed about adding, removing or repairing part of
18,000 years ago, agriculture came genetic material (DNA) and changing the
around 10,000 years back and human phenotype of the organism. It is also known
settlements started. as gene manipulation or recombinant DNA
Technology (r-DNA Technology)
1.6. Evolution tree
Recent advances made in Genetics,
To understand evolution, a branching
Molecular Biology and Bio-Chemistry
diagram or “Tree” is used to show the
have resulted in the origin of this new
inferred evolution, relationships, among
branch of science. The benefits derived
various biological species or other entities
through the Genetic Engineering include:

Medical products
1. Insulin Fuel
2. Growth hormone Biogas Microbial metabolites
3. Vaccines 1. Enzymes
4. Antibiotics 2. Vitamins
5. Monoclonal 3. Steroids
antibodies 4. Ethanol

Genetic engineering Scope of Waste treatment


1. Transgenic plants Bio-technology 1. Sewage
2. Transgenic animals 2. Toxic wastes
3. Waste oil
4. Agricultural wastes

Mining Fruit and Drink


Organic acids
Mineral extraction 1. Acetic acid 1. Dairy product
BIOLOGY

2. Citric acid 2. Brewing


3. Butyric acid 3. Baking
4. Single cell protein

8
HEREDITY and Evolution

¡Understanding of the gene structure It was Edward


and function through basic research. Jenner (1749-
1823) in 1791
¡ Production of large quantities of
who coined the
insulin, interferon(Anti-Viral Protein
term vaccine
produced by Virus infected cells) and the term
human growth hormones, proteins vaccination
(Polypeptides) and vaccines for foot for protective
and mouth disease of cattle (komari – inoculation.
in Tamil) etc., Vaccines
produced by Edward Jenner
¡ This technique is also employed in the Bio-technology differ from others. In that,
transfer of genes involved in Nitrogen they do not contain weakened or killed
fixation(NF–genes). This will help the agents. Instead they are so refined as
cultivator to increase productivity. to consist only the reactive material ie.,
the antigen protein only. The first such
1.7.1. Basic techniques in Genetic vaccine was used against Hepatitis B
Engineering Virus (HBV)
Genetic Engineering has developed
after the discovery of two enzymes. anti-biotics, organic acids, vitamins,
The enzymes which can cut DNA into
vaccines, steroids and monoclonal
fragments, and enzymes which can join
anti-bodies.
such fragments.
Brewing Industry: Fermentation in
Restriction enzymes or Restriction
alcoholic beverages like beer, wine etc.,
endonucleases are molecular scissors
which cut DNA at specific sites. DNA Enzyme Technology : Enzymes are
ligases are the paste enzyme which bio-catalysts that speed up reaction in
helps to join the broken DNA fragments. cells. They can be used to catalyze the
industrially important reactions and are
1.8. Bio-technology and
more efficient than inorganic catalysts.
Cloning Many enzymes are utilized in the
Bio-technology has contributed towards pharmaceutical industry.
exploitation of biological organisms or
Anti-Biotics : These are substances
biological processes through modern
produced by some microbes that
CHAPTER 1

techniques which could be profitably


help in increasing the immunity to
used in medicine, agriculture, animal
human beings which are toxic to other
husbandry and environmental cleaning.
micro-organisms.
There are several applications of
Bio-technology such as brewing Industry, Organic Acids: Acetic acid is used for
enzyme technology, manufacturing of the production of vinegar.

9
Development of Dolly

Fig. 1.10 Dr. Ian Wilmut with dolly


Cloning
Dolly was a cloned sheep, developed not furnish energy but are very essential
by Dr.Ian Wilmut and his colleagues in for energy transformation and regulation
Roselind Institute in Scotland in July of metabolism.
1996.
Vaccines:  Vaccines are substances
The scientists used nucleus of udder that confer immunity against specific
cell (somatic cell taken from mammary disease. They act as antigens and stimulate
gland) from a six year old Finn Dorset the body to manufacture antibody.
white sheep. Steroids:  They are a type of derived
The nucleus of the udder cell contains, lipids Ex: Cholesterol, containing steroid
drugs like prednisolone is produced from
diploid number(2n) of chromosomes with
fungus Rhizopus.
all the genes. They preserved the diploid
nucleus in a suitable preservative. Then Monoclonal anti-bodies : These are
they took an ovum from the ovary of the anti bodies produced by cloned cells.
another sheep. The haploid nucleus (n) Monoclonal anti -bodies, are now used
in the ovum was removed.
for treatment of cancer.

The diploid nucleus of the udder cell Cloning: Cloning is an experimental


technique wherein a group of
was injected into the cytoplasm of the
morphologically and genetically identical
enucleated ovum. Then the ovum with
organisms are produced. The “Clone”
the diploid nucleus, was implanted into is an organism derived from a single
the uterus of the surrogate mother sheep. parent by asexual method. A clone may
Since the ovum had the diploid nucleus, be defined as an exact carbon copy or
it developed into a young clone. It was copies of a single parent.
named “Dolly” by Dr.Ian Wilmut.
BIOLOGY

The word clone refers only to living


species.
Vitamins: These are chemical
compounds present in variable minute If the cloning technique is to be
quantities in natural food stuffs. They do applied to veterinary science, valuable

10
HEREDITY and Evolution

animals could be cloned from desirable The inner mass of undifferentiated cells
adult cells. are isolated and they are considered as
embryonic stem cells.
1.8.1 Types of Clones
2.  Adult or Somatic Stem Cells:
Natural clones:  The natural clones
The body of higher animals and human
include identical twins.
beings have many well differentiated
Induced clones:  The induced tissues like epithelial, connective,
(artificial) clones are developed by muscular, vascular, supporting, nervous
nuclear transfer into the host cell and reproductive tissues. In these tissues,
there are some undifferentiated cells and
1.9. Stem Cell (Organ) are considered as the adult or somatic
Culture: stem cells. They can grow, multiply and
One of the most fascinating branches can be differentiated into same type of
in applied embryology is stem cell tissues into which they are implanted.
culture. The stem cells are the most The mechanism of adult or somatic stem
unspecialized mass of cells. They cell culture is similar to that of embryonic
are derived from animals and plants. stem cell culture. The somatic stem cells
They have two important characteristic are derived from sources such as bone
features. They are: marrow, embryos, amniotic fluid and
umbilical cord.
1.Unspecialized cells which have the
potentiality of growing and multiplying 1.10.  Microbial Production
into enormous number of same type of As we discussed earlier, the field of
cells by repeated mitosis. Bio-technology is so vast and has great
2.They can be introduced to become scope for different fields like agriculture,
any other type of tissues with specific medicine, foodindustry etc.,
functions i.e., they can be induced to The microbial products of every day
become a cardiac muscle, beta cells use are:
of pancreas (which produce insulin),
special neurons in brain etc., Vaccines :  Killed or live germs
suspension which is employed to induce
1.9.1. Types of Stem Cells the production of antibodies and bring
There are two kinds of stem cells forth immunity.

1. Embryonic Stem Cells: The Antibiotics :  Antibiotics are chemical


embryonic stem cells can be derived substances derived from microbes like
CHAPTER 1

from early embryo which is developed fungi, bacteria etc., employed to kill the
by “invitro fertilization” (fertilisation made infectious germs and cure a disease.
artificially in the laboratory). Vitamin B12 :  Bio technologically
After fertilization the zygote develops synthesized vitamin B12 is used, to cure
into a hollow blastula by cell division. pernicious anaemia.

1111
2.In the laboratory, a virus Bio-Chips
is altered so that it cannot
1. Cells are removed reproduce.
from patient Bio-Chips are microchips which are
3. A gene developed by employing techniques
is inserted
7. The genetically into the of Bio-technology. In future, biological
altered cells virus
produce the desired computers will be developed using
protien or hormone. bio-chips. Bio-Chips will be useful in
6.The altered cells defence, medicine etc.,
are injected into the
patient.
1.12 Science today - Gene
Therapy
4. The altered virus Insulin dependent diabetes is
5. The cells from is mixed with cells
the patient become from the patient. treated with insulin injection. Insulin
genetically altered .
dependent diabetes is caused by the
Fig 1.11 Gene therapy
degeneration of beta cells due to a
Enzymes :  Bio-Chemically significant defective gene. Applying the principle
enzymes are derived from microbes \ Ex. of Bio-technology, it is possible to
Amylase is derived from amyloproteins correct the defective gene. When the
of bacteria. defective gene is corrected with a new
gene, the genetic defect developed is,
Insulin :  Diabetes is treated by the rectified and cured.
biotechnologically produced insulin.
Gene Therapy is the means to treat
1.11. Bio-sensor and or even cure genetic and acquired
Bio-chips diseases like cancer and Aids by using
normal gene to supplement or replace
Bio sensor: It is a device consisting  the defective gene.
of immobilized layer of biological material
such as enzyme, antibody, hormone, It can be used to treat defects in
nucleic acids, organelles or whole Somatic i.e., (body) or Gametic (sperm
cells and its contact with a sensor. The or eggs) Cell.
sensor converts biological signals into an Types of Gene Therapy
electrical signal. It is used in medicines
and industry. 1. Somatic gene therapy:- The
genome (gene set) of the
1. Blood glucose level can be recipient is changed. But this
detected. change is not passed along to
2. Production of any toxin in the body the next generation.
due to infection can be detected.
2. Germ line gene therapy:- Egg
BIOLOGY

3. Pollution in drinking water can be and sperm of the parents are


monitored. changed, for the purpose of
4. Odour, freshness and taste of food passing the changes to the next
can be measured. generation.

12
HEREDITY and Evolution

Evaluation
Part A
7. T
 he heritable characters are varying
1. Mendel observed 7 pairs of contrasting in different species and within the
characters in Pisum sativum. One same species.
of the following is not a part of that.
Find out. Name the variation in the following cases.

• Tall and dwarf,  he eye colour among the human


T
• Yellow and green seed colour, beings are varied as blue, black,
• Terminal and axial Flower, brown, green, etc.,
• Smooth and rough stem a) This is called as _______variation.
2. Primitive man evolved in – (Africa, The dentition in rabbit and
America, Australia, India) elephant are not the same.

3. Which of the following is inheritable b) This is called as __________


(an altered gene in sperm, analtered variation.
gene in testes, an altered gene in 8. Sexually reproducing organisms
zygote ,an altered gene in udder cell) produce offsprings with marked,
4.  Theory of natural selection was significant and visible variation.
proposed by - (Charles Darwin, Hugo 
Asexually reproducing offsprings
de Vries, Gregor Johann Mendel,Jean show minor variations.
Baptise Lamarck)
a) Do you agree with the above
5. Somatic gene therapy (affects sperm, statements?
affects egg, affects progeny ,affects
body cell) b) Among the following organisms
list out the asexually reproducing
Part B organisms.
(Paramoecium, Euglena,
6. Mendel has observed Tallness as
Earthworm and Bird).
dominant character in Garden pea
plant. Similarly tongue rolling is a 9. Here is a certain important hereditary
dominant character in man. In a group jargons, fix a suitable one from the list
of 60 students, 45 can roll their tongue given below.
and 15 are non rollers.
a) __________ are the factors
a) In the above context, calculate which form the physical basis of
the percentage of dominant and inheritance.
CHAPTER 1

recessive characters.
b)__________ is alternate expression
b) In Garden pea plant, draw the of same gene.
diagrammatic representation of
mono hybrid cross as explained by c)__________ are contrasting pairs of
Mendel. alleles.(alleles, variation, speciation,
gene, allelomorph)
13
10. A change that affects the body cell a) Identical twins are __________
is not inherited. However , a change (Natural clones / Induced clones)
in the gamete is inherited. Radiation b) Identical twins are ____________
effects of Hiroshima has been (dissimilar to each other / similar
affecting generations. Analyzing to each other).
the above statements, give your
interpretation. 14. The ancestor of particular type of frog
found in India and Srilanka were the
11. Sequentially arrange the different same,
species of man from primitive to
modern man. (Neanderthal man,
Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo
sapiens)
12. Bio-technology , the modern science
in biology, has helped in producing
different types of products.
 ne of the following group does not
O
a) With reference to the above map,
have a product of bio-technology.
identify the factor that has resulted
Pick out and give reasons.
in the formation of a new species.
a) Enzymes, Organic acids,
b) State a few other factors that help in
Steroids, Vaccines
the formation of new species.
b) Vaccines, Enzymes, Anti Part C
biotics, Organic acids
15. Human evolution has a record of
c) Anti biotics, Hormones, changes for the past of 15 milion
Steroids, Vaccines years.
d) Steroids, Enzymes, Anti bodies, a) Name the different species of
Vaccines. mankind in chronological order
13. Identical twins are syngenic with from primitive to modern man.
similar chromosomal contents. b)When were the primitive caves
Natural clones are those who developed.?
possess identical chromosomes. Fill
up with the suitable word given in c) Narrate the life led by early man like
the bracket. hominids.

further reference
BIOLOGY

Books: 1. Biology - A Modern Introduction B.S.Beckett, Second Edition,


Oxform University Press

14
Chapter 2

IMMUNE
SYSTEM
2. IMMUNE SYSTEM
IMMUNE SYSTEM and has no black rings around his
eyes.
“Health is Wealth” is an apt proverb.
There can be no wealth greater than 2. Mental dimension : A mentally
the good health that a person enjoys. In healthy person who knows his
a healthy state, a person keeps himself capacities, does not overestimate or
physically, mentally and socially, fit. Our underestimate himself and can judge
body has a complex defense mechanism his shortcomings and weaknesses.
to keep itself fit and work against various 3. Social dimension : A person
agents which disturb our well being.
Being exposed to diseases, we develop
resistance towards diseases and gain
immunity. Physical Mental
Well being Well being
2.1. Health and its significance
“Health is a state of physical, mental and
social well being of an individual and not
merely absence of a disease or infirmity”. HEALTH
When a person is in good health, the
different organ systems, not only function
well discharging their duties, but the body
as a whole is also able to adjust itself and
strike a balance with the physical, mental
and social environments.
Social
The varying environmental factors such Well being
as temperature, humidity, wind, pressure,
sun, rain, pollution caused by man, atomic
radiation, malnutrition, the millions of Fig. 2.1 Dimensions of health
microbes that surround our bodies, the
inter-personal conflicts are all other factors
adjusting himself in society, does not
affect our lives and are challenges to our
find fault with others. He maintains
health.
interpersonal relationships with his
biology

Dimensions of Health family members and colleagues at


1. Physical dimension : A person who workspot and is free from interpersonal
is free from disease, is bright with
conflicts and will not quarrel.
his skin shining enjoying normal
metabolism, has a good lustrous hair

16
IMMUNE SYSTEM

Activity 2.1 Nutritional


Genetical
Following the above criteria, make a
survey of your classmates/people in
your neighbourhood and record your Environmental
finding

• of students/neighbours who
are healthy.

• of students/neighbours who
Metabolic Pathogens
do not have good interpersonal
relationship and do not enjoy so-
cial well being. Fig. 2.2 Causes of diseases

• of students/neighbours who Diseases not caused by organisms –


have diseases affecting their me-
Non communicable diseases
tabolism.
1. Organic diseases or Metabolic
• List out positive qualities that you disorders: Healthy body maintains a constant
admire in your friend. blood sugar level which is normally 80-
120 mg / 100 ml of blood under, fasting
conditions. When large quantities of glucose
enter the blood stream, as it happens after
2.2. Diseases and causes
a meal, the excess glucose is converted into
The word disease means, “without insoluble glycogen and stored in liver and
ease or not at ease” and it is opposite to muscles for future use. Later when required,
health. The condition of malfunctioning glycogen is reconverted into glucose and
of the organ system or systems is called reintroduced into blood stream. All these
disease. There are numerous diseases processes are controlled by the hormone,
that damage our health. Insulin, secreted by beta cells of Islets of
Langerhans of Pancreas. If Insulin is not
Causes of the diseases
produced in sufficient quantity, excess of
Diseases are caused due to various sugar cannot be stored and utilized. As a
factors such as pathogens, environmental result, sugar continues to get accumulated
factors, nutritional factors, genetic factors, in the blood, till it is lost through urine. This
metabolic factors, etc. leads to other complications and results in
CHAPTER 2

diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a state


Based on the causative agent, diseases of expulsion of excess unused glucose in the
are classified into: urine due to less production of insulin.
1. Diseases not caused by organisms Similarly, Diabetes Insipidus, Coronary
2. Diseases caused by organisms heart diseases, Renal failure, Hypertension,

17
Obesity, Alzheimer’s disease, Stroke 4.  Diseases caused by Organisms:
affecting the functions of the brain, etc, are Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur were
all caused due to metabolic disorders. the first to establish the Germ theory of
diseases. A germ or microbe gains entry
2.  Hereditary diseases or Genetical
into the host, such as man, multiplies so
disorders: The genetical disorders are
fast that it can increase in large numbers,
caused due to defective or mutated
produce poisonous substance called Toxins
genes. Albinism is an inherited disorder
and interfere with the host metabolism and
of melanin metabolism, characterized by
produce a characteristic set of symptoms
the absence of melanin in the skin , hairs
by which the disease can be diagnosed.
and eyes. The recessive mutant genes
cause this disorder. The clinical symptoms Disease producing organism
of Albinism are milky white coloured skin
and marked photophobia (high sensitivity
to light). Haemophilia, sickle cell anaemia,
Thalassemia, Down’s syndrome, Bubble
boy syndrome, etc,. are a few other
genetical disorders.
3.  Nutritional Deficiency Diseases: A
diet which contains all essential nutrients
in correct proportion, is indispensable for
maintaining good health. Deficiency in
certain food constituents, causes various
kinds of diseases. Protein deficiency
causes Marasmus and Kwashiorkar. In
Marasmus, the child loses weight and
suffers severe diarrhoea and it will appear Fig. 2.4 Kwashiorkar
as though bones are covered by the
skin. In Kwashiorkar the child develops
an enlarged belly with swelling in the
face and feet.
biology

Fig. 2.3 An albino Fig. 2.5 Marasmus

18
IMMUNE SYSTEM

Some important vitamin deficiency diseases are tabulated below:

Vitamin Deficiency disease Symptoms

Vitamin A Nyctalopia Night blindness

Vitamin B1 Beri-Beri Nervous disorder

Dementia, dermatitis,
Vitamin B5 Pellagra
diarrhoea

Vitamin B12 Pernicious anaemia Destruction of RBC

Bleeding gums and


Vitamin C Scurvy
loosening of teeth

Defective calcification of
Vitamin D Rickets
bones

Vitamin E Sterility Inability to reproduce

Vitamin K Haemorrhage Profuse loss of blood

1. Parasitic Micro-organism: The Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes and


causative organism of a large number of visible under Compound Microscope.
diseases in man, are micro-organisms Though many bacteria are harmless,
belonging to different groups. They are some are parasitic and produce ­diseases.
Bacteria can enter the host body through
viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoans.
the mouth, nostrils or cuts and bruises on
2. Viruses and viral diseases in man: the skin. They multiply rapidly, ­producing
Viruses are living substances inside the toxins in high concentration to affect
host cell and behave as dead particles health. Some bacterial diseases in man are
outside the host cell. The Viral body Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Cholera, Typhoid,
consists of a nucleic acid, DNA or RNA and Diphtheria, Tetanus, Plague, Pneumonia,
CHAPTER 2

a protein cover. All the known viruses are Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, etc.
parasitic and some of them cause deadly
Fungi and Fungal Diseases: Fungi
diseases such as. polio, rabies, hepatitis,
are non green saprophytic or parasitic
meningitis, encephalitis (brain fever), etc. plants living on dead and decaying organic
3. Bacteria and Bacterial Diseases: matter or living organisms. Certain species

19
of fungi are parasitic on man and cause Protozoan and Protozoan Diseases:
Ringworm attacking the keratinized layer Protozoans are unicellular animalcules,
of skin, destroying it in circular patches. some parasitize man and cause diseases
such as malaria, amoebic dysentery,
sleeping sickness, etc.
Parasitic macro-organisms:
Infestations of the body with tapeworm,
liver fluke, round worm, filarial worm, etc,.
cause diseases in man like Taeniasis,
Ascariasis, Filariasis, etc,.
2.3. Diseases causedby
Microbes and
prevention
A disease caused by a parasitic
organism and transmitted from one person
to another by the transfer of the parasite is
known as infectious disease.
We shall study the cause, spread and
Fig. 2.6 Bacilli
prevention of a few selected infectious
Dandruff, Athletes’ foot are some other diseases prevalent in our country so that
fungal diseases in man. we will know how to guard ourselves
against them and other similar diseases.

Membranous
RNA Capsomere envelope
DNA Head DNA
Tail
Sheath
Capsomere RNA Tail
of capsid Fiber
Capsid
Glycoprotein
Glycoprotein
biology

(a) Tobacco (b) Adeno viruses (c) Influenza viruses (d) Bacteriophage
mosaic virus
Fig. 2.7 Types of Viruses

20
IMMUNE SYSTEM

2.3.1. Viral diseases Control and prevention: There are


2.3.1.1. Common Cold no effective measures to control common
cold. However, a good nourishing food,
More than hundred strains of viruses avoiding contact with patients and wearing
are responsible, for causing common cold suitable clothing are suggested, to keep
in man. Children are more susceptible to away from common cold.
common cold than adults.
2.3.1.2. Influenza
Symptoms
It was a dreadful disease once and
1. Inflammation of upper respiratory
worldwide in distribution (pandemic) in
passage – nasal epithelium.
1970s.
2. Flow of mucous.
Causative agent : A(H1N1) Virus , is
3. Headache, slight rise in temperature,
etc,.
It lowers the resistance of the body,
leading to a number of secondary infections
like pneumonia, bronchitis, etc,.
Transmission
i) It spreads mostly through the droplets
discharged from the nose and the
mouth of the patient in the process of
talking, laughing, sneezing, etc,.
ii) It may also spread through close
Fig. 2.9 H1N1 Virus
inanimate objects like handkerchief,

spherical in shape and highly contagious,


causing influenza.
Symptoms
Sudden onset of fever accompanied by
aches and pains in the back and limbs.
Transmission
It spreads through nasal and mouth
droplets of patients and enters into the
respiratory tract of normal man. It also
CHAPTER 2

spreads through fomites.


Fig. 2.8 Human rhino virus
Prevention
bedding, clothes, utensils, toilet i. Avoid contact with the patients.
articles, etc,. (called fomites) ii. Avoid crowding.

