A Living Portrait of India India Heritage:Performing Arts:Music:Classical: Vocal Hindustani Music:khayal khayal Gharanas . The gharanas of khayal gayaki (singing) are : Gwalior gharana Kirana gharana Jaipur-Atrauli gharana Agra gharana Patiala gharana ... Rampur-Sahaswan gharana Mewati gharana Bhendi Bazar gharana Gwalior gharana The oldest of the gharanas and one to which most others can and do trace the origins of their style is the Gwalior gharana. Some sources believe that Nathan Khan and Peer Baksh settled in Gwalior and evolved the style features that led to this gharana. Others claim that individuals named Nathan Peer Baksh and Nathe Khan founded the gharana. The accepted version is that Nathan Peer Baksh left Lucknow (in Uttar Pradesh) to escape the professional rivalry with Shakkar Khan that had taken an ugly turn. He arrived in Gwalior with his grandsons Haddu Khan and Hassu Khan. Another great khayal singer, also originally from Lucknow, was Bade Mohammed Khan who brought the t�n into khayal singing. Haddu and Hassu Khan further enhanced the style into the Gwalior gharana as we recognize it today. Haddu Khan's son, Rehmet Khan (1852-1922) was a widely acclaimed singer who liberated the Gwalior style from the methodical form it followed to the emotional style that he preferred. Apart from the emphasis on notes (swara), another distinguishing feature of the gharana is its simplicity because through simplicity alone can the singer and the listener arrive at the full beauty and impact of the raga. One means to this is of course the selection of well-known ragas so that the listener is saved the effort of trying to identify the raga. Attention can be focussed on the raga and the presentation of it. While the khayal singer does include raga vistar (melody expansion) and raga alankara (melody ornamentation to enhance the beauty and meaning of the raga, there is no attempt to include the tirobhava feature i.e. using melodic phrases to obscure the identity of the raga in the interest of adding interest or mystery to the listener's experience. The singing itself places bandish (the composition) at the heart of the presentation because of the gharana's belief that the full melody of the raga and guidance on its singing is provided by the bandish. The sthayi section is sung twice before the antara, to be followed by the slow tempo of the swara vistar (note expansion). This slow rendition of the notes is known as the behlava, and is sung from Ma in the lower register to Pa in the higher register, following the pattern of the aroha (ascent) and avaroha (descent) of the raga. The behlava is divided into the sthayi (from Ma to Sa) and antara (from Ma, Pa, or Dha to Pa of the higher register). The dugun-ka-alap follows in which groups of two or four note combinations are sung in quicker succession but the basic tempo remains the same. Thus the drumming pattern of the table (i.e. tabla theka) is left unaltered. The bol-alap is next in which the different words of the text are sung in different ways, to be followed by murkis in which notes are sung with ornamentation to a faster pace. Bol-t�ns entail the formation of melodic sequences with the words of the song. The other t�ns, including the gamak, follow. The sapat t�n is important to the Gwalior style and refers to the singing of notes in a straight sequence and at a slow pace. Both dhrupad and khayal singing evolved in Gwalior and there are many overlaps. In the khayal style there is one form, mundi dhrupad, that incorporates all the features of dhrupad singing but without the mukhda. The Gwalior gharana usually prefers to begin ragas in the medium tempo (madhya laya) rather then the slow tempo (vilambit laya) as is the norm with other gharanas.

The chosen ragas include Alahya-Bilawal, Yaman, Bhairav, Sarang, Shri, Hamir, Gaud-Malhar, Miya-kiMalhar. Renowned singers of this gharana are Balkrishnabua Ichalkaranjikar, Vishnu Digamber Paluskar, Nissar Hussain Khan, Shankarrao Pandit, Krishnarao Pandit, Eknath Pandit, Pandit Vinayakrao Parwardhan, Narayanrao Vyas, Dattaraya Vishnu Paluskar, Sharat Chandra Arolkar, and Pandit Omkarnath Thakur who authored the Sangitanjali (a text on the nature of ragas). Contemporary singers include Pandit V.R. Athavale, Pandit Vinaychandra Maudgalaya, Pandit Jal B8alporia. Others while not performing in the pure Gwalior style nevertheless retain the distinctive features of the gharana. Malini Rajurkar is an example of this. Her singing reveals influences of the Kirana style as well as that of the independent singer Kumar Gandharva but the clear rendition of each word in the manner of a short t�n stamps her singing with the Gwalior tradition. Kirana gharana The emphasis on elongating the notes and the importance to their resonance is a distinctive feature of this gharana. The founder, Khan Sahab Abdul Karim Khan (1872-1937), believed in the serene rendition of the notes as when playing the bin (a plucked instrument with resonators at both ends). Rehmet Khan of the Gwalior gharana is believed to have influenced Ustad Karim Khan's adoption of the direct style of presentation. Some have also indicated the influence of the sarangi (a string instrument) on the voice features of this gharana. Kirana is the birth place of the Ustad, and situated near Kurukshetra. Ustad Karim Khan served as a musician at the Baroda and the Mysore courts and had a tremendous influence on the music of western India. His own somewhat nasal voice led him to adopt the Carnatic style for singing the saptak (the seven notes). He preferred to sing in the slower tempo and stress the bol-alap through consonants because his own voice was not wholly suited to the lower register of notes. The aesthetic appeal was thus never marred and the continuity he desired was achieved. Other singers of the gharana, including his disciple Sawai Gandharva, used the upper register far more often than the lower. Some later singers, including Roshanara Begum and Bhimsen Joshi, sing almost equally in both octaves. This factor has influenced the choice of ragas to those appropriate for the emphasis on the alap rather than the bandish. Karuna rasa (pathetic or sympathetic mood) is the foremost of the sentiments expressed through renditions that extend the notes gradually and use kanas (grace notes ) to fully express the raga. However, the lack of emphasis on voice projection and words led to a blurring of the lines as far as different ragas were concerned. The emphasis on swara has led to a rather subtle tempo and rhythmic pattern, both factors allowing for the sentiment and mood to be highlighted. Due to this, the words of the bandish are not clearly enunciated and there are only a few in the Kirana gharana repertoire. Kirana includes thumri singing in its repertoire, but with the emphasis on swara rather than on emotion and an absence of the characteristic lilt of thumri singing. Contemporary singers like Bhimsen Joshi cannot be said to sing in the pure Kirana style because of the diverse influences apparent in his singing. The swara orientation is not as strong and the tempo is no longer latent as is characteristic of the gharana. However, the emotional appeal of the pure Kirana style remains and so do the Kirana compositions. Ragas traditionally performed by the gharana: Shuddha Kalyan, Darbari, Malkauns, Bhimpalasi, Todi, to name a few. Some ragas of Carnatic music - for example, Jogiya - are included in the repertoire. Renowned singers include: Bhimsen Joshi, Abdul Wahid Khan (he taught Begum Akhtar), Surash Babu Mane, Prabha Atre Malati, Hirabai Barodekar, Gangubhai Hangal, her daughter Krishna Hangal, and Pandit Feroze Dastur.

Jaipur-Atrauli gharana Born in Atrauli and singing at the Jaipur court, Alladiya Khan (1855-1943) made both cities famous through the gharana he founded. His training in both dhrupad and khayal genres enabled him to bring the complexities of both into his style that can be best described as filigree. The variation of note patterns serves to enhance the rendition of notes that are linked in a characteristic manner. This in no way impinges on the individual quality of the notes. The tempo is consistently slow (but not as slow as in the Kirana style), with the varying note patterns providing the rhythm. Many feel that the gharana follows an intellectual approach, and this does not lend itself to layakari (the development and play of tempo). However, the intellectual nature of presentation in no way precludes laya. It is very much in existence through the changing pitch and volume and the note patterns themselves: these factors comprise what Deshpande terms 'functional rhythm'. The time factor permeates every performance. The attention to every beat and half-beat is a vital feature of the Jaipur-Atrauli gharana and requires both singer and musician to co-ordinate on the sam. The sam is the most emphatic beat of the tabla (a drum) and is usually played at the beginning of the rhythm cycle and at other specific moments. The singer maintains this rhythm by coinciding the singing with the sam. In khayal singing, the sam may occur at the end of the mukhada (first melodic phrase) and the singer and musician do not consistently coincide their emphases. The Jaipur-Atraul gharana has elevated this to an art form by arriving at the emphatic beat in a specific but unexpected manner. By remaining aware of every beat and fraction of a beat even at the slow tempo, the singer can impart a great aesthetic value to the experience. Alladiya Khan was a master at this technique. The bandishes are always the traditional ones, and no new compositions are present in the repertoire. The text itself comes second to the melodic movements and tempo of the bandish, the gharana preferring to emphasize the meaning and emotion through note combinations. Thus the musical element dominates. The akar (singing a part of the raga through the vowels 'aa') is not traditionally used (the singer Kishori Amonkar is an exception). The bols (words) are sung, and ornamented with t�ns and murkis, the ornamentation being in drut laya (fast tempo). The bada khayal is sung spanning all three registers and the antara section is omitted. While vakra t�ns (spiralling notes to embellish the raga) are to be found in the presentation, there is a rarity of other t�ns like kanas (grace notes) and sargam t�ns (sargam - a term comprised of the solfege names of the first four notes, and denoting all seven notes). The choice of ragas reflects the school's selectivity of manner and presentation: acchob (rare) ragas and jod (compound) ragas like Sampurna-Malkauns, Basant-Kedar, Basant-Bahar, Kaunsi-Kanada and Nat-Kamod. Renowned singers include Kesarbai Kerkar who trained under Ustad Alladiya Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Shruti Sadolikar Katkar, Padma Tralwalkar, Padmavati Shaligram Gokhale. Agra gharana The founders of the Agra gharana, Shamrang and Sasrang, were originally dhrupad and dhamar singers, and khayal singing was a later addition by Ghagge Khuda Baksh. The latter was trained by Nathan Peer Baksh of the Gwalior gharana. The emphasis on layakari in the Agra gharana is a result of these beginnings. Ustad Faiyaz Khan (1886-1950), widely regarded as the founder of this gharana, trained under both his maternal grandfather Ghulam Abbas and Natthan Khan of the Agra school. His paternal great-grandfather was Ustad Ramzan Khan 'Rangile' and Faiyaz Khan's singing is often considered the 'Rangile' style rather than the Agra style. The Ustad himself had a powerful voice and sang in a low register. Through voice modulation as well as stress on alap and the rhythmic patterns in the bandish, he was able to evolve a distinctive style. The nomtom alap remains popular with this gharana as does the use of ekar rather than akar. He employed a clear style in the enunciation of words which were sung (many believe they were spoken) according to the mood of the section. To add drama, he would often allow for a break in the rendition - a stylistic device is known as phut. It was Faiyaz Khan's belief that a raga should commence with the note shadja and that the note be accorded a focal position. While classical texts accepted the shadja as the first note, in practice the opening note

