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This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
98. In order to prevent the strong sunlight from streaming through the windows of a dwelling or other structure, these openings are usually provided with "blinds, or shutters, which may be of several different forms, or combinations of two or more forms. Blinds are divided into two general classes, namely, inside blinds and outside blinds. The former may be either folding blinds, or rolling or Venetian blinds, while outside blinds are nearly always of the same general pattern, and are known as shutters. The method of construction in each case is influenced largely by atmospheric conditions, but the general principle is the same in all cases. Inside blinds are usually made of hard wood to match the trimming of the room containing them, while outside blinds are nearly always framed of pine and painted to protect them from the elements. Outside blinds must also be constructed with consideration of the fact that they are likely to be subjected to rather rough usage through the influence of high winds and rapid changes of temperature.
61 (a). The paneled blinds g are hinged to the hanging stile as shown at ft. and they should be so arranged that. The rabbeted joint between the two blind flaps gand j is only 3/8 inch deep. at f is seen the bottom of the box. Fig. and is divided into four parts. though. each one of which represents the width of a leaf. which forms the back of the inside of the blind box and is secured at the top by a tongued-and-grooved joint into the soffit piece d. is attached to and forms a part of the interior trim. and is provided simply to secure a light-tight joint. The slatted portion is hinged to and folds behind the panel. or wing of the inside blinds. 61 (b). and the room is rendered lighter. These blinds are framed together in one piece. 61 (c). as is the inside leaf as seen at d. This soffit piece d is paneled to match the blinds and panel back in the jambs. housed into the lining c'. 61 (a). or the blind stop v. The extreme width of the shutters between the outside hanging stiles n is 1 1/2 inches more than the width of the window between the pulley stiles. when the blind is closed into the box as shown at B. when circumstances will permit. 61 (b). 61. so that there will be no tendency for it to become jammed in the box. In Fig. Fig. in the window frame. as shown at g'. is shown a section through the panel back and blind box. Fig-. Two of these leaves are usually paneled. so that the knuckle of the hinge is entirely within the edge of the stile of g. This method of hanging permits the blind j to swing back sufficiently from the edge of the stile to secure it against any danger of catching on or against the edge of the architrave. This is still further accomplished by making the blind j 3/4 inch narrower than g. and its return under the blind box is shown at c. Fig. 61 (a). The space between the sill of the window and the floor is usually covered by a panel back shown in section at a'. Fig. from the inside sill to the window head. as shown in the plan. in which case the panel work shows up to better advantage. such as is shown in Fig. and the inner lining of the latter. The inside lining e of the weight box. while the slatted blinds j are hinged to g. they may be built in a splayed opening. and the two then revolve on hinges connecting the paneled leaf to the casing and close into the box with the panel on the exterior as shown at B. and is constructed in the same manner as the paneled shutters. These shutters are usually built in a square jamb. the exposed blind will show a panel finish on the inside of the room. except that the outer leaf j of the blinds is filled with fixed or movable slats of louvers. forms the outer lining of the shutter box. as shown at h. while the dotted lines at b indicate the position of the shutters when opened out of the box and closed over the window sash. in the same manner as the rails and stiles of a door. as at A. This panel back is usually paneled similarly to the blinds above. as shown at d. and is secured by a tongue worked on its edge and let into the window casing at f. Inside folding blinds make a very neat. instead of paneling. and the other two are provided with fixed or movable slats. Fig. 61 (a).99. . as shown at j. as shown at g. 61 (b) the full plan of the window is shown with the shutters closed into the box at a. when closed into their box. Fig. as well as a most useful fitting for the inside of a window. At (d).