21
2.3.2. Bacterial diseases viable germs. The waxy cell wall of the
tuberculosis bacillus prevents it from drying
Bacteria are prokarotic organisms.
up and so it can remain ­viable outside
Some of the bacteria are parasitic in
the body for a long period. The germs
man, causing diseases like TB, Cholera,
suspended in the air may be inhaled by
Typhoid, dysentry etc.,
a healthy person.
2.3.2.1. Tuberculosis
Prevention
It is an airborne disease affecting the
i) Keeping oneself healthy and avoiding
lungs and also parts of our body such as
insanitary conditions, overcrowding
bones, joints, lymph glands, alimentary
and poor ventilation.
tract, liver, kidney, etc,.
ii) Sunlight and fresh air are important
Causative agent: Mycobacterium agents, as they act as natural
tuberculosis, a rod shaped bacterium disinfectants readily destroying the
causes tuberculosis (TB). germs.
Symptoms iii) Isolation of the patients and frequent
sterilization of articles used by them
i) T he affected parts develop lesions
are also important.
in the form of small nodules called
iv) Incineration (burning) of the droplets,
tubercles from which the disease gets
the sputum from the patients to
its name.
prevent its occurrence in the air.
ii) Persistant cough
v) Immunization with BCG vaccine is
iii) Loss of body weight
an effective measure to prevent this
Transmission
disease.
Tuberculosis is transmitted through air.
Large number of bacteria leave the patients
through the droplets of sputum expelled Activity 2.2
by the patients while eating, sneezing, Making a culture of live bacteria
talking, laughing and so on by the patients.
Boil a few grams of chopped meat,
The droplets may ­remain suspended in
carrot and potatoes in water for 15
the air for a long time. The dust arising
minutes, then filter off the solid matter
from the sputum may also contain
to obtain a fairly clear broth.
Leave the broth in open test tubes
for a few hours. Plug the tubes with
cotton wool and leave them in a warm
o
palce (approximately 25 C) until the
broth has “gone bad” owing to the
biology

growth of bacteria.
What you have produced, is a
bacteria culture.
Fig. 2.10 Tuberculosis bacteria

22
IMMUNE SYSTEM

Prevention and control: Isolation of


the patient, control of flies, hygienic food
Central Nervous habits, proper public sanitary measures
System
Appetite loss
are effective means of prevention of
Fatigue this disease. Artificial immunization with
typhoid vaccine is advised. A recovery
from typhoid usually confers a permanent
immunity.
Lungs
Chest Pain 2.3.3 Protozoan diseases:
Coughing up blood
Some of the unicellular protozoans are
parasitic pathogens and cause diseases in
Prolonged cough
man.
2.3.3.1 Malaria
Skin
Causative agent: A tiny protozoan –
Night sweats,
Plasmodium is responsible for causing
Pallor
malaria. Four different species of
Plasmodium namely, P.vivax, P.malariae,
P.falciparum and P.ovale occur in India
Fig. 2.11 Symptoms of tuberculosis
causing malaria. Of these, the malignant
and fatal malaria, caused by Plasmodium
vi) The patient should cover his mouth falciparum is the most serious one.
and nose while coughing.
Transmission
2.3.2.2. Typhoid
Through the vector - the female
Causative agent: A short rod shaped Anopheles mosquito.
bacterium with numerous flagella –
Symptoms
Salmonella typhi causes typhoid.
i) Malaria is characterized by chillness
Symptoms
and rise in temperature. This is
i)  Continuous fever. followed by perspiration and lowered
ii) Inflammation and ulceration of body temperature. The person feels
intestine. normal for some time but the fever
recurs at regular intervals.
iii)Enlargement of spleen and a
characteristic red spot eruption on ii) Successive attacks of malaria result
the abdomen. in the distension of spleen and
destruction of liver tissues.
Transmission
CHAPTER 2

Prevention and control:


Transmission of typhoid is through food
and water contaminated with the germ, the i) Sanitary measures include ground
personal contact with patients and carriers. fogging with disinfectants.
Flies are also important transmitting agents ii) Closure of stagnant pools of water
of this disease. and covering ditches is suggested.

23
Ruptured Human
oocyst liver stages

Mosquito blood Infected


meal: Injects Liver cell
Release of sporozoites Liver cell
sporozoltes Exo-erythrocyte
Ruptured cycle
Oocyst Sporogonic schizont
cycle Schizont
Ookinete Immature
Mosquito trophozoite
stages Merozoites
Red blood
Exflagellated Mosquito blood cell
Microgametocyte meal: Injects Erythrocyte
gametocytes cycle

Ruptured Human Mature


schizont blood stages trophozoite

Microgametocyte
entering Schizont
macrogametocyte Macrogametocyte Gametocytes
Gametocytes

Fig. 2.12 Life cycle of malarial parasite

Life cycle of malarial parasite – Plasmodium: The sexual stage of Plasmodium


takes place in female Anopheles mosquito whereas the vegetative stage occurs in man.
When a female Anopheles mosquito bites an infected person, these parasites enter
the mosquito and undergo further development in the mosquito body. The parasites
multiply within the body of the mosquito to form sporozoites that are stored in the
salivary glands of mosquito. When these mosquitoes bite a person, the sporozoites
(the infectious stage) are introduced into his body; they multiply within the liver cells
first and enter the RBC of man, resulting in the rupture of RBC. This results in the
release of toxic substance called haemozoin which is responsible for the chill and high
fever, recurring three to four days.

Sir. Ronald Ross


Sir. Ronald Ross (1857-1932), a British – Indian physician was born
in Almora, India. He had his school education and higher studies
in medicine in England. Later he was posted at the Presidency
General Hospital, Calcutta. Ross studied about malaria between
1882 and 1899. As he was working in Bangalore, he noticed the
connection between water as breeding ground of mosquitoes
and the spread of malaria. He discovered the presence of
biology

malarial parasites in the female Anopheles mosquito when he


was working on malaria at Secunderabad. He demonstrated that
malaria is transmitted from infected individual to a healthy person
by the bite of mosquito. In 1902, he was awarded the Nobel prize
for his work on malaria.

24
IMMUNE SYSTEM

iii) Using mosquito nets and repellants Prevention and control: Precaution
also, will grossly lower the chance may be taken by providing germ free clean
for infection. water; clean food ­habits. Good sanitary
2.3.3.2. Amoebic dysentry (Amoebiasis) facilities will control the flies.
Causative agent: Entamoeba 2.3.4. Fungal diseases in man
histolytica – a protozoan parasite in the Some of the fungi are parasitic on man
large intestine of man causes Amoebiasis. and cause diseases
Symptoms
i) Fever.
ii) Constipation and abdominal pain and
cramps.
iii) Stools with excess mucous and
blood clot.
Transmission
It is a water and food borne disease.
House flies act as mechanical carrier and
serve to transmit the parasite from the
faeces of infected persons to the food –
thereby contaminating the food and water.
Fig. 2.14 Ringworm

2.3.4.1. Ringworm
Six stages of hand washing technique Three different genera of fungi namely,
Epidermophyton, Microsporum and
­Trichophyton cause ringworm.
Symptoms

1. Palm to Palm 2.Back of Hands The above fungi live on the dead cells
of outer layer of skin in man and cause
­superficial infections in skin, hair, nail, etc;
and form patches and Itching
Transmission
3. Interdigital spaces 4. Finger Tips By direct contact or through fomites such
as towels, combs, etc,.
CHAPTER 2

Control and prevention: Avoid contact


with infected person and articles used by
them.
5. Thumbs and wrists 6.Nails

Fig. 2.13 Clean habits 2.4. Modes of transmission

25
of infectious germs he gets infected.

The transfer of a disease causing germ Through the umblical cord, the germs
from an infected person to a normal are transferred from the infected mother
healthy person through certain agents or to the child at the time of childbirth by the
direct contact is called transmission of the direct contact method.
disease. The transmission can take place Indirect transmission through
in one of the following ways; fomites: Some germs may remain viable
Direct Transmission : By direct outside the body of the hosts and may
transfer of germs from the patient to normal be transferred indirectly through close
healthy person through close contact, inanimate objects used by the patients
the diseases like diphtheria, pneumonia, like clothing, bedding, handkerchief,
cholera, typhoid, measles, mumps, etc,. toilet articles, utensils, drinking cups and
are transmitted. glasses that are freshly soiled with the
germs present in the discharges of the
During sneezing, coughing and­ patients. Such contaminated objects are
­talking, the droplets from the patients are called fomites.
­discharged from the mouth and the nose
and enter the air. While a normal person is Transmission by animals: Various
inhaling such air, laden with the droplets, animals such as ticks, mites, birds, insects
and mammals transmit diseases like
cholera, malaria, rabies, etc;

2.5. Immunization
Immunity: Immunity is part of a complex
system of defence reaction in the body. It
means the defence against or specific
resistance exhibited towards the infectious
organisms and their products.

The infectious organisms that invade


the body and the toxins produced by them
and any foreign protein entering the body
are called antigens.

The immune system which includes


blood plasma, lymph and lymphocytes
analyze the chemical nature of the antigens
biology

and produce the suitable proteinaceous


substances called antibodies to detoxify
Fig. 2.15 Cover face while
caughing and sneezing the antigens.

26
IMMUNE SYSTEM

2.5.1. Types of Immunity during the first infection of any pathogen.


The antibodies produced in the blood
Natural or Innate Immunity: The
stays for a long period and kills the similar
natural or innate immunity that enables
pathogens whenever they enter the body.
an individual to resist the disease, to which
the particular species is immuned. E.g. If the antibody production is stimulated
Plant diseases do not affect animals. naturally, after recovery from a disease, it
is called Natural Active Acquired Immunity.
Acquired or Specific Immunity:
The resistance against some infectious If the antibody synthesis is
diseases developed by an individual during stimulated by application of vaccines or any
lifetime on exposure to the infections is other man made methods, the­­ immunity
called acquired or specific immunity. gained is called Artificial Active Acquired
Immunity. E.g. The polio drops and
The acquired or specific immunity is of triple antigen injected into the child in the
two kinds – active acquired immunity and immunisation programme.
passive acquired immunity.
Passive Acquired Immunity: In this
Active acquired immunity: This kind type of immunity, a readymade antibody
of immunity is developed by our body,
is introduced from outside instead of

TYPES OF IMMUNITY
IMMUNITY

Natural or Innate Acquired or specific


naturally available right developed in the body
from birth after birth

Active Passive
Antibodies are Pre-formed
produced by bring forth immunity
antigenic stimulus

Natural Artificial
CHAPTER 2

Natural Artificial through mother’s antibodies extracted


developed developed by breast milk from other animals
after recovering immunization antibodies of are introduced
from a disease by introducing mother enter the child
vaccines

27
stimulating the body to produce antibody with antigenic stimulus.

If the readymade antibody is taken from the mother’s blood into the foetus, it is called
Natural Passive Acquired Immunity. If the readymade antibody is given to an individual
artificially, (produced in some other animal and extracted) it is called Artificial Passive Acquired
More to know
What kind of Immunity does a child get when it is breast fed ?BREAST FEED IS THE
BEST FOOD. Antibodies or Immunoglobins are found in breast milk. Through breast milk
antibodies are passed on to the nursing baby. Bottle fed infants do not have the advantage
of fighting the ingested pathogens on their own until the antibodies are produced in them.
An infant should be breast fed for a minimum of six months.
Medical establishment knows that infants who are breastfed contract fewer infections than
bottle fed infants. Breast milk protects the child, against bacteria like Escherichia coli, Sal-
monella, Shigella, Streptococci, Staphylococci, Pneumococci and viruses like Polioviruses
and Rotaviruses.

Immunization schedule
The immunization schedule indicates the stages at which the vaccinations and
inoculations have to be given to safeguard children against different diseases. The
table given below lists the names of vaccines, their dosages and the stage at which
they have to be administered.
biology

28
IMMUNE SYSTEM

pathways of the disease without affecting


ourselves.
Treatment not involving medicine:
As a person is recovering from the effect
of fracture or neurotic problem, yoga and
physiotherapy do a great deal of help to
do normal activities. People addicted to
Fig. 2.16 Oral Polio immunization

Immunity. This immunity is not permanent.


Immunization: ­Administering vaccines to
prevent the disease is called immunization.
This process of Immunisation develops
Artificial Active Acquired Immunity.
Immunisation through inoculation is a mass Fig. 2.17 Yoga practice
means of protecting a greater number of
people against the spread of diseases. alcohol and drugs are given counselling to
overcome the habit.
BCG Tuberculosis Vaccine
Prevention: Getting rid of a disease
DPT Diphtheria, Pertussis,
causing germs,is a means of prevention of
Tetanus Vaccine (Triple antigen) the disease.
MMR Mumps , Measles, Rubella Prevention can be achieved in two ways:
DT Diphtheria, Tetanus (Dual antigen) i. General – preventing the infectious
TT Tetanus toxoid germs by keeping away from the
2.6. T
 reatment and prevention exposure to the germs. Hygienic life
of the diseases style, avoiding overcrowding, fresh
air, safe drinking water and good
Treatment means medical management sanitary measures are all ways to
of the symptom of the disease. prevent a disease causing germ,
Medical management includes: coming into contact with us.
i) Treatment involving medicine. ii. Specific – This relates to a peculiar
property of the immune system that
ii) reatment not involving medicine. usually fights the microbial infections.
Treatment involving medicine: e.g. Immunisation programme.
CHAPTER 2

Medicines are generally used to treat 2.7. Bio-technology in


infectious diseases. These medicines medicine
either reduce the effect of the disease A detailed account of the role of
or kill the cause of the disease.The Biotechnology in healthcare, has been dealt
antibiotics are used as blocks to the with in chapter 1.

29
Biotechnologically synthesized insulin Symptom s: Sign ifican t wei gh t
has been effectively used replacing the loss, chronic diarrhoea, prolonged
defective insulin to treat diabetes mellitus fever, opportunistic infections such as
in the field of medicine. tuberculosis, candidiasis and recurrent
2.8. HIV and Prevention herpes zoster (viral) infection.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Test for Virus:
Syndrome (AIDS) is a dreadful disease 1. Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent
transmitted through sexual contact or Assay (ELISA)
through blood and blood products. Robert
Gallo at National Institute of Health, USA 2.  Western Blot – a confirmatory test.
and Luc Montagnier at Pasteur Institute, Prevention:
Paris isolated the virus, Human Immuno
1.  Protected sexual behaviour.
Deficiency Virus (HIV) which causes
AIDS. 2.  Safe sex practices.
3. Screening the blood for HIV before
HIV is a retro virus with glycoprotein
blood transfusion.
envelope and the genetic material – RNA.
HIV causes profound Immuno suppression 4. Usage of disposable syringes in the
in humans. It is due to the depletion of hospitals.
one type of WBC, which is involved in the 5. Not sharing the razors / blades in the
formation of antibodies called CD4 plus saloon.
T-helper cells (lymphocytes).
6. Avoid tattooing using common needle.

Evaluation
PART A 2. Which one of the following is a state
of a disease in which a person is not
1. Pick out a case of healthy state of an
socially balanced.
individual.
He enjoys a birthday party,
Mr. X is recovering from an infectious
disease, He behaves rudely even for menial
matters,
Mr. Y is taking insulin injection
biology

everyday, He is adjusting to the surrounding


situation,
Mrs. Z is very much depressed,
He is attending to his ailing mother
Mr. K is attending to his duty and
at the hospital.
spends time joyfully,

30
IMMUNE SYSTEM

3. Pick out the bacterial disease. PART B


Meningitis,Rabies,Tetanus, Small pox.
11. In order to lead a healthy life a
4. One of the following is transmitted person should enjoy physical,
through air. Find out. mental and social well being
Tuberculosis, Meningitis,Typhoid, If a person lacks any one of them,
Cholera. then that person is suffering from
_________.
5. The most serious form of malaria is
caused by Plasmodium ________. 12. Tamil selvan has inherited colour
P.ovale, P.malariae, P.falciparum, blindness from his father. Name the
P.vivax. causative factor responsible for this
defect _______.
6. An example for protozoan infecting our
intestine is _______________. 13. Marasmus and Kwashiorkar are both
protein deficiency defects. Marasmus
Plasmodium vivax, Entamoeba
differs from Kwashiorkar in enlarged
histolytica,Trypanosoma gambiense,
Taenia solium. belly and swelling in the face. Are these
symptoms for the above diseases correct?
7. One of the means of indirect If not, correct it.
transmission of a disease is _____.
14.  A list of disorders are given below. Pick
Sneezing,Droplet from mouth, out the odd one out and give reasons.
Placenta,Utensils of patients. (colour blindness, haemophilia,
8. When antibodies, extracted from some night blindness, albinism, sickle cell
other animal is injected into your body, anaemia)
what kind of immunity do you gain? 15. Ramya is suffering from bleeding gum
Artificial active acquired immunity, and loosening teeth. On a diagnosis,
it was found to have been caused by
Artificial passive acquired immunity, vitamin deficiency.
Natural active acquired immunity,
Suggest Ramya the kind of vitamin that
Natural passive acquired immunity. is lacking in her food and tell your friend
9. The first vaccine injected into a just the name of deficiency disease that she
born baby is ___________. suffers from.

Oral polio, DPT, (A) Vitamins


(B) Deficiency diseases and
DPT and Oral polio,BCG.
CHAPTER 2

(C) Symptoms are given.


10. Pick out a non-antigen. Entry of
____________.
(Germ,Toxins of germs,New forms of
Match B, C with A.
protein, Mother’s Milk.

31
A B C
Vitamins Deficiency diseases Symptoms
e.g. Vitamin A Nyctalopia Night Blindness
Vitamin B1 Scurvy Nerbvous disorder
Vitamin C Rickets Bleeding Gum
Defective calcification
Vitamin D Haemorrhage of bones
Vitamin K Beri-beri Profuse loss of blood
16. Kavitha is suffering from common cold. What are the questions you will

put forth to Kavitha to confirm the 18. There is a widespread outbreak of


disease? malaria in your area.
a. ____________________ a. S uggest some controlling
b. ____________________ measures to the local authorities
concerned.
b. Pick out the right symptom for
malaria. (chill and shiver and a rise
PART C in temperature / diarrhoea )
17. Kala has delivered a baby, 19. 15th October is observed as
‘Handwashing Day’
a. Suggest the immunization schedule
a. Tell your friend the effects of hand
for the baby, in the first six months
washing.
b. What are all the diseases that can
b.  In a day what are the occasions in
be cured as per the schedule? which you wash your hand?

furthEnce
Books: 1. Biology - RAVEN, Johnson WCB Mc Graw - Hill
2. Biology - A Modern Introduction, B.S. Beckett, Second Edition Oxform
University Press.
ZOOLOGY

32
Chapter 3

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS


OF HUMAN BODY-Organ
syStem
3. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
HUMAN BODY-Organ sytems

Nervous system – through hormones. In this chapter, we will


Introduction learn the structure and functioning of the
nervous system and the endocrine sys-
Two or more people when gather to- tem in man.
gether, each one is set with an interest
and aptitude and performs his works in Dendrite
his own way. But when it is the question
Nissl granule
of maintenance of an order, a systematic
working among them, there is a need for Nucleus
someone to control and co-ordinate them Cell body
so that a harmony prevails. Similarly the Nodes of Ranvier
functions of organs and organ system is
our body cannot go on in their own way Cytoplasm Terminal
but must be coordinated to maintain the branches
Nurilemma
harmonius steady state of body function- Axon
ing called Homeostasis. Coordination is Myelin sheath
the process through which two or more Neuron
organs interact and compliment the func-
tions of one or the other. In our body the
neural or nervous system and the endo-
Dendrite
crine system do the function of coordinat-
ing and integrating all the activities of the
Nucleus
organs so that the body works efficiently
by synchronizing the functions.
BIOLOGY

Axon Axon
The nervous system provides an organ- Bipolar
Unipolar Multipolar
ized network of point to point connections
for a quicker coordination. The endocrine Fig. 3.1 structure of neuron and types
system provides chemical ­integration

34
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY

3.1 Nervous system The distal branches terminate as


bulb like structures called synaptic
The nervous system of an animal is knob filled with chemicals called neuro
composed of transmitters. Axon contains axoplasm
i) Specialized cells called neurons inside and is covered by a membrane
or nerve cells which can detect, called neurilemma. Neurilemma en-
receive and transmit different kinds closes the axon except at the branched
of stimuli. distal ends. In some neurons called
myelinated neurons an additional white
ii) The nerve fibres which are certain fatty fibre called myelin sheath covers
bundles of extended processes of the neurilemma. Myelin sheath is not
nerve cells. continous over the neurilemma. The
gaps left by the myelin sheath on the
3.1.1 Nerve cells
axon are called Nodes of Ranvier. Over
Nerve cells or neurons are the the myelin sheath are found certain
structural and functional units of the cells called Schwann cells.
nervous system.
Types of nerve cells
Billions of nerve cells make up our brain.
A nerve cell is a microscopic structure a) Myelinated or Medullated or White
consisting of three major parts namely neurons:
cell body, dendrites and axon. When the axon is enclosed by the
white fatty myelin cover it is called My-
Cell body
elinated or Medullated or White neu-
It is the cell structure irregular in rons. This forms the cerebral cortex of
shape or polyhedral structure, it is also our brain.
called as cyton. Cell body contains
b) Non- Myelinated or Non-Medullated or
cytoplasm with typical cell organelles
Grey neurons:
and certain granular bodies are called
Nissl granules . This neuron is not enclosed by myelin
sheath; so it appears greyish in colour.
Dendrites
The axon is covered by only neuri-
Dendrites or Dendrons are shorter lemma and Schwann cells. This type
fibres which branch repeatedly and of neuron is found in the white matter
project out of the cell body. Dendrites of cerebrum.
transmit electrical impulses towards the
c) Unipolar neurons:
cyton.
CHAPTER 3

The embryonic nervous tissue con-


Axon
tains unipolar neurons. An unipolar
One of the fibres arising from the cell neuron has a nerve cell body with a
body is very long with a branched distal single process or fibre, which will act
end and it is called as Axon. both as axon and Dendron.