Jyotsna Bhole. and brought much of his own style into the gharana's stamp. light-classical songs of Punjab) into this classical forte. Ustad Vilayat Hussain Khan 'Agrawale'. the Agra gharana had a profound influence on luminaries such as Pandit Bhatkhande. Renowned singers of this school include Sharafat Hussain Khan (believed to have a style very close to Faiyaz Khan's). while the importance of the bandish is a legacy of the Gwalior style. The bandish in medium tempo follows. The words of the text are accompanied by close attention to rhythm and in vilambit laya. Sargams often replace the text. He provided preliminary training to both his son Ali Baksh (Allu) and Ali's friend Fateh Ali Khan (Fattu). Hence. Raza Ali Khan. followed by other tans in madhya laya. and bols (perfect enunciation being a hallmark of the gharana). Bade Ghulam Ali Khan (1901-69) brought glory to this singing tradition. and at the close. The words of the sthayi may be repeated. Besides. Patiala gharana The well-known Allu-Fattu are often credited with establishing this gharana even though Kale Khan is the person responsible for this achievement. there was and is an abundance of ornamentation that has been criticized as being entirely superfluous. Parveen Sultana. Inayat Hussain Khan was born in Sahaswan and lived his professional life in Rampur. Bhupali. Vijay Kitchlu. Pandit Ajoy Charavorty. Bol tans are next. and went on to sing thumris in the tappa style! The clear enunciation of notes notwithstanding. Yunus Hussain. and even today. Renowned singers of the Patiala gharana include Munnawar Ali Khan (Bade Ghulam Ali Khan's son). His voice had an astounding range and clarity. The current practice of commencing the alap with Sa began with Ustad Faiyaz Khan. and the effortless execution of even the most complex ragas is a strength that others owing allegiance to this gharana lean toward. this was appropriately restricted to the chhota khayal. Latafat Hussain Khan. son-in-law of Haddu Khan of the Gwalior gharana. and note-combinations are used in unconventional placements. sung at double or even treble the past tempo. and the mukhda and other phrases are sung with equal emphasis. Like the Jaipur gharana. The shringara rasa of the tappas and thumris is a fitting mood for the singing style of this gharana. Deepali Nag. the sam (the most emphatic beat of the tabla) and the arrival at it by musician and singer is an interesting and much anticipated feature.(graha swara) was not necessarily the shadja. and the Gwalior gharana. Rampur-Sahaswan gharana The founder of this gharana is Ustad Inayat Hussain Khan (1849-1919). if the section is deemed too short. the gharana is regarded as an off-shoot of the Gwalior gharana. there are definite influences of dhrupad. and disciple of. This gharana begins a raga with an extended alap replete with ornamentation. A famous independent singer taught by Faiyaz Khan was Kanhaiya Lal Sehgal. among others. The Patiala gharana is considered an off-shoot of the Delhi gharana. But he did grant a special place to both tappa and thumri (a light classical style) singing. the Agra school emphasizes the melodic aspect of the raga. Malkauns. these and similar ragas such as Megh Malhar predominate. Sumuti Mutatkar. Ustad Bahadur Hussain Khan (Tansen's descendant). The gharana regards these as being integral to the mood and emotion of the raga which became in many ways a means of expressing the singer's response to the raga. Bade Ghulam Ali Khan's ability to span all three octaves while singing the satta-t�ns (short spiralling patterns) and the shortened tonal aspect brought glimpses of the tappa (fast-paced. However. Again. The city was an important centre of dhrupad singing. layakari. short. and Kale Khan's illustrious teachers continued the instruction. The ladant (duel with the tabla) is occasionally included. and the raga selection in its repertoire reflects this. Gunakali were the ragas of Bade Ghulam Ali's choice. a khayal sung in drut laya. and together with the fact of Haddu Khan's teaching. the prevalence of ornaments in the RampurShahaswan singing style. . For example. Close attention is paid to swara.

Kedar. This. Gaud-Sarang. This school can be said to be bhava-pradhan (pradhan: of great importance. This last is important because of the emphasis on the mood (rasa. This is clearly seen in the choice of ragas like Bhupali-Todi. the akar is conspicuous by its absence (as in the Kirana gharana). Stringent practice of breath control permits the singer to sing a long stretch of the raga without pausing.slow. The renowned singers of this gharana include Ustad Mushtaq Hussain Khan (trained by Inayat Hussain Khan himself). Shanno Khurana. The bhajan quality of the performances is a feature unique to this gharana. Mewati gharana The semi-classical music of this gharana founded by Ghagge Nazir Khan avoids the accepted norm of elongating words for the sake of rhythm. The number of t�ns popular in the Rampur-Sahaswan style is far more than in the other gharanas. both of which are sung fully. The akar sung in an open voice. the mukhda of both sthayi and antara sections is developed through bol alap. the prevalence of merkhand (intricate singing of the sargam). Nathulal's nephew Pandit Motiram continued the tradition through his sons Pandit Maniram and Pandit Jasraj. Madhya laya is the preferred tempo for raga performance. and fast. This is reminiscent of Ghagge Nazir Khan and his two disciples. Vocal Hindustani Music : Dhrupad. superior). and taught Lata Mangeshwar. Ghulam Mustafa Khan. Ustad Nissar Hussain Khan (Inayat Hussain Khan's son-in-law). Yaman. medium.The alap of this gharana is structured and uses techniques like the behlava to express the mood of the raga. the Bhendi Bazar school was founded by Ustad Chhajju Khan. chut-t�ns. and Inayat Hussain Khan of the Rampur-Sahaswan gharana. The t�ns of this gharana are executed in the characteristic style. The text is sung clear and strong so as to wholly reveal its literary nature. known also as 'India's nightingale'). Sulochana Brihaspati. Tarana. Rashid Khan. Anjanibai Malpekar (who taught Kishori Amonkar). The literary context and the emotional appeal of the raga are stressed. Ustad Nazir Khan and Ustad Khadim Hussain Khan in the late nineteenth century. The bandish section is characterised by the notes and the raga itself that span all three octaves. and as such the ornamentations and the structure of the performance are geared to ensuring a continuity. and includes sapatt�ns. bol-t�ns. Thumri Could not find what you were looking for? . akars and bols sung in all three tempos . Ghulam Sadiq Khan. Renowned singers of this gharana include Ustad Aman Ali (who specialized in complex sargams without sidelining swara and laya. the gharana favours tarana singing. They trained under their father Dilawar Hussain Khan. and expressed through the use of techniques such as the murchhana technique (enhancing the raga by changing the tonic). and tappa t�ns. Sargams and t�ns (such as sapat-t�ns) are employed to provide the versatile link that is needed. This part closes with the mukhda of the sthayi section. and end on the shadja. halaq-t�ns. to be followed by layakari and ornamental devices particularly the gamak and sapat t�ns. and reveals a religious influence. Bihag. Bahadur-Todi. Nathulal and Chamanlal. The bandish section stretches through the sthayi and antara sections. These features are very similar to those of the Gwalior gharana. Apart from the classical ragas in its repertoire. This is followed by sargams. Bhendi Bazar gharana A lesser-known but influential gharana. bhava) of the raga. Chhaya Nat. Dharmar. The gharana is represented by Pandit Jasraj and his two disciples Sanjeev Abhyankar and Rattan Sharma. and a clear articulation and intonation are the characteristic features of this gharana. Tappa.

dhaivat and nishad in their komal forms. In Carnatic music. Bhairav .all seven notes in there pure forms.Home Culture Creative Arts Travel Religion History Performing Arts Cuisine Rendezvous Science Newsletter IndiaHeritage and Beyond Feedback Be a Contributor Site Map Advertising Enquiries Discussion Group The mela of Carnatic music. The tar shadja is included in the eighth position. Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni S�a 4.e. Kalyan . Sa Re Ga M Pa Dha Ni S�a See also: Swara & Raga The term Raga refers to both the musical melody and the abstract personification of the spirit of a raga. Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni S�a 10. Th�t can be considered a classification that permits several ragas to be grouped together. Avaroha: descending notes. and the others in their komal forms. Sa Re Ga M Pa Dha Ni S�a 6. that are arranged in sequence. a feature absent in a th�t. pancham and madhyam in their shuddha forms. Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni S�a 5. and have a clear aroha and avaroha pattern. from Ni to Sa. . and a tivra madhyam. The two must and do merge so as to allow the individual characteristics of a raga to emerge through the notes. from Sa to Ni. According to Pandit Bhatkhande's listing.with gandhara.Th�t It refers to the parent scale i. Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni S�a 2. One of the many ragas of a particular parent-scale will always bear the name of that parent-scale. Sa Re Ga M� Pa Dha Ni S�a 7.all seven notes in their pure form. there are ten th�ts. the others in their pure forms. However. Certain technicalities impart to the raga form its complex harmony. Khamaj . Four kinds of melodic movements (varna) are recognized: Sthayi (stable): the continuous holding of one note. the saptaki must be in the correct order in a th�t. and madhyam as tivra. Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni S�a 8. this th�t is known as the melakarta Shankarabharaman. Asavari . from Ni to Sa) of ragas are based on the parent scale. Aroha: ascending notes. Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni S�a 9. from Sa to Ni) and the avaroha (descending pattern.Rishab and dhaivat as komal notes and the madhyam as tivra. Todi . all the rest in their pure forms. Bhairavi . Sanchari: the meandering of the notes. This is the melakarta Hanumantodi of Carnatic music. Kafi . This last would be an unusual feature in a raga.Rishab.Rishab in its komal form and a tivra madhyam. Marwa . The aroha (ascending pattern.Rishab and dhaivat as komal notes.Shadja. Ragas usually drop at last one note of the parent-scale.gandhara and nishad as komal swaras. Sa Re Ga M� Pa Dha Ni S�a 3. although both pure and altered forms of a note may be included in an arrangement. Purvi . gandhara and dhaivat as komal notes. 1. Bilawal .Nishad in its komal form. basic arrangement of the saptaki from which ragas are derived.

Gunakali and Sarpada. The skills and dedication required may lead to an unusual experience as well. . In Carnatic music. and Saraswati. are known as vivadi. Ragas in Practice The ragas have their seasons and times of day as well. Composers often lend their names to ragas such as Miyan-ki-Malhar (named after Tansen. Summer is regarded as the corresponding season for raga Dipak. Komal Re Asavari. Bhupali-Todi. The names of ragas are determined by a host of factors. Ragas like the Malwa. Ragas of Bhairavi th�t. Ahiri. different forms of a note can be present on different scales within a raga. Tribal names abound because their melodies have provided the basis for ragas like Asavari. the dominant note or sonant (vadi) can vary and the consonant (samavadi) is always the fifth note from the vadi. Many are named after the deities associated with their origin. In practical terms however. Either pancham or madhyam must also be present. Miyan-ki-Todi. Monsoon for raga Megh. The correct time of day and night for a few ragas: 6-9 a. Further. a raga needs to be composed of at least five notes. Jogiya Bhairav-Bahar. insignificant. Ragas of Bhairav th�t. Winter for raga Malkauns. and the Spring for raga Hindol. Ragas of Todi th�t. Shuddh Bilawal. Ahir-Bhairav. Autumn for raga Bhairav. Other notes. Shukla Bilawal. Bhairav. such as Gurjari Todi. such as Bhairavi. Devgiri Bilawal. such as Sugharai.Pandit Bhatkhande ruled certain qualifying features for a raga: For one. although some ragas are considered appropriate to certain hours.consonant ratio. The consonant works to complement the vadi. are known as anuvadi. Bilaskhani Todi. Ranade reiterated this by insisting that Sa be the tonic (or sonant) for all ragas and the latter must use the full range of an octave and be aesthetically pleasing. Sur Malhar. Ragas of Kalyan th�t. but nonetheless could not save himself from being consumed by fire. one of which needs necessarily be Shadja (Sa. Asavari th�t: ragas such as Asavari. as in the case of raga Dipak. This raga is believed capable of lighting up lamps and of setting the singer aflame! Legend has it that Gopala Naik. Pahari are so named because of the association with the melodies of those places. and Gurjari. that madhyam or pancham be one of the other notes. Jaunpuri.12 noon. such as Alahya Bilawal. Kukubh Bilawal. immersed himself in water before commencing on the raga. a famous and intrinsic part of ragas is the mood they seek to express and evoke. 9 a. the great musician of the Mughal emperor Akbar's court). The key lies in maintaining the sonant . Shankara. and Miyan-ki-Todi (named after Vilaskhani Todi). Some raga names reflect their mixed origins . Ramkali. however. the ascending scale (aroha) or the descending scale (avaroha) cannot carry both the sharp/pure and altered forms of the same note. however.m. Sindh Bhairavi. a renowned musician. and those that do not belong to the raga or have been positioned in violation of rules. Tansen was more fortunate during his rendition of the raga because his wife began singing raga Malhar (to bring down the rains). there is no such connection of season or time. Whatever the reasons for their nomenclature. Ragas of Kafi th�t. maybe for purposes of contrast. Ragas of Bilawal th�t. . for instance Kedar. Also. such as Hindol.m. such as Ahir-Bhairav.Bhupali-Todi. Duraga. The process of shifting the sonant and therefore the consonant to create new melodies is known as murchhana.