Outside blinds differ from inside blinds only in such details of construction as their more exposed situation requires. so as to insure their proper fit. however. to provide at the front edge of the box a proper depth for the paneled shutter k' to shut into. 101. The hanging stile for the blind on the window frame is shown at c. as shown in Fig. and to make a neat finish to the box itself. 61 (a). first necessary to lay out a measuring.rod with the stiles. 102. carrying the pin half of the hinge. The extreme length of the arm o b. permits the shutter to swing around the outside of the brick wall clear of the opening. as they can be easily sprung out of place a sufficient distance to permit the blinds to open at the center and swing clear. This tendency. as without it the blind would close back no further than in the square jamb shown in Fig. and is likely to cause the shutters to bind when they are opened. 62 shows at (a) the inside elevation of an outside blind. thus forming a separate set of shutters to cover the upper and lower sashes independently. The box jamb d' is also necessary at the inner side of the box. and panels marked as described for the framing of doors. The shutters are temporarily hinged and hung in place. to form a satisfactory stop for the blinds. on the side next to the window. though the box requires a little extra attention. to which the blinds are afterwards sawed. but the corresponding length od causes the blind when opened to move first in the direction da. 61 (b). there is but a slight difference in the construction of the blinds themselves. The shape of this hinge and its attachment to the shutter is shown by the dotted lines at f. In splayed window jambs. as shown by the dotted lines. and then sawed apart at the center of the meeting rails. the blind e' which folds inside. it it. and at (b) is shown its plan. Fig. as shown at h in Fig. and the marks are then made at the meeting rails. must be made from 1 1/2 to 2 inches narrower than the exterior blind k'. from the sill to the window head. The angle in the hinges permits them to extend over the joints at the top and bottom rails.100. and the form of hinge necessary to permit the blind to open around the angle of the brickwork is shown at b. rails. 61 (c). the extra hanging stile b' is introduced. is compensated by the thinness of the metal of which the hinges are made. When inside blinds are required for a window. besides rendering it more secure in high wind storms than would the ordinary hinge. When the jambs of the window are splayed. The entire blind. and adds strength to the shutter. . is laid out and constructed in one piece. At the outside edge of the box. etc.
As glue would be useless to secure the joints of outside blinds. the positions and lengths for tenons. owing to their exposed situation. and the location of relishes. The louvers are operated by a rod which is attached to each slat by means of two Ushaped staples. except a proper consideration for the accuracy of construction and the effects of probable expansion and contraction. when the rod f is pulled down. The pins on the ends of the louvers are exactly 11/32 inch in length. and the other driven into the rod itself. and the holes shown dotted at d are the same in diameter as the slats are in thickness. The thickness ab of the stile varies. as described in Art. 104. or louvers. The movable joints of the slats. Thus. etc. and to permit freedom of movement. . G3 shows a section of the top rail of the shutter and four of the slats. thus leaving at each end of the slats 3/32 inch to allow for painting.103. one of which is forced into the middle of the edge of the slat. being all marked on the measuring rod before any of the actual framework is even started. the fixed parts are put together with white lead. the lengths of stiles and rails. The holes are bored from 3/8 to 5/8 inch from the outside of the stile. in the same manner as doors and other framed work. Outside blinds are laid out with a measuring rod. require nothing to make them secure. but is never less than 1 1/8 inches. as shown at e. The positions and proportions of the mortises and tenons in this blind are shown by the dotted lines at e. Fig. 193. and should be exactly \ inch deep. thereby admitting light and air through the blind. each of the louvers is thrown to the horizontal position shown by the dotted linesj. as are also the tightly driven pins which hold the joints in place. however. of Carpentry. which thickness varies with the size and weight of the blind.
three. according to the height of the window on the stile of which they are hung. 62. each panel being separated by a horizontal rail from the one next above or below. when the upper two sets are sometimes operated by one long rod extending over both panels. or four panels of louvers. and moving in a groove cut across the separating rail when the slats are closed. except in the case of an unusually high blind. The top stile c is cut out. as shown at h. .Fig. Blinds of this character are made with two. as shown in Fig. and each set of louvers being operated by a separate rod. 68. to receive the upper end of the rod f and the upper staple when the slats are closed in the position indicated in the illustration.
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