35
d) Bipolar neurons: which convert the electrical impulse
into chemical impulse and pass it to the
The sensory hair cells of the sense
neighbouring neuron.
organs like rods and cones of retina
are made up of bipolar neurons. Each 3.1.3 Human nervous system
bipolar neuron has a cell body and two
process at the ends, one acting as The human nervous system is divided into
axon and the other acting as Dendron. a) The Central Nervous System
e) Multipolar neuron: (CNS) and

The cerebral cortex contains the b) The Peripheral Nervous System


multipolar neurons; each multipolar (PNS)
neuron has a cell body with many c) The Autonomic Nervous System
dendrites and an axon. (ANS)
Synapse: The dendrites and the synaptic The CNS includes the brain and spinal
knobs of the axons of neighbouring cord and it is the site of information
processing and control.
Activity 3.1 The PNS comprises of the nerves of the
Visit a hospital in your locality and study body associated with the central nervous
the principle behind the administration system.
of anesthesia at the time of surgery.
Find out if the fat soluble anesthetic 3.1.3.1 Central Nervous System
substances like chloroform, ether etc,. It is organized of two organs namely
merge with medullary sheath and the brain and the spinal cord. The CNS
prevent conduction of nerve impulse. is accommodated in the protective bony
structures namely skull and vertebral
column.
neurons are in physical contact with
one another without fusing. This point of Meninges: The central nervous
contact between the neighbouring nerve system is covered by three protective
cells is called synapse. coverings or envelops collectively
called meninges. The outermost cover
3.1.2 Nerve impulse: lying below the skull and vertebral
The conduction of stimuli by the column is doubly thick and is called
nerve cells is called nerve impulse. The Duramater. The middle covering is
dendrites will receive the stimuli from thin and vascularised and is called
the receptor (sense organ) and conduct Arachnoid membrane. The innermost
BIOLOGY

the same as electrical impulse to the cover is a very thin delicate membrane
axon through the cyton. At the synapse, and is closely applied on the outer
the synaptic knobs release out chemical surface of brain and spinal cord and it
substances called neuro transmitters is called Piamater.

36
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY

3.1.3.1.1 The Brain in the organization of the brain. The brain


is the central information processing
Man is a vertebrate and a mammal organ and acts as the command and
belonging to the animal kingdom. But, control system.
he stands unique and supreme and this
supremacy in the living world is reflected The human brain as in the case of other
vertebrates, is divided into three ­major
parts:

Cerebellum a) Fore brain b) Mid brain


Cerebrum
c) Hind brain
Spinal cord
Fore brain
Fore brain consists of cerebrum,
Cervical nerves
thalamus and hypothalamus.

Cerebrum

Thoracic nerves
This forms the major part of the human
brain (nearly two third of the brain is
cerebrum). A deep cleft called median
cleft divides the cerebrum longitudinally
into two halves as right and left cerebral
hemispheres, which are united at the
base by a sheet of nervous tissue called
Lumbar nerves corpus callosum, The outer region of
the cerebrum is distinguished as, the grey
matter or cerebral cortex and the inner
Femoral nerve region is called white matter.

Cerebral cortex
Sciatic nerve
It consists of the nerve cell bodies of
several layers of greyish nerve cells giving
grey colour – so called as grey matter. The
increased surface area of the cerebral
Tibial nerve cortex in man is folded and thrown into
a pattern of convolutions consisting of
ridges and furrows.
CHAPTER 3

Cerebral cortex contains


a) motor areas
b) sensory areas and
c) association areas (a region that is
Fig. 3.2 Human Nervous System
neither sensory nor motor).

37
Motor areas Within the cerebral hemispheres are
present cavities called ventricles, filled
Motor areas are the sites of order or
with a nutritive fluid called cerebro spinal
command of the cerebrum, from where
fluid.
the order arises to control the activities
of the different organs of our body. Functions of cerebrum: Cerebrum is
Initiation of voluntary activities takes the seat of consciousness, intelligence,
place here. memory, imagination and reasoning. It
receives impulses from different parts
Major Internal Parts of the Human Brain of the body and initiates voluntary
Cingulate activities. Specific areas of cerebrum
sulcus are associated with specific functions.
Corpus Thus there is a centre for hearing,
callosum
Midbrain another for seeing, another for tasting,
another for smelling, another for
speaking and so on. A damage in
Temporal a specific centre of cerebrum will
lobe
Pons deprive the particular faculty from doing
its functions.
Medulla Cerebellum
Fig. 3.3 Major internal parts of human brain. Thalamus
Cerebrum wraps around a structure
Sensory areas called thalamus – a major conducting
These are the sites where the sensory centre for sensory and motor signalling.
functions of the various sense organs are Hypothalamus
received through the sensory nerves.
It lies at the base of the thalamus.
Association areas It controls body temperature, urge to
These are responsible for complex
functions like intersensory associations, Speech Motor control
Touch and
memory and communication. Pressure
Taste
White matter of cerebrum: The inner Hearing
part of the cerebrum lying below the Language
cerebral cortex is called white matter Reading
and it consists of bundles of nerve Vision
fibres with myelin sheath giving the
white colour. Some of these bundles of Smell
BIOLOGY

nerve fibres connect the different parts


of the cerebrum while others connect the
cerebrum with the rest of the brain and
spinal cord. Fig. 3.4 Functional areas of human brain.

38
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY

eat and drink, regulation of sexual involved in the regulation of heartbeat,


behaviour, express emotional reactions blood vessel contraction, breathing, etc,.
like excitement, anger, fear, pleasure
The ventricle of the medulla remains
and motivation.
connected with the ventricles of the
Mid brain cerebral hemisphere.

The mid brain is located between the 3.1.3.1.2 The Spinal cord
thalamus and the hind brain. A canal
This is a tubular structure, a continuation
called cerebral aqueduct passes through
of the brain lying in the neural canal of the
the mid brain. The dorsal portion of the
vertebral column. The three meninges –
mid brain consists of four hemispherical
Piamater, Arachnoid membrane and the
bodies called corpora quadrigemina
Duramater cover the spinal cord as in the
which controls and regulates the various
case of brain.
visual reflexes and optical orientation.
The spinal cord has two enlargements
Mid brain with hind brain together form
– one in the neck region of the body
the brain stem.
called cervical plexus and another in
Hind brain the lumbar region of the vertebral column
called lumbar plexus.
Hind brain comprises of pons,
cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The spinal nerves arise from these
enlargements. The lower end of the
Cerebellum spinal cord is filamentous and is called
It lies below the cerebrum and consists Filum terminale. On the mid dorsal
of a median portion and two lateral lobes. side of the spinal cord is found a narrow
Cerebellum regulates and coordinates the depression called dorsal fissure and on
group movements of voluntary muscles the mid ventral side of the spinal cord is
as in walking or running. found a deep depression called ventral
fissure. Running through the center
Pons of the spinal cord is the central canal,
It is the bridge of nerve fibres that an extension of the ventricle filled with
connects the lobes of cerebellum. It relays cerebro spinal fluid. Outer region of the
the information from the cerebrum to spinal cord contains medullated white
cerebellum. It also contains sleep centre neurons and the inner region contains
and respiratory centre. non-medullated grey neurons. The spinal
cord conducts impulses to and from the
Medulla oblongata
brain and acts as a reflex centre.
CHAPTER 3

Medulla is the posterior most part of the


brain where it merges with the spinal cord. 3.1.3.2 Peripheral nervous system
It acts as a coordination pathway for both (PNS)
ascending and descending nerve tracts. The nerves arising from the brain and
Medulla is the centre for several reflexes spinal cord constitute the PNS.

39
a) Cranial nerves: hormones are carried by the blood from
the site of production to the site of action.
Twelve pairs of cranial nerves arise
from the brain. Some of the cranial Endocrine glands in man are distributed
nerves are sensory nerves (taking in the different regions of the body without
impulse from the sense organ to the interconnections. The various endocrine
brain e.g., optic nerves from the eyes). glands found in different regions in man
Some of the cranial nerves are the are as follows:
motor nerves taking impulse from the
brain to the effector organ. e.g. vagus
nerve innervating the heart and some Hypothalamus
are mixed nerves with both sensory
and motor functions. e.g facial nerve Pineal
b) Spinal nerves: Pituitary
Thirty one pairs of spinal nerves arise
from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve Thyroid and
has a sensory root and a motor root. parathyroid
Thus, all spinal nerves are mixed nerves. Thymus
3.1.3.3 The Autonomic Nervous
System (ANS)
It controls the functions of the vital organs Pancreas
of the body through its two antagonistic Adrenal
divisions namely, sympathetic nerves and
parasympathetic nerves. Ovary
(In female)
3.2. Endocrine system in
man Testis
(In male)
The chemical coordination of
physiological processes to maintain the Fig. 3.5 Endocrine system in man
homeostasis is the work of endocrine
system. Endocrines control and coordinate Head – a) pituitary gland
the physical processes of growth,
reproduction and sustenance of life. b) pineal gland

Endocrine system consists of a number Neck –  a) thyroid gland


of endocrine glands and their hormones.
BIOLOGY

b) parathyroid gland
Endocrine glands are ductless glands
Thorax – thymus gland
(without ducts), secreting the chemical
substances called hormones. The Abdomen – a) pancreas – Islets of
Langerhans

40
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY

b) adrenal glands –
adrenal cortex and
adrenal medulla
c) gonads – testes in man
and ovaries in woman Adenohypophsis
Hormones (Anterior Pituitary)

Chemically hormones are proteins Infundibular


or amino acids or steroids. Though the stalk
hormones are secreted in small quantities,
their performance is profound in action.
Pituitary gland
It is a tiny gland of the size of a pea
attached to the hypothalamus of the brain.
Since some of the endocrine glands are Neurohypophsis
regulated by the pituitary gland, it is called (Posterior Pituitary)

as the conductor of endocrine orchestra.

Divisions of pituitary : Pituitary gland


is differentiated into an anterior lobe called
Fig. 3.6 Diagrammatic internal
adenohypophysis and a posterior lobe view of pituitary gland
called neurohypophysis.

Hormones of
Functions and malfunctions
adenohypophysis
•• It brings forth growth in general
•• Less production in children – dwarfism
Somatotropic or with retarded growth
Growth hormone •• Excess production in children – gigantism
(STH or GH) with excess growth
•• Excess production in adolescents –
acromegaly with large limbs and lower jaw
Thyrotropic or Thyroid It stimulates the growth of thyroid gland and
stimulating hormone (TSH) its production – the thyroxine
CHAPTER 3

Adrenocorticotropic
It stimulates the adrenalcortex to produce the
or Adrenal cortex
hormones aldosterone and cortisone
stimulating hormone (ACTH)

41
It stimulates the maturation of graafian follicles (in
Follicle stimulating
the ovary) in the female, to produce the eggs and
hormone (FSH)
sperm formation in the males.

Lutenizing hormone (LH) LH in female causes discharge of egg from graafian


in female follicle – a process, called ovulation and production
of female sex hormone oestrogen and progesterone.
or interstitial cell
stimulating hormone ICSH in male, induces the interstitial cells to produce
(ICSH) in male male sex hormone – testosterone

Lactogenic hormone It stimulates the growth of mammary glands in


(LTH) female and milk production after child birth.

The hormones of neuro


hypophysis namely, oxytocin
and vasopressin are secreted
by hypothalamus and are
released on specific stimuli.
Thus the neurohypophysis
hormones are secretions of a
part of the nervous system and
are chemically octapetides and
decapetides

Hormones of Neuro
Functions and malfunctions
hypophysis
It speeds up the child birth process, by stimulating the
Oxytocin contraction and relaxation of the uterus in the female.

It helps in the reabsorption of water, producing


concentrated urine in small quantity.
Vasopressin
It constricts the blood vessels and raises up the blood
BIOLOGY

or Antidiuretic
pressure
hormone (ADH)
Less production of ADH results in diabetes insipidus,
leading to production of excess of dilute urine.

42
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY

Thyroid gland Functions of thyroxine

The bilobed thyroid gland is located •• It increases the rate of metabolism.


in the neck, one lobe on each side of •• It stimulates a rise in the body
temperature.
•• It promotes growth and differentiation
of tissues.
•• Since it affects indirectly growth of
Vocal cord the body, thyroxine is also called as
personality hormone.
•• it regulates iodine and sugar level in
the blood.
•• it controls working of kidneys and
Thyroid urine output.
Trachea Thyroid disorders
(a) 1) Hypothyroidism – less secretion
of thyroxine causes many
abnormalities. like simple goitre,
myxoedema and cretinism.
a) Simple goiter – It is due to the
deficiency of iodine in our diet.
Thyroid gland bulges as a swelling
in the neck and it is called as goiter.
b) Myxoedema – It is caused in the
adults, the symptoms are, low

Parathyroid

Fig. 3.7 Thyroid gland a) Dorsal view


b) Ventral view
CHAPTER 3

larynx, which secretes a hormone called


thyroxine. Thyroxine is an iodinated
protein, composed of the amino acid,
tyrosine and iodine. Fig. 3.8 a person with goitre

43
metabolic rate, loss of mental cells and beta cells. Alpha cells produce
and physical vigour, increase in a hormone called glucagon and Beta
weight, thickening of skin, lowered cells produce insulin and amylin.
heartbeat, mental dullness, etc,.
Insulin
c) Cretinism – This is produced in
•• It promotes the uptake of glucose by
children and the symptoms are
the cells for tissue oxidation.
stunted growth, retarded mental
development, defective teeth, •• It favours conversion of glucose,
protrusion of tongue and loose skin. into glycogen and its storage in the
liver and the muscles.
2) Hyperthyroidism – The excess
production of thyroxine causes •• It prevents the formation of glucose
exophthalmic goiter or Grave’s from protein and fat.
disease. The symptoms are high •• It maintains normal blood glucose
metabolic rate, high blood pressure, level at 80 – 120 mg / 100 ml of
high irritability, profuse sweating, loss blood.
of weight, fatigueness and protrusion
of eyeballs. Diabetes mellitus

The islets of Langerhans Less production of insulin causes


Diabetes mellitus, in which the excess
Pancreas is a dual role playing unused glucose is excreted in the urine.
endocrine gland. The exocrine parts
produce pancreatic juice. The endocrine Glucagon
portion is called islets of Langerhans. It •• It is secreted when glucose level in
consists of two type of cells namely, alpha the blood is low.
•• It influences conversion of glycogen
into glucose, thus raising the blood
glucose level.
Duodenum
Stomach
Adrenal gland Adrenal cortex
Pancreas
Fat

(a) (b)
BIOLOGY

Group of cells Kidney


forming islets of Adrenal medulla
langerhans
Pancreatic duct (Endocrine part)
Fig. 3.9 Pancreas showing Fig. 3.10 a) Adrenal gland
islets of Langerhans b) LS of Adrenal gland

44
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY

Adrenal gland (Supra renal gland) •• They increase the respiratory rate.
On each kidney is found an adrenal •• They promote the conversion of
gland. It is composed of two portions, an glycogen into glucose.
outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal
medulla. •• They cause dilation of pupil.

Adrenal cortex •• They cause profuse sweating.

It secretes two hormones namely, •• They make the hair stand erect.
Aldosterone and Cortisone (gooseflesh)

Aldosterone (Mineralocorticoid) •• In short noradrenaline and adrenaline


mobilize the body, to face the
It maintains mineral metabolism, by emergency by fighting with it or running
favouring reabsorption of sodium and away from it.
water and excretion of potassium and
phosphate ions. Testes

It maintains electrolyte balance, body They are both cytogenic (producing


fluid volume, osmotic pressure and blood sex cells) and endocrine (producing male
pressure. sex hormones) in functioning.

Cortisone (glucocorticoid) The endocrine part secretes male sex


hormone called testosterones (androgen).
It stimulates the breakdown of glycogen
into glucose raising the blood glucose, Testosterone stimulates the growth of
level. reproductive organs and the production
of male sex cell, the sperms.
It also produces an anti-inflammatory
reaction and suppresses the immune Testosterone determines the
response. s­ econdary sexual characters in male,
such as growth of facial hairs, hoarse
Adrenal medulla voice, broadening of shoulder, etc,.

It is made up of modified Ovaries


neuroectodermal cells. It secretes
Ovaries are both cytogenic (producing
two hormones, namely adrenaline
egg cells) and endocrine (producing
(epinephrine) and noradrenaline
reproductive hormones, such as
(norepinephrine). They are together
­oestrogen, progesterone and relaxin) in
called emergency hormones or
functioning.
CHAPTER 3

hormones of flight and fight as they


rapidly mobilize the body to face a stress Oestrogen is responsible for growth
or emergency situation. of female reproductive organs and the
­appearance of secondary sexual­­characters
•• They increase the heartbeat.
in female, such as growth of pubic hairs,
•• They increase alertness. soft voice, feminine body, etc.,

45
Progesterone maintains pregnancy and You have studied the process of ­mitosis
regulates menstrual cycle. in the previous year. We will ­understand
the various stages of meiosis and its
Relaxin relaxes the muscles of the
­significance in this unit.
pelvic region at the time of child birth.
MEIOSIS
Parathyroid gland Paternal
homologue
These are found within thyroid
and produce the hormones mainly Chromosome Maternal
parathormone and calcitonin which replication homologue
maintain the mineral metabolism.
Thymus gland Pairing of
homologous
chromosomes
I t ’s a l y m p h o i d m a s s , p r e s e n t
above the heart. It secretes thymosin
which stimulates the differentiation of Synapsis and
crossing over
“T”lymphocytes to resist infection.
Pineal gland
It lies under the corpus callosum in the
brain. It produces melatonin ,causing
concentration of pigments in some specific
areas like areola, scrotal sacs, etc,.
Cell division - I
3.3. Cell division
A matured cell divides into two
daughter cells. Unicellular animalcules
like amoeba, undergo binary fission –
without any change in the chromatin
reticulum by a type of cell division called
Amitosis. Cell division - II

Body cells of all animals and plants


undergo a cell division called Mitosis
,involving changes in the structure of
chromosomes, but without any change Fig. 3.11 Meiosis - stages
in the chromosomal number. Meiosis
BIOLOGY

The germinal epithelial cells of Meiosis is a kind of cell division, which


animals undergo Meiosis cell division, occurs in the germinal epithelial cells
involving changes in the structure and of the gonads to form the gametes.
number of chromosomes. ­Meiosis takes place in the specialized

46
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY

­ iploid cells of gonads and produces


d Pachytene
four haploid gametes, each having
half the number of chromosomes as The paired chromosomes become
compared to the parent cell. Meiosis shorter and thicker. Each bivalent
is completed in two successive appears to have four strands called as,
divisions – Meiosis-I and ­Meiosis-II. tetrads or quadrivalents. The point
In Meiosis-I, as the ­chromosomal number of contact between the homologous
is reduced to half, it is called Reduction pair of chromosomes are called,
division. Meiosis-II is similar to Mitosis. Chiasmata. At the point of chiasmata,
exchange of chromosomal segment
Meiosis - I takes place, between the chromatids of
the homologous pairs. This exchange
The various events of Meiosis-I are
of segments of chromatids between
studied under four substages namely
homologous chromosomes, is called
Prophase-I, Metaphase-I, Anaphase-I and
crossing over.
Telophase-I.
Diplotene
Prophase - I
After the crossing over is completed, the
The chromatin reticulum unwebs and
homologous chromosomes separate and
individual chromosomes are liberated
this separation is called ­terminalization.
from one another. The nuclear membrane
Terminalization may begin in ­chiasmata
dissolves. The chromosomes undergo,
and move to the terminal end of the
,marked differences in their shape and
­chromosomes.
structure. Based on the shape of the
chromosomes, this stage is studied under Diakinesis
five sub-divisions as Leptotene, Zygotene,
Pachytene, Diplotene and Diakinesis. The nuclear membrane and the
nucleolus disappear. The spindle
Leptotene apparatus is formed in the cytoplasm.
The chromosomes condense and appear Metaphase - I
like threads. Each chromosome splits up
longitudinally, except at the centromere. The chromosomes get condensed.
Bivalents now appear on the equator of
Zygotene the spindle with their chromatids, pointing
towards the equatorial plate and the
The homologous chromosomes come
centromere pointing towards the poles.
closer and start pairing. (a homologous
pair of chromosomes consist of a paternal Anaphase - I
CHAPTER 3

chromosome and maternal chromosome


with similar genes). The pairing starts from The spindle fibres contract pulling the
the tip or from the middle and get attached chromosomes, towards the opposite poles.
laterally throughout the length. This pairing is The entire chromosome, with the two
called Synapsis, the paired chromosomes chromatids move to the opposite poles.
are called ­Bivalents. This involves, a reduction in the number

47
47
of chromosomes. Now two groups of chromosomes. The daughter ­chromosomes
chromosomes are produced, one at each move ­towards the opposite poles.
pole with half the number of chromosomes.
Telophase - II
Telophase - I
The haploid set at the two poles coil
At the poles, around the group of to form chromatin material. The nuclear
chromosomes, a nuclear membrane membrane and nucleolus reappear. Thus
develops. Thus two daughter nuclei each two daughter nuclei are formed.
with half the number of chromosomes, Cytokinesis
are formed at the poles. The spindle
fibres disappear. The cytoplasmic division takes place
at right angles to the position of the ­nuclei
At the end of Meiosis-I at right angle to ,­resulting in the formation of four gametes.
the position of the nuclei, the cytoplasmic
constriction takes place leading to the Significance of Meiosis
division of the cell. The cytoplasmic
1. Haploid sex cells are produced, in
division is called Cytokinesis.
­order to maintain the constancy in the
Meiosis - II number of chromosomes of a species.
Meiosis-II is similar to Mitosis and so 2. Crossing over results in variation of
it is called Meiotic Mitosis. The events genetic traits in the offspring.
of Meiosis-II are studied in four sub-divi-
3. Variations form the raw material for
sions as, Prophase-II, Metaphase-II, Ana-
evolution.
phase-II and Telophase-II.
3.4. Heredity
Prophase - II
The resemblance of son or daugh-
The bivalent chromosomes gets
ter with his or her father or mother, is an
shortened. The centrioles form asters
­interesting feature in nature. Inheritance
and move to the poles. The nucleolus and
of c­ haracters from the parents to the
nuclear membrane disappear.
­progeny, (i.e ­heredity) ensures the passing
Metaphase - II of the parental characters to the progeny.
The ­inheritance of characteristics through
Chromosomes, each consisting of two
generations is called heredity.
chromatids held together by a ­centromere
are arranged at the equator of the ­spindle The inheritable characters may be
fibres. The centromeres are ­attached with morphological or physiological or ­anatomical
the spindle fibres. or reproductive and are also known as traits.
Anaphase - II Both the mother and ­father ­contribute equal
BIOLOGY

amount of ­genetic ­material to the child. This


The centromere divides into two and the means, that each trait can be influenced, by
two chromatids separate and now they are both paternal and maternal genetic material
called as daughter ­chromosomes or new i.e DNA.

