y PH-I --------INTRODUCTION y y y

ENERGY PROBLEM PRESENT CONDITION RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TOWS ANALYSIS

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y PH-II---------SOLAR ENERGY y y y y y

WIND ENERGY TIDAL ENERGY BIOMASS GEOTHERMAL ENERGY HYDRO-POWER

y PH-III--------CONCLUSION

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y INDUSTRIES y DOMESTIC LOAD .

y ENERGY DEFICIT GLOBALLY y POPULATION y FASTER DEPLETION OF FOSSILS y ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS y DIFFICULTY IN INCLUDING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IMMEDIATELY .

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y INCREASING DEMAND y PRESENT DEFICIT .

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y THREATS y OPPORTUNITIES y WEAKNESSES y STRENGTHS .

y SOLAR ENERGY .

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and they run on nonpolluting power from the sun. Meeting the electricity needs of a small city would require covering hundreds of acres with solar panels. . ‡ Solar cells have no moving parts. they produce a very small electrical current.‡ Photovoltaic cells are solar cells that convert the sun¶s energy into electricity. ‡ However.

The electrons flow through a circuit that is complete when another semiconductor in the solar cell absorbs electrons and passes them on to the first semiconductor. causing it to release electrons. .Photovoltaic Cells Sunlight falls on a semiconductor.

This energy is stored in batteries. which supplies electricity when the sun is not shining. y Currently. solar cells provide energy for more than 1 million households in developing countries.y Solar cells require extended periods of sunshine to produce electricity. where energy consumption is minimal and electricity distribution networks are limited. .

y Wind power. which converts the movement of wind into electric energy. y We experience the movement of these air masses as wind. . which causes air masses to flow in the atmosphere. is the fastest growing energy source in the world.y Energy from the sun warms the Earth s surface unevenly.

y In windy rural areas. some farmers can add wind turbines to their land and still use the land for other purposes.y Wind turbines are used to capture the energy from the wind. y Because wind turbines take up little space. small wind farms with 20 or fewer turbines are also becoming common. Large wind farms supply electricity to thousands of homes. . y Large arrays of wind turbines are called wind farms.

y The cost of wind power has been steadily falling as wind turbines have become more efficient. .

the La Rance station in France.000 years. y Tidal energy systems can have environmental impacts on tidal basins because of reduced tidal flow and silt buildup. The dam includes a sluice that is opened to allow the tide to flow into the basin. Some researchers are also trying to extract energy directly from tidal flow streams. and as the sea level drops. traditional hydropower technologies can be used to generate electricity from the elevated water in the basin. y The energy potential of tidal basins is large the largest facility. generates 240 megawatts of power. . French engineers have noted that if the use of tidal power on a global level was brought to high enough levels.y Tidal power traditionally involves erecting a dam across the opening to a tidal basin. the Earth would slow its rotation by 24 hours every 2. France is the only country that successfully uses this power source. the sluice is then closed. Currently.

y 1 Wave Energy y Kinetic energy (movement) exists in the moving waves of the ocean. That piston can also turn a generator. The moving air spins a turbine which can turn a generator. y Most wave-energy systems are very small. The rising water forces the air out of the chamber. they can be used to power a warning buoy or a small light house. That energy can be used to power a turbine. Others actually use the up and down motion of the wave to power a piston that moves up and down inside a cylinder. But. air flows through the turbine and back into the chamber through doors that are normally closed. . y When the wave goes down. In this the wave rises into a chamber. y This is only one type of wave-energy system.

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. When tides comes into the shore. y In order for this to work well. An increase of at least 16 feet between low tide to high tide is needed. One plant in France makes enough energy from tides to power 240. There are only a few places where this tide change occurs around the earth. Some power plants are already operating using this idea. the water behind the dam can be let out just like in a regular hydroelectric power plant.000 homes. they can be trapped in reservoirs behind dams. Then when the tide drops.y Another form of ocean energy is called tidal energy. you need large increases in tides.

A difference of at least 38 degrees Fahrenheit is needed between the warmer surface water and the colder deep ocean water. If you ever went swimming in the ocean and dove deep below the surface. the ocean gets very cold. It is being used in both Japan and in Hawaii in some demonstration projects . Their wet suits trapped their body heat to keep them warm. It's warmer on the surface because sunlight warms the water. That's why scuba divers wear wet suits when they dive down deep. But below the surface. you would have noticed that the water gets colder the deeper you go. y Using this type of energy source is called Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion or OTEC.y The final ocean energy idea uses temperature differences in the ocean. y Power plants can be built that use this difference in temperature to make energy.

manure. y Renewable biomass fuels. such as wood and dung. although they are nonrenewable.y Biomass fuel consists of plant material. or any other organic matter that is used as an energy source. y Fossil fuels can be thought of as biomass energy sources. . are major sources of energy in developing countries. y More than half of all wood cut in the world is used as fuel for heating and cooking.

SOLAR ENERGY PHOTOSYNTHESIS BIOMASS ENERGY .

y In some areas. y Although geothermal energy is considered a renewable resource. y Geothermal energy is the energy produced by heat within the Earth. deposits of water in the Earth s crust are heated by geothermal energy. y The United States is the world s largest producer of geothermal energy. . the water that is used must be managed carefully so that it is not depleted.

water. which generate electricity Leftover liquid is pumped back into the hot rock y The leftover liquid. is returned to Earth s crust because it can be reheated by geothermal energy and used again. .y Geothermal power plants generate electricity using the following steps Steam rises through a well Steam drives turbines.

y A geothermal heat pump uses stable underground temperatures to warm and cool homes because the temperature of the ground is nearly constant year-round. . y A heat pump is simply a loop of piping that circulates a fluid underground.y More than 600.000 homes in the United States are heated and cooled using geothermal heat pumps.

which generates electricity. y Large hydroelectric power plants have a dam that is built across a river to hold back a reservoir of water. y Hydroelectric energy accounts for 20% of the world s electricity. . y The water in the reservoir is released to turn a turbine.y Hydroelectric energy is electrical energy produced by falling water.

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hydroelectric dams do not release air pollutants that cause acid precipitation. agriculture. but relatively inexpensive to operate. industry. and recreation. . y Hydroelectric dams also tend to last much longer than fossil fuel-powered plants. y Dams also provide other benefits such as flood control and water for drinking.y Hydroelectric dams are expensive to build. y Unlike fossil fuel plants.

and it permits energy to be generated from small streams in remote areas. y One modern trend is micro-hydropower. which is electricity produced in a small stream without having to build a big dam. in the United States. The turbine may even float in the water. the era of large dam construction is probably over. not blocking the river at all. y Micro-hydropower is much cheaper than large hydroelectric dam projects.y While in developing countries the construction of large dams continues. .

y CONCLUSION .

? ANY QUESTION .

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