such as Gaud-Sarang.m. Ragas of Kalyan th�t. . Bhupali. such as Hansadhwani. Ragas of Bilawal th�t. Bhainna Shadja.Ragas of Bilawal th�t. Chhay-Nata. such as Purvi. Durga. Noon . Gara.m. such as Deshkar. such as Multani. Ragas of Khamaj th�t.m. Jaijaiwanti. of Kafi th�t. Nand. Nayaki Kanada. such as Khamaj. Shuddh Sarang. Ragas of Bhairavi th�t. Malhar and its forms. Ragas of Bilawal th�t. such as Malkauns. such as Bahar. such as Darbari Kanada. Ragas of Kalyan th�t. Midnight . Ragas of Kafi th�t. Ragas of Kafi th�t. Bihag and its forms. Purya-Dhanashri. Shahana Kanada. such as Yaman.m. Ragas of Asavari th�t. such as Marwa. Bageshwari. Ragas of Marwa th�t.midnight. such as Bridabani Sarang. Shuddh Kalyan. Pilu. 3 . such as Shankara.6 p.m.3 p.a. Ragas of Purvi th�t. Bhimpalasi. such as Pat-Manjari. Hamir. Maluha Kedar. Shri. Regeshwari. Ragas of Kafi th�t. 6-9 p. such as Kafi. Ragas of Todi th�t. . 9 p. Purya. Triveni. repeats the sound of the first note at a different octave. a sruti being a micro-tone (smaller than a semi-tone). and is regarded as the tonic (there may well be another note as tonic. Other notes are considered in light of their relationship with it. Indian Hindustani classical music. i. December 9. while Dha and Ga are much less compatible with Sa. The eighth note is known as the tar shadja . Ga. Dha resembles the call of a frog in love. Tuesday. Dhaivat and Nishad are known as komal swaras (soft/flat notes) to distinguish them from the pure form that is known also as the tivra (sharp) form.m. the sound made by an elephant when it is hit with the mahaut's (elephant handler/driver) hook. there are exceptions to these stringent guidelines. the kraunka bird's call. Gandhara. the Upanishads and other great texts and also 'sound that is heard without reverberation'.3-6 a. they do not have vikrit forms. Pancham (Pa) with four srutis. Ma. but Sa is usually so). such as Kalingda. Dha and M� are least compatible with it. The word sruti refers to both the philosophical context of 'that which is revealed through the oral tradition i. Cool Raaga. and Dhani. There are believed to be twenty-two srutis in an octave. Ragas of Purvi th�t.e. Shuddha swaras (pure notes) Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Vikrit swaras (altered notes) Re Ga M� Dha Ni Achal swaras (fixed notes) Sa Pa The altered forms (Vikrit swara) of Rishab. the pitch of the seven notes resembles the calls of certain birds and is not known as tivra because the pure form itself can move from its position on the scale. Sa resembles the peafowl's cry. Those ragas that are meant to be played at sunset or sunrise are called Sandhiprakash. Undoubtedly. such as Basant. and Ni. with two srutis. According to the Sangita Ratnakar. Re (or Ri). Vikrit (altered) notes are interpolations: softer versions of some pure notes that. raagas . Lalit. Sa and pa are known as achal (fixed) notes. and is denoted by S�a. Rishab (Re or Ri) with three srutis. This system applies to the other notes as well. Pandit Bhatkhande held that ragas performed at night or at sunset should contain the tivra madhyam (M�). Gandhar (Ga). for instance ragas Mand (regarded also as an evening raga). Sindhura. These are the shuddha (pure) notes. the goat's sound. Dhaivat (Dha) with three srutis. Paraj. There are others that can be played at any and all times. Ragas of Bhairav th�t. These stipulations of time are governed by the notes and their pitch. the woodpecker's call. Ragas of Marwa th�t. 2008 . and Nishad (Ni) with two srutis. whereas daytime ragas must not contain the tivra madhyam. the cataka bird's cry. An exception is the pure form of Madhyam . ragas emphasizing the higher pitch are appropriate for late night and early morning. Ma and pa are seen as being perfectly compatible with it. Pa. tutorials Music is general and Indian classical and popular music in particular. Ragas which emphasize the lower pitch are to be performed during the evening or early night. would be placed in the space between them. At the heart of classical music are the seven notes (swaras) comprising the Saptak: Shadja (Sa) with four srutis. on a musical key. Madhyam (Ma) with four srutis. such as Sohoni. Re. The note Sa corresponds to the C of western music.e.

However in practice Hindustani classical mainly uses 12 swaras (notes) grouped in every Saptak (octave). Musical Scale in Hindustani classical The smallest interval of tuning system in the hindustani classical is the Sruti. it is very difficult to give an all encompassing definition of Hindustani Shastriya Sangeet also known as (North) Indian classical music. Seven of these are known as Shuddha (pure) and five of them are called as Vikrit (sharp/flat) making a total of 12 notes per saptak. you can skip this section. There are 22 srutis per saptak (octave).Hindustani Shastriya Sangeet (Classical music) basic theory Like most other art forms. I am not going to delve into the histroy of the classical music. Rather I will try to write about the musical style and grammar associated with this genre. we have the following 12 notes per saptak. The south Indian classical music is known as Carnatic Shastriya Sangeet. The seven shuddha (pure) notes are: Sa Shadja Re Rishabh Ga Gandhar Ma Madhyam Pa Pancham Dha Dhaivat Ni Nishad The vikrit notes are Komal Re (flat) Komal Ga (flat) Tivra Ma (sharp) Komal Dha (flat) Komal Ni (flat) Thus in total. Now some basic theory about the Hindustani classical. If you are aware about this. Sa Shadja Komal Re (flat) Re Rishabh . Those familiar with western music will immediately recognise this as being similar to the solfège.

In simple terms. nor is the difference between the notes completely fixed.Komal Ga (flat) Ga Gandhar Ma Madhyam Tivra Ma (sharp) Pa Pancham Komal Dha (flat) Dha Dhaivat Komal Ni (flat) Ni Nishad It is important to note that unlike western music. Komal swaras have a small horizontal line placed below them Tivra swaras have a small vertical line placed above them. Pt. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. Mandhra saptak. But the same cannot be said of the popular music which are composed in western fixed scale. It is akin to the musical mode that is used in western music. Madhyam Saptak and Taar Saptak. Notes of Mandhra saptak have a dot symbol placed below them. these are: Bilawal: S R G m P D N S' Khamaj: S R G m P D n S' Kafi: S R g m P D n S' Asavari: S R g m P d n S' Bhairavi: S r g m P d n S' . However. Hindustani music is not based on equal tempered scale. Bhatkhande created this system based on the mela system used in the Carnatic music. Thaat Thaat is the basic method of classification of various raags which was created by Pt. it means that the pitch(frequency) of the first note Sa is not fixed (hence the rest of the notes also). There are ten generally accepted thaats. lowest to highest. Taar spatak notes have a dot above them. This is perfectly acceptable in Hindustani. This point is of great importance to the all the classical vocalists because depending on your natural vocal range you can choose to sing the classical compositions in different scales. now with the percolation of western instruments like Piano and harmonium people tend to use fixed scales more often. Indian classical music is normally played in 3 registers.

This requires practice and strong understanding of the raag. Aaroha : S R G M P D N S . Varjit swaras are the notes that must NEVER be used in a raag. .samvadi and varjit swara. varjit swaras can sometimes be used in a raag by clever manipulations. A raag has both ascending and descending (aroha and avaroha) order of notes. The raag belongs to a scale in a "thaat" or "mela". | Aaroha : S N D P M G R S Note : The dot ". However." above a note denotes the Taar spatak. The rules for creating the ragas are summarised below. Vadi swara is the most prominent note of a raag. Samvadi swara is next in prominence and is in harmony with the vadi. Aaroha refers to the ascending order of the notes in a raag. The line "|" above the note denotes a tivra (sharp) note. To clarify the concepts stated above lets take an example of raag Yaman. For example. It is often said that the vadi swara is the note used maximum number of times in a raag. There should be at least 5 swaras (notes) in a raag. Teen Taal refers to the 16 beat cycle used commonly in Hindustani music. this is not entirely true nor is there any strict rule for the same. Every raag has a vadi. Raag : Yaman Thaat : Kalyan Vadi : Ga Samvadi : Ni Varjit : Shuddha Ma | . However. Raag A raag (raag) is a set of five or more swaras that are combined according to certain rules to create a melody of aesthetic value. Avaroha refers to the descending order of the notes in a raag. In other words it must have "Sa". A raag must have the tonic note.Bhairav: S r G m P d N S' Kalyan: S R G M P D N S' Marwa: S r G M P D N S' Poorvi: S r G M P d N S' Todi: S r g M P d N S' Taal Taal is the word used to denote the rhythmic pattern used in the any composition.

5 notes in avarohan Shadav-Sampoorna : 6 in aarohan . The tivra and komal swaras. for a serious student of music this provides a small platform to start the journey of musical ocean. vadi. Raags are not strictly bound by these rules only. devotional and other forms of Indian music. Kamod. Shahana. By no means is this discussion complete or encyclopedic. Hari Om Tat Sat .5 notes in avarohan. the rules are not strictly followed. A raga should be aesthetically pleasing.6 notes in avarohan Auduv-Auduv : 5 in aarohan . Kalyan Thaat : Yaman. rules and strict logic cannot be applied to raags. Baagesree Auduv-Shadav : 5 in aarohan . In classical music performance. Bageshwari etc. Ex. samvadi associated with them.7 notes in avarohan. yet. which are exception to the 2nd rule. these rules are followed strictly. However.7 notes in avarohan. Jaati Simply speaking Jaati of a raag refers to the number of swaras contained in it's aarohan and avrohan. Each raag is thought to create a specific mood and supposed to be sung in a specific time of the day. they are quite popular and well accepted as classical ragas.5 notes in avarohan Auduv-Sampoorna : 5 in aarohan .7 notes in avarohan Shadav-Shadav : 6 in aarohan . yet. Bhimpalasi. should not come in succession in a raag. even if the tune of a song is composed in a raga. example Yaman Sampoorna-Shadav : 7 in aarohan . Bhupali. example Bhupali This completes our discussion of basic theory of Hindustani classical music. Pilu. There are a few ragas. The raag jaatis are as follows : Samporna-Sampoorna : 7 in aarohan . Megh Malhar. Some raags and their corresponding thaats are as below: Kafi Thaat : Dhanashree. In semi classical. mood. There are hundreds of ragas and each is categorised under one of the thaats explained before. There may be raags with the same notes and their ascending or descending order.A raag must have at least one note from Pa and Ma A raga should have both "vadi" and "samvadi" notes. Hindol. Dhani. light. etc.6 notes in avarohan Sampoorna-Auduv : 7 in aarohan . This happens because different raags have different styles. Kedar. Shuddha Sarang.6 notes in avarohan Shadav-Auduv : 6 in aarohan . Some raags like Malhar and Vasant are considered appropriate for a specific season rainy and spring respectively. Like all art forms. they will sound distinctly different from one another.