48
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BODY

EVALUATION
Part A 8. Normal blood glucose level in 100 mlof
blood is _________.
1. Unipolar neurons are found in
___________. 9. The “T” lymphocytes are diffe­ren­tiated
to resist infection in _____. (parathyroid
Brain, Spinal Chord, Embryonic gland, lymph gland,thymus gland,
nervous tissue, Adult nervous adrenal gland).
tissue.
10. In Meiosis-I, the pairing of homologous
2. The sensory organs contain chromosomes take place during
___________. _____ stage. (leptotene, zygotene,
Unipolar neuron,Bipolar neuron, pachytene, diplotene)
Multipolar neuron, Medullated neuron. Part B
3. The part of brain which controls 11. Copy the diagram and label any two
emotional reactions in our body is parts in the group given.
____.
Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Thalamus,
Hypothalamus.
4. One of the following is the part of the
brain stem. Pick out.
(cyton, axon, dendron, endplate)
Fore brain and mid brain, Mid brain
and hind brain, 12. This diagram is human brain, and the
functions of different parts are given
Fore brain and hind brain, Fore below.
brain and spinal cord.
A. Seat of smell
5. Spinal nerves are ________.
B. Seat of vision
Sensory nerves, Motor nerves,
Mixed nerves, Innervating the brain.
6. An endocrine gland found in neck is Mark A and B in the parts of the brain,
___________. Corresponding with the function.

adrenal gland, pituitary gland, 13. On the basis of the function performed,
CHAPTER 3

thyroid gland, pancreas. Pick out the right statements.


a. Pitutiary gland secretes hormones
7. An endocrine gland which is both and enzymes
exocrine and endocrine is _______.
b.Thyroid gland secretes thyroxine
(pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal). and insulin.

49
49
c.Testes produces sperms and the 17. In Amoeba, the cell division takes
hormone androgen. place –––––––––
d.Pancreas produces enzymes and (involving changes in the
harmones. chromatinreticulum,
14.Based on relationships fill in the blanks. without involving changes in the
Thyroxine: personality hormone; chromatin reticulum,
adrenaline :_________.
leading to reduction in the number
15. Correct the statements if they are of chromosomes,without dividing
wrong. the nucleus. )
a .alpha cells produce insulin and 18. Pick out the item which has sequential
beta cells produce glucagon arrangements
b. cortisone suppresses the immune a. zygotene -> Leptotene -> Pachytene
response -> Diplotene -> Diakinesis
c. thymus gland is a lymphoid mass. b. Diakinesis -> zygotene -> Leptotene
d. O
 vary produces eggs and -> Pachytene -> Diplotene
Androgen..
c. Leptotene -> zygotene -> Pachytene
16. Reduction division is the process by -> Diplotene -> Diakinesis
which gametes are produced,. The
cells in which reduction division take 19. The important event of meiosis is the
place are crossing over. It occurs during
(germinal epithelial cells, the sensory (Leptotene,Pachytene,Diplotene,
epithelial cells,cuboidal epithelial Zygotene. )
cells,columnar epithelial cells.)

further reference
Books: 1. Biology - RAVEN, Johnson WCB Mc Graw - Hill
2. B  iology - A Modern Introduction, B.S. Beckett, Second Edition
Oxform University Press.
BIOLOGY

50
Chapter 4

Reproduction
in plants
4. Reproduction in plants

Reproduction in plants Adult frog


tadpole frog
Do you know that all living organisms
­reproduce (both plants and animals)?
­Reproduction is a special biological
­process, by which new individuals of the Eggs
Start of
pulmonary
same species are produced. It is one breathing
Embryo
of the biological processes like nutrition, front legs
tadpole break
­respiration and excretion etc. through

What will happen if there is no


­reproduction?
Fig. 4.1 Life cycle of Frog

Some of the methods of reproduction in organisms are:

Reproduction in animals Reproduction in plants


Fission – Protozoan Fission – Bacteria
Budding – Coelenterates Budding - yeast
Fragmentation – Flatworms Fragmentation – Algae
BIOLOGY

Spores – Fungi
Sexual reproduction – Mammals Pollination and Fertilization – Flowering
plants

52
Reproduction in plants

4.1. MODES OF REPRODUCTION


4.1.1. Modes of reproduction in
single cell organism
Let us examine how different organisms
actually reproduce. The methods by which
organisms reproduce depend upon the
body shape and structure of organisms.
FERTILIZATION
Unicellular organisms, like amoeba
POLLINATION and bacteria, split into two equal halves
and produce new ones which is called
binary fission.

Some Bacteria, like Lactobacilli,


Salmonella multiply rapidly, others
like Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
multiply slowly.

Fig. 4.2 Pollination and fertilization

Questions Activity 4.1


•• Wet a slice of bread and keep it in a
1. What is meant by ­r­eproduction? cool, moist and dark place.
2. Mention a few methods of •• Observe the surface of the slice
reproduction in plants and animals. with a magnifying glass.
•• Observe for a week and record.
South African fossil records show that
the first formed organism in the Earth
is a Bacterium, i.e, Eobacterium which
Beneficial activity to humans :
came into existence approximately
four billion years ago. In the past two Conversion of milk into curd by
billion years, life got diversified into Lactobacilli
multitude of varieties of organisms Harmful activity to humans :
that exist today or existed and became
extinct in the past, whereas bacteria Bacteria like Mycobacterium
CHAPTER 4

continues to live as bacteria without tuberculosis cause tuberculosis.


much change.

53
Reproduction in unicellular organisms :
By Fission

Amoeba Bacteria
DNA Replication

Septum Formation

Cell Separation

Fig. 4.3 Reproduction in unicellular organisms

4.1.2. Modes of reproduction in


Think, read and analyse, multicellular organisms:
1. Vegetative propagation 2. Asexual reproduction 3. Sexual reproduction
why there are so many methods of re-
production?
Fragmentation Budding Spores Pollination Fertilization
Evolution may be defined as a grad-
ual development of more complex Depending upon the body organization
of multicellular organisms, there are
species from pre-existing forms. On
various methods of reproduction.
this basis, the reproduction in simpler
forms, like Amoeba and Bacteria, is Vegetative propagation: is the ability
very primitive by means of Binary Fis- of plants to reproduce by bringing forth
new plants from existing vegetative
sion, Fragmentation, etc., If, the com-
structures without sexual rproduction.
plexity of the body design of organisms
increases, the method of reproduction Fragmentation
also gets complicated involving two In multicellular organisms with simple
organisms (male and female). body organization, simple reproductive
methods have been noticed.
In Spirogyra algae, the plant body
Activity 4.2 breaks up into smaller fragments. Each
•• Observe a permanent slide of fragment grows into a new individual.
bacteria under a microscope.
Nucleus
• • Similarly, observe another
permanent slide of bacteria showing Septum
BIOLOGY

Binary Fission.
Spiral
•• Now compare the observations of Chloroplast
both the slides.
Fig. 4.4 Fragmentation in spirogyra

54
Reproduction in plants

get detached from the parent body to


Activity 4.3 become new independent individuals.
•• Collect water from a lake or pond Similarly, buds produced in the notches
that appears dark green and along the leaf margin of Bryophyllum fall
contains filamentous structures. on the soil and develop into new plants (in
•• Put one or two filaments on a slide. Tamil katti pottal kutti podum).
•• Put a drop of glycerin on these 4.1.3. Asexual reproduction
filaments and cover it with a cover
In lower group of plants, reproduction
slip.
takes place by means of spores. The spores
•• Observe the slide under a
are covered by thick walls that protect them
microscope.
until they come into contact with another
Budding moist surface and can begin to grow.
In Hydra, a bud develops as an
outgrowth due to repeated cell division at
one specific site. These buds develop into
tiny individuals and, when fully mature,

Aplanospores Zoospores
Shoot

Bud Notch
Akinetes Conidia
Fig. 4.5 Bryophyllum
Fig. 4.6 Different kinds of spores

Some of the spores in different algae and fungi are

APLANOSPORES ZOOSPORES AKINETES CONIDIA


In algae, the protoplast A zoospore is a motile In algae, the vegetative Conidia are
of the vegetative asexual spore that cells secrete thick uninucleate, non-
cells contract and uses a flagellum for additional wall layers. motile, asexual spores
produce ovoid bodies locomotion. These During adverse produced by the
surrounded by a thin spores are created by conditions, food fungus like penicillium,
wall. These thin walled some algae, bacteria materials are filled etc.
non-motile spores are and fungi to propagate up in cells. These
CHAPTER 4

called Aplanospores. themselves. structures are called


New filaments akinetes. When the
are formed by the Zable, they develop
germination of these into new filaments.
spores.

55
Questions
1. D
 ifferentiate vegetative Stigma Style
Ovary
propagation and sexual Filament Anther
reproduction.
2. M
 ention some of the spores of
asexual reproduction.
4.1.4. Sexual reproduction in plants
What is sexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction is the process in
which two components ( male and female)
are involved to produce offsprings of their
own kind.
A bull alone cannot produce new calves. It
needs a cow. Female sheep alone Corolla
Ovule Calyx
cannot produce new ones. It needs a
male sheep.
Fig. 4.7 Parts of a flower
Both the sexes, male and female, are
needed to produce new offspring.
As you have already studied in your
earlier classes, the flower is a
reproductive organ of a flowering plant.
To understand this we need to look first
at the structure of a flower.
1

Parts of a typical flower


A flower is a modified shoot with a 2
limited growth. Flowers vary in size,
shape,structure and colour.
1. Anther,

2. FiIament
The main parts of a flower are,
1. Calyx Fig 4.8 Androecium
BIOLOGY

2. Corolla Androecium is the male part of a


3. Androecium and flower,and Gynoecium is the female
part.
4. Gynoecium.

56
Reproduction in plants

Androecium is a group of stamens. 4.2. Pollination


Each Stamen consists of a stalk called
How does sexual reproduction take
the filament and a small bag like structure
place in flowering plants?
called the anther at the tip. The pollen
grains are contained in the anther within The sexual reproduction in flowering
the pollen sacs. plants involves
Gynoecium 1. Pollination
Gynoecium is the female part of the 2. Fertilization
flower and consists of the carpels or ovary. 1. Pollination
Gynoceium has three parts 1) Stigma 2)
Style and 3) Ovary. Transfer of pollen grains from the
anther to the stigma is called pollination.
The ovary contains the ovules and Pollen grains are transferred mainly by
each ovule carries within it an embryo wind, water and insects. They are called
sac, within which lies the egg cell or the as pollinating agents.
female gamete.
Pollination is the first and important
event in the development of the fruit
and seed. Pollination is followed by
fertilization.
Types of Pollination
Stigma
Pollination is of two types. They are
Style
Ovary 1. Self pollination
2. Cross pollination

Fig. 4.9 Gynoecium

Activity 4.4 Cross


pollination
•• Take a shoe flower from a growing
plant.
• • Observe the floral parts Calyx,
Corolla, Androecium and Self
Gynoecium. pollination
•• Separate the stamens and carpels
CHAPTER 4

and observe the parts.


•• Dust the pollen grains on a Self
pollination
slide and observe under the
microscope.
Fig. 4.10 Pollination

57
4.2.1. Self Pollination 4.2.3. Agents of cross pollination
Self pollination is also known as How is it possible for the transfer of
autogamy. The transfer of pollen grains pollen grains from one flower to another?
from the anther of a flower to the stigma In order to bring about cross pollination,
of the same flower or another flower of the it is necessary that the pollen should be
same plant is known as self pollination. carried from one flower to another of a
different plant. This takes place through
Advantages of self pollination agency of animals, insects, wind and water.

1. Self pollination is certain in Pollination by birds (Ornithophily)


bisexual flowers. ­Pollination by insects and animals
2. Flowers need not depend on agents
of pollination.
Activity 4.5
3. There is no wastage of pollen grains.
Observe the flowers in a garden
near to you.Identify the insects, and
Disadvantages of self pollination
birds,that act as pollinating agents.
1. The seeds are less in number. Maintain a record detailing the pol-
2. Endosperm is minute. Therefore, linating agents and the plants they
the seeds produce weak plants. pollinate
3. New varieties of plants cannot
be produced resulting in the
degradation of the plant. Zoophily
Animals and insects – Birds, squirrels
and insects are attracted to the bright
4.2.2. Cross Pollination (Allogamy) petals of the flowers. These flowers are
The transfer of pollen grains of a also large in size and have a sweet smell.
flower to the stigma of another flower of Some of these flowers have nectar and
a different plant of the same species is a sweet scent. This is the most common
called cross pollination or allogamy. of all methods of pollination. This kind of
pollination is called Zoophily. (Pollination
Advantages of cross pollination by animals and birds).

1. The seeds produced as a result of cross


pollination develop, germinate properly
and grow into better plants, i.e., cross
pollination leads to the production of
BIOLOGY

new varieties.
2. More viable seeds are produced.
Fig. 4.11 Zoophily

58
Reproduction in plants

Anemophily (Pollination by wind)


The flowers pollinated by air are mostly
small in size and without any attractive
colour, smell and nectar. They produce a
large number of pollen grains to make up
for the wastage of pollen in times of transit.

Fig. 4.13 Hydrophily

4.3. FERTILIZATION
Recall what you have studied about
pollination.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains
Fig. 4.12 Anemophily from the anther to the stigma. Each pollen
grain has protective walls called exine and
The pollen grains are dry and powdery, intine. The outer wall exine is thick and it
and hence are easily carried by the wind. has small pores called germination pores.
Some pollen grains even have wings. The inner wall is thin and elastic.
Stigmas are large and protruding, even
branched and feathery. e.g.Maize. Germination of pollen grain
Flowers pollinated by wind are called If pollen grain falls on a suitable
Anemophilous, e.g. Grass and pine. stigma, it starts germinating. A mature
pollen consists of two cells. The larger
one is vegetative cell and the smaller
Activity 4.6
one is generative cell. The vegetative cell
•• Collect some of the zoophilous, starts growing and emerges through the
anemophilous,hydrophilous germination pore. It develops through the
flowers. style as a long tube known as pollen tube.
•• Prepare a chart and make a note The generative cell gets into the tube and
of their adaptations to suit the divides into two male gametes (sperms).
corresponding pollination.

Pollen grain
Pollination by Water (Hydrophily)
CHAPTER 4

This pollination takes place in water Sperm


plants or plants that are adapted to water Pollen tube
habitat. e.g. Vallisneria. This pollination Tube nucleus
is known as hydrophily. The flowers are
small and inconspicuous. Fig. 4.14 Germination of pollen grain

59
4.3.1. Process of fertilization Endosperm is a nutritive tissue meant
The pollen tube enters into the embryo for the development of the embryo. The
sac through micropyle. At this time, process of fusion of a male gamete with
egg and the other gamete with secondary
the pollen tube bursts open, gametes
nucleus is known as double fertilization.
released from the pollen tube and enter
into the embryosac. One of the gametes 4.3.3. Post fertilization changes :
fuses with the egg, and the other fuses
i. The ovule develops into seed.
with the secondary nucleus. The fusion
ii. The integuments of the ovule
of a male gamete with egg is known as
develop into seed coats.
fertilization. The fertilized egg is known
iii.The ovary enlarges and develops
as zygote which develops into embryo.
into fruit.
Pollen grain
4.4. FRUIT FORMATION
Style Pollen tube
You are all very familiar with fruits. They
are inseparable with us in our day-to-day
life. Fruits are rich in vitamin and give
Ovule Embryo sac energy to us. Now let us discuss about the
development of fruits and their types.
As we discussed earlier, fruits are the
product of fertilization. The ovary will
Fig. 4.15 Process of fertilization become fruit after fertilization. It has two
parts namely pericarp (fruit wall) and
4.3.2. Double fertilization
seeds.
The other male gamete fuses with
the secondary nucleus. The secondary Some fruits develop without the act
nucleus is diploid in nature. of fertilization. Such fruits are called
Parthenocarpic fruits. e.g. seedless
grapes, guava, mango etc.
4.4.1. Classification of fruits
The fruits are classified as follows:
Simple fleshy fruits
In simple fleshy fruits, the pericarp is
succulent and juicy when fully ripe. The
Fig. 4.16 Double fertilization
fleshy fruits are indehiscent in nature. The
pericarp is distinguished into three parts,
BIOLOGY

The fusion of this nucleus with the namely epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
second male gamete is known as triple There are mainly two types of fleshy fruits
fusion. The triple fusion nucleus is called – Baccate and Drupaceous. Baccate is
endosperm nucleus because it develops further classified into berry, hesperidium,
into endosperm. pome and pepo.

60
Reproduction in plants

Simple dry fruits


These fruits have a dry pericarp.
They are classified based on mode
of dehiscense as dry dehiscent,
dryindehiscent and schizocarpic fruits.

4.4.2. Dry dehiscent fruit Fig. 4.18 Custard apple


These fruits split open at maturity to
liberate the seeds. 4.4.6. Composite or Multiple fruit
4.4.3. Dry indehiscent fruit Multiple or composite fruit is formed
by all the flowers of whole inflorescence
These fruits do not split open at maturity and give a single fruit. There are two
and the seeds are liberated by the decay types of multiple fruits namely sorosis and
of pericarp syconus.
4.4.4. Schizocarpic fruits
Activity 4.7
At maturity, these fruits break into many
one seeded parts called mericarps. The Collect a variety of fruits. Identify what
mericarps containing the seeds remain type of fruit they belong to and make a
indehiscent. Thus the schizocarpic note on them.
fruits show characters of dehiscent and
indehiscent fruits.
Think, read and find out :
4.4.5. Aggregate Fruit
Why are there so many varieties of
It is developed from a single flower fruits?
with multicarpellary, apocarpous, superior
ovary.Each free carpel develops into a 4.4.7. Seed Formation
fruitlet. Hence, the aggregate fruit has a
Seed is a fertilized ovule. It possesses
cluster of fruitlets attached to a common
embryo, food materials and are protected
stalk (e.g) Polyalthia
by the seed coat. During favourable
In Annona squamosa (custard apple), condition, the seed germinates and gives
the margin of the carpels are united and rise to a new seedling.
appears like a single fruit.
Seeds have great variations in the size,
shape, colour and surface. In orchids,
there are many seeds which are tiny dust
like particles. In coconut, there is a large
CHAPTER 4

sized seed. The seed grows into a full


plant.
On the basis of the number of cotyledons
in the embryo (seed), the angiosperms
Fig. 4.17 Polyalthia have been divided into two groups.

61
Simple fleshy fruits

Sl.No Type Diagram Description


1. B a c c a t e - Tomato It is one or many seeded fruit.
Berry Epicarp is thin and the mesocarp
is fleshy. They form a pulp which
is edible and the seeds are
embedded in it.

2. Hesperidium Orange It develops from ­multicarpellary,


superior ovary with axile
­placentation. The epicarp is
thick, leathery and contain oil
glands. The whitish spongy
layer lining the epicarp is called
mesocarp. The endocarp forms
distinct chambers. Juicy hairs
produced from the endocarp is
the edible part.
3. Pome Apple The fruit develops from
­pentacarpellary syncarpous
­inferior ovary with many seeds.
The thalamus becomes fleshy
and develops into a fruit which is
edible. The true fruit containing
seeds remain inside.
4. Pepo Cucumber It develops from a tricarpellary,
syncarpous inferior ovary with
parietal placentation.The pulp
contains many seeds.

5. Drupaceous Mango It is a one seeded fleshy fruit and


develops from monocarpellary,
Drupe
syncarpous ovary. The pericarp
is differentiated into outer skinny
epicarp,fleshy middle mesocarp
and stony inner endocarp. Be-
BIOLOGY

cause of the presence of stony


endocarp, the fruit is also known
as stone fruit.

62
Reproduction in plants

Simple dry fruits Dry dehiscent fruits

Sl.No Type Diagram Description


1. Legume Beans It develops from
­m onocarpellary, unilocu-
lar, ­s uperior ovary with
­m arginal ­p lacentation. Peri-
carp ­d ehisces along both
dorsal and ventral sutures
(e.g.) pea, bean, etc.

2. Follicle Calotropis It is like a legume fruit, but the


pericarp dehisces along one
suture only. (e.g.) Calotropis.

3. Capsule Cotton This is a many seeded fruit


developing from superior
(a) Septicidal
or inferior, syncarpous
capsule
multicarpellary ovary.
Capsules dehisce by
various methods.
Lady’s finger
(b) Loculicidal
capsule

Dry indehiscent fruits

Sl.No Type Diagram Description

1 Achene Clematis,Mirabilis This is a single seeded fruit which


develops from monocarpellary,
CHAPTER 4

unilocular ovary. Pericarp is hard


and leathery, remains free from
the seed coat

63
2. Caryopsis Paddy It is a one seeded fruit which
develops from superior mono-
carpellary ovary. Pericarp is
fused with the seed coat (e.g
paddy, wheat, maize).

3. Cypsela Tridax This fruit develops from in-


ferior, bicarpellary syncar-
pous ovary. The pericarp and
the seed coat remains free
(e.gTridax).

4. Nut Cashew nut It is a dry indehiscent, one


seeded fruit with hard and
woody pericarp. Nut is devel-
oped from superior, bi or multi-
carpellary ovary (e.g. Cashew
nut, Walnut etc).
BIOLOGY

64
Reproduction in plants

Schizocarpic Fruits

Sl.No Type Diagram Description


1. Lomentum Acacia It resembles a legume and
breaks transversely at con-
strictions between the seeds
(e.g Acacia).

2. Cremocarp Coriandrum It is a two seeded fruit which


develops from bicarpellary
syncarpous, bilocular and in-
ferior ovary. It dehisces longi-
tudinally into two indehiscent
mericarps (e.g) Coriandrum.
3. Regma Castor It develops from tricarpellary
syncarpous superior ovary
and breaks up into three one
seeded cocci (e.g Castor).

Composite Fruits

Sl.No Type Diagram Description


1. Sorosis Jack fruit In jack fruit, the rachis (inflo-
rescence axis) and other floral
parts of the female inflores-
cence fuse together forming a
composite fruit. It consists of
a fleshy central axis. The ed-
ible part represents the peri-
anth which is bag like and one
seeded. There are numerous,
elongated, whitish flat struc-
tures in between the edible
CHAPTER 4

flakes. They represent the ster-


ile or unfertilized flowers. The
pines on the tough rind repre-
sent the stigma of the carpels.