2008 Hindustani Raag's time Raaga Thaat Performance Time/Season Kafi Kafi Any Time Mand Bilawal Any Time Dhani Kafi Any Time Piloo Kafi Any Time Bhairavi Bhairavi Any Time Gaud Malhar Kafi Monsoon Miyan Malhar Kafi Monsoon Deshkar Bilawal Morning Gunkri Bhairav Morning Ahir Bhairav Bhairav Morning Asavari Asavari Morning Bhankar Bhairav Morning Bairagi Bhairav Bhairav Morning Basant Mukhari Bhairavi Morning Basant Poorvi Morning Bhoopali Todi Bhairavi Morning Bhatiyar Bhairav Morning Bilawal Bilawal Morning Bilaskhani Todi Bhairavi Morning Bhairav Bhairav Morning Desi Asavari Morning Sohni Marwa Morning Gurjari Todi Todi Morning Nat Bhairav Bhairav Morning Kalingada Bhairav Morning Lalit Poorvi Morning Jogiya Bhairav Morning Jaunpuri Asavari Morning Hindol Kalyan Morning Todi Todi Morning Vibhas Bhairav Morning Vrindavani Sarang Kafi Afternoon Shuddh Sarang Kalyan Afternoon Poorvi Poorvi Afternoon Patdeep Kafi Afternoon Madhyamad Sarang Kafi Afternoon Madhuvanti Todi Afternoon Bhimpalasi Kafi Afternoon Gaud Saarang Kalyan Afternoon Multani Todi Afternoon Bhoopali Kalyan Evening Kamod Kalyan Evening Desh Khamaj Evening Yaman Kalyan Kalyan Evening Hansdhwani Bilawal Evening Khamaj Khamaj Evening Sham Kalyan Kalyan Evening Yaman Kalyan Evening Tilang Khamaj Evening Shuddh Kalyan Kalyan Evening Shankara Bilawal Evening Maru Bihag Kalyan Evening Puriya Dhanashri Poorvi Evening Puriya Marwa Evening Pahadi Bilawal Evening . August 9.Posted by Yalamber at 8:37 AM 7 comments Saturday.

This is just a compilation of some of the common words by me. we use the Shuddha M. Of course. practicing raag Shuddha Saarang thoroughly.apronus.htm Practice what you learn in class every week at home. o It is in Bhairavi thaat. • Start the class with solo renditions by students of either complete or partial songs that they are comfortable with. where there is no P. • Raag Malkauns. I hope you will find it interesting. we can only learn it in our regularly scheduled class time. . o It is a midnight raag. along with the other 2 foundational notes. preferably for 15 to 30 minutes every day. o All raags we have learnt so far are in Pancham shruthi. • Review lesson 11. February 1. http://www. o When we use the taanpura (stringed or electronic) or the harmonium to provide the background drone to our singing. • We now learn another new concept. o Malkauns is the first raag that we will learn in the Madhyam since their notations had the P. All raags may be categorized as being either in Pancham or Madhyam shruthi. S and S' (sort of like 3 legs of a stool to keep it stable). 2007 Common Urdu words in hindi songs All of us who have heard Hindi songs must have at some point of time wondered what the meaning of Urdu words are.Jana Sammohini Evening Marwa Marwa Evening Shree Poorvi Evening Bahar Kafi Night Tilak Kamod Khamaj Night BageshriKafi Night Charukeshi Night Malhar Kafi Night Raageshri Khamaj Night Nand Kalyan Night Malkauns Pancham Bhairavi Night Malkauns Bhairavi Night Bhinna Shadja Khamaj Night Shivranjani Kafi Night Malgunji Kafi Night Jhinjhoti Khamaj Night Kirwani Night Chandani Kedar Kalyan Night Chandrakauns Night Kedar Kalyan Night Chhayanat Kalyan Night Darbari Asavari Night Kalavati Khamaj Night Adana Asavari Night Durga Bilawal Night Jaijaiwanti Khamaj Night Gorakh Kalyan Khamaj Night Hamir Kalyan Night Bihag Kalyan Night Posted by Yalamber at 9:23 AM 1 comments Thursday. we replace the P with the M. Instead.

colorless nature of the God in poetic prose..13. In the scale we sing in normally. Mai (Sanchari) Ek Roti De Langoti Dwaar Tera Paaun Kaam Krodha Chandkar Hari Guna Main Gaaun Meherban Meherban Meher Karo Meri Das Kabir Charan Tade Nazar Dekhana De . Pakad and Aalaap ..more in the next lesson.. He asks God for just one bread and a piece of cloth to cover himself. Thus. o (Aaroha) S g M d n S' o (Avaroha) S' n d M g S o o o o o o o o o o o o o o (Pakad) SgMM ggMd gMg n. a composition by Saint Kabir Das in Raag Malkauns and Taal Dadra (6 beats) . Here. 5 up and 5 down. (Aaroha) S g M d n S' (Avaroha) S' n d M g S • (Pakad) SgMM ggMd gMg n. o Thaat . preferably for 15 to 30 minutes every day.. Apart from the shuddha M..o o o o o o o Its notes are straight-forward. Mai (Anthara) Roopa Nahin Ranga Nahin Varna Nahin Chaayaa Nirakar Niranjana Niraguna Raghu Raayaa . its other notes are all komal. Learn a short bhajan Gajanana Hey Shubhanana . Mai • • • • Comments: Most compositions in Indian classical music (Hindusthani and Carnatic) will have the composer's name in one of the last few lines of the song. o Aaroha. Dasanjali Lesson 13 Practice what you learn in class every week at home.gS We will now start learning the song Mai Gulam Mai Gulam. Avaroha and Pakad of a raag. it is an Audav-Audav (5/5) raag. • Review all the concepts we have learnt in lesson 12 and earlier. Saint Kabir implores upon Lord Rama to accept him as his devoted slave. again from lesson 12.18 minutes.Pancham (S P S') vs Madhyam (S M) Shruthi.5 minutes. Gajanana Hey Shubhanana Gowri Manohara Priyanandana Pashupathi Thanaya Gajanana Parama Niranjana Shubhanana . He describes the formless. o Foundational notes . • Raag Malkauns.gS Learn the song Mai Gulam Mai Gulam. as you can see in the above song. o Practice its Aaroha.what is it and how many are there? o Timings of raags. it is easy to play this raag on the keyboard or harmonium .5 minutes. Avaroha. o Review all its details. a composition by Saint Kabir Das .only white keys.. (Asthayi) Mai Gulam Mai Gulam Mai Gulam Tera Rama Dhani Raja Dhani Thoo Saheb Mera . after which he would gladly give up everything to continually sing the praise of God holding onto his divine feet.

Since Indian music is primarily melodic. a chair to sit down. If you do not have stops. Stops are one of them. UNIT ONE: INTRODUCTION TO THE HARMONIUM Chapter 01: History of the Harmonium Unlike the instruments that have been previous taught or examined in the music of India. due to its simple and versatile nature. are currently integrated into the North Indian forms of music. the harmonium has been a very integral part of Indian music. the hand pumped version was introduced. it was discipline and practice to sit on the floor. then no sounds will be produced. Even though one hand was required to pump air. when played. because Indian music does not have chords. KEYBOARD. MAIN STOPS. European music requires this. Although the foot pedal was still retained. However. . it is mostly harmonic through the use of chords. You will still get sound. this format of a floor organ worked well. More about left and right handed positions in the next chapter.This is the most important and unique feature of a harmonium.the bellows is a series of metal tongues which allow the air flow. With the exception of South Indian music. only hand was needed to pump and one hand was needed to play the melody. The purpose of the main stops is to direct air flow. There are a few things that your harmonium might not have. This guide discuss the introductory theory of North Indian music. Chord progressions. The bellows must be pumped by hand allow air to flow into the harmonium to produce sounds. and a foot pump for the air. Western forms. When the hand pumped version came out. Thus. Each key. The left and right ends of the bellows usually has a metal bar or latch. the harmonium is one of the most frequently used instrument that has no Indian origin. The harmonium was actually a European organ that was used in churches during the medieval time frame. will not be found in North Indian classical or semi classical. Chord progressions introduce a different form of modality. BELLOWS. but the whole harmonium will be having a uniform sound. practice exercises. it was not a problem. in terms of chord changes. The keyboard allows one to play melodies.Main stops are the bigger knobs on the harmonium. and fourteen Gaudiya Vaisnava bhajans and kirtans to practice and make good use of all the theory and skills taught in this course. Sarangi is a bowed instrument which was used to accompany vocalists. There is was a huge number of keys. they immediately favored this instrument for few reasons. The function and theory will be discussed in great detail in the second unit. The structure and format of the keyboard resembles a piano. When the British came to India in the 18th century. This way. Selecting a certain number of stops in a certain order can affect how the sound comes out. For an Indian musician. it did not require foot pedals. the harmonium was able to go with the flow of the voice pretty well. The look of the harmonium then was almost similar to a piano. If no stops are pulled out. When the harmonium came across to North Indian musicians. the instrument has found its use really well in an Indian musical setting. however. Despite its European origin. Secondly. The harmonium is not strictly limited to Indian styles.Harmonium Guide Originally a reed organ with Western origin. Thirdly. it was much easier to learn than sarangi. A chord is when three or more notes are played simultaneously. regardless of the amount of air being pumped into the harmonium. it was very difficult to play. the harmonium has been used in almost all genres of music in India. virtually every genre will have a spot for the harmonium. musical scales. Except for instrumental and South Indian music. These latches are on both sides to assist right and left handed players at their comfort. produces a unique sound. the musician could play the harmonium with both hands. they brought their harmoniums also. don’t panic.

SCALE CHANGER (not shown) – Some harmoniums will have a scale changer which will change the pitch and positioning of the keys. Likewise. often causes problems for the harmonium. If you have stops. The simple trick is that the stronger hand plays the keys on the keyboard while the wear hand goes to pump the bellows. If you sit in a proper posture. Some harmonium players are right handed and some are left handed. Singers should sing with a straight back to get the maximum accuracy. you won’t have to worry about standing straight. If you have a scale changer. Even though you may not know anything about how to exactly play the harmonium.DRONE STOPS (not shown) – The function of these stops are to produce a constant sound of a single note. Whenever a key is played. This will allow a richer sound. do not like this idea because for people who have short hands. the diaphragm is free from any obstacle and the back is remained straight to produce maximum strength in voice as well as accuracy in playing the harmonium. Before we discuss postures. It’s all about good judgment. A right handed person who wishes to try this posture will place the harmonium to his or her left side. if not impossible. although a nice tool. then the coupling feature will be disabled. personally. Again. use the main stops and see how selecting stops can affect the air flow as well as the sounds. Chapter 02: Correct Postures There is not much needed to be said about postures. and sing with a bent back. and get some sort of sound by pressing the keys from the keyboard. play the keys. The distance from the right hand to the harmonium is shorter than the left hand to the harmonium. TABLES If you are playing your harmonium on a table. Playing a harmonium too high will be a great strain to you hand and even your ability to play nicely. let us consider the fact that not everyone has the same hand orientation. There are many scenarios where postures will change. the left handed person will do everything vice versa. I. then it is suggested that you stand or get a higher seat. Many newcomers to the harmonium do not know how to work with changing the scale and the chance of breaking it is really good. do practice getting some sort of sound by opening the bellows. the harmonium should be as close to you as possible in a comfortable position. COUPLER (not shown) – Some harmoniums have this special feature of the coupler. you will probably be able to play for hours without a backache. It depends on two real roles the harmonium player could assume. A right handed person will plays the keys using the right hand and pump the bellows with the left hand. however. before you learn anything to play it. In that case. the same key one octave lower will be played. The first role is that the harmonium player will be singing while playing. it will be somewhat difficult to reach all the way for the bellows. GROUND The ground will be the most common place you will play your harmonium. This way. Experiment the changes when the coupler feature is active or disabled. pumping it with one hand. Imagine a right handed person taking a harmonium to the right side. If you are standing. If that is the case. you could place the harmonium directly in front of you and play and sing. do not experiment with that. This is the reason why singers tend to keep the harmonium to their side with the hand of least strength. If you are sitting and with the highest point of the harmonium reaching your stomach line. It would be quite painful. It is very useful to know how to operate the harmonium. . to play the keys. not all harmoniums will have this feature. it all depends on whether you will be sitting or standing. If the coupler knob is pulled out. The scale changer.