65
Sl.No Type Diagram Description
2. Syconus Fig It is derived from a special
type of inflorescence known
as hypanthodium which has a
fleshy receptacle. It has large
number of minute unisexual
flowers. On ripening, the
receptacle becomes fleshy
and juicy and forms the edible
portion (e.g.) banyan, peepal ,
fig, etc.

1. Dicotyledons: Seeds with two The embryo is enclosed by the seed


cotyledons (e.g) pea, bean, gram and coat. It consists of cotyledons attached to
castor. the primary axis which has rudimentary root
portion called the radicle and a rudimentary
2. Monocotyledons: Embryo with one stem portion known as plumule.
cotyledon (e.g) maize, rice, wheat and onion.
The tip of the radicle projects outside ,and
1. Structure of a dicot seed (bean) is nearer to the micropyle. The plumule is
The seed is bulky, oval and slightly placed between the two cotyledons and
indented on one side. On this side there consists of a short axis, and a small bud
is a short longitudinal, whitish ridge called having two tiny little folded leaves.
the raphae. At one end of the raphae
2. Structure of monocot seed (paddy)
there is a minute opening known as germ
pore or micropyle. In paddy, the so called seed is actually
a fruit. It is a simple indehiscent one
If a water soaked seed is pressed
seeded fruit known as caryopsis, (you have
gently a small drop of water along with air
already studied about this in the lesson
bubbles will be found coming out though
of fruits.).The seed coat is very thin. The
the micropyle.
fruit wall (pericarp) is thin and fused with
the seed coat. The fruit is covered by
Seed coat
generally yellowish bract and bracteoles
which are commonly known as chaff. The
embryo consists of single cotyledon called
scutellum and a short axis. The lower
Cotyledons
part of the axis is the radicle, covered by
Radicle a sheath called coleorrhiza (root sheath).
Endosperm The upper part is known as plumule which
BIOLOGY

is covered by a sheath called coleoptile. In


a day or two, after the seed is placed in a
moist soil, the coleorrhiza pierces the base
of the seed. The radicle comes out next
Fig. 4.19 Dicot Seed (Bean) after splitting the coleorhiza.

66
Reproduction in plants

The radicle does not form the root


system. Meanwhile, roots are formed
Activity 4.9
from the lower most nodes of the stem. •• Soak a few seeds of bengal gram
These roots are called adventitious roots. (Channa) and keep them over night
These adventitious roots form fibrous root in a wet cloth.
system of matured plant. •• Take care that the bengal gram is
not swollen absorbing exess of
water. ( The bengal gram should not
Seed coat be decayed with excess water.
•• D
rain the excess water and cover
the seeds with the wet cloth and
leave them for a day. Make sure
that the seeds do not become dry.
Embryo •• Cut and open the seed carefully and
observe the different parts.

Fig. 4.20 Monocot seed (Paddy)


•• Compare your observations with the
diagram and see if you can identity
all the parts.
More to know
Darwin used seeds of cress,
cabbages, lettuces and onions. 4.5. Dispersal of seeds :
Darwin also studied longer
periods in sea water, the effect The seeds fall off far away from the
of water temperature on mother plant. Why?
germination and floating of seeds. The reproductive capacity of plants is
His experiments overturned the so tremendous that a very large number of
idea that sea water kills seeds. Of
seeds is produced by a single plant. If all
the 87 species he used, Darwin
these seeds fall directly below the parent
found almost three-quarters of
the seeds studied could tolerate plant, the seedlings would have to compete
solt water at least 28 days in salt for space, water, oxygen, minerals and
water. sunlight, leading to competition. When
the seedlings are grouped together at one
place, they could easily be destroyed by
Activity 4.8 grazing animals. Such a situation would
be detrimental to the species.
CHAPTER 4

Label jars, filled with sea water and


seeds. After 7 days put the seeds The fruits and seeds of plants have
in a sieve, rinse under a tap, and evolved various devices by which they
plant out in labeled pots. can be distributed far and wide through
various agencies.

67
This not only eliminates the unhealthy The spongy thalamus with air chamber
competitive struggle that would arise of Lotus floats in water streams and after
from over crowding, but also ensures the some time the fruits get separated, and
successful spreading and establishment the seeds germinate.
of a species on the earth. Most fruits
Zoochory: Zoochory is a mechanism
and seeds have evolved adaptations for
in which dispersal of fruits and seeds is
dispersal.
by animals. Some fruits are provided with
Agents for the dispersal of fruits and hooks, spines, bristles, stiff hairs, etc.,
seeds: on their outer coat. With the aid of these
Based on the agents involved in out growths, these fruits stick to the furry
dispersal, there are various types of coats of skins of some animals and get
dispersal mechanisms of fruits and seeds carried away from one place to another.
in plants. The fruits of Xanthium have sharp-
Autochory: Autochory is an active pointed stiff hooks and the Achyranthus
mechanism of self dispersal of fruits and the perianth and bracts are pointed. Many
seeds. Fruits like Balsam burst with a fleshy fruits are eaten by animals and
sudden jerk and disperse the seeds by an human beings and the seeds are thrown
explosive mechanism. away.
Anemochory is the wind dispersal of
fruits and seeds. Alternatively, the wind
may blow them away, for which they
have to be light, so that their buoyancy
may enable them to float on air over long
distances. Some of them are provided
with hairs and membranous wing-like
structures which enable them to be carried
away easily (e.g. Seeds dispersed by the
wind are Calotropis (Erukkum), Moringa
(drum sticks) etc.,
Fig. 4.21 Autochory (Balsam)
Fruits of Tridax carry a persistent calyx
modified into a pappus (a ring of fine,
feathery hairs) which act like a parachute
and aids in the dispersal by wind.
Hydrochory: Hydrochory is a mecha-
nism in which dispersal of fruits and seeds
BIOLOGY

is by water. Fruits which are dispersed by


water have outer coats that are modified
to enable them to float. The mesocarp of
coconut is fibrous, which is easily carried
away by water currents. Fig. 4.22 Anemochory (Tridax)

68
Reproduction in plants

In fruits like tomato and guava, the


seeds are eaten along with the edible
portion and later passed out by excreta.
These types of seeds are protected from
the digestive juices by their seed coat.
Man is responsible for the dispersal
Fig. 4.23 Hydrochory(Lotus)
of many fruits and seeds. In the pursuit
of more economy, useful plants like
Cinchona, Rubber and Eucalyptus have
been successfully introduced by man and
they have acclamalised well to the new
surroundings far away from their original
mother land.

Activity 4.10
•• Collect a few fruit or seeds which
Fig. 4.24 Zoochory(Xanthium) have wings.
•• Observe the fruit of Tridax and
draw. Look at the pappus calyx.
•• Why is the mesocarp of coconut
fibrous?

Collect some of the plants around


you. What are their local names?
Can you find out their botanical
names?
Fig. 4.25 Zoochory(Achyranthus)

EVALUATION
PART A 2. In sexual reproduction of flowering
1. This is the one of the methods of plants, the first event involved in this is.
(fertilization, germination,
reproduction in unicellular organisms
regeneration, pollination)
like amoeba and bacteria in which
CHAPTER 4

they split into two equal halves and 3. Which of the following statement is true.
produce new ones is called. (Thin walled non mobile spores
(fragmentation, binary fission, are called zoospores,
A motile asexual spore produced
budding, spore formation)
by some algae bacteria and fungi
are Akinetes,

69
Uninucleate non-motile asexual Fruits of tridax are carry a persistent
spores are produced by the calyx modified into pappus.
fungus are called conidia, The fruits of xanthium have sharp
Thick walled vegetative cells pointed stiff hooks.
produced by the algae during The mesocarp of coconut is fibres)
adverse conditions are called
aplanospores.) 9. The product of triple fusion which
acts as nutritive tissue for the
4. The fertilized ovary is a fruit. The fruit development of embryo is
develops from a single flower with (zygote, placenta, scutellum,
multi carpellary, apocarpous superior endosperm)
ovary is 10. The disadvantage of self pollination
(Aggregate fruit, Composite fruit, is
Simple fruit, Multiple fruit) (There is no wasteage of pollen
grains,
5. If a water soaked seed is pressed, The seeds are less in number
a small drop of water comes out Self pollination is sure in bisexual
through. flowers
(stomata, lenticel, micropyle, Flowers need not depend on agents
radicle) of pollination
6. The mango fruit is called as stone PART B
fruit. because it has.
11. a. Identify the given fig. A and B.
(skinny epicarp, stony mesocarp,
b. Which part of the A is modified in
fleshy endocarp, hard endocarp)
to B.
7. Pick out the wrong statement.
(In a dicot seed there is a short Stigma
longitudinal whitish ridge is called Style
the raphae. Ovary

There is a minute opening in dicot


seed is known as micropyle.
The rudimentary stem portion A B
known as radicle. 12. The methods of reproduction and
The rudimentary root portion is
the organisms are given below.
called radicle)
Match the type of reproduction to
8. Consider the following statement the suitable organisms.
BIOLOGY

regarding the dispersal of fruit by wind


and select the correct answer. Fission Spirogyra Yeast
(Fruits and seeds dispersed with Budding Protozoans Flatworms
a sudden jerk by an explosive
Fragmentation Bryophyllum Bacteria
mechanism.

70
Reproduction in plants

13. In balsam plant the seeds fall off far b)Give the development process in
away from the mother plant. brief.
a) Is this statement correct or c)D raw a neat diagram of that
incorrect? process and label.
b) Give reason. 17. a) Write the two events involved
14. Composite fruits is formed by in the sexual reproduction of
all the flowers of -------------, flowering plant.
------------ fruit is developed from a b) Discuss the first event and
single flower with multicarpellary write the types
apocarpous superior ovary. c) Give advantages and dis-­
advantages of that event.
15. Redraw the diagram and label the
following parts. 18. a) Fruit is the product of fertilization. Is
there any fruit is formed with out the
a) Exine b) Tube nucleus.
act of fertilization?
b) Represent the classification of
fruits in a diagrammatic sketch
19. Compare aggregate fruit with multiple
PART C fruit with suitable examples.
16. a) N
 ame the process by which the
fruit is developed. 20. Describe the structure of dicot seed.

further reference
Books:
1.Plant Reproduction - S.R.Mishra - Discovery Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

CHAPTER 4

71
NAME OF THE PLANTS IN ENGLISH AND TAMIL
S.No Botanical Name Common Name in English Tamil Name How it is called locally
1 Abelmoscus esculentus Lady’s finger ntz;il
2 Acacia coccina Soap acacia rpiff;fha;
3 Achyranthes aspera ehAUtp
4 Anacardium occidentale Cashew nut Ke;jphp
5 Anona squamosa Custard apple rPjhg;gok;
6 Artocarpus integrifolia Jack fruit gyh
7 Bryophyllum fl;bg; Nghl;lhy; Fl;bg; NghLk;
8 Calotropis gigantea Madar plant vUf;F
9 Citrus sinensis Sweet orange rhj;Jf;Fb
10 Cocus nucifera Coconut njd;id
11 Coriandrum sativum Coriandar nfhj;Jky;yp/jdpah
12 Gossypium arboreum Cotton gUj;jp
13 Cucumis sativus Cucumber nts;shpf;fha;/
Njhirf;fha;
14 Cucurbita maxima Pumpkin G+rzpf;fha;/
guq;fpf;fha;/
murhizf;fha;
15 Ficus glomerata Fig mj;jp
16 Impatiens Balsam ghy;nrz;L/ghy;rk;
balsamia
17 Lablab Bean mtiu
purpurreus
18 Lycopersicon Tomato jf;fhsp
esculentum
19 Mangifera Indica Mango kh
20 Mimosa pudica Touch me not plant “njhl;lhy;thb/
njhl;lhy;RUq;fp/
njhl;lhy;rpZq;fp”
21 Mirabilis jalapa Four o clock plant “me;jpke;jhiu/
me;jpky;ypif”
22 Nelumbo nucifera Indian lotus jhkiu
23 Oryza sativa Paddy/ rice ney;
24 Pisum sativum Pea gl;lhzp
25 Polyalthia longifolia Mast tree nel;bypq;fk;
26 Pyrus malus Apple Mg;gps;
BIOLOGY

27 Ricinus communis Castor Mkzf;F/


Kj;Jf;nfhl;il
28 Tridax ntl;L
; f;fhag; G+zL
; r; nrb

72
Chapter 5

A REPRESENTATIVE
STUDY OF MAMMALS
5. A REPRESENTATIVE STUDY OF
MAMMALS
Mammals are the diverged group of whiskers of cats and dogs are sensitive to
animals, occupying different biomes of the touch. Hair is also defensive for porcupine
environment ,successfully fitting in their and hedgehogs with long, sharp, stiff
habitats. Mammals are found almost in hairs called quills to protect them from
all habitats like oceans , freshwater, hilly predators.
regions , forests, deserts, polar regions
and swamps.
Activity 5.1
Observe the hair of dog, cat, cattles,
5.1. Morphology
man, horse and donkey. Look for the
Mammalian morphology is so divergent, structural details like shape, texture
as they occupy different habitats . The sea and curly or straight condition and
living dolphins, whales etc., look like fish, record your findings.
by form and structure. A nocturnal bat
gliding in the sky, looks like a bird. All the
Milk producing glands
large land animals are mammals. The size
of mammals sets them apart from all other All female mammals possess mammary
kinds of land animals. glands that secrete milk. New born
­mammals, born without teeth suckled by
Mammals are distinguished from
the mother. Milk producing glands are
other vertebrates by two fundamental
modified sweat glands.
characteristics that all mammals ­possess
and no other living vertebrate possess. They 5.2. Habitat
are The place of living of an organism is its
1. Epidermal Hairs habitat. Mammals exhibit a great ­degree of
functional adaptation to fit in the ­habitats in
2. Milk producing glands.
which they live. We find ­mammals ­living in
Epidermal Hairs high mountains, plains and ­forests, ­tundra,
grassland, deserts, fresh water and marine
All mammals have hairs, even
habitats. Some important mammals in their
apparently naked whales and dolphins
different ­habitats are listed below;
grow ­sensitive bristles on their snouts.
­Mammalian hair is a new form of skin High mountains - mountain goats, big
BIOLOGY

structure a ­derivative from the skin; the horned sheep, grizzly


hair is an insulator against heat loss. bears, etc.,
The colouration and pattern of mammal’s Plains and forests - porcupine, giant
skin usually matches its background. squirrel, deers,
Hairs also are sensory structure, as the

74
A REPRESENTATIVE STUDY OF MAMMALS

elephants, Desert - black buck, Indian wild


tiger, ­leopard, ass etc.,
rhinoceros,
Fresh water -beavers, platypus,
Hippopotamus,
otters, etc.,
etc.,
Marine - whales, dolphins,
Tundra - reindeer, muskdeer
dugong, porpoise, seal,
ox, rodents, etc.,
walrus, etc.,

CHAPTER 5

Fig. 5.1 Diverged group of mammals with their young ones

75
5.3. Mammalian Adaptations v) Mammals have heterodont dentition
with different types of teeth that are
Mammalian group is the most
highly specialized to match particular
successful animals adapted to different
eating habits. For example, the
conditions of life.
carnivorous animals have tearing
i) In the marine whales, dolphins, etc,. teeth - the canine. In elephant the
the limbs are modified into flippers incisors are modified into tusks as a
which are used as oars to swim in specialized weapon.
water. They also posseses huge vi) Bats are the only mammals capable
subcutaneous fat deposits to of powered flight. The forelimbs
conserve heat. The jaws of the whales of bats are modified into wing like
are modified into baleen plates to structure. The bat’s wing is a leathery
sieve the water and trap the minute membrane of skin and the muscle
planktonic organisms as their food is stretched over the bones of the
called krill. four fingers. Bats prefer to hang
ii) The skin of camels is doubly thick upside down from their legs while
and contains water storing osmotic resting. The nocturnal bats can fly
cells to conserve water, as they live without crashing into things and still
in deserts. They have thick bunchy capture insects by echo location. As
eyebrows covering the eyes to a bat flies, it emits very rapid series
protect the eyes from sandy wind. of extremely high pitched clicking
Their nasal hole can be closed during sounds. The sound waves bounce
desert storms to prevent the entry of off objects or flying insects and the
sand particles. bat hears the echo.
iii) Most mammals are herbivores, vi) The marsupials, kangaroo have
eating mostly or only plants. To digest developed abdominal pouches to
the cellulose rich food, they have bear the tender young ones.
developed a mutual partnership with vii) The polar bears have thick skin coats
bacteria that have cellulose splitting and woolly fur to bear the biting cold
enzymes. of the polar regions.
iv) Mammals such as cows, buffaloes, viii) The supreme mammal – man is
antelopes, goats, deers, etc,. have highly adapted as an intellectual
huge four chambered stomachs that social animal. The fingers and toes
BIOLOGY

function as storage and fermentation are adapted for handling extremely


vats. The stomach of cattles also fine movements in holding of fine
helps them to ruminate or cud the objects, in writing and using very
food. delicate instruments.

76
A REPRESENTATIVE STUDY OF MAMMALS

of heat lost is lowered. Now the kidneys


­excrete out more urine.
Mammalian respiration is more­efficient
in comparison to other vertebrates. Red
blood cells of mammals are fully packed
with the respiratory red blood pigment
haemoglobin, to carry the maximum
amount of oxygen. The mammalian
RBCs are without nucleus, as the space
occupied by the nucleus is taken up by the
haemoglobin molecules.
Fig. 5.2 Bat
Activity 5.2
5.4. Basic physiological
functions Note the body temperature of some
of your classmates at 10 a.m, 1 p.m
Mammals perform the physiological
and 4 p.m. Record the same. Do you
functions more efficiently compared to
find any change in the temperature at
other vertebrates.
different timings?
Mammals are warm blooded or
homeotherms, maintaining a constant
body temperature, irrespective of the 5.5. Circulatory system
temperature in the surroundings. The body of man
temperature in man is maintained at 98.4o In order to transport substances from
F to 98.6o F. The temperature regulation is one part of the body to the other, the
done as a team work, by the sweat glands circulatory system has evolved. In man,
the circulatory system is composed of
of skin, kidneys, lungs and blood.
In summer, we sweat more as a cooling i) the heart
up mechanism, to conduct the heat out ii) the blood vessels namely arteries,
in the sweating process. This is possible veins and capillaries
with increased blood supply to the sweat
iii) the blood and
glands. The kidneys expel less urine since
much of water is lost in the sweat. iv) the lymph.
CHAPTER 5

In winter, we produce little sweat as William Harvey in 1628 discovered the


a warming up mechanism to conserve circulation of blood in man, until then it
heat. The sweat glands are supplied with was thought that the body is a blood filled
less amount of blood, so that the amount entity, and the blood is stagnant in it.

77
the body. Into the left auricle open the
four pulmonary veins emptying the
oxygenated blood brought from the
two lungs.
Ventricles
These are thick walled lower
chambers of the heart. A partition
called inter ventricular septum divides
William Harvey 1578-1657 was an the ventricle into right and left ventricle.
English physician. He was the first to The ventricles pump the blood out
give the details of blood circulation, from the heart. From the right ventricle
the properties of blood and the the deoxygenated blood is pumped
pumping of blood by the heart. into pulmonary artery to supply the
two lungs. From the left ventricle
The heart oxygenated blood is pumped into the
aorta to supply the oxygenated blood to
The human heart is a hallow fibro
the different parts of the body through
muscular organ. It is conical in shape.
the heart is covered by a protective
its branches.
double walled sac called pericardium Apertures of the heart
filled with pericardial fluid. The heart
Between the right auricle and right
is made up of special type of muscles,
ventricle is found the right auriculo
called ­c ardiac muscles. The partitions
within the heart divide the heart into four ventricular aperture and between the
chambers as ­a uricles and ventricles. left auricle and left ventricle is found the
The right half of the heart receives and left auriculo ventricular aperture.
pumps off ­deoxygenated blood and the
left half of the heart receives and pumps
Aorta
out oxygenated blood. Superior Pulmonary
vena cava artery
Auricles Left Pulmonary
veins
These are thin walled upper Right Left
atrium
chambers. The auricles are divided into atrium
Semi -
a right auricle and a left auricle, by a lunar valve
Tricuspid
partition called inter auricular septum. valve Mitral valve

Auricles are the receiving chambers Left


ventricle
BIOLOGY

Right
of blood. Into the right auricle open ventricle
the superior venacava and inferior Inferior Cardiac
vena cava muscle
venacava emptying the deoxygenated
blood brought from different parts of
Fig. 5.3 Human heart

78
A REPRESENTATIVE STUDY OF MAMMALS

Valves of the heart as “lubb” and “dubb”. The human


heart beats 72 times in a minute at rest.
A tricuspid valve with three flaps is
Heartbeat is an inherent capacity of
found in the right auriculo ventricular
the heart, begun and conducted by the
aperture to regulate the flow of blood, specialized muscle bundle in the heart.
from right auricle to right ventricle and
not backwards. Blood vessels
There are three distinct types of
A bicuspid valve or mitral valve with
blood vessels, namely, arteries, veins
two flaps in the left auriculo ventricular
and capillaries.
aperture regulates the flow of blood,
from left auricle to left ventricle and not Arteries
backwards. Arteries carry the blood from the
heart to different parts of the body.
At the base of the pulmonary artery
They are the branches of aorta,
is present the semi-lunar valve, which
supplying oxygenated blood to the
regulate the blood to flow from the right
different regions of the body (except
ventricle to the pulmonary artery.
pulmonary artery which carries
At the base of the aorta is present the deoxygenated blood). The aorta
aortic valve, to regulate the flow of blood branches into arteries. Arteries branch
from left ventricle into aorta. into arterioles. Arterioles branch into
Working of heart fine tubes called meta arterioles. The
meta arterioles end up in the tiny blood
Human heart works by contraction vessels called capillaries.
and relaxation of the cardiac muscles.
The contraction phase is called systole Capillaries
and relaxation phase is called diastole.
When the auricles are filled with blood
they are in relaxation phase (auricular
diastole). By now ventricles will push the
blood into aorta and pulmonary artery by Venule
their contraction (ventricular systole).
When the auricles contract (auricular
systole) the blood is pushed into the
ventricules through the bicuspid and
CHAPTER 5

tricuspid valves, leading to ventricular


relaxation (ventricular diastole).
Heartbeat
Arteriole
The closure of the valves of the heart
produce two different cardiac sounds Fig. 5.4 Arteries, capillaries and veins

79
Capillaries have nuclei, the matured ones are
These tiny blood vessels form a without ­n uclei. The red blood pigment
network, called capillary network around haemoglobin is fully packed in the RBCs.
the tissues to enable the passage of They are concerned with carriage of
substances from the blood into the tissues. respiratory gases.