Sunlight has enough energy to make the air bellows weak or destroy the wooden finish. the keyboard serves as an exhaling agent. in fact. these points are very important to keep in mind. do not have any contact with water. then you may place it in front of or off to the side. it is also very easy to forget to close stops and lock bellows before pushing the harmonium inside. since the harmonium is playing. whatever air that comes in will go out immediately without having any note produced if the keyboard is being used. and while thinking it is done correctly.If you are not singing. Likewise. you are not a little kid! Don’t ever pump the bellows if you are not playing anything. not your voice. The sure way to check if your harmonium is secure is to make sure the top locks are locked. sitar. or if the bellows are not locked. Once a key is pressed with enough air. Chapter 03: Maintenance and Care Unlike the traditional Indian instruments in India. Water can make the harmonium sound ripped. Then. There are not too many points in discussing the maintenance or care of the instrument. DON’T TAKE IN MORE THAN YOU CAN PLAY When little kids see adults or harmonium players pumping the bellows constantly. lift it up and part of the harmonium starts to fall out and damage is done. that air could damage the internal features of the harmonium and its rich sound could diminish and even force notes to sound out of tune. You will feel uncomfortable and feel like you will explode inside. Whichever of the two ways is comfortable for you. etc. you will feel very uncomfortable and you will cough a lot. air will be forced out faster. The stop knobs and bellows can break if locks are not pushed in fully. the harmonium is not as delicate as the tabla. If you leave air inside the harmonium. This can be compared to water in lungs. attempt to lift the top lid off. That’s what happens to the harmonium. Remember that the harmonium is not an Indian instrument by origin. The way to do this is to lock the bellows using a side lock and play three or more notes of the keyboard simultaneously. This is very easy to forget this very important step! STOP! CLOSE YOUR STOPS! With harmoniums having this feature. while playing the keyboard. Whenever there is water in your lungs. regardless of the instruments race or origin. DOUBLE CHECK SECURITY BEFORE TAKE OFF! Most harmoniums have a removable top lid. BLOW OUT ALL THE AIR Whenever you are done with using the harmonium. force all of the air out. This way. and while locked. they indeed get excited and they pump the bellows to their hearts desires without touching the keyboard. Keep one point in mind. . you will know that your harmonium is safe for take off. air will blow out of the front. if not disable the ability to produce sound. the behind has nothing showing inside. Either way will be acceptable. sarod. Keep in mind that if you play this properly. we must treat it with respect and care. but playing the harmonium to accompany someone. Pumping excessive air into the harmonium is comparable to inhaling excessive air into your lungs and not breathing out. RAIN OR SHINE IS NEVER FINE! Never put your harmonium in direct sunlight. Once the lid has to be placed it. However. sarangi. use that. If too much air enters in without being released properly. However. the harmonium’s internal air chamber will explode. it is very easy to do this incorrectly. The proper way to go about is use enough air as you need. If you cannot lift the top lid. This is very crucial.

. There are two black keys between the first three white keys. there are three black keys.It is used in almost all systems of Indian music. is a repeating series of a certain number of keys. push in all open stops and lock bellows. and never put the harmonium in a humid. etc… This is the general order.” One note is played just by pumping a sruti-peti. Every harmonium has a different number of keys. . Take a moment and find the starting key of the unit. . or a wet place. you may play the harmonium directly in front of you.2 Figure 5. The drone stops allow one note to be played without using the keyboard. A harmonium without a keyboard is called a sruti-peti.Remember the safety tips from Chapter 3. The keyboard is hit to produce sounds.1. These tips will help you keep your harmonium clean. There are seven white keys and five black keys.Some harmoniums have a coupler which allows the same note one octave lower to be played simultaneously with the note that has been hit. The main stops control the air traffic. From the fourth white key to the seventh key.1 Look at Figure 5. double check for security and sturdiness. This pattern repeats continuously.Here is a diagram of the harmonium. From here. . remove all the air when finished. UNIT TWO: BUILDING BLOCKS OF INDIAN Chapter 05: The Keys of the Harmonium We discussed the structure of the harmonium in Chapter 2. You will see that the right side produced a higher pitch while the left side produced a lower pitch. Figure 5. This order continues over and over again. there is a special organization of these keys. hot. If you are not a lead singer. Compare that sound to any key on the far left side. safe. . This is a keyboard.You pump the air in with your weaker hand and play the keys with your stronger hand.Harmonium was introduced in India around the 19th century.The sure sign for safety is to keep your harmonium in a carrying case or bag and leave it in a room not humid. press every key in order. Figure 5. A pitch-distance relationship can also be found. A keyboard. Let’s take a closer look. . . except South Indian music. or a “sound box. and have a longer lifespan.It was integrated into Indian music. . in actuality. The number of keys on the keyboard describes the range of the harmonium. Remember that air is pumped in through the bellows. The most essential part of the harmonium is a keyboard. In addition. .If you are a lead singer. . Without the keyboard no melodies could be played. Chapter 04: Review Here are just a few points to keep track of. you may put your harmonium on the side of your body with the weaker hand and play.Scale changer is a feature to transpose or change the scale. This theory will be explain in detail in the next few chapters. Do not overpump air into the harmonium. as it was very easy to play and could go along with the voice pretty well. Keep in mind that it is WHITE-BLACK-WHITE-BLACK-WHITE-WHITE.2 shows us the fundamental unit. The scale changer is not recommended. Press any key from the far right end of the harmonium.

He also created the first sound wave. created the material planet. Conversely. or even do both! To describe the distance. The octave below the madhya saptak is known as the mandara saptak. pancama. Figure 5. the pitches will be high. There are no black keys between those two examples. The first key in the second pattern is eight keys higher than the first key in the first pattern. the first white key and the first black key have a distance of one half-step. we won’t change saptaks every moment. these facts alone will not help you define any pitches or keys or melodies.4 (small sector of the fundamental unit) Recall how we previously stated that as we go to the right of the keyboard.5 shows a keyboard’s ranges of these three types of saptaks.” Here is Figure 5. The unit of measure of a full scale with eight notes is called an octave. These notes are commonly called sa. the pitches will be lower. Look at figure 5. The octave above the madhya saptak is known as the tar saptak. especially when communicating to other musicians musically. madhyama. For instance.5 These facts are really nice to know. as well as the seventh white to the new first white. “Sadaja” or “sa” is the most important . dha and ni. This ancient tritonal system expanded by Brahma’s creation to seven notes which replicate the seven sounds of the nature. We will go within the saptak. Figure 5. In Western music. Once the seventh key is completed of the first scale. r.” Om is the single syllable that is used to address to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. then one will reach the fourth white key in the next scale. ma.” The simplest form of a step is a “half step. Recall from the two exceptions shown above. Lord Brahma. we must know the names of the notes and sounds of the scale. The sound wave is the mantra “om. and go one full scale higher. we speak in terms of “steps. Since we have seven notes. the first white and the second white are one whole-step apart. are examples of half steps too. The seven sounds of nature are sadaja. gandhara. Figure 5. However. Be very careful! The distances from the third white to the fourth white. the seventh key is considered to be the last and the first key is considered the start of a new scale. The next chapter will go into the introduction of Indian music.3 a visual demonstration of the concept of octaves and saptaks. Figure 5. by the order of Lord Krsna.3 Obviously. Chapter 06: Sargam: The Indian Solfege According to the Srimad Bhagavatam. our “octave” is properly called a “saptak. the octave is used because they consider the first key of a new scale to also be the last key of the old scale. at times go below the saptak. The normal pitches and the main scale is known as the madhya saptak. In Indian music. dhaivata and nisada. pa. not eight. If one were to chose the fourth white key. There are three terms that refer to the relative location of the scale. however. ga. then the first key starts a new second scale. rsabha. Do not assume that a half step means distance between the white key and its nearest black key or vice versa! Two half steps are known as a whole step.Once you reached the seventh key. Meditation and recitations took place with three swars or notes. the “eighth” key is actually the first key in a new pattern. on the left side of the keyboard. In order to put some sort of meaning to the notes and keys.4 to explain the concept of steps. The pattern of seven notes is called a scale. For instance. or sometimes go above.” A half step is the shortest distance between two notes.

It is also called a sargam. there are five semitones between the natural notes that are very distinct. Technically. komal ga. All suddha notes except ma are capitalized. The note between re and ga is known as komal ga. Komal means “flat” and tivra means “sharp. and the the note between dha and ni is called komal ni.” The reason why ma is allowed to be sharpened is a very complicated reason which can be found in a details classical musical book. ma and pa. Did you notice that between some notes. and the dove is shown by ma. r describes the sound of a bull. and wind instruments. Recall from the previous chapter how we dealt with fundamental unit that repeats throughout the harmonium. and middle fingers to help you play. In the case of suddha ma. The entire sargam is written as the following: S r R g G m M P d D n N Play this in ascending and descending order. Sa and pa are always capitalized. komal dha. Let’s look at an example sargam. This is containing the suddha swars. The notes are in the following order: Sa. These notes are indeed defined by nature. pa. Keep in mind that the harmonium was designed to keep the natural notes on white keys. Try these exercises. The goats sound is described by ga. The note between pa and dha is called komal dha. Music has always used these seven swars. ni. These seven white keys represent the sargam in order. That fundamental unit consists of seven keys that are white. These notes are between sa and re. These five vikrta swars are represented by the black keys. re. Do get familiar on how to play the natural notes without looking. Here is a keyboarded diagram of all we have learned so far in this guide.note because from sa. This is assumed to be in the madhya-saptak. ma. but also in string instruments. In fact. The note between ma and pa. The note between sa and re is called komal re. there are some hidden tones. that is written as an undercase m. sadaja is the Sanskrit word for “origin of the six. between every two consecutive notes. Use the index. Sa describes the sound of the peacock.” The six notes describe the distance from the main sa. however. komal re. The sargam or saptak has been used by voice. These five altered notes are known as vikrta swars. is called tivra ma. the other notes can be formed. A faster way to write these notes is very simple. ga. . Tivra ma is written with a capital M. For example. pa and dha. dha. within the sargam. Look at the keys on Figure 6. we use an apostrophe after the note. the three ranges of saptaks and how to write the swars. Pa has the sound of a cuckoo. However.3 to help you. vikrta swars. tivra ma. and dha and ni. the mandra-saptak notes have an apostrophe before the note. If we were to expand to the tar-saptak. the repeating keyboard sequence. suddha ga is written with a capital G. A very useful hint to play these notes is not to play the keys with the index fingers alone. do play this on the harmonium. re and ga. komal ni. Similarly. Raga Sri: Ascending: S r M P N S’ r’ S’ Descending: r’ N d P M P d M P r G r S ‘N S This raga will be taught later on. Dha has the sound of the horse and ni has the sound of the elephant. thumb. However. there are infinite numbers of semitones. These seven swars are called the saptak or seven notes. The seven white natural notes are known as suddha swars.

Asavari S R g m P d n S’ Bilaval: (the major scale that we worked with) S R G m P D N S’ Bhairava: S r G m P d N S’ Bhairavi: (komala thāt) S r g m P d n S’ Kalyana: (tivra thāt) S R G M P D N S’ Khammaja: S R G m P D n S’ Purvi: S r G M P d N S’ Marwa: S r G M P D N S’ Todi: S r g M P d N S’ . are shown below. Even though we learned notes. However. In fact. The next two chapters will deal with very important concepts of developing melodies. The ten thāts along with their swara sets. In addition. the natural scale in itself is a modal form. We will have some sharpening or flattening of notes. The ten thāts have seven notes each. However.S SRS SRGRS SRGmGRS SRGmPmGRS SRGmPDPmGRS ‘N S R G m P D P m G R ‘N S ‘N ‘D ‘ P ‘D ‘P ‘M ‘P ‘P ‘N S G R G S Practice these exercises very frequently to get used to know the locations of the sargam. also known as swarasthanas. not every scale will be pure natural. These scales or modal forms are called thāts. Chapter 07: Thāt: The Indian Modal Form A modal form is nothing more than a scale. the scale we discussed in the previous chapters was defining a scale as a range. we were talking about straight natural scales. We will work with ten particular scales. the notes without a proper link or order are without meaning.

sna hare krsna SRg–R–S–ndnP Krsna kr . it is of the Asavari Thāt. Between ma and tivra ma. you may move onto the next chapter. they are an excellent way to study developing melodies. Bhairavi is known as the komal thāt.ja-go RSSndnRS madhava krsna gopala m m P P n d d n S’ S’ n R’ S’ S’ nava aruna sama jago hrdoye mama PnPmmPmggmRRS sundara giridhari la-a-a-a-l Here is a Hare Krsna melody Ha re kr . Just for your information. First. S and P can never be flat as they are fixed notes. Let’s take the opportunity to review them. Let’s pick two songs from the Asavari Thāt. Chapter 08: Review A great deal of very important information dealing with the basics of Indian music was discussed here. But. Dha. ma is flatter than the two. and ni are all flat. Likewise. The two songs are “Antara Mandire Jago Jago” and a mahamantra tune.These ten thāts have been developed by a 1910s musicologist. and Let’s assume that you have had some experience with these thāts. Once you chose the right thāt. so ma is used. Re.” It will take a while to first adopt to an ear to determine what each that sounds like. and Ni are all suddha as they are the highest of their notes. “Which of the ten thāts sound the closest to the melody I am hearing?” Once you develop that kind of mentality. . dha. it will be a while to adopt a sense of which notes to select when you accompany a singer. For now. because all of the notes are the flattest as they can be. between Tivra ma. Of course. Even though these ten thāts have some shortcomings to them. Of course. because every note is the highest value possible. Kalyana Thāt is known as the tivra thāt. Practice three rounds of each thāt. Again. re. Notice that even though the melodies are entirely different. Ga. when someone is singing. play each of these ten thāts while reciting the name of each thāt and singing the swars along. you will have to think. ga.sna hare ha – re----P P S – S. Practice playing the ten thāts correctly with their correct names. Asavari Thāt: S R g m P d n S’ SnSRRRgmRS An ta ra mandire jago-. initially it will be quite difficult to determine whether the note you wish to chose is going to be a ga or a “re. Once you master this. the same set of notes of the Asavari thāt is used. Visnu Narayana Bhatkhande.R – S R g – g m g R S Since they did not deviate from the scale of S R g m P d n S’. accompanying an artist will become very easy. practice the ten thāts in such a way that you will not forget them. as that as the flattest as they could be.

and ni. ga. are known as vikrta swars. and n Lastly. Then. and komal ni. it usually has three repeating patterns. Asavari S R g m P d n S’ Bilaval: (the major scale that we worked with) S R G m P D N S’ Bhairava: S r G m P d N S’ Bhairavi: S r g m P d n S’ Kalyana: S R G M P D N S’ Khammaja: S R G m P D n S’ Purvi: S r G M P d N S’ Marwa: S r G M P D N S’ Todi: S r g M P d N S’ Unless you have developed full knowledge of the material. and are known as komal re. or a saptak (seven notes) in Indian music. g. R. do not move onto the next unit. In understanding the relationships between any two notes. it is known to have completed one octave in Western music. The half-step is the smallest unit of measure in describing distance between two notes. In harmonium. We discussed a little later that a fundamental unit is a scale. The half step is one-key difference from the first note. Likewise. whole-step does not imply a white-to-white (or vice-versa) relationship. the discussion of the seven notes were described. D. m. Once eight notes (7 notes + starting note of the next fundamental unit) are completed. komal ga. ma. They are abbreviated as r. while the blue is the whole-step. The semi-tones between some suddha swars. re. we talk about half steps and whole steps. The next unit will develop on more theoretical applications which cannot be understood easily without understanding this material first . the notes were sa. P. The red bracket is the half-step. pa. tivra ma. They are known as suddha swars and can be represented by white keys. A whole step is a two key difference. here are the ten thats Visnu Narayana Bhatkhande developed. d. They can be abbreviated as S. dha. G. This structure of any keyboarded instrument has this fundamental unit repeating over and over again.The keyboard of the harmonium has a set of three fundamental units of keys. which consists of seven notes. M. and N. komal dha. Look at this diagram and recall from Chapter 5 that half-step does not always mean from a white to black (or vice versa).

three and four note segments are good ideas for alankar practice. it is very important to get the fingers truly used to the harmonium. were introduced in Lesson 7. Aroha: S-R-G R-G-m G-m-P m-P-D P-D-N D-N-S’ N-S’-R’ S’-R’-G’ R’-G’-m’ G’-m’-P’ Avaroha: P’-m’-G’ m’-G’-R’ G’-R’-S’ R’-S’-N S’-N-D N-D-P D-P-m P-m-G m-G-R G-R-S This previous example uses three notes per segment. The first note of the second segment is the second note of the first segment. (3 note) Aroha: S-R-g R-g-m g-m-P m-P-D P-D-n D-n-S’ n-S’-R’ S’-R’-g’ R’-g’-m’ g’-m’-P’ Avaroha: P’-m’-g’ m’-g’-R’ g’-R’-S’ R’-S’-n S’-n-D n-D-P D-P-m P-m-g m-g-R g-R-S Practice alankars for Kalyana thāt (3 note) Aroha: S-R-G R-G-M G-M-P M-P-D P-D-N D-N-S’ N-S’-R’ S’-R’-G’ R’-G’-M’ G’-M’-P’ Avaroha: P’-M’-G’ M’-G’-R’ G’-R’-S’ R’-S’-N S’-N-D N-D-P D-P-M P-M-G M-G-R G-R-S Practice alankars for Purvi thāt (4 note) Aroha: S-r-G-M r-G-M-P G-M-P-d M-P-d-N P-d-N-S’ d-N-S’-r’ N-S’-r’-G’ S’-r’-G’-M’ r’-G’M’-P’ Avaroha: P’-M’-G’-r’ M’-G’-r’-S’ G’-r’-S’-N r’-S’-N-d S’-N-d-P N-d-P-M d-P-M-G P-M-G-r M-G-r-S Practice alankars for Bhairava thāt (4 note) Aroha: S-r-G-m r-G-m-P G-m-P-d m-P-d-N P-d-N-S’ d-N-S’-r’ N-S’-r’-G’ S’-r’-G’-m’ r’-G’-m’P’ Avaroha: P’-m’-G’-r’ m’-G’-r’-S’ G’-r’-S’-N r’-S’-N-d S’-N-d-P N-d-P-m d-P-m-G P-m-G-r mG-r-S Practice alankars for Bhairavi thāt (4 note) Aroha: S-r-g-m r-g-m-P g-m-P-d m-P-d-n P-d-n-S’ d-n-S’-r’ n-S’-r’-g’ S’-r’-g’-m’ r’-g’-m’-P’ Avaroha: P’-m’-g’-r’ m’-g’-r’-S’ g’-r’-S’-n r’-S’-n-d S’-n-d-P n-d-P-m d-P-m-g P-m-g-r m-g-r-S Practice alankars for Marwa thāt (3 note) Aroha: S-r-G r-G-M G-M-P M-P-D P-D-N D-N-S’ N-S’-r’ S’-r’-G’ r’-G’-M’ G’-M’-P’ Avaroha: P’-M’-G’ M’-G’-r’ G’-r’-S’ r’-S’-N S’-N-D N-D-P D-P-M P-M-G M-G-r G-r-S . Here is a four note per segment of Bilavala Thāt. the first note of the second segment is “R”. Usually. these can be used as examples to begin practice. Aroha: S-R-G-m R-G-m-P G-m-P-D m-P-D-N P-D-N-S’ D-N-S’-R’ N-S’-R’-G’ S’-R’-G’-m’ R’G’-m’-P’ Avaroha: P’-m’-G’-R’ m’-G’-R’-S’ G’-R’-S’-N R’-S’-N-D S’-N-D-P N-D-P-m D-P-m-G P-m-GR m-G-R-S Do you see the pattern? This is a four-note per segment alankara. Practice alankars for Kafi thāt. An example of a segment in the above alankara is S-R-G. Every musical instrument will practice exercises in note progression which is known as alankāra. Alankāras are usually mathematically composed. known as thāts. Practice the alankars shown on this page. ragas. and musical pieces are examined. Thus. The third segment starts off with “G” and so on.UNIT THREE: DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUE Chapter 09: Alankars of the Ten Thāts Before songs. Here is an example of an alankāra practice set for the Bilaval Thāt. Since ten different musical scales.

This is perhaps one of the most common and most interesting sections. 9+4=13. The first matra indicating the start of the cycle is known as the sam. Let us examine the elements of the tala. This helps vocalists find their tonic. Notice at matra 1. 1+4=5. A cycle has a fixed number of matras.” The circle is thus divided by measures called the vibhag.” This set of numbers is called a vibhag division or tala division. The fundamental bols and sounds very important for tabla will be used together to make rhythms and many interesting elements. A simple definition of raga provided here can never do full justice to define what a raga really is. When we discuss the vibhag nature of this tala. every measure in a song can have four beats. the cycle repeats. and the fourth is four matras. The tanpura and sruti box are the most commonly used instruments to act as drones. A piece can be in a rhythm of sixteen cycles. The proper word for rhythm is tala. The melody is provided by an instrument of the sushir vadya (blown air). In the previous unit. Tabla is a tala episode. Pakhawaj. The beginning of the circle indicates the start of the cycle. After matra 16. Matra 5 starts the second vibhag.Practice alankars for Todi thāt (4 note) Aroha: S-r-G-M r-G-M-P G-M-P-d M-P-d-N P-d-N-S’ d-N-S’-r’ N-S’-r’-G’ S’-r’-G’-M’ r’-G’M’-P’ Avaroha: P’-M’-G’-r’ M’-G’-r’-S’ G’-r’-S’-N r’-S’-N-d S’-N-d-P N-d-P-M d-P-M-G P-M-G-r M-G-r-S Practice alankars for Asavari thāt. Vibhags. The drone is a simple note held constantly. In Indian music. If you add each of the . These three instruments have the ability to play Indian melodious modes known as ragas. generally. This comes from the Hindi word. we talked about the alphabet and sounds of tabla. khol. The final element is the rhythm. the “X” representing the sam is indicated there. and four vibhags. we say. the third is four matras. The Indian word for beat is matra. mridanga. the second is four matras. By convention. and dholak are other instruments used to keep tala. and the rhythm. The elements are the melody. Matra 13 begins the final vibhag. This means the first vibhag is four matras. (3 note) Aroha: S-R-G R-G-m G-m-P m-P-D P-D-n D-n-S’ n-S’-R’ S’-R’-G’ R’-G’-m’ G’-m’-P’ Avaroha: P’-m’-G’ m’-G’-R’ G’-R’-S’ R’-S’-n S’-n-D n-D-P D-P-m P-m-G m-G-R G-R-S Chapter 10: Tala: The Indian Rhythmic Cycle “… Welcome to the second cluster of this journey in the world of tabla. 5+4=9 Matra 9 starts the third vibhag. “This tala is divided 4-4-4-4. on the other hand. In Indian music. tantri vadya (plucked stringed instruments) and vitat vadya (bowed instruments).” This provides the time when the raga is played. The Western concept holds each measure bearing an equal number of beats. The tala can be viewed best as a unit circle read clockwise. Western music tends to describe rhythm in measures. “tali” meaning “clap. the sam is represented by an “X. may or may not hold equal numbers of matras. The function of the drone is to help provide a constant pitch. One completed cycle is known as an avartan. we can assume that each vibhag has four matras. drone. there are three elements. we describe rhythm as cycles. The second element is the drone. Since there are sixteen matras. Each cycle has beats. Drones are found in instrumental music either by a drone instrument or in the melody instrument itself. For instance. (3 note) Aroha: S-R-g R-g-m g-m-P m-P-d P-d-n d-n-S’ n-S’-R’ S’-R’-g’ R’-g’-m’ g’-m’-P’ Avaroha: P’-m’-g’ m’-g’-R’ g’-R’-S’ R’-S’-n S’-n-d n-d-P d-P-m P-m-g m-g-R g-R-S Practice alankars for Khamaja thāt.