Veins White Blood Cells – Leucocytes

The veins drain the blood from WBCs are amoeboid in shape with
­different parts of the body to the heart. prominent nuclei. WBCs are concerned
The ­capillaries reunite to form venules, with phagocytosis of engulfing the germs
which drain the deoxygenated blood from and producing antibodies to resist the
the tissues. The small venules united germs entering the body.
with the big veins open into ­superior Blood Platelets – Thrombocytes
­v enacava and inferior venacava.
Platelets are irregular broken up pieces
­Except the pulmonary veins all other of certain giant cells. They are concerned
veins carry deoxygenated blood. with blood clotting to prevent the loss of
The blood blood.
Blood is the river of life – providing the­
­internal environment to the body. Blood is
the connective tissue, consisting of the fluid
part, the plasma and the solid ­components,
the blood cells.
Plasma Platelets Red blood
cells
The liquid component of blood, the plasma
is composed of water, organic ­substances,
inorganics substances, etc,. The ­important
organic substances of plasma are the
­p lasmaproteins namely globulin (for Neutrophil Monocyte
­immunity), fibrinogen (for blood clotting)
and albumin (for water balance).
Blood cells
There are three types of blood cells Lymphocyte Eosinophil
namely Red Blood Cells, White Blood
Cells and Blood Platelets freely floating in
BIOLOGY

the plasma.
Red Blood Cells –Erythrocytes Basophil

RBCs are circular, biconcave and Fig. 5.5 Blood Cells


disc shaped. While the young RBCs

80
A REPRESENTATIVE STUDY OF MAMMALS

5.6. Excretory system in man


Excretory organ Excretory products Sent out as
Nitrogenous waste products –
Kidneys Urine
urea, uric acid, creatinine, etc,.
Carbondioxide and
Lungs Expired air
water vapour
Skin Excess water and salt Sweat

Excretion is the removal of metabolic vertebral column attached to the dorsal


waste products called excreta. The body wall. A thin transparent membrane
important excreta and the excretory organs called capsule covers the kidney. The
which remove them are shown in the kidneys are bean shaped with outer
above table.
convex surface and inner concavity. The
The principal excretory organs of our depression in the concavity is called renal
body are the kidneys, which maintain the hilus, from which arises the muscular tube
chemical composition of the blood and so called ureter. The two ureters open into
are called as master chemist of our body. the distensible muscular sacs called the
External structure of kidney urinary bladder which is the store house of
A pair of kidneys are present in the upper urine. From the urinary bladder arises the
abdominal region, one on either side of the urethra which delivers the urine out of the body.

Adrenal
gland Medullary
Inferior pyramid
venacava Renal
artery Renal
column
Pelvis Renal vein

Kidney Calyx
Medulla
Cortex Renal
Ureter artery
Cortex Renal vein
Pelvis
Renal
capsule Ureter
CHAPTER 5

Urinary
bladder
Urethra

Fig. 5.6 Excretory system of man Fig. 5.7 LS of Kidney

81
Internal structure of kidney Malpighian capsule
The outer portion of the kidney is dark in This consists of a network of blood
colour and is called renal cortex and inner capillaries called glomerulus and a
pale region of the kidney is called renal double walled cup called Bowman’s cup.
medulla. Renal medulla contains conical The glomerulus is a network of blood
masses called renal pyramids. On the renal capillaries, formed by the branches of the
pyramids are found the openings called wider afferent renal arteriole. From the
renal papillae, which open into the inner glomerulus arises the narrow efferent renal
space of the kidney called renal pelvis. arteriole, which branches over the rest of
From the renal pelvis arises the ureter. the nephron as network of capillaries. The
The kidneys are composed of millions Bowman’s capsule accommodates the
of units called nephrons. glomerulus.

Structure of a nephron Uriniferous tubules

Nephrons are the structural and From the Bowman’s capsule arises
functional units of the kidney, each kidney the Uriniferous tubules. It is divided into
is composed of millions of nephrons. A three portions as the initial coiled proximal
nephron has two structural components convoluted tubule, the middle U-shaped
namely, Malpighian capsule and the Henle’s loop and the later coiled distal
uriniferous tubules. convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted
tubule straightens as the collecting ducts.
Glomerulus The collecting ducts open on the renal
pyramids as renal papillae. The nephrons
filter the blood and form the urine.

Bowman’s 5. 7 . R el ations h ip of
Distal
capsule convoluted tubule structure and function
Based on the functional need a particular
organ or part gets a suitable modification
Proximal
Convoluted Collecting duct in its structure. Thus a structure is so
tubule adapted to perform a specific function. So
structure and function go hand in hand.
Loop of The fore limbs of different mammals are
henle suitably modified to do different functions
according to their environment. For
example, all the vertebrate animals in
BIOLOGY

general, and all mammals in particular,


have their fore limbs sharing a common
basic pattern of construction. The fore
limbs of mammals consist of five parts
Fig. 5.8 Nephron namely upper arm, fore arm, wrist, palm

82
A REPRESENTATIVE STUDY OF MAMMALS

and phalanges, but they are differently environment. The stimuli may be as simple
used in different animals like as the odour of the food. Nervous system
perceives and passes the information
i) M
 an uses his fore limb to hold an
concerning the environmental stimuli and
object, write, operate very fine trigger adaptive motor response which we
musical instruments and delicate see as the patterns of behaviour.
digital devices. The thumb is deviant
from other four fingers, to enable 5.8.1. Social behavior
man to do the above jobs. Behaviour is both an instinctive ­process
ii) A horse uses it’s fore limb to gallop. (influenced by genes) and learned
­experience (gained by experience).
iii) A
 rat or bandicoot uses it’s fore limb
Social attachments between ­animals
to make holes in the ground to live. is called imprinting. The binding or
iv) A
 giraffe uses its pretty long and ­attachment between the parents and the
stout fore limbs to reach up the offspring is called filial imprinting. At times,
we find an individual of a species is raised
vegetations, at the height of the
by a parent of another species (e.g the
plants.
chick of cuckoo bird is fed by crow in its
v) A monkey leaps from one branch nest). This behavioural pattern is called
of the tree to another using it’s fore cross fostering.
limb to swing and leap. Many insects, fish, birds and mammals
vi) A whale uses its fore-limbs as oars live in social groups in which information
to swim. is communicated between group

Human Frog Bat Porpoise Horse

Fig. 5.9 Basic pattern of


forelimbs of vertebrates Fig. 5.10 Honey Bee
CHAPTER 5

­ embers. For example some individuals


m
5.8. Animal behavior in mammalian societies serve as guards.
Behaviour can be defined as an In an elephant herd, it is always the
organism’s adaptive response to stimuli in its oldest she elephant that leads the herd,

83
while the strong males will form the periphery Providing the young one with the milk
of the herd and the young calves and other from its mammary gland and aggression
she elephants will be in the centre. exhibited against the predator are the best
Sexual behavior means of taking care of the young one.
Even after the nutritional independency is
The coming closer of the opposite
sexes is both by instinctive process and
sexual ­a ttraction exhibited by one or
both the partners. The secondary sexual
­characters developed during the breeding
season bring the two sexes together for
sexual ­reproduction. For example , the
bright and colourful plumage of male
peacock is to draw the attention of the
female.

Sexual imprinting

Is a process in which an individual


learns to direct its sexual ­behaviour at a Fig. 5.11 Parental care in elephants
member of its own species. During the
courtship, animals produce ­s ignals to obtained by the young one i.e it takes care
communicate with ­potential mates and of its nutrition by itself, the parental care
with other members of their own sex. A is extended in some species beyond this
character exhibited by one sex to attract level.
the other sex is called courtship signalling. 5.9. A case study by a
Many courtship ­s ignals are species, researcher
specific to help animals avoid making
errors in mating. The behavioural patterns in different
situations are investigated in the research
Parental care projects taken up by leading universities
Any investment or effort by the parent in Tamilnadu.
to take care of the young ones in order The abstract of case study by
to increase the chance of survival Arun Venkatraman, Asian Elephant
of the offspring and hence increase Conservation Centre, Centre for Ecological
the reproductive success is called Science, Indian Institute of Science –
parental care. The parents care for the Bangalore on Dholes is given below.
BIOLOGY

young ones and provide high nutrition,  ourtesy to the researcher – Mr.Arun
C
protect the young ones from predators Venkatraman)
and enable the young ones to lead a
successful life.  siatic wild dog (Chen Nai – in Tamil),
A
commonly called Dholes – Cuon

84
A REPRESENTATIVE STUDY OF MAMMALS

­ lpines is an endangered species


a them. The other young ones and old
living in ­Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary females usually lag ­behind.
at Nilgiris, Tamilnadu.
The Dholes also exhibit a high
The Dholes live in packs which consist degree of parental care by changing
of old females, males, females and pups.
The pack members co-ordinate while
­pulling down and killing large prey such as
adult Sambar Deer. There is a tendency to
share the meat among the members of the
pack. However there prevails a ­squabbling
among them to get the ­choicest meat.
The young pups are allowed to take
the meat first. The old males follow

Activity 5.3
Case study Fig. 5.12 Dholes
•• Conduct a case study on the the den frequently so that the pups are
behavioural aspects of your pet safe from predators such as leopards
dogs in reference to their territorial
dominance when strangers or other and hyenas.
dogs try to enter into your locality. •• functions efficiently.
Activity •• Behaviour is the adaptive response
•• Follow an ant line and try to break of an organism to the stimuli in the
its route by drawing a line with your environment.
finger without killing any ant.
•• Social behaviour is both instinctive and
•• Observe the behaviour of the ants learned experience.
as to whether they change the route
or go in disarray. •• Sexual behaviour involves courtship
signalling which is species specific.
•• Try to observe for a few minutes
for any change they resort in •• The investment or effort by the parent
their route. Make a report of their on their offsprings to provide nutritive
behaviour and submit. food and safeguard them from
predators is called parental care. CHAPTER 5

85
Evaluation
PART A
c. antelope, deer, cow, buffalo, black buck
1. Sensitive whiskers are found in
_________. d. dog, cat, crocodile, lion, tiger
Bat, Elephant, Deer, Cat. 7. The epidermis of mammals contains
a. hair, bristle, quills
2. The tusks of elephants are modified
________. b. hair, nail, claw
3. Pick out an animal which has four c. hair, bristle, horn
chambered stomach _______. d. hair, nail, scale
Elephant, Dolphin, Deer, Kangaroo. 8. Based on relationship, fill up:
4. Normal body temperature of man is Whale: Baleen plates; Bat : _______
__________.
9. Fill in the blanks.
98.4 – 98.6 F, 96.6 – 96.8 F, 94.4 –
o o
Plasma : Fibrinogen ; RBC : Carrier
98.6oF, 98.4 – 99.6oF. of oxygen; WBC: –––––––––––––
5. Mitral valve is found between 10.Master chemists of our body are
_________. kidneys. Justify.

Right auricle and right ventricle, Left a. kidneys acquire all chemicals taken
auricle and left ventricle, in the body
Right ventricle and pulmonary artery, b. maintain the chemical composition
Left ventricle and aorta. of blood
c. kidneys send out all chemicals taken
Part B
in the body
6. One of the following groups contains
d. kidneys store the various chemicals
a non mammalian animal. Pick up the
taken in the body
group.
11. Based on modifications make the pairs:
a. dolphin, walrus, porcupine, rabbit, bat
incisor: tusk of elephant;
b. e lephant, pig, horse, donkey,
monkey _____________ : quills of porcupine.


further referEnce :
Books:
BIOLOGY

1. Biology - RAVEN, Johnson WCB Mc Graw - Hill


2. Biology - A Modern Introduction, B.S. Beckett, Second Edition
Oxform University Press.

86
6. Life processes
How do you differentiate the living sit idle and during sleeping, this maintenance
things and non-living things? job through cells functioning has to go on.
The life process includes the ­activities
If we see a dog running
performed by the different ­organs to
(or) maintain the body.
a cow chewing cud Some of the life processes in the living
(or) beings are described below:

a man shouting loudly on the street, Nutrition


We know that these are living beings. The processes of obtaining energy
What if the dog or the cow or the man through consumption of food.
were asleep? Respiration
We would still think that they were alive, The process of acquiring oxygen through
but how did we know that? We see them breathing and make it available to cells for
breathing and we know that they are alive. the process of breaking down of organic
What about plants? substances into simpler compounds is
called as respiration.
How do we know that they are alive?
Transportation
We see their green leaves and some
kind of movements like the folding and Transportation is the process by which
unfolding of leaves, stages of growth as the food and oxygen is carried from one
common evidences for being alive. organ to other organs in the body.
CHAPTER 6

6.1. What are Life processes? Excretion


The maintenance of living organisms It is the process by which the metabolic
must go on even at the conditions, when waste by-products are removed from the
they are not physically active. Even when we different organs and released out from the body.

87
Questions stored form of energy. The materials
are taken in the form of carbon dioxide
1. How do we understand the living and water which are converted into
nature of organisms? carbohydrates in the presence of light and
2. What are the materials available from chlorophyll. Carbohydrates are utilized as
external sources for the organism’s energy rich sources to the plant., for their
consumption? entire activity.
3. What processes are essential to The process of photosynthesis is
maintain our body? explained in the form of bio-chemical
reaction shown below:
6.2. nutrition in plants
Chlorophyll
Do you know that we need energy for 6CO2 + 12 H2O C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O
all activities? Sunlight (Glucose)

When do we get that energy?


The raw materials and other necessary
The source of energy is the food we eat. items required for photosynthesis are
Sunlight, Water, CO2 and Chlorophyll.
Types of Nutrition
Sunlight - energy from the sun
Autotrophic Nutrition
Water - plant absorbs water from
Most of the green plants are self- the soil through roots.
dependent, because they synthesize their
own food materials by photosynthesis. CO2 - assimilated from the
atmosphere throughleaves
Such mode of nutrition is described as containing small pores
BIOLOGY

autotrophic nutrition. called stomata.


It is the process by which autotrophic Chlorophyll - the green pigments in the
plants consume substances from the chloroplasts, an organelle
external sources and convert them into of the cells of leaf.

88
Life processes

Let us do an activity which demonstrates that chlorophyll is essential


for photosynthesis

Activity 6.1

1. Take a potted plant with variegated leaves – for example, money plant or
crotons.
2. Keep the plant in a dark room for three days so that all the starch gets
used up.
3. Now keep the plant in sunlight for about six hours.
4. Pluck a leaf from the plant. Mark the green areas in it and trace them on a
sheet of paper.
5. Dip the leaf in boiling water for a few minutes.
6. After this, immerse it in a beaker containing alcohol.
7. Carefully place the beaker in a water-bath till the alcohol begins to boil.
8. What happens to the colour of the leaf? What is the colour of the solution?
9. Now dip the leaf in a dilute solution of iodine for few minutes.
10. Take out the leaf and rinse off the iodine solution.
11.  Observe the colour of the leaf and compare this with the tracing of the leaf
done in the beginning.
12.  What can you conclude about the presence of starch in various spots of
the leaf?

Heterotrophic nutrition The plants or animals in which the


parasites live for nourishments are called
Fungal cells do not contain chloroplasts hosts. Parasitic plants have some special
and they formed into saprophytes and roots, which penetrate the host plants and
parasites. Likewise all organisms, except the absorb food from the phloem, water and
green plants do not possess ­chloroplasts as minerals from xylem. These roots are called
they do not carry out ­photosynthesis. They haustoria. (e.g.: Cuscutta and Viscum).
depend upon plants or other organisms for
CHAPTER 6

their nutrition. Saprophytes


Parasites Some plants obtain nutrients from non-
Some organisms live on other organisms living organic matter. They are called
for nourishments. They are called Parasites. saprophytes. Many fungi and bacteria are

89
saprophytes. Certain angiosperms like
Monotropa lack chlorophyll and have
mycorrhizal roots.The plant absorbs
nourishments from the humus through
their mycorrhizal roots.

Fig. 6.3 Viscum - a parasitic plant

Questions
1. What are the differences
between autotrophic nutrition
and heterotrophic nutrition?
2. What are the sources of
materials required by plants for
Fig. 6.1 Variegated Leaf photosynthesis?
(b). After starch test
(a). Before starch test 6.2. human digestive system

Intracellular digestion
White blood cells (leucocytes) in
vertebrate animals are defensive in
functioning and get rid of germs in the body
of the animals. WBCs engulf the invading
germs by producing pseudopodia around
the germs and digest the germs inside
them by phagocytosis.
The unicellular animalcules like
Amoeba also produce pseudopodia to­
e­ngulf the diatoms and other minute
BIOLOGY

­organisms and digest them within the cell.


Paramoecium, an another protozoan has
Fig. 6.2 Cuscutta - a parasitic plant a cytopharynx, a cytoplasmic depression
to swallow the food (i.e microorganisms

90
Life processes

in water) and digest the food within the digestive juices. Since digestion takes place
cells. In the above mentioned examples in the space or lumen of alimentary canal i.e
the food is directly taken into the cells outside the cell it is called as extracellular
and is digested within the cell. This sort of digestion – an advanced form of digestion.
digestion is called intracellular digestion. Digestion in human beings
Intracellular digestion is a very primitive
form of digestion and does not require Food contains a number of nutrient
an organized digestive system. Even in molecules needed for building up of new
animals like sponges and coelenterates, body tissues, repairing damaged tissues
the digestion is intracellular, though and sustained chemical reactions.
an alimentary canal like structure has
developed in them.
mouth

Extracellular digestion teeth salivary glands


tongue pharynx
As animal body becomes more epiglottis
complex, digestive system has evolved
to digest the food taken into the body. oesophagus
The digestive system in higher animal liver
and man consists of alimentary canal and
stomach
digestive glands that are specialized to
gallbladder
produce digestive juices. Food is taken
into alimentary canal and in the regions pancreas
large
of digestion like mouth, stomach and intestine
duodenum, digestive juice is secreted by small
intestine
the digestive glands and the complex food
appendix
swallowed is broken down to simpler food rectum
molecules by the action of enzymes of the anus

Activity 6.2 Fig. 6.4 Human Digestive System

•• Take I ml of starch solution (1%) into test tubes (A and B)


•• Add I ml of saliva to test tube A and leave both the test tubes undisturbed for
20-30 minutes
•• Now add a few drops of dilute iodine to the test tubes
•• In which test tube do you observe a colour change?
CHAPTER 6

•• What does this indicate about the presence or absence of starch in the two test tubes?
•• What does this tell us about the action of saliva on starch?
•• Is there a difference? If yes, in which case more energy from external sources is
consumed.

91
Food must be broken down to be In fact, energy is locked up in food
used as a source of energy. The process ­ aterials. During respiration, the food
m
of converting the complex food into a materials are oxidized (degraded). During
simple chemical substance, that can be this reaction, energy is released from the
absorbed and assimilated by the body is food and it is stored in a special chemical
called digestion. The medical speciality (or) biological substance called ATP
that deals with the structure, function, (Adenosine triphosphate).
diagnosis and treatment of diseases
The energy of ATP is utilized in various
of stomach and intestine is called
activities of cells.
gastroenterology.
Apart from ATP, two other substances
The digestive system is composed of
are also formed during respiration. They
two groups of organs. They are
are CO2 and H2O.
1) The gastro intestinal tract
2) Accessory digestive glands
Digestion is brought about in a stepwise Substance that is used in respiration
manner with the help of enzymes which is known as respiratory substrate.
are otherwise called bio-catalysts. Respiratory substrates are of three kinds
viz., carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
The gastro intestinal tract (alimentary ca-
nal) is a long muscular tube, about 9 mts in Types of Respiration
length and it commences from the mouth
and ends in the anus. The mouth, buccal Depending on whether oxygen is used
cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, or not, respiration is of two types:
small intestine, large intestine, rectum and 1. Aerobic respiration.
anus are the parts of the alimentary canal.
2. Anaerobic respiration.
6.3. Respiration in plants
1. Aerobic respiration
Why should we eat?
In majority of living organisms, oxygen
Why should plants synthesize food? is utilized during respiration. Respiration
For the simple reason that all living that uses oxygen is known as aerobic
­organisms ranging from minute bacteria ­respiration.
to large elephants, plants and humans, Aerobic respiration takes place in four stages:
require energy for growth, movement and
1. Glycolysis
reproduction.
2. Oxidative decarboxylation of
Where does this energy come pyruric acid
BIOLOGY

from?
3. Kreb’s cycle
Food that we eat is the starch that is
4. Electron transport chain.
­synthesized by plants and it is the source
of energy.

92
Life processes

In Glycolysis, glucose (a simple Complete oxidation of a glucose


­carbohydrate) is split into two molecules molecule in aerobic respiration produces
of pyruvic acid. This takes place in the 38 ATP molecules.
­cytoplasm, in a series of reactions and
a number of enzymes are involved. With 2. Anaerobic respiration
the formation of pyruvic acid, glycolysis In some organisms, oxygen is not utilized
comes to an end. for respiration. This type of respiration is
Further oxidation of pyruvic acid takes known as anaerobic respiration. It is also
place in the second and third stages known as fermentation.
­occurring in the mitochondria. [E.g. Conversion of milk into curd.]
During the last stage i.e. electron 6.3. Respiration in animals
transport chain, the energy associated with Amoeba, Hydra, Sponge, etc,. live in
the liberated electrons is used to synthesize water. In these organisms, respiration
the ATP energy molecules at certain stages. takes place through their body ­surface.
Finally the hydrogen, an electron joins with Dissolved oxygen in water diffuses through
the cell membrane or body surface into
oxygen to produce water as a by-product.
Absence of
Oxygen Ethanol + Carbon-di-oxide + Energy
( In Yeast ) ( 2 - Carbon molecule )

In
Cytoplasm
Glucose Pyruvate Lack of Oxygen Lactic acid + Energy
( 6 - Carbon (3 carbon ( In our muscle cells ) ( 3-Carbon molecule )
molecule ) molecule )
+ Presence of
Energy
Oxygen Carbon-di-oxide + Water + Energy
(In mitochondria)
Fig. 6.5 Break down of glucose by various pathways

Activity 6.3
•• Take some fruit juice or sugar solution and add some yeast to this. Take this
mixture in a test tube fitted with a one-holed cork.
•• Fit the cork with a bent glass tube. Dip the free end of the glass tube into the
CHAPTER 6

test tube containing freshly prepared lime water.


•• What change is observed in the lime water and how long does it take for this
change to occur?
•• What does this tell us about the products of fermentation

93
Lime Water Sugar + Water + Yeast

Fig 6.6 Anaerobic respiration apparatus

ATP
•• ATP is the energy currency for the most cellular processes. The energy released
during the process of respiration is used to make an ATP molecule from ADP
and inorganic phosphate.
Energy
•• ADP + Pi ATP
•• Think of how a battery can provide energy for many different kinds of uses. It
can be used to obtain mechanical energy, light energy, electrical energy and
so on. Similarly, ATP can be used in the cells for the contraction of muscles,
protein synthesis, conduction of nervous impulses and many other activities.

the cell and after its usage, the carbon-di- Terrestrial organisms use the oxygen
oxide produced is passively diffuses out in the atmosphere for respiration, Oxygen
into water. is absorbed by different respiratory
organs in different animals. All these
Repiratory surface for a fish is gill; for
organs have a structure that has bigger
a frog it is lungs and skin the lungs for
surface area, which is in contact with the
land vertebrates.
oxygen-rich atmosphere. The exchange
Since the amount of dissolved oxygen of oxygen and carbon-di-oxide has to
is fairly low, compared to the amount of take place across this surface. But it is
oxygen in the air, the rate of breathing in usually placed within the body. So there
aquatic organisms is much faster than are air passages present, that will take
that seen in terrestrial organisms. Fishes
BIOLOGY

atmospheric air to this area. In addition,


take in water through their mouth and there is a mechanism for blowing the air
force it past the gills where the dissolved in and out of this area where oxygen is
oxygen is taken up by the blood. absorbed.

94
Life processes

In human beings, air is taken into the body which finally terminate in balloon like
through the nostrils. The air passing through structure called alveoli. The alveoli
the nostrils is filtered by fine hairs that line surrounded by blood capillaries provide
the passage. This passage is also lined with a surface, where the exchange of gases
mucous which helps in this process. From takes place.
here, the air passes through the throat into
6.4. Transportation in plants
the lungs. Rings of cartilage are present in
the throat which keep the air passage open We have discussed earlier, how the
and prevent it from collapsing. plants prepare food by the process
of photosynthesis using various raw
Within the lungs, the air passage
materials, like water, CO2, sunlight and
branches repeatedly into smaller tubules
chlorophyll.
We already know that the chlorophyll
Nasal cavity pigments are in the leaf. So the leaf is the
site for photosynthesis. The food prepared
External nostril from the leaf should be transported to all
Pharynx other parts.
Larynx
Trachea

Secondary
bronchus
Alveoli
Diaphragm
Fig. 6.7 Human respiratory system

Activity 6.4
•• Observe fishes in an aquarium,
and their opening and closing
of mouth and the gill slits (or the
operculum which covers the gill slits)
found behind their eyes also open
and close. Is not the timing of the
openings and closings of the mouth
and gill slits co-ordinated? Fig. 6.8 Root hair region

•• Count the number of times the fish In the same manner, water is ­essential
CHAPTER 6

opens and closes its mouth in a for photosynthesis and all other biological
minute. activities in the plants. For plants, soil is
•• Compare this into the number of the nearest and ­richest source of water
times you breathe in and out in a and other raw materials like nitrogen,
minute. phosphorus and other minerals.

95
How do the absorbed water and This creates a difference in the
minerals get transported from one place concentration of these ions between the
to all other parts of the plant body? root and the soil. Water, therefore enters
into the root from the soil to eliminate this
Which part of the plant is in contact
difference.
with the soil?
This means that there is a steady
For the above questions, you were
movement of water into root xylem,
getting answers already in your lower
creating a column of water that is steadily
classes.
pushed upwards.
The roots are the absorbing organs of
Is this pressure enough to conduct
the plant.
water over the heights in tall and huge
Thus, plant transport systems will trees?
mobilize energy stores, (food) from Plants use another strategy to move
leaves, and raw materials from roots. water in the xylem upwards to the highest
These two pathways are constructed points of the plant body. This can be
as independently organized conducting achieved by the process of transpiration,
tubes. in which when the plant has an adequate
i) Xylem transports water with supply of water. The water which is lost
dissolved minerals absorbed from
the soil.
water vapour
ii) Phloem transports products of
photosynthesis (food) from the
leaves to the parts of the plant.
Transport of water
In xylem, vessels and tracheids are the
conducting elements of the roots, stems
and leaves. They are inter-connected
to form a continuous system of water
conducting channels, reaching all parts of
the plant. In roots, the root hair cells in Fig. 6.10 Movement of water during
contact with the soil, actively take up ions. transpiration in a tree

through the stomata is replaced by water


from the xylem vessels in the leaf.
BIOLOGY

In fact, evaporation of water molecules


from the cells of a leaf creates a suction
which pulls water from the xylem cells of
roots.
Fig. 6.9 Path of water across the root

96
Life processes

Activity 6.5
•• Place a potted plant into a clear glass bell jar. The pot is covered with plastic
to prevent water evaporating from the soil.
•• Set up a second bell jar with a potted plant with leaves removed.
•• Keep the bell jars in bright light at room temperature (20oC) for 6 hours.
•• No liquid condenses in the bell jar without leaves.
•• The bell jar containing the leafy plant has much more condensed liquid.
•• Test the liquid it turns dry blue cobalt chloride paper to pink colour. Therefore
the liquid is water.
•• Discuss with your classmates, and find the reason why water droplets are
formed in the potted plants containing leaves.

The loss of water in the form of phloem transports amino acids and
vapour from the aerial parts of the plant other substances. These substances
is known as transpiration. are especially delivered to the storage
Thus, transpiration helps in the organs of roots, fruits, seeds and to
absorption and upward movement of growing organs.The translocation of
water and mineral dissolved in it from food and other substances takes place
roots to the leaves. It also helps in in the sieve tubes (sieve tubes are
temperature regulation. The effect of one of the constituents of the phloem
root pressure in transport of water is which act as pipe line from leaves
more important at night. During the to the other parts of the plant) with
day when the stomata are open, the the help of companion cells both in
transpiration pull becomes the major upward and downward directions.The
driving force in the movement of water translocation by phloem is achieved by
in the xylem. utilizing energy. Materials like sucrose
Transport of food and other is transferred into phloem tissue using
energy from ATP. This increases the
substances
osmotic pressure in the tissue causing
How are the products of photosynthesis water movement. This pressure moves
transported from leaves to other parts the material in the phloem to tissues
of the plant? which have less pressure. This allows
CHAPTER 6

The transport of soluble products of the phloem to move material according


photosynthesis is called translocation to the plant’s needs. For example, in
and it occurs in the part of the vascular the spring, sugar stored in root or stem
tissue known as phloem. Besides tissue would be transported to the buds,
the products of photosynthesis, the which need energy to grow.

97
Questions would be a tightly packed crowd.
Those in the middle region would not
1. What are the components of get enough oxygen. Hence, most large
the transport system in highly organisms do not rely on diffusion for
organized plants? their supply of food and oxygen. They
have a transport system of some kind to
2. How are water and minerals get carry these substances to all the cells in
transported in plants? the body.

3. How is food transported in In human body, for example the


plants? transport system consists of a pump
called heart which propels the fluid called
Transportation in animals blood around a complex system of tubes
called blood vessels. As it passes through
In microscopic organisms such as
these blood vessels, the blood picks up
Amoeba and Paramecium, the volume of
oxygen from the lungs and transport it to
body is so small that useful substances
every cell in the body. Blood also picks
can be distributed by a process called
up waste product such as carbon-dioxide
diffusion. Oxygen for example, enters an
and many other substances like salts from
amoeba through the cell membrane and
the cells and excrete out from the body.
spreads out i.e diffuses, in all directions at
the rate approximately equal to the rate at Lymph
which oxygen is consumed in respiration.
Similarly, carbon-di-oxide diffuses out There is another type of fluid which
of an Amoeba with sufficient speed to is also involved in transportation. This is
prevent it accumulating to harmful levels called lymph or tissue fluid. It is similar to
within the cell. the plasma of blood but it is colourless
and contains less protein. Lymph drains
In large multi-cellular organisms, into lymphatic capillaries from the
however, the body volume is so great that intercellular spaces, which join to form
diffusion alone is far too slow a process large lymph vessels that finally open
for adequate distribution of oxygen and into veins. Lymph carries digested and
food, and removal of waste. absorbed fat, from intestine and drains
The cells in the multi-cellular excess fluid from extra cellular space
organisms relying on diffusion alone back into the blood.

Activity 6.6
1. Visit a health centre in your locality and find out what is the normal
BIOLOGY

range of haemoglobin content in human beings.


2. Is it the same for children, women and men? Discuss why does the
difference exist?

98
Life processes

6.5. Excretion in plants resins and gums, especially in old


What is excretion? xylem tissues.

How does the excretion take place in 4. Plants also excrete some waste
plants? substances into the soil around
them.
Excretion is the process by which the
metabolic waste products are removed Excretion in animals
from the plant body. In unicellular protozoans, the ­excreta are
In plants there are different ways for discharged out through the­ ­contractile­
excretion. vacuoles, which are formed by the
­absorption of water and other excreta.
1. Plant waste products are stored in
cellular vacuoles. In coelenterates and sponges,
the excreta diffuse out through the cell
2. Waste products may be stored in
membrane.
leaves that fall off.
3. Other waste products are stored as In flat worms and round worms, the
excretory tubes develop for transporting

Artificial kidney (Hemodialysis)


Kidneys are vital organs for survival. Several factors like infections, injury or restricted
blood flow to kidneys reduce the activity of kidneys, This leads to accumulation of
poisonous wastes in the body, which can even lead to death. In case of kidney failure,
an artificial kidney can be used. An artificial kidney is a device to remove nitrogenous
waste products from the blood through dialysis.

Line from artery Tubling made Artificial kidneys contain a number of tubes
to pump of a selectively with a semipermeable lining, suspended in a
permeable
membrane tank filled with dialysing fluid. This fluid has the
same osmotic pressure as blood, except that it
is devoid of nitrogenous wastes. The patient’s
blood is passed through these tubes. During
this passage, the waste products from the
blood pass into dialysing fiuid by diffusion. The
purified blood is pumped back in to the patient.
Line from dialysing This is similar to the function of the kidney, but
apparatus solution
to vein it is different since there is no re- absorption
CHAPTER 6

involved. Normally, in a healthy adult, the


used
Fresh dialysing dialysing initial filtrate in the kidneys is about 180 L daily.
solution solution (With However, the volume actually excreted is only
urea and
excess salt a litre or two a day, because the remaining
filtrate is re- absorbed in the kidney tubules.

99
the excreta to exterior. In annelids special joints in his arms, legs and back ­using
kidneys called nephridia are evolved to informations from his sense organs.
­collect excreta from the coelomic cavity. The boy’s nervous system co-ordinates
these muscles so that they ­contract
In vertebrates, an elaborate well-­
in ­correct ­sequence with the correct
defined excretory system has developed
degree of power, and for precisely the
with kidneys and excretory tubes. The
correct length of time needed to get him
­kidney of vertebrates consists of ­nephrons
to the spot where he can catch the ball.
which filter the blood and form the urine
Muscular activities like running to catch
and large amount of ammonia is found in
a ball, involves many other forms of
fish excreta. They are called­­ammoniatelic
co-ordination, such as those which
animals. The birds are called uricotelic
increase the rate of breathing and heart
­animals as their excretory ­substance
beat to adjust blood pressure, remove
is composed mostly of uric acids.In
extra heat from body and maintaining
mammals urea is the main excretory
sugar and salt ­levels in the blood.
products so they are called ureotelic
Furthermore, all these co-ordinations
animals.
occur as an unconscious process.
Nephron
Worms have the simplest form of
Each Nephron consists of a filtering ­coordinating system where an earthworm
­apparatus called glomerulus and ­uriniferous has dual nerve cords. Two ganglia acts
tubules.The glomerulus filters the plasma as brain and eye spots act as photo
part of the blood to form urine. The urini­ receptors.
ferous tubules reabsorb the substances
In insects, ganglia are connected by
­required in the body from that filterate and
a ventral nerve cord function as brain.
the final urine product contains mostly
Well-developed sensory organ for vision
­water and nitrogenous waste products.
and antennae for olfactory function are
6.6. Nervous system present.
The millions of cells and the scores of In mammals and other well-developed
­different tissues and organs in the body vertebrates this co-ordination is achieved
of an animal do not work independently by nervous system and endocrine system.
of each other. Their activities are
In simple, the nervous system consists
co-ordinated. This means that they work
of tissues which conducts “messages”
together, performing the various functions at
called nerve impulses, at a high speed to
certain times and at certain rates according
to the needs of the body as a whole. and from all parts of the body.

One of the most familiar examples of 6.7. Co-ordination in plants


BIOLOGY

co-ordination is the way in which muscles How do plants co-ordinate?


works together during movement. When
Unlike animals, plants have neither
a boy runs to catch a ball, for example, he
nervous systems nor muscles.
uses hundreds of muscles to move the

100
Life processes

Fig. 6.11 Sensitive Plant (Touch-me-not plant)

So, how do they respond to stimuli? tissue in plants for transmitting the
information. Plant cells change the shape
When we touch the leaves of Touch–
by changing the amount of water in them
me–not plant, they begin to fold up and droop. resulting in swelling or shrinking and
When a seed germinates, the roots go therefore the leaves in touch-me-not plant
down , the stem comes up above the soil. shrinks.
What happens during the above actions? Movement dependent on growth:
In the first instance, the leaves of More commonly, the plants respond to
sensitive stimuli slowly by growing in a particular
Plants show two different types of direction. Because this growth is directional,
movements. it appears as if the plant is moving.

1. Movement independent of growth Let us understand this type of


movement with the help of some
2. Movement dependent on growth
examples.
Movement- Independent of growth
1. Response of the plant to the
Immediate response to stimulus direction of light (Phototropism)
This movement is sensitive to plant. 2. Response of the plant to the
Here, no grow th is involved but, the plant direction of gravitational force
actually moves its leaves in response to (Geotropism)
touch. But there is neither nervous tissue
nor muscle tissue. Activity 6.7
How does the plant detect the touch 1. Go to the field and find the
and how do the leaves move in response? touch-me-not plant.
CHAPTER 6

In touch-me-not plant, if we touch at 2. Touch the plant at one


one point, all the leaflets show the folding point.
movements. This indicates that the
3. Observe what happens.
stimulus at one point is communicated.
But unlike in animal, there is no specialized

101
3. Response to the direction of water
(Hydrotropism)
4. Response to the direction of
chemicals (Chemotropism)
Negatively
Phototropism geotropic

It is the growth of the stem towards Positively


the direction of sunlight. geotropic

Fig 6.13 Geotropism

Hydrotropism

The roots of very huge trees grow


towards the availability of water source

Fig. 6.12 Phototropism (e.g) The roots of coconut tree are seen
away from the plant for the want of water.
Geotropism
It is the growth of roots towards the Chemotropism
direction of gravitational force. This is the movement of plant parts
Roots cannot grow towards sunlight towards the direction of chemicals. (e.g)
and stem cannot grow towards The pollen tubes grow towards ovule.
gravitational force.

Activity 6.8
•• Fill a conical flask with water.
•• Cover the neck of the flask with a wire mesh.
•• Keep two or three freshly germinated bean seeds on the wire mesh.
•• Take a cardboard box which is open from the side.
•• Keep the flask in the box in such a manner that the open side of the box faces
light, coming from a window.
•• After two or three days, you will notice that the shoots bend towards light and
roots away from light.
•• Now turn the flask so that shoots are away from the light and roots towards
light. Leave it undisturbed in this condition for a few days.
BIOLOGY

•• Have the old parts of the shoot and root changed direction?
•• Are there differences in the direction of the new growth?
•• What do you understand from this activity?

102
Life processes

6.9. Hormones in animals reactions. These are released into the


blood stream and transported around
The endocrine system consists of
ductless glands and their secretions the body. Harmones co-ordinate the
called hormones. Hormones are bio - physiological activities in our body. A
chemical substances which act as bio detailed account on hormones is dealt in
catalysts speeding up the chemical chapter 3.

Evaluation
PART A a) Name A and B
1. In monotropa the special type of b) What are the materials
root which absorbs nourishment is transported through A?
(Haustoria, Mycorrhizal root, Clinging
c) What are the materials
root, Adventious root)
transported through B?
2. T
 he product obtained in the Anaerobic
d) How do the materials in A move
respiration of yeast is (Lactic acid,
upwards to leaves?
Pyruvic acid, Ethanol, Acetic acid)
3. T
 he roots of coconut tree are seen
away from the plant. Such kind of
movement of root for want of water is
(Phototropism,Geotropism,Chemo-tro-
pism, Hydrotropism)
4. T
 he xylem in the plants are responsi-
ble for (transport of water, transport of
food, transport of amino acid, trans-
port of oxygen) 7. Observe the above diagram

5. T
 he autrotropic nutrition requires (CO2 a) Mention the type of movements
and water, chlorophyll, sunlight, all the shown in fig, A and B.
above) b) How does the movement differ from
PART B the movement of mimosa
6. Name the types of vascular tissues in 8.Match the methods of nutrition of
the plant stem which are labelled as A special organs with suitable examples.
CHAPTER 6

and B
Autotrophs Mycorrhiza Cuscutta
Parasites chlorophyll Monotropa
Saprophytes Haustoria Hibiscus

103
9. In the process of respiration_____ is into the body through _________ and
carbon compound, the lactic is _____ the dissolved oxygen of water diffuses
carbon compound. into _________.
10. Sugar is converted into alcohol. From PART C
the above statement what kind of 13. Compare the respiration in higher
process takes place? Which micro plants with the respiration in lower
organism is involved? plants
11. Pick out the odd one : The parts 14. Is the pressure created in xylem
of the alimentary canal are enough to conduct water in tall trees.
( Pharynx, mouth, buccal cavity, Give reasons.
pancreas)
15. In touch me not plant the leaves show
12. In human beings air enters into the movements. What type of movement
body through _________ and moves have you observed. Discuss.
into __________ In fishes water enters

Name of the plants in ENGLISH & TAMIL


How it is
Sl. Name in
Botanical Name TAMIL Name called
No. english
locally
1 Monotropa Indian pipe khNdhbNuhgh
uniflora
2 Viscum Parasitic Gy;YUtp
plant
3 Cuscuta Podderplant mk;ikahh; $e;jy;
reflexa /rljhhp

further reference
Books : 1. Modern Plant Physiology Sinha Narosa
2. Fundamentals of plant physiology Jain .V.K.
BIOLOGY

104
Chapter 7

Conservation of
Environment
7. Conservation of Environment
Living organisms live in different Environmental science can be
surroundings. Some plants and animals defined as the study of organisms in
completely live in water and some others relation to their surrounding.
live on land. In the course of development,
Man also leads life in different unplanned and vast misuse of natural
surroundings. Some live in cities, some in resources like water, forest produce, land
towns and some in villages. How do they and mineral resources have occurred.
adapt themselves to the place they live in? This has led to an imbalance in nature
and release of many harmful substances
Plants, animals, human beings survive
in the atmosphere.
with the interaction between them and the
non-living things like air, water and land. Mankind is greatly influenced by the
Human beings depend on the resources of surrounding in view of the problem of
nature. These resources include soil, water, over Population, environmental pollution,
coal, electricity, oil, gas, etc. These resources human survival, pest control and
improve the life style of human beings. conservation of natural resources.

NON Living Environment


Land,Water, Air,Minerals

Living Environment Living Environment


Plants Animals

NON Living Environment


BIOLOGY

Land,Water, Air,Minerals

Fig. 7.1 Interaction between non-living and living components in the biosphere

106
Conservation of Environment

In our daily activities, we generate a lot


Activity 7.1
of materials that we throw away.
•• Find out what happens to the waste
•• What are some of these waste materials? generated at home. Is there a system
•• What happens after we throw them away? in place to collect this waste?
Human activities related to livelihood •• Find out how the local body (panchayat,
and welfare generate waste. All wastes municipal corporation or resident
are pollutants and they create pollution welfare association) deals with the
in one way or another. Air, land and waste. Are there mechanisms in place
water surroundings are affected due to to treat the bio-degradable and non-
bio-degradable wastes separately?
improper disposal of wastes which create Calculate how much waste is generated
an imbalance in the environment. at home in a day.
•• What is Pollution? •• How much of this waste is bio-
•• What are Pollutants? degradable?
Pollution: Any undesirable change •• Calculate how much waste is
in the physical, chemical or biological generated in the class room in a day.
characteristics of air, land and water that •• How much of this waste is non bio-
affect human life adversely is called pollution. degradable?
Pollutant: A substance released into the •• Suggest ways of dealing with this
environment due to natural or human activity waste
which affects adversely the environment
is called pollutant. e.g. Sulphur-di-oxide,
carbon-monoxide, lead, mercury, etc. Think it over
7.1.Classification of Disposable cups in trains
If you ask your parents, they will probably
Wastes
remember a time when tea in trains was
1. Bio–degradable wastes served in plastic tumblers which had to be
returned to the vendor. The introduction
2. Non–bio-degradable wastes of disposable cups was hailed as a step
Substances that are broken down forward for reasons of hygiene. No one at
by biological process of biological or that time probably thought about the impact
microbial action are called bio-degradable caused by the disposal of millions of these
waste. e.g. wood, paper and leather. cups on a daily basis. Some time back,
Kulhads, that is, disposable cups made
Substances that are not broken down of clay, were suggested as an alternative.
by biological or microbial action are called But a little thought showed that making
non-bio-degradable wastes. e.g. Plastic these Kulhads on a large scale would
CHAPTER 6
7

substances and mineral wastes. result in the loss of the fertile top-soil. Now
How to protect us from these hazardous disposable paper-cups are being used.
wastes ? What do you think are the advantages of
disposable paper-cups over disposable
Why do the government and so many plastic cups?
organizations conduct awareness

107
Progarmmes against using plastics ? Paper
The following methods are adopted for (54% recovery) Can be repulped
the disposal of harmful waste materials. and reprocessed into recycled paper,
cardboard and other products.
1. Land Fills
Glass
There are permanent storage facilities
in secured lands for military related liquid (20% recovery) Can be crushed, ­re-
and radioactive waste materials. High melted and made into new containers or
level radioactive wastes are stored in crushes used as a substitute for gravel
deep underground storage. or sand in construction materials such
as concrete and asphalt, Food waste
2. Deep well injection and yard wastes (leaves, grass etc.,) can
It involves drilling a well into dry be composted to produce humus soil
conditioner.
porous material below ground water.
Hazardous waste liquids are pumped 7.2. Water management
into the well. They are soaked into the
Due to increasing demands for water
porous material and made to remain
and reduced availability of fresh ground
isolated indefinitely.
water resources, urgent measures have
3. Incineration to be taken to conserve each and every
drop of water that is available.
The burning of materials is called
incineration. Clean and fresh water is essential for
nearly every human activity. Perhaps
Hazardous bio-medical wastes
more than any other environmental
are usually disposed off by means of
factors, the availability of water
incineration. Human anatomical wastes,
determines the location and activities of
discarded medicines, toxic drugs, blood,
human beings.
pus, animal wastes, microbiological and
bio-technological wastes etc., are called Can you list out the reasons for
bio-medical wastes. increasing demand of water?