the clap-wave method will be described along with the tala. In this case. 7. we discuss the classification of tala length. Usually. The sam and accent numbers receive claps. The zero number has no accent. sankirna. 3. In this case. it is very amazing to see how similar the clap-wave notation and the actual tabla sounds. Other possible divisions could be 6-4-2-4. has a higher priority with nine. there are numbers 2. a general assumption of the flow can usually be made. you should end up with the total number of matras in the cycle. and then play the actual tala on tabla. 11. If a matra contains a zero. 0. a clapping.” Tisra jati means that the tala has a cycle with a multiple of three matras.1 is catastra jati.1. Catastra jati means that the tala has a cycle with a multiple of four matras. Khanda jati indicates a multiple of five matras. by considering its multiples. This is also four vibhags. The matras with zero number are known as khalis. 2. the sam is the matra with the highest accent. 4+4+4+4=16 matras. The accent numbers simply represent position. Be sure to understand these concepts very well. an eleven matra tala is classified as a khanda jati. since ten. To use the clap-wave approach for the following tala. will count based on accumulating matras. and “X. is the closest. this classification allows many substitute talas for the same composition. The only exception is twelve matra talas. 4” When you actually recite the tala using claps and waves. Therefore. A tala with nine matras. 4. When describing talas. just because it has four vibhags with sixteen matras does not imply four matras in each vibhag. this denotes that the matra has no accent. 3.” The number 2 and numbers after 2 represent stress or accents. Some artists. 16”. 8. Therefore. CLAP. waving convention is used. accent number 2 is placed on matra 5. vibhags. For instance. The accent number 2 and accent number 3 do not represent weight or the amount of stress. This means that the divisions occur at sam. CLAP 6. When describing talas in the future. Add 6. more than the unit circle shown on Figure 10. The classification of the tala is called its jati. “CLAP 2. second having four. and a rare jati. This means that matra 13 has an accent. matra 9 has no accent. In Indian music. Usually. indicate a multiple of nine. Khalis receive a wave of hands. the matra with tali is given with a clap of hands. 2. the sam and accent numbers are known as talis. The tala used in Figure 10. CLAP 14. These will be used very extensively in our development of building tala knowledge. 2. 3. Jati literally comes from the Hindi word meaning “caste. 4. a multiple of five. CLASSIFICATION OF TALAS By the number of matras in a tala. 2. but the first vibhag has six matras. indicated with an “X.” These are accent numbers.1. It is considered an empty weighted matra. to emphasize the number of bols. matra 7. 15. even though it is a multiple of three. CLAP. This denotes matra 5 having an accent. This is the most accepted approach to describing talas. These are called accent numbers. Similarly. third having two. When reciting the tala.matras up. 4. 4. and fourth having only four matras. Either way serves the purpose of keeping accents.1. Prime number talas are named to the nearest jati. Shown on Figure 10. 12. This works too. Generally. a number with multiple choices for jatis would opt for a higher jati. 3. matra 11. 3. Misra jati indicates a multiple of seven. This is thus. accent number 3 is placed on matra 13. 3. and matras per vibhag in tact. WAVE 10. 4. For instance. WAVE. and 4 together and you also get sixteen. and matra 13. On Figure 10. you recite and act the following words: “CLAP 2. …” .

Matra 5 on line 1 has an “S” for a lyric. This will help us throughout. These are the notes that you actually play on the harmonium or any melodic instrument for that matter. The “S” in the lyrics line indicates silence. but the one presented here is the Bhatkhande notation. We recently learned about the basis of rhythm in Chapter 10. The lyric shows the changes in notes from the word “radhe. Given that you have not any real experience at playing harmonium or any musical instrument. the second syllable went into matra 4 with some note changes. However.” Its first syllable started on matra 2 and the second syllable started on matra 3. However. In this case. These signs were described in the previous chapter. but nothing will be sung at that matra. This chapter will attempt to unite these two elements together. There are many forms of notation. To aid in the education process. Chapter 12: Introductory Practice There are other theories of Indian music which are yet to be discussed. The sam is marked with the X. Study these two mini-songs. or talis. The lyrics are from a Hindi bhajan used in a Golden Avatar tape released in 1981 called “Prabhupada Krpa. Pay attention to the lyrics line.” The lyrics read “kirtan karke tihara man yeh pavan ho gaya. We will learn more songs throughout the guide. when we learn new songs and new ragas with new talas. as shown on matra 5 above. The best bet is to read the sargam and then play it while singing the lyrics shown in equal time. the first portion of practice will allow one to get familiar with songs that use the basics that were previously mentioned. this gurukula system is starting to be phased out and replaced with traditional school or tutor like classes for these instruments in India. There is no rush. This song is jaya radhe jaya krsna. Go really slow if you have to. The first line with red numbers represents the tala signs. Therefore. slowly you will develop speed in singing while playing the respective notes. This is because two different attacks of notes will take place evenly. two interesting things happen. Notice in line 2. Traditionally. the subsequent accents. Finally. Notice in matra 4. it will be quite likely that keeping time will become difficult. it is important to get familiar with harmonium playing with some songs. are denoted by their number in order. and the khali.” Read this out loud and try to play this piece note by note. Indian music was always taught orally by master to student. The student had their instrument with them the whole time practicing whatever material the teacher has taught them. The “e” lyrics imply that you hold that vowel until the start of matra 5. the last line assumes that you are singing a song and gives the words to the song. There was no concept of a notebook or taking notes or reading any textbook or guide. matra 3. notation was created. Of course. The second line is the matra numbers. . The third line is the line with melody using the sargam. You can view each section as 4A and 4B. but be sure you know how to read music in this form. matra 5 is playing Re on the keyboard. is represented by a 0. we start introducing halfbeats. although the harmonium will play something. before getting to that point. Silence implies that no word is uttered from the mouth.Chapter 11: Reading Indian Music We have discussed a basis of melody in Chapter 7 through the That. There are four important lines shown here. The matra is divided into two sections. the deaccented mark. They describe only the positions within the cycle described.

” Once one can say the words in correct timing and meter.” One may ask. Line 5 is said. hare krsna. which 1. and 7 uses the same principal melody. A great number of combinations can exist when examining how songs are composed. While it is important to get the correct swars.” One must really voice out the syllables. hare hare. The words are “hare krsna. “ha-a-re-e-e-e-ha-re. 5. they are not refrains. Notice that the last line’s matras 7 and 8 are italicized. 3. Please keep in mind that asthayi describes the melodic. In relation to the continuously played eight beat cycle. “Why does the song begin at matra 7 instead of the sam?” To answer this question requires some knowledge of talas. verses 2. “kri-i-shna-a-a-a-kri-shna. For example. In Line 2. 3. In terms of music. a song will contain a melody for the refrain. it is important to be able to break the verses down into distinct melodic patterns. because they don’t start at the beginning of the cycle. With this common tune of the Hare Krsna mahamantra. hare rama. The truth is that songs will have more than one form associated with it. Line 3 is very similar. In some cases. Matra 7 will be a very important matra as far as our words and beginning of melody is concerned. there are eight verses. Therefore.’ This song starts at matra 7. the song in this practice is the Gurvastakam. Thus. Everything else falls in place. musical form. this is the simplest scenario. For example. nama oḿ viṣṇu-pādāya kṛṣṇa-preṣṭhāya bhū-taleśrīmate bhaktivedānta-svāmin iti nāmine namas te sārasvate deve gaura-vāṇī-pracāriṇenirviśeṣa-śūnyavādi-pāścātya-deśa-tāriṇe (jaya) śrī-kṛṣna-caitanya prabhu nityānandaśrī-advaita gadādhara śrīvāsādi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda ̣ hare kṛṣna hare kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa hare hare ̣ hare rāma hare rāma rāma rāma hare hare Chapter 13: Song Practice (I) The last chapter discussed the mahamatra which involved only one form associated with it. they are known as the antara melodies. the verses will have two melodies which will alternate themselves. then matra 7 will begin with “hare” from the “hare krsna’ part. Matras 7 and 8 carry the syllables “ha” and “re. verses 1. then apply the swars. Figure 12. and a melody for the verses. say “kri-i-shna-a-a-a-ha-re. Any subsequent musical patterns that follow the asthayi are known as antarā (lit. hare hare. not the actual lyrics. the same tune will be used as the “hare krsna” part. 5.1 presents the tune for the “hare krsna” component of the mahamantra. the “hare” syllables and swars are italicized. Sometimes. 6. When one sings the “hare rama” part. The principal melody that acts as a refrain is known as the asthayi or sthayi. 4. and 8 are verses that that contain the same melody (a sub-tune of the asthayi). Thus. the first syllable falls on matra 7. With that one form. Matras 7 and 8 are known as upbeats. rama rama. krsna krsna. After completion of “hare hare” from the “hare rama” portion. although lyrically. The italicized swars and lyrics indicate that they are part of the next stanza that will either repeat the musical form or use another musical form. “verse”). When discussing harmonium or any melodic musical instrument. even if they are vowels. In the same manner. it is not uncommon to use an eight beat cycle. hare rama.” Line 4 is the same as Line 2. one could repeat the chant over and over again. .The first song that is the easiest is the Hare Krsna mahamantra. The song contains eight verses. even though lyrically. it is just as important to consider the duration of each swar. and 7 are known as verses contains the asthayi. to indicate the “hare rama” component that will follow the “hare krsna” part.

The last two lines sounded very similar. is that 1-3-5-and-7 contain asthayi melody and verses 2. It is not uncommon to have the antara retain various properties of the asthayi. It is common to sing only the first eight verses only. The format. and 8 bear the antara melody. After completing the asthayi and the antara. or a set of eight verses. what is next? This particular song is an example where the asthayi and the antara alternate. 6. while the orange indicates that the antara is used. as mentioned in the last paragraph. The red indicates that the asthayi is used. (1) saḿsāra-dāvānala-līḍha-loka-trāṇāya kāruṇya-ghanāghanatvamprāptasya kalyāṇaguṇārṇavasyavande guroḥ śrī-caraṇāravindam (2) mahāprabhoḥ kīrtana-nṛtya-gīta-vāditra-mādyan-manaso rasenaromāñca -kampāśru-tarańgabhājovande guroḥ śrī-caraṇāravindam (3) śrī-vigrahārādhana-nitya-nānā-śṛńgāra-tan-mandira-mārjanādauyuktasya bhaktāḿś ca niyuñjato 'pivande guroḥ śrī-caraṇāravindam (4) catur-vidha-śrī-bhagavat-prasāda-svādv-anna-tṛptān hari-bhakta-sańghānkṛtvaiva tṛptiḿ bhajataḥ sadaivavande guroḥ śrī-caraṇāravindam (5) śrī-rādhikā-mādhavayor apāra-mādhurya-līlā guṇa-rūpa-nāmnāmprati-kṣaṇāsvādanalolupasyavande guroḥ śrī-caraṇāravindam (6) nikuñja-yūno rati-keli-siddhyaiyā yālibhir yuktir apekṣaṇīyātatrāti-dākṣyād ati-vallabhasyavande guroḥ śrī-caraṇāravindam (7) sākṣād-dharitvena samasta-śāstrairuktas tathā bhāvyata eva sadbhiḥkintu prabhor yaḥ priya eva tasyavande guroḥ śrī-caraṇāravindam (8) yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādoyasyāprasādān na gatiḥ kuto 'pidhyāyan stuvaḿs tasya yaśas trisandhyaḿvande guroḥ śrī-caraṇāravindam (9) śrīmad-guror aṣtakam etad uccair ̣ brāhme muhūrte paṭhati prayatnāt yas tena vṛndāvana-nātha sākṣāt sevaiva labhyā juṣaṇo’nta eva . 4.The song in this lesson is a Sanskrit astakam. Sometimes. although occasionally the ninth verse is sung in the antara form. although very different melodic forms are acceptable with antara.Did one notice any striking resemblance with the antara and the asthayi. The following is the lyrics colored out. antara portions will have a rhythmic change from the asthayi.

asthayis will be shown in red. It is the best practice to tackle most songs. Everything discussed up to this point existed only in the perfect world. Do not try to sing it yet. “nala” contains two syllables in its lyrics. the asthayi or antara might be quite lengthy. this colored notation will be used. but it fits in one matra. makes it first correct strike. you would say out loud: (PAUSE) saḿ sā ra dā ā vā ā ā nala lī ḍha lo o ka a The PAUSE in the beginning indicates that the first beat is actually a pause. Generally. Therefore. . Therefore. Chapter 14: Song Practice (II) After learning the Gurvastakam.” There is one asthayi and one antara form. it is only appropriate to learn the Nrsimha prayers. in this presentation. Therefore. In this manner. after the rhythmic instrument. break each line down into its rhythmic components and then fill the swars in. The next lessons will not give much commentary. then one begins playing or singing. HOW TO PRACTICE SONGS The best way to study a new song is to take each line and say it out loud in terms of rhythm. The breakdown breaks the line down into its matras. a nice break is needed in order to discuss more accompaniment theory.Throughout the song practice portions of the website. it may split up. While there are variations as to which song is defined as the Nrsimha prayers. Sometimes. or kartal. Likewise. The asthayi is repeated for the first two verses. but provide only practice for fingering and experience for songs. be it a mridanga. like the syallable “dā” in “dāvā” two up two matras. many of the long vowels would take up two matras. while the other antaras are colored other colors. this song is the song that begins with the first words “Namaste Narasimhaya. LYRICS: (1) namas te narasiḿhāyaprahlādāhlāda-dāyinehiraṇyakaśipor vakṣaḥ-śilā-ṭańka-nakhālaye (2) ito nṛsiḿhaḥ parato nṛsiḿhoyato yato yāmi tato nṛsiḿhaḥbahir nṛsiḿho hṛdaye nṛsiḿhonṛsiḿham ādiḿ śaraṇaḿ prapadye (3)tava kara-kamala-vare nakham adbhuta-śṛńgaḿ dalita-hiraṇyakaśipu-tanu-bhṛńgamkeśava dhṛta-narahari-rūpa jaya jagadīśa hare UNIT FOUR: CHORDS AND ACCOMPANIMENT Chapter 15: Murchana and Accompaniment From the world of practice in the last five chapters. The antara consumed the third verse. For example. tabla. as the antara is split up into two parts.

and N” respectively. We only looked at the white keys. D. MURCHANA AND SUDHA RAGAS When Indian musical theorists studied scales. each vikrta swar in Western music has two names: a sharp name (#) and a flat name (b). What will you do? There are twelve keys amongst scales. The movement of the Sa upon any . The pitches or frequencies of all of the other notes are based on the fact that sound frequency of A equals to 440. In Western music. The black keys. but # after a note. What will happen then? Figure 18. so are their natural ranges and singing pitches. R. This is not the case at all.0 Hertz. mi. P. When you will be accompanying another singer. unfortunately. Maybe Indian musicians. D. pitch is a description of frequency which is measured in Hertz. G. and ti are the Western equivalents of the sa. re. Pitch is a qualitative measure of how high or low it sounds. let us examine the Western system of tones. This is the Western system of tones. E. F. Unlike Indian music where each vikrta swar has its own name. Using the suddha scale. means a sharp. equate C.1 will have absolutely no use to you at all.The actual keys have specific pitches. INTRODUCTION TO CHANGING KEYS WESTERN TONE WESTERN SARGAM INDIAN SARGAM C Do S D Re R E Mi G F Fa m G So P A La D B Ti N This is true when your Sa = C. The simplest way to convert between keys is by understanding the concept of the whole step and half step. we will examine the step differences. Remember this and we will use this application to do our shift in Sa. Someone could have their Sa being equal to the pitch of D. If you don’t remember from Chapter 5. half step is the distance from a key and its next consecutive key. A. Just as people are different. Quantitatively. there was a half-step difference. and B as the “Western version of S. experimentation of changing the Sa with respect to any of the other six notes of the sargam have been done before. the pitches are represented by letters of the alphabet. which correspond to vikrta swars in Indian music. The whole step is the distance from a key and two keys after it. so. m. Before we move on. G. Notice from the G to m and N to S’ change. fa. while a b after a note means its flat. la. re. ga and ma system. The nomenclature is a bit difficult. It would be difficult to write out every single raga with each of the twelve key changes. Both “do re mi” and “sa re ga” are examples of solfeges. have special names. from A to G. Do. they might not always be singing using the Sa being equal to C.

Of course. then while the singer is singing. UNIT FOUR: PRACTICE Chapter 16: Song Practice . then you should collaborate with the main musician and see what key everything is being played in. If you have a scale-changing harmonium. If one takes the Bilawal Thāt of all suddha notes. Keep thinking like this. The distance from S to g is three-half steps. Knowing what is being played will help you map out your half-steps. softly pump some air in the harmonium and test some likely notes. as well as the actual keys which will be played after you find the Sa. given that Sa equals each of the seven white keys. This should now be no surprise that we expect the white key scale of E (given that Sa = C) will have the Bhairavi Thāt. and n. one can clearly see how six other scales are hidden. 1) Identify the raga or thāt If you can identify what is being sung. 2) Identify the Sa Once you know what is being played. then keep that in mind as well. If you don’t. we noticed it is all white keys. because it would be pretty embarrassing to have the song be over by the time you finally get the gist of the melody on the new Sa. This is not only true for Bhairavi Thāt. whole-steps. Whichever sounds the most compatible is most likely the Sa. Raga Malkauns has a five swar set of S. then the song will end in Sa being equal to F. change your scale to that key. traditionally classical Indian music does not believe in changing Sa in the middle of a particular song. then find the Sa. Don’t worry. we created six other musical scales which introduced vikrta swars. g. If you are performing in public. The way these were introduced is through the exact same process we did when we found the Bhairavi Thāt for Sa being equal to E. If your Sa will be changing from song to song. If you are playing for a crowd with no advanced planning. If the song started in Sa being equal to F. raga change and grace-notes may be used here and there but remember to keep your Sa focused. play Sa to confirm that your choice is correct.of the notes is known as the murchana. For example. TRANSPOSE SCALE TRANSPOSED NAME OF NEW SCALE S S R G m P D N S’ Bilawal S moves to R S R g m P D n S Kafi S moves to G S r g m P d n S’ Bhairavi S moves to m S R G M P D N S’ Kalyana S moves to P S R G m P D n Khamaja S moves to D S R g m P d S Asavari S moves to N S r g m M d n S' Non-existant Notice how we moved the Sa upon each of the other six notes of the sargam. Remember to think of half-steps and whole-steps to decipher where your notes will fall. In that. then find that corresponding key on the harmonium in advance and keep that as your focal point. as this is Indian music. The distance from S to ma is five half-steps. By doing that. In fact. d. 3) Map out the rest of the notes slowly This requires some thought as you will have to meditate on the raga being performed and the keys which will correspond to it. but do so quickly. Once you feel confident that the note is your Sa. then you are a quarter way there. There are others which are white key scales. there are seven. m.

Just as the last unit had bhajans and aratis in the morning. LYRICS: (1)(kiba) jaya jaya gorācānder āratiko śobhājāhnavī-taṭa-vane jaga-mana-lobhājaga-jana-manalobhā (Refrain 1)(gaurāńger ārotik śobhā jaga-janer-mana-lobhā) (2)dakhiṇe nitāicānd. sakhī-jana. Antara 3 is used for the refrains featured below. some may reverse the order. alternates with the asthayi. In addition. the approach taken here is a refined approach to distinctly give it a new verse form. putra. ātmanivedanagovinda-dāsa-abhilāṣa re Posted by Abhijeet Khaladkar at 8:09 PM Labels: Harmonium Guide 0 comments: . Other Gaudiya Vaisnava groups have more alankaras (refrains in the middle of the song) so the others may have different tunes. The first in the selection is the Gaura Arati. Though the easiest way is to repeat the asthayi and Antara 1 over and over again.After taking a brief break from learning new songs. vandana. this will focus on common bhajans sung by Gaudiya Vaisnavas. yaubana. the ceremony glorifying Lord Caitanya. as in the Gurvastakam (Chapter 13). smaraṇa. it is a very simple song based off a sixteen matra cycle known as tintal (though many mridanga players tend to play a slow eight matra Prabhupada tala). Antara 2.pāda-sevana. dāsya repūjana. Structurally. kīrtana. śrīnivāsa chatra-dhara (3)bosiyāche gorācānd ratna-siḿhāsaneārati koren brahmā-ādi deva-gaṇe (4)narahari-ādi kori' cāmara dhulāyasañjaya-mukunda-bāsu-ghoṣ-ādi gāya (5)śańkha bāje ghaṇṭā bāje bāje karatālamadhura mṛdańga bāje parama rasāla (Refrain 2)(śankha bāje ghaṇṭā bāje madhur madhur madhur bāje) (6)bahu-koṭi candra jini' vadana ujjvalagala-deśe bana-mālā kore jhalamala (7)śiva-śuka-nārada preme gada-gadabhakativinoda dekhe gorāra sampada Chapter 17: Song Practice A common bhajan sung is Bhaja Hu Re Mana. (1)bhajahū re mana śrī-nanda-nandanaabhaya-caraṇāravinda redurlabha mānava-janama satsańgetaroho e bhava-sindhu re (2)śīta ātapa bāta bariṣaṇae dina jāminī jāgi rebiphale sevinu kṛpaṇa durajanacapala sukha-laba lāgi' re (3)e dhana. bāme gadādharanikaṭe advaita. There is one asthayi and two antaras. a few will sing everything with Antara 2. jīvana ṭalamalabhajahū hari-pada nīti re (4)śravaṇa. we continue learning more bhajans and kirtans. parijanaithe ki āche paratīti rekamala-dala-jala.