Management of non-hazardous 7.2.1. Sources of water


wastes – solid waste Water is a basic natural resource
management and valuable asset to all nations.
Human beings depend on water for all
Reuse and recycling technique
their needs such as bathing, washing,
The separating out of materials such cooking, transportation and power.
as rubber, glass, paper and scrap metal
BIOLOGY

Water in India is of two kinds. Salt


from refuse and reprocessing them for water and fresh water. Fresh water is
reuse is named as reclamation of waste or obtained from rain water, surface water
recycling. and ground water.

108
Conservation of Environment

The main sources of water are rain and snow from of excess to areas of deficit using
which form a part of the hydrological cycle. canals and underground pipes.
Surface water iv) Water shed management
India is blessed with a number of rivers, The management of rainfall and
lakes, streams and ponds. resultant run-off is called water shed
management. Water shed is an area
Ground water
characterized by construction of small
Aquifers are under ground reserves of dams to hold back water which will provide
fresh water. useful wildlife habitat and stock watering
facilities.
In the water table, water that percolates
into the ground through porous rocks is v) Rain water harvesting
ground water. These porous rocks are
Rain water harvesting essentially
saturated with water to a certain level. The
means collecting rain water from the roof of
upper layer of waterlevel is the watertable.
building or courtyards and storing it under
The ground water is important for plant
ground for later use. The main idea in
growth, man also taps this water through
harvesting rain water is to check the run-off
tube wells and bore wells. Scanty rainfall
water. The rain water that falls on the roofs
and unnecessary felling of trees affect
of buildings or in courtyards is collected
the ground water level. through pipes and stored in under ground
7.2.2. Fresh water management tanks of the buildings fitted with motor for
To meet out the water scarcity we need
several ways to increase the water supply. Terrace
i) Seeding clouds
Conduit
Seeding clouds with dry ice or potassium
iodide particles sometimes can initiate rain
if water laden clouds and conditions that Rainwater
aquifier
favour precipitation are present.
Well
ii) Desalination: (Reverse osmosis)
Fig. 7.2 Rain water harvesting
Desalination of ocean water is a
technology that has great potential for lifting water for use. The process of rain
increasing fresh water. Desalination is water harvesting is not only simple but
more expensive than most other sources also economically beneficial. It helps in
of fresh water. In desalination, the meeting the increased demand for water,
CHAPTER 7

common methods of evaporation and ­­re- particularly in urban areas and prevent
condensation are involved. flooding of living areas.

iii) Dams, reservoirs and canals vi) Wetland conservation


Dams and storage reservoirs tap run- It preserves natural water storage and
off water in them and transfer the water acts as aquifer recharge zones.

109
vii) Domestic conservation It is essential to protect and conserve
As an individual, every one can reduce wildlife because they have aesthetic,
the water loss by taking shower, using ecological, educational, historical and
low-flow taps, using recycled water for scientific values, a good biotic diversity
lawns, home gardens, vehicle washing is essential for ecological balance. Large
and using water conserving appliances. scale destruction of wildlife could lead to
ecological imbalance. Wildlife also adds
viii) Industrial conservation aesthetic value and from this, eco-tourism
Cooling water can be recharged and is being promoted in a big way by several
waste water can be treated and reused. countries. Wildlife and their products
could be of great economic value if utilized
properly. The invulnerable plants could
yield products of immense medicinal
value in future. Wildlife also forms as
store of vast genetic diversity which could
be properly used with advances in genetic
engineering. Thus wildlife has been of
great value in the past and will continue
to be so in the future. Protection and
Fig. 7.3 Domestic conservation conservation of wildlife, therefore gains
method of water importance.
SANCTUARIES
7.3. Wildlife sanctuaries
Wildlife sanctuary is an area constituted
Wildlife by competent authority in which hunting or
All non-domesticated and non- capturing of animals is prohibited except
cultivated biota found in natural habitat by or under control of the highest authority
are termed ‘wildlife’. It includes all the responsible for management of the area.
natural flora and fauna of a geographic Wildlife sanctuaries were established
region. Wildlife is an asset to be protected in India in the pursuit of conserving wildlife
and preserved to our own advantage and which was suffering due to ecological
to the benefit of future generations. imbalance caused by human activities.
There are 89 National parks, 500 wildlife
There are approximately 400
sanctuaries, 27 Tiger reserves, 200 Zoos
varieties of reptiles, 200 varieties
and 13 Biosphere reserves in the country
of amphibians, 3000 varieties covering an area of 1.6 lakh sq.km.
of fishes, 3000 species of birds
20,000 species of flowering 7.4. BALANCE IN ECO­SYSTEM
BIOLOGY

plants and 4100 species of What is Ecosystem?


mammals found in our country
•• Fish lives in Water.
according to the latest census
estimate. •• Tiger lives in Forest.

110
Conservation of Environment

Important sanctuaries in Tamilnadu

Name Location Animals


Tiger, leopard, porcupine,
Indira Gandhi Wildlife,
Western Ghats. nilgiris tahr, civet cat,
Sanctuary
elephant, gaur, pangolin.

Lion tailed macaque,


Kalakkadu Wildlife
Tirunelveli District sambhar, sloth bear, gaur,
Sanctuary.
flying squirrel.

Grizzled squirrels, mouse


Srivilipathur Grizzled
Virudhunagar District deer, barking deer, tree
squirrel wildlife Sanctuary
shrew.

Cormorants, egrets, grey


Vedathangal Bird’s heron, open-billed stork,
Kancheepuram District
Sanctuaries white bears, shovellers,
pintails, stets, sandpipers.

Elephants, gaur, langur,


Mudumalai wildlife tigers, leopards, sloth bear,
The Nilgiris
Sanctuary sambhar, wildbear, jackal,
porcupine, mangoose.

Viralimalai Trichy District Wild peacocks

Gulf of Mannar marine Coast of Rammad and Coral reefs, dugong, tuties,
National Park. Tuticorin district. dolphins, balanoglossus,

Tiger, bonnet macaque,


Mundhanthurai wildlife
Tirunelvelli District langurs, sloth bear, wild
Sanctuary.
dog.

Vallanudu Blackbuck Blackbuck, jungle cat, hare,


Tuticorin District
Sanctuary. mongoose.

Arignar Anna Zoological Lion, elephant, tiger,


Vandalur
Park monkeys.

Mukkurthi National Park The Nilgiris Tigers.


CHAPTER 7

Point calimere wildlife Chital, wild bear, plovers,


Nagapattinam district
Sanctuary stilts, bonnet macaque.

Civet cat, porcupine, gaur,


Anamalai wildlife sanctuary Slopes of western ghats.
tiger leopard, nilgiri tahr.

111
Important National Parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserves.
Bandhipur National Park Indian bison, chital, sloth
Karnataka
(It is a tiger reserve too) bear, elephants.
Corbett National Park Tigers, chital, elephants,
(India’s first national park) Uttaranchal leopard, Jungle cat and
(Tiger reserve too) sloth bear.
Gir National Park Gujarat Aslatic Lion
Kanha National Park Deer Tiger, Wilddog,
Madhyapradesh
(Tiger reserve) chital.
374 special of bird, e.g.
Indian darters, spoonbills,
Bharathpur Bird sanctuary Rajasthan painted stock, open billed
stork, black necked stork
etc,.
Manas wildlife sanctuary Hispid hare (rere), pygmy
Assam
(Tiger reserve) hog, golden langue
Sunderbans National Park Unique Royal Bengal
West Bengal
(Tiger reserve) Tigers.

How can they lead their life in the Pond Ecosystem


above habitats?
An example for aquatic ecosystem is
A community of organisms that interact a pond.
with one another and with the environment Abiotic factors
is called an ecosystem.
It includes light, temperature, hydrogen
The Ecosystem is of two types, namely ion concentration, inorganic substances
aquatic and terrestrial. like CO2, H2, O2, N, PO4, CO3 and S and
What are the major components in organic substances like carbohydrates,
Ecosystem? proteins and lipids.
There are four major components, namely:
Biotic factors
1. Abiotic factors
It includes producers and consumers.
2. Producers
Producers are the water living plants
3. Consumers
BIOLOGY

like Hydrilla, Vallisneria etc., and


4. Decomposers.
phytoplankton like Chlamydomonas,
Producers, consumers and Volvox and Spirogyra.
decomposers are biotic factors.

112
Conservation of Environment

Primary consumers or herbivores


Activity 7.2
Zooplanktons like insects, larvae of
Dragon-fly consume the phytoplanktons. •• While creating an aquarium did
Secondary Consumers you take care not to put an aquatic
animal which would eat others?
These are certain fishes, frogs, water
What would happen otherwise?
beetles etc., which feed on the primary
consumers in the pond. •• Make groups and discuss how each
of the above groups of organisms
Tertiary Consumers are dependent on each other.
These are big fishes and kingfisher that •• Write the aquatic organisms in
feed on small fishes. order of who eats whom and form a
Decomposers chain of at least three steps.

Several bacteria and fungi form the •• Would you consider any one group
decomposers in the pond. of organisms to be of primary
importance? Why or why not?

An ecosystem is maintained by the


balance in nature such as the balance
between hawks and mice, if hawk
population is larger than the mice
population, then it is not balanced.
They are balanced between resources
like a banana tree and monkeys. If the
banana trees stop growing, the monkeys
won’t get bananas.
An ecosystem maintains the balance
between the number of resources and the
number of users or the balance between
prey and predators.

What is food chain and food


web?
CHAPTER 7

Fig. 7.4 Flow of energy in an ecosystem Various organisms are linked by food
chains in which the food energy is passed
BALANCE IN ECO-SYSTEM
from one organism to another in a linear
A balanced ecosystem is an ecological fashion.
community together with its environment
and functioning as a complex unit. e.g. Food chain of a grassland ecosystem.

113

Grass → Grass hopper → Frog → Snake→Eagle


(Producers) (Herbivores) (Primary (Secondar (Teritary
consumer) consumer) consumer)

Fig. 7.5 Grassland ecosystem

Activity 7.3
•• Go to a pond and observe the
organisms that lives in the pond.
•• List out the organisms.
Fig. 7.6 Food web
•• Prepare a chart of food chains balance between living components and
its resources of an ecosystem, so that it
remains a stable environment community
Food Web for the better functioning of the organisms.

The food chains are interlinked to form Bio - Geo chemical cycles
food webs, So every component of the In an ecosystem, the energy from
ecosystem is connected to one another. the sun is fixed by the plants. Then it is
How is the ecosystem maintained? transferred to herbivores and carnivores.
i.e. the energy flows in one direction
There are many factors which maintain only. But the minerals required in the
the harmony in an ecosystem naturally. ecosystem are continuously absorbed
Disturbing any one factor could have a by the plants and transferred to animals.
drastic impact upon the living conditions As the minerals are removed from the
of other organisms that will result in an soil, they have to be replaced or cycled.
imbalance. For example, removal of trees These minerals are returned to the soil by
and vegetation would affect both land and the decomposition of dead and decaying
water ecosystems as there will be no materials by saprophytic organisms such
food for organisms. Killing animals and as bacteria and fungi (You have studied
polluting land, air and water also disturb the cycles in earlier classes in detail.)
the balance in nature.
7.5. COAL AND PETROLEUM
Inorder to maintain the eco-balance in
an ecosystem, there should be recycling 7.5.1 Coal
BIOLOGY

of nutrients, minerals, and water. Careful Coal is a compost primarily of carbon


use of natural resources will maintain along with variable quantities of other
the eco-balance. Thus eco-balance or elements chiefly sulphur, hydrogen,
ecological balance is the maintenance of oxygen and nitrogen.

114
Conservation of Environment

Coal is a fossil fuel and is the largest 2. Sulphur particles present in the
source of energy for the generation of coal will cause acid rain..
electricity world wide, as well as one of
3. Interference with ground water and
the largest worldwide sources of CO2
emissions. Gross CO2 emission from coal water table levels.
usage is high and more than those from 4. Contamination of land and water
petroleum and about double the amount ways.
from natural gas.
5. Dust nuisance.
6. Release of CO2, a green house
gas, which causes climate change
and global warming.
7. Coal is the largest contributor to
the man-made increase of CO2 in
the air.

Activity 7.4
•• Visit Neyveli lignite corporation.
•• See how the coal is mined.
•• Discuss with your classmates
about the uses of coal.

Fig. 7.7 Coal


7.5.2 Petroleum
Coal is obtained through mining or in In modern life today, we are
open pits. Coal is primarily used as a inseparable from petrol and petroleum
solid fuel to produce electricity and heat products.Petroleum or crude oil is a
through combustion. When coal is heated naturally occurring, toxic, flammable
in air, coal burns and produces mainly liquid consisting of a complex mixture
carbon-di-oxide gas. Coal is processed of hydrocarbons and other organic
in industry to get some useful products compounds that are found beneath the
such as coke, coal tar and coal gas. earth’s surface.
Environmental effects of coal Do you know how does petroleum
burning form?
CHAPTER 7

1. Generation of waste products which Petroleum was formed from organisms


contain mercury, uranium, thorium, living in the sea. After the death of those
arsenic and other heavy metals, organisms, their bodies settled at the
which are harmful to human health bottom of the sea and were covered with
and environment. layers of sand and clay. Over millions of

115
years, absence of air, high temperature Alternatives to petroleum – based
and high pressure transformed the dead vehicle fuels
organisms into petroleum and natural 1. Internal combustion engines
gas. (Biofuel or combustion hydrogen)
Many useful substances are obtained 2. Electricity (for e.g. all electric (or)
from petroleum and natural gas. These hybrid vehicles), Compressed air
are used in the manufacture of detergents, or fuel cells (hydrogen fuel cells).
fibers (polyester, nylon, acrylic etc.), 3. Compressed natural gas used by
polythene and other plastic substances. natural gas vehicles.
Hydrogen gas, obtained from natural
gas, is used in the production of fertilizers 7.6 GREEN CHEMISTRY
(urea). Due to its great commercial
importance, petroleum is also called Green chemistry is the design of
‘Black Gold’. chemical products and processes to
reduce or eliminate the use and generation
Environmental effects of hazardous substances.
The concept of green chemistry was
Oil Spills
introduced in 1995. The Green Chemistry
1. Crude oil (refined fuel) spills from Institute was recently created and the
tanker ship and accidents have Presidential Green Chemistry challenge
damaged natural ecosystem. awards were established in 1999.
2. Oil Spills at sea are generally
causing more damage than those More to know
on land. This can kill sea birds,
mammals, shellfish and other Many countries are making
organisms, because of their lateral commitments to lower green house
spreading on water surface. gas emissions according to the
Kyoto protocol.
Tar Balls
A tar ball is a blob of oil which has been Activity 7.5
weathered after floating on the ocean. Tar
balls are aquatic pollutants in most of the Coal is used in thermal power stations
seas. and petroleum products like petrol
and diesel are used in means of
transport like motor vehicles, ships
and aeroplanes. We cannot really
imagine life without a number of
BIOLOGY

electrical appliances and constant use


of transportation. So, can you think of
ways in which consumption of coal and
petroleum products can be reduced?
Fig 7.8 Petroleum Industry

116
Conservation of Environment

•• Greener reaction conditions for an List of some of the products


old synthesis e.g. replacement of produced by the process of green
an organic solvent with water or the
chemistry
use of no solvent at all)
•• Lead free solders and other product
•• A greener synthesis for an old
alternatives to lead additives in paints
chemical (e.g. a synthesis which uses
and the development of cleaner
biomass rather than petrochemical batteries.
feed stock or the use of catalytic
rather than stoichiometric reagents). •• Bio-plastics: Plastics made from
plants including corn, potatoes or
•• The synthesis of a new compound other agricultural products.
that is less toxic but has the same
•• Flame resistant materials.
desirable properties as an existing
compound. (e.g. a new pesticide that •• Halogen free flame retardants.
is toxic only to target organisms and e.g. silicon based materials can be used.
bio-degrades to environmentally
benign substances) Future products
Green chemistry / technology has •• A raw material feedstock should
been developed in almost all branches be renewable rather than depleting
of chemistry including organic, bio- whenever technically and
chemistry, inorganic, polymer, toxicology, economically practical.
environmental, physical, industrial etc. •• Catalytic reagents are superior to
The Principles of Green Chemistry stoichiometric reagents.
•• It is better to prevent waste •• Green Chemistry is applicable to
generation than to treat or clean up all aspects of the product life cycle
waste after it is generated.
as well. Finally, the definition of
•• Wherever practicable, synthetic green chemistry includes ‘The
methodologies should be designed term “hazardous”. It is important to
to use and generate substances that note that green chemistry is a way
posses little or no toxicity to human of dealing with risk reduction and
health and the environment. pollution prevention.
•• Chemical products should be
PVC and Lead
designed to preserve efficacy of
function while reducing toxicity. New lead free solders with lower heat
requirements are being developed.
Beware of Green washing
CHAPTER 7

Green chemistry is not a panacea. We


must be vigilant in making sure that what
is called “Green Chemistry really pushes
towards a more sustainable world and not
Fig. 7.9 Green chemistry simply green washing”.

117
7.7. Science today – What is global village?
towards a global A term that compares the world to a
village small village, where fast and modern
Global village communication allows news to reach
quickly. The use of electronics for faster
Global village is the term used to mean communication is a global village concept.
that world had shrunk into a village by
means of different media types, most What is the global electronic village?
especially the world wide web, making Global electronic village (GEV) is a term
It is easy to pass across messages (like used to refer to a village without borders;
news) thereby making the world become it refers to connecting people around the
a single village where people can easily world technologically through Information
contact each other quicker. Communication Technologies (ICTS).

Fig. 7.10 Global village

Global Village (GV) is located at a by a team of reputed Indian and


distance of 12 kms from Bangalore on international architects and landscape
the Bangalore - Mysore Expressway designers.Ample residential facilities
and easily accessible by road. Spread are in close proximity to the campus.
over 110 acres of greenery, the project The estimated driving time to GV
will house a cluster of technology from the heart of Bangalore city is
companies in a campus type setting. approximately 20 minutes.
The Buildings nestle among the lush
Kshema Technologies have the
green of manicured lawns, coconut
BIOLOGY

distinction of being the first of GTV’s


palms and an eclectic mix of old trees
companies to move into the campus with
in a serene and dust free environment.
an 80,000 sq ft facility to house 600
The Technology Campus has been
employees.
conceptualized and designed

118
Conservation of Environment

The term global village was coined by Marshall McLuhan. He emphasized that “this
forces us to become more involved with one another from countries around the world
and be more aware of our global responsibilities”. Similarly, web-connected computers
enable people to link their web sites together. This new reality has implications for
forming new sociological structures within the context of culture.

Evaluation
Part A 7. _____ green house gas which causes
Multiple choice questions climate change and global warming.
1. Which of the following groups contain (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide)
only bio degradable items? 8. _____ forms decomposer in the
(Grass, flowers and leather ; Grass, pond ecosystem (plants, bacteria,
wood and plastic ; Fruit peels, cake frog, phytoplanktons)
and plastic ; Cake, wood and grass) 9. ________ chemical is used in
2. Which of the following constitute a seeding clouds (potassium iodide,
food chain? calcium carbonate, sulphurdioxide,
ammonium phosphate)
(Grass, wheat and mango ; Grass,
goat and human ; Goat, cow and 10. Example for fossil fuel is
elephant ; Grass, fish and goat) (copper, iron, magnesium, coal)
3. Which of the following are Part B
environmental friendly practices? 11. Study the food chain below, correct it and
(carrying cloth bags to carry the convert into a pyramid of energy.
purchase items during shopping, Mulberry -> Sparrow -> Caterpillar -> Kite
switching off light and fans when not
in use, use the public transport, all 12. Study the illustration and answer the
the above) question.

4. what is called as ‘black gold’? a. which line (A or B) represent the


flow of energy? Why do you say so?
(hydrocarbons, coal, petroleum,
ether) b. Give an example of a decomposer.

5. odd one out. 13. Study the food chain.

(Plants, grasshopper, frog, tiger, snake) Paddy -> Mouse -> Snake -> Kite
CHAPTER 7

6. Example for product of green If the producer has a STORED UP


chemistry is ENERGY OF 500 k CAL. How much
of it goes to the organism at the third
(plastic, paper, bio plastics, halogen trophic level get from it?
flame retardants)

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So what are the measures to be taken
Producers by you to meet out the scarcity of
water.
Producers Herbivores 17.Smoke, smoke everywhere smoke.
Do you agree this situation is good for
health. List out the harmful effects
Soil, Air Carnivores
of coal burning.

Decomposers

14.
a. Name the processes noted as no.
1 and 3
b. Define the process 1
c. Name any one fossil fuel. (**)
Part C
15. a) Classify the following substances –
wood, paper, plastic and grasses.
b) Give detailed account on your
classification.
16. In your area there is scarcity of water
due to this the people are affected.
Atmosphere **
CO2
Sholas and grasslands of
western ghats are the sources of
Animals
Decompo
Green all our South Indian rivers. All the
-sition plants
hillocks in the upper mountains
have this unique ecosystem, which
Fossil we cannot create.
plants

further reference
BIOLOGY

Books: 1. Plant Ecology Sheela.R.S and Chandel .P.S


2. New development in green chemistry V.K. Atlerwalia, M. Kidwai
Website: www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/600 